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ELECTRICAL ACTUATOR SYSTEM

May 25, 2012 PMI Revision 00 1

ACTUATOR
What is an actuator? An actuator is a piece of equipment that produces movement when given a signal. Actuators are used in the computer control of an environment, industrial automation and in robotics. Meaning of ACTUATOR Devices that control the movement of mechanical action of a machine indirectly rather than directly or by hand.

Signal

actuator

Mechanical Movement or work

Actuators can be of 3 types: 1. electrical 2. hydraulic (work by liquid pressure) 3. pneumatic (work by air pressure)
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HYDRAULIC ACTUATOR
Hydraulic actuator operates by liquid ( oil ) pressure.

Hydraulic actuators are of different type : Open-close type (On-Off type). Controlling type. Hydraulic actuator requires accessories: Oil. Oil tank. Pump. Motor. Actuator. Positioner (Servo-unit for controlling type). Solenoids (for On-Off actuator).
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May 25, 2012

PNEUMATIC ACTUATOR
Pneumatic actuator operates by air pressure.

Pneumatic actuators are of different type : Open-close type (On-Off type). Controlling type. Pneumatic actuator requires accessories: Air. Compressor. Motor. Air receiver tank. E/P converter. Actuator. Positioner (for controlling type). May Solenoids (for On-Off actuator). 25, 2012

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ELECTRICAL ACTUATOR
Electrical actuator operates by electrical supply 3-.
Electrical actuators are of different type : Open-close type (On-Off type). Controlling type. Electrical actuator requires accessories: Electrical supply 415 V, 3-. Control supply 240 V 1-. Motorised actuator.

May 25, 2012

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SINGLE-PHASE AC MOTORS
Single-phase AC motors: Ubiquitous as they are useful -Serving as the prime power sources for a seemingly limitless array of small-horsepower applications in industry and in the home. -How to apply the various types is the key to successful design.

Where three-phase power is unavailable or impractical, it's single-phase motors to the rescue. Though they lack the higher efficiencies of their three-phase siblings. Single-phase motors correctly sized and rated can last a lifetime with little maintenance.

May 25, 2012

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Electrical Actuator Operates By Electrical Supply 3-.


Motorised valve operates by 3- motor in 500 MW not by single-phase?

Motorised valve operates by 3- motor in 500 MW not by two-phase?

May 25, 2012

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AC INDUCTION MOTOR AND ITS PARTS


Housing Electromagnetic Stator Winding Bearing

Fan Power Connection Shaft Rotor

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INSULATION CLASSES OF NEMA-5


180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 180 160 140 180 160 180

HOT SPOT

HOT SPOT

HOT SPOT

140 120 100

} 10

160 140 120

} 15

HOT SPOT

120 100 80

} 10

}5
60 RISE

125 RISE

105 RISE

100 80 60 40 20 0

80 RISE

80 60 40 20 0

60 40 20 0

CLASS-A

CLASS-B

CLASS-F

CLASS-H

BEFORE MOTOR IS STARTED THE TEMPERATURE OF WINDING IS AT SURROUNDING TEMPERATURE( AMBIENT TEMP.). NEMA HAS STANDRDISED THE AMBIENT TEMP.=40 C OR 105 F. NEMA HAS STANDERDISED FOUR INSULATION CLASSES WHICH ALLOW FOR FOUR DIFFERENT CLASSES. FOR EXAMPLE: CLASS-F INSULATION ALLOWS MAXIMUMU 105 C. THE OPERATING TEMPERATURE OF MOTOR IS CRITICAL TO EFFICIENT OPERATION AND LONG LIFE. OPERATING MOTOR ABOVE THE LIMITS OF ITS INSULATION CLASS REDUCES LIFE EXPECTANCY. FOR EXAMPLE: A 10 C RISE IN OPERATING TEMPERATURE CAN DECREASE LIFE EXPECTANCY AS MUCH AS 50%. May 25, 2012 PMI Revision 00 9

NEED FOR A ROTATING MAGNETIC FIELD ROTATE, A ROTATING MAGNETIC IN DORDER TO CAUSE THE ROTOR OF AN AC MOTOR TO
FIELD MUST BE PRODUCED IN THE STATOR. LOOPS OF WIRE PLACED IN SLOTS IN THE MOTOR HOUSING CONSTITUTE THE STATOR WINDINGS. IN A THREE PHASE STATOR, THE PHASE WINDINGS A, B, AND C, ARE PLACED 120 APART. IN THIS EXAMPLE, THERE ARE TWO SETS OF PHASE WINDINGS.

THE NUMBER OF POLES IS DETERMINED BY HOW MANY TIMES A PHASE WINDING APPEARS, SO THE MOTOR ILLUSTRATED HAS A TWO POLE STATOR. WHEN AC VOLTAGE IS APPLIED TO THE STATOR, CURRENT FLOWS THROUGH ITS WINDINGS. THE POLARITY OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD DEVELOPED IN A WINDING DEPENDS ON THE DIRECTION OF CURRENT FLOW. THE STRENGTH OF THE FIELD DEPENDS ON THE AMOUNT OF CURRENT. IN AN AC STATOR, THIS CURRENT IS CONSTANTLY CHANGING IN BOTH MAGNITUDE AND DIRECTION.
May 25, 2012 PMI Revision 00

A1 B2 C2

C1 A2

B1

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VISUALISATION:
A1 B2 THE AMOUNT OF FLUX() LINES PRODUCED BY THE MAGNETIC FIELD IS PROPORTIONAL TO THE VOLTAGE (E) AND INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL TO THE FREQUENCY (F). C1 C2

RESULTANT MAGNETIC FIELD

B1

= E/F
IN THIS FIGURE THERE IS NO CURENT FLOW IN THE PHASE-A. PHASE-B HAS CURRENT FLOW IN THE NEGATIVE DIRECTION, AND PHASE-C HAS CURRENT FLOW IN THE PSITIVE DIRECTION. IN PREVIOUS FIGURE- , B1 AND C2 ARE SOUTH POLES, AND B2 AND C1 ARE NORTH POLES. MAGNETIC FLUX LINES LEAVE THE B2 NORTH POLE AND ENTER THE NEAREST SOUTH POLE C2. MAGNETIC FLUX LINES ALSO LEAVE THE C1 NORTH POLE AND ENTER THE NEAREST SOUTH POLE B1.
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A2 C

MAGNETIC LINES OF FLUX POSITIVE CURRENT FLOW

A
ZERO CURRENT FLOW

NEGATIVE CURRENT FLOW

START

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360 ROTATION
IF THE FIELD IS EVALUATED AT 60 INTERVALS, AT POINT 1 WE CAN SEE THAT THE THE FIELD HAS ROTATED 60 DEGREES. PHASE C HAS ZERO CURRENT FLOW, PHASE A HAS POSITIVE CURRENT FLOW. PHASE B HAS NEGATIVE CURRENT FLOW. NOW A1 AND B2 ARE NORTH POLES; A2 AND B1 ARE SOUTH. AT THE END OF SIX SUCH INTERVALS THE FIELD WILL HAVE ROTATED ONE REVOLUTION, OR 360. 0 A1 B2 N S C2 60 120 180 240 300 360

A
N C1 A2
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B1

B
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AC Induction Motors
The stator windings of an AC induction motor are distributed around the stator to produce a roughly sinusoidal distribution. When three phase ac voltages are applied to the stator windings, a rotating magnetic field is produced. The rotor of an induction motor also consists of windings or more often a copper squirrel cage imbedded within iron laminates. Only the iron laminates are shown. An electric current is induced in the rotor bars which also produce a magnetic field. The rotating magnetic field of the stator drags the rotor around. The rotor does not quite keep up with the the rotating magnetic field of the stator. It falls behind or slips as the field rotates. In this animation, for every time the magnetic field rotates, the rotor only makes three fourths of a turn. If you follow one of the bright green or red rotor teeth with the mouse, you will notice it change color as it falls behind the rotating field. The slip has been greatly exaggerated to enable visualization of this concept. A real induction motor only slips a few percent.
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DIFFERENT TYPES OF ACTUATORS USED IN Power Plant


1. EMG/ANTRIEB ACTUATORS. 2. LIMITORQUE ACTUATORS. 3. SEIMENS ACTUATORS. 4. ROTORK ACTUATORS. 5. AUMA ACTUATORS. 6. LEWA ACTUATORS.

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ELECTRICAL ACTUATOR AND ITS PARTS


HAND WHEEL MOTOR GEAR BOX

LIM IT SWITCH COMARTM ENT YOKE STEM

FLANGE

LOCAL POSITION INDICATOR

VALVE
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EXPLODED VIEW OF ELECTRICAL ACTUATOR

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EXPLODED VIEW OF ELECTRICAL ACTUATOR

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EXPLODED VIEW OF ELECTRICAL ACTUATOR

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EXPLODED VIEW OF ELECTRICAL ACTUATOR

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SIGNALS TO AND FROM ELECTRICAL ACTUATORS

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WIRING DIAGRAM OF ELECTRICAL N Y ACTUATOR MOTOR ON OFF OPERATION


FC4 OPB ESPB OTS OLS G R RC5 FCC F2 F3

F1

F4

CPB CTS FC1 CLS RC4

FC5 RC2

RCC

M
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FC2 RC3 FC3


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RC1

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SYMBOLS USED

Push button Indication lamp NO contact

Motor

Fuse

NC contact

Coil or Contactor

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ABBREVIATIONS USED
R Y B N F1,F2,F3,F4 ESPB OTS OLS OPB CTS CLS CPB FCC RCC FC1,FC2,FC3,FC4.FC5 RC1,RC2,RC3,RC4,RC5 M May 25, 2012 R Phase. Y Phase. B Phase. Neutral. Fuses. Emergency Stop Push Button. Open Torque Switch. Open Limit Switch. Open Push Button Close Torque Switch. Close Limit Switch. Close Push Button. Forward Contactor Coil or Open Contactor Coil. Reverse Contactor Coil or Close Contactor Coil. Forward Contactor Coil or Open Contactor Coil Contacts. Reverse Contactor Coil or Close Contactor Coil Contacts. Motor. PMI Revision 00 24

LIMIT SWITCH POSITIONS AT DIFFERENT VALVE POSITIONS


LIMIT SWITCHES
OTS CTS OLS OLS OLSI OLSI CLS CLS CLSI CLSI
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CONTACTS FULL OPEN


X X X X X X

LIMIT SWITCH POSITIONS INTERMEDIATE


X X

FULL CLOSE
X X

REMARKS OR DRAWINGS

X X X X X X X X
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OLS

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WIRING DIAGRAM OF ELECTRICAL ACTUATOR MOTOR ON OFF OPERATION


R N Y B F1 F2 FCC F3 F4

FC4 OPB RC5

ESPB OTS OLS G R

CPB CTS FC1 CLS RC4

FC5 RC2

RCC

M
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FC2 RC3
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RC1

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FC3

CONTROL CIRCUIT FOR ELECTRICAL ACTUATOR

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CONTROL CIRCUIT OF ELECTRICAL ACTUATOR

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THANK YOU

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