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Business Unit - Machines

Induction machines/ Synchronous machines guidelines for selection

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Rough selection per speedpower ratio

Induction for low power - high speed Synchronous for high power - low speed

10000 5000 3000 1000 900 800 700 600 500

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Synchronous motor area

pi n l ap r Ove a a re g

Induction motor area







2 Poles

How to choose between IM and SM at overlapping area?

Issues to be considered:


Speed Power Load type

In case IM and SM can be used, following should be considered:

Power factor, efficiency

Is reactive power compensation needed?

Network; reliability, stability

Limit of voltage drop at supplying bus Voltage dips at supply network

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Hazardous area requirements Investment cost, lifetime cost

Induction and synchronous machines

Induction machines

Synchronous machines

Rotor rotates slightly slower than the electrical field, the difference is called slip Some speed variation depending on load torque AC current in rotor Rotor magnetized through induction Easier to protect Robust

Rotor rotates with the same speed (=synchronous) as the electrical field Speed not depending on load torque DC current in rotor Rotor magnetized by an exciter Requires pull-out protection Sensitive to power supply cut-offs

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Typical starting characteristics



Lower torque Higher current

Higher torque Lower current

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Rotor Designs

Induction Machines

Synchronous Machines

Laminated Cylindrical

Solid (fast machines) or laminated (slow speed) Salient poles

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Comparison induction & synchronous machines

Application oriented features Squirrel Cage Induction Motor Synchronous Motor

Efficiency Power Factor Reactive Power Starting Torque (slip=100%) Starting Current Rotor Thermal Capacity Rotor Stiffness

High 0.8 - 0.9 lagging Consumption Lower Higher Lower Lower

Very high Adjustable Consume/Produce Higher Lower Higher Higher

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In cases where both induction motor and synchronous motor are equally suitable for application, power and speed, selection criteria can be as follows: Induction motor:

Easy installation and protection Stable operation during network voltage dips Lower lifetime cost due to higher efficiency Power factor control or reactive power compensation

Synchronous motor:

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