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CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES OF GENERATOR

Sharmendra Kumar Sr Engineer (EMD)

FUNDAMENTALS
Inputs
Mech. Power (Turbine) Rate of Change of Flux (Excitation) Power cant be created
FARADAY LAW OF EMI

Output Electrical Power

P=f (V ,I,) I=f (Load) V=f (, N, n,reactive power balance of system)

N=no of turns ,n =rpm

V=f( -n d/dt =f (Magnetic Field ) Magnetic Field can be permanent magnet or electromagnet.

FUNDAMENTALS Inputs
Through a rotating member ROTOR

Output
Through a stationary member STATOR

FOR THE EASE OF HANDLING ELECTRICAL POWER

TYPES OF GENERATOR BASED ON EXCITATION


STATIC EXCITATION SEMI STATIC EXCITATION

BRUSHLESS EXCITATION

STATIC EXCITATION
SLIP RINGS

GENERATOR 3 PH AC

TURBINE

GT EXC TX

CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS

VARIABLE DC

SEMI STATIC EXCITATION


BRUSH GEAR EXCITER BRUSHGEAR GENERATOR VARIABLE DC 3 PH AC TURBINE

STEP DOWN TX ROTOR

EXCITER CONTROLLED DC 3 H AC,50HZ

GENERATOR CONTROLLED DC 3 H AC,50HZ

CONTROLLED STATOR RECTIFIERS VARIABLE DC

SEMI STATIC EXCITATION


PMG PILOT EXCITER 3 PH, 400HZ 3PH AC,150HZ MAIN EXCITER GENERATOR DIODE WHEEL 3 PH AC, 50 HZ CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS TURBINE

PILOT EXCITER

MAIN EXCITER

GENERATOR

ROTOR

PERMANENT MAGNET
3PH, 400HZ AC

3 H AC,150HZ AC
CONTROLLED DC

CONTROLLED DC
3 H AC,50HZ

STATOR

CAPACITY OF GENERATOR MODULES

MODULE SIZE (THRI 108/44) GIVES THE SIZE OF THE MACHINE.

108 X10 = 1080 (1075) ROTOR OUTER DIA 44X100 = 4400 CORE LENGTH

Capability of Generator Modules


125/67

800

Library of Designs
1000 MW
WATER COOLED STATOR

350 MW
HYDROGEN COOLED

660 MW

170 MW
AIR COOLED
DESIRED MW CAPACITIES

80 MW

1000 MW

DESCRIPTION
Max. continuous MVA Rating Max continuous MW rating

210 MW THW 247 210

500 MW THDF 588 500

660 MW THRI 776 660

800 MW THRI 1000 800

Rated terminal voltage (KV)


Rated Stator current (Amps) Power factor Lagging Exciter current at MCR (Amps) Exciter Voltage at MCR (V) Rated hydrogen pressure (atm)

15.75
9050 0.85 2600 310 3.5

21
16166 0.85 4040 340 3.5

21
21334 0.85 5587 445 6.0

27
21383 0.8 5864 434 6.0

Rated speed (rpm)

3000

3000

3000

3000

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT

Main Parts of Turbogenerator


1. Stator - Stator Frame (Fabrication & Machining) 2. Core Assembly - Stator Core, Core Suspension Arrangement 3. End Shield

4. Stator Winding Assembly - Stator Winding , Winding Assembly,


Connecting Bus bar 5. Rotor - Rotor Shaft, Rotor Wedges, Rotor Coils, Wound Rotor,

Rotor Assembly
6. Completing Assembly - Bearing Assembly, Shaft Seal Assembly, Oil Catchers, Insert Cover etc 7. Exciter 8. Auxiliary System

Main Parts of Turbogenerator


Stator Core Cooler Insert Cover Rotor fan

End Shield

Wdg Overhang
Oil Catcher Rotor

Bearing Shaft Seal

Stator

Terminal Bushing

Main Parts of Turbogenerator


Coolers

Foundation

Terminal bushing

STATOR

THDF Generators - Design features


DIRECT WATER COOLING OF STATOR WINDING AND
DIRECT AXIAL HYDROGEN COOLING OF ROTOR WINDING OPTIMALLY DESIGNED LEAF SPRING SUPPORT FOR CORE END SHIELD MOUNTED BEARINGS VPI INSULATION SYSTEM MASSIVE SUPPORT RING FOR STATOR WINDING OVERHANG TO ABSORB SHORT CIRCUIT FORCES SIDE AND TOP RIPPLE SPRINGS IN STATOR SLOTS TO CONTAIN BAR BOUNCING FORCES

THDF Generators - Design features


5 STAGE AXIAL COMPRESSOR AND VERTICAL HYDROGEN COOLERS ON TURBINE END COLD GAS AND PRIMARY WATER TEMPERATURE CONTROL VALVES TO MAINTAIN AVERAGE INLET COOLING MEDIUM TEMPERATURES CONSTANT DOUBLE FLOW RING TYPE SHAFT SEALS BRUSHLESS EXCITATION SYSTEM

Stator Frame (Air Cooled TG)

Stator Frame (500 MW)

Stator Frame (Fabrication & Machining)

Stator Core
Made up of punched segments of thin sheets Punchings coated by insulating varnish Vent segments at designed intervals for flow of cooling gas Compressed with tension bolts, pressure plate and clamping fingers Stepped arrangement at the end for reduction in eddy current losses

Core Suspension - Air Cooled TG


Location for Spring Core Housing

Core End Plate

Core

Stator Frame
Rigid fabricated cylindrical frame Withstands weight of core & wdg, forces & torques during operation Natural frequency away from exciting frequencies Provision for H2/CO2 filling

Provision for temp measurements


Foot plates for supporting on foundation provision for H2 coolers

Stator Slot - THDF 500 MW

End Shield
Closes both ends of Stator Frame Fabricated rigid box type structure in two parts Supports and houses bearings Provision for mounting Shaft seal body, Oil catchers, etc Provision for supply of Bearing Oil, Seal oil, Thrust oil and its drain

End Shield - THRI TG

End Shield (Exciter side 500 MW)

End Shield (Turbine side 500 MW)

COOLING ARRANGEMENTS

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF 500 MW TURBOGENERATOR

3-D MODELLING OF ROTOR ASSEMBLY AND COMPONENTS

PLATFORM USED PRO ENGINEER


WILDFIRE 2.0

TYPICAL ROTOR ASSEMBLY

ROTOR SHAFT

FAN BLADES

RETAINING RINGS

WEDGES

FIELD LEAD

ROTOR SHAFT

BARREL

COUPLING
(TURBINE END)

BLOWER HUB

COUPLING

MATERIAL 26NiCrMoV145

(EXCITER END)

Y p = 730-830N/mm2

ROTOR SHAFT TURBINE END

TE COUPLING

JOURNAL

COUPLING TURBINE END

SPIGOT

12 HOLES

BARREL

POLE 1

BALANCING HOLES

BARREL CROSS POLE SLOTS(MOON SLOTS)

VENTILATION HOLES

BARREL
SLOTS ( PARTITION)

MAIN SLOTS 28 NO.

BALANCING HOLES

BARREL (Contd.)

SLOTS
(VENTILATION)

HOLE ( C.C. BOLT)

SLOTS ( DAMPER WEDGES)

BARREL (Contd.)

HOLES (COOLING OF END ZONE)

HOLE FOR LOCKING OF PRESSURE PLATE

BARREL (Contd.)

HOLES (VENTILATION)

HOLES (BALANCING)

RETAINING RING SEAT

BARREL (Contd.)

SECTION OF INCLINED HOLES


(COOLING END ZONE)

BLOWER HUB
GROOVE FOR BALANCING WTS

HOLES FOR LOCKING OF BLADES

COUPLING EXCITER END


STEPS FOR HYDROGEN SEALING SPIGOT

14 HOLES

FIELD LEAD CORE BAR

THREADED HOLE FOR C.C. BOLT

FIELD LEAD CORE BAR

INSULATING CYLINDER

INSULATING PARTITION

CURRENT CARRYING BOLT

FIELD LEAD WITH H2 SEALING ARRANGEMENT

O RINGS

CONTACT PIN

INSULATING COVER

FIELD LEAD CORE BAR

INSULATING COVER

FIELD LEAD WITH H2 SEALING ARRANGEMENT (Contd.)


HOLE FOR HE LEAK TEST

THREADED RING

THREADED RING PACKING

FIELD LEAD CONNECTION TO ROTOR COILS (Contd.)

ROTOR COIL A

FLEXIBLE CONNECTION

INSULATING

FIELD LEAD

TUBE

CURRENT CARRYING BOLT

ROTOR COIL

MATERIAL SILVER BEARING COPPER SIZE 36.8X9.6mm Y p = 245 N/mm2

RADIAL SLITS
EDGEWISE BENDING

ROTOR COILS

BRAZED JOINT

ROTOR COIL CROSSSECTION 500 MW ROTOR

ROTOR COILS (210/250 MW ROTOR)

COLL A TO G (7 COILS) PER POLE

RADIAL COOLING

ROTOR SLOT FILLING

SLOT LINER

SLOT ANGLE ROTOR COILS

SLOT ANGLE

MATERIAL GLASS CLOTH AND NOMEX PAPER

SLOT ANGLE

TAPERED AT ENDS

TOP SLOT LINER

HOLES FOR VENTILATION

ROTOR WEDGES

MACHINING OF END SLOT WEDGES

ROTOR WEDGES (Without Rotor Shaft)

DAMPER WEDGE

DAMPER WEDGE

SLOT WEDGE

PRESSURE PLATE

ROTOR WEDGES (CONTD.)


DAMPER WEDGE (short) DAMPER WEDGE

SLOT WEDGE (END)

SLOT WEDGE

SLOT WEDGE

HOLES FOR VENTILATION

END WEDGES

MACHINING FOR RETAINING RING SEATING

DAMPER WEDGE

MACHINING FOR KEY RING SEATING

ROTOR SHAFT WITH WEDGES

ROTOR END WINDING

1. ROTOR BODY 2. SNAP RING 3. RETAINING RING 4. ROTOR WINDING

5. END WDG INSULULATION 6. FILLER 7. END RING 8. BALANCING WEIGHTS

OVERHANG SPACERS
END SPACERS

SPACERS

PARTITION

POLE SPACERS

POLE SPACER

MATERIAL GLASS TEXOLITE

SPACER ASSEMBLY

NOMEX PIECES

SPACER

MATERIAL GLASS TEXOLITE

OVERHANG WEDGES

WEDGE

NOMEX PIECES

MATERIAL GLASS TEXOLITE

WEDGE

NOMEX PIECES

WOUND ROTOR

OVERHANG ASSEMBLY

RETAINING RING ASSY.

RETAINING RING

CENTERING RING

MATERIAL X8CrMnN1818k

MATERIAL

33NiCr Mo145

SECTIONED VIEW
RETAINING RING AND CENTERING RING ASSY

COOLING SCHEME

COOLING IN END PORTION

BOTTOM CANAL

THROUGH VENTILATION SLOT TO AIR GAP COLD ZONE

HOT ZONE

COOLING OF OVERHANG PORTION

BLOWER BLADE ASSY.

BLOWER BLADE FORGING

BLOWER BLADE

BLOWER BLADE

BLADE PROFILE

THREADED PORTION

FLAT FOR LOCKING

ROTOR COIL

INCLINED COOLING DUCTS IN SLOT PORTION

COOLING DUCT IN OVERHANG

TYPICAL OVERHANG COMPLETE

RECTANGULAR COILS

RECTANGULAR COIL ASSEMBLY

OVERHANG WEDGES (INTERIOR VIEW)

STOPPER FOR WEDGES

STOPPER FOR SPACERS

Bearing Assembly

Terminal Bushing Box 500 MW