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Generation of Electricity from Coal

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In this Presentation

Basic of Power Generation Basic information on Coal/Fuel Oil Combustion Process Boilers Power Plant Cycle Turbines Turbogenerator Transmission of Power
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How generated electricity reaches customer

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Coal to Electricity .. Basics


Pollutants

Coal

Super Heated Steam


Heat Loss In Condenser

Turbine Torque
Mech. Energy Loss

Alternating current in Stator


Elect. Energy Loss

Heat

ASH

Loss

Chemical Energy

Thermal Energy

Kinetic Energy

Electrical Energy

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Simplified Diagram

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Why Coal?
RES 5% Nuclear 3%

Hydel 26%

Advantages of Coal Fuel Abundant availability


Coal 55%

Shortcomings of Coal Low Calorific Value Large quantity to be handled Produces pollutants, ash

Low cost Technology for Power Generation well developed. Easy to handle, transport, store and use

Diesel 1% Gas 10%

Share of Coal in Power Generation

Disposal of ash is problematic


Reserves depleting fast

Indias Coal Reserves are estimated to be 206 billion tonnes. Present consumption is about 450 million tonnes. Cost of coal for producing 1 unit of electricity (Cost of coal Rs 1000/MT)is Rs 0.75. Cost of Gas for producing 1 unit of electricity (Cost of Gas Rs 6/SMC)is Rs 1.20.
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Knowing more about Coal

Coal Transportation Rail Truck Conveyor Ship

Coal production Surface Mining Underground Mining


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Coal for combustion


Anthracite Semi-anthracite Bituminous Semi-Bituminous Lignite Peat

High CV, low VM High CV, low VM Medium CV, medium VM Medium CV, medium VM Low CV, high VM Very low CV, high VM

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Combustion of coal

Carbon, hydrogen, sulphur are sources of heat on combustion Surface moisture removed on heating during pulverization. Inherent moisture and volatiles are released at higher temperature, making coal porous and leading to char/ coke formation.

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Combustion Reactions (Carbon)


Main reactions
2C + O2 = 2CO + 3950 BTU/lb (Deficit air)
C + O2 = CO2 +14093 BTU/lb

Secondary reactions
2CO+ O2 = 2CO2 + 4347BTU/lb C + CO2= 2CO -7.25MJ/kg

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Flame Inside Furnace

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Fuel Oil

Three liquid fuels used in power plants


1. Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) 2. LSHS (Low Sulfur Heavy stock) 3. High speed Diesel (HSD)

Oil firing is preceded by Lowering viscosity and increasing flowability on heating for better combustion(125oC) Droplet formation on atomization (by steam/ compressed air/ mechanical pressurization) Combustion initiation by High energy spark ignition

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Boiler/ steam generator

Steam generating device for a specific purpose Capable to meet variation in load demand

Capable of generating steam in a range of operating pressure and temperature


For utility purpose, it should generate steam uninterruptedly at operating pressure and temperature for running steam turbines.
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Boiler/ steam generator


Raw materials used in boilers 1. Coal from mines
2. o o

Generating heat energy Air for combustion Working fluid for steam generation, possessing heat energy

Ambient air
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3.

Water from natural resources (river, ponds)

A 500MW steam generator consumes about 8000 tonnes of coal every day It will be considered good, if it requires about 200 cubic meter of DM water in a day It will produce about 9500 tonnes of Carbon Dioxide every day
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Types of Boilers

Fire-Tube Boilers
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Types of Boilers

Electric Boilers

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Types of Boilers

Water Tube Boiler


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Tangential Firing System

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Basic Power Plant Cycle

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Steam Flows from Boiler to turbine

Bypass

Turbine

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Impulse and Reaction Turbine

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Turbine are multistage


The steam turbine is a form of heat engine that derives much of its improvement in thermodynamic efficiency from the use of multiple stages in the expansion of the steam

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Turbo Generator

a)

b)

Device that converts Mechanical Energy to Electrical Energy. It works on the principle of Fardays Law of Electromagnetic Induction. It has two parts: Stator Rotor
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Generator Transformer

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Electrical Systems in Power Plant

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Transmission Of Electricity
Transmission Voltages: 750KV,400KV,220KV 132KV,33KV,11KV 440V Power= Voltage X Current Loss = Current^2 X Resistance

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THANK YOU

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