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LP BY PASS SYSTEM

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Presentation outline
Introduction of LP Bypass system Overview of LP Bypass System details and lay out Control scheme of LP bypass system

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L.P. BYPASS SYSTEM

LP bypass bypasses steam to IPT & LPT & maintain flow through RH. Function of LP bypass:1. To monitor the pressure in reheat system and to control it under certain operating condition. 2. The volume of steam not utilized by the IPT & LPT during start up & shut down must pass through condenser.

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LP BYPASS SYSTEM
LP Bypass system provide a very effective means of controlling reheat steam flow during
Startup Low-load / part load operation Sudden load rejection

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LP BYPASS SYSTEM
It enhances fast starting capability of turbines from all initial conditions e.g.

Cold condition Warm condition Hot Condition

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LP BYPASS SYSTEM
LP steam-bypass system operates in parallel with the turbine

Protects Condenser from excessive temperature and pressure that could result from sudden injection of superheated steam

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LP BYPASS SYSTEM
The controls for LP Bypass system are combination of electrical and well proven hydraulic system Electro-hydraulic converter provides the necessary link between hydraulic actuator and electrical system

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SEQUENCE OF EVENTS RESULTING FROM LOAD REJECTION Upon receiving load rejection signal from electrical system: Turbine Speed Controller assumes control of the TG set It initiates fast closure of HP & IP turbine control valves through position controller Fast closure of turbine control valves cause an immediate decrease in HP 1 st . Stage pressure
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SEQUENCE OF EVENTS RESULTING FROM LOAD REJECTION Pressure increases in main and reheat steam systems These pressure changes are sensed by HP and LP Bypass controllers Respective bypass valves are opened

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If LP steam- bypass system fails or the condenser cannot accept LP bypass steam , Safety Valves open and dump steam to atmosphere

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System details and layout


The controls for LP Bypass system are combination of electrical and well proven hydraulic system Electro-hydraulic converter provides the necessary link between hydraulic actuator and electrical system

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Control scheme
Set point formation Pressure control for LP bypass system LP bypass HYDRAULIC System Protection system

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Control scheme
The LPBypass Controller acts as a maximum pressure Controller It regulates the reheater pressure either to the fixed set value or suitably derived variable set value If the reheater pressure exceeds this set value, the Controller causes the electrohydraulic converter to operate and initiate bypass operation

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Set Value formation

The Two set values fixed and variable are formed for the LPBypass control system set value to be used is determined by a maximum value selector For the formation of variable set point, a pressure transducer is used to measure the steam pressure in HP turbine

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Bypass Controller Block Diagram

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LP Bypass System

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Features of LPBP Controller


LPBP controller maintains pressure after reheater by controlling LP bypass valves It acts on the coil of the LPBP E-H converter to position the control valves. Two setpoints, fixed and variable are used in maximum selection circuit Variable setpoint is derived from HP first stage pressure Water spray is in two stages depending on steam flow through LPBP stations. LPBP valves cannot open until adequate spray water pressure and required vacuum is there and condenser wall temp is not high. Valves can also be operated manually
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LP BYPASS SETPOINTS

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Hydraulic Mode of Operation

The controller controls plunger coil of Electro Hydraulic Converter With increase in voltage, the jet pipe is deflected towards right Converter piston moves downwards leading to generation of LPB signal oil through Follow-up pistons provided in the hydraulic control system
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Hydraulic Mode of Operation

Two Follow-up Pistons actuate and open first stage of water injection valve Remaining two Follow-up Pistons generate signal oil for opening LPBypass stop and control valve
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Design of LPBypass Valves for 210 MW Steam Turbine

Controlled by 8 bar mineral oil

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Design of LPBypass Valve for 500 MW Steam Turbine

Controlled by 36 bar FRF

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Protection Devices

Low Vacuum Condensor Protection Spray Water Pressure Switch Condensor Temperature Protection
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Protection Devices cause closure of bypass station in case of following eventualities


a) Condensor vacuum is low ( > 0.6 bar absolute ) b) Spray water pressure is low (< 8.5 / 9.5 bar ) c) Temperature of condenser body is high (> 90 C )

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Water Injection Valves operate in two stages

Second stage Water Injection Valves open when steam flow through LPBypass Valves increases more than 45 %
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CURVE FOR LPBYPASS CONTROLLER

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Actuator Bypass Stop Valve


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Actuator LPBPCV
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500 MW

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Pilot valve for Water Injection Valve

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Water Injection Valve

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Combined Bypass Stop & Control Valve 210 MW

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Feedback for Pilot valve of Bypass Control Valve 210 MW

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THANK YOU

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