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MOBILE TELEPHONE SWITCHING OFFICE

Subject: Course: Presented by: Telephone Switching Systems B.E (E&TC) Pragya Rathore Shreya Shekar Prerana Markad Mrunal Patil

THE ANALOG TELEPHONE SYSTEMS

The analog system was the first telephone system established worldwide. Currently, telephone systems in a lot of countries are still completely analog. In time however, these systems will become redundant as the world switches to digital telephony
The components of a telephone system include: Microphone Receiver Transmission System Switching and signaling system

Telephone system components


Signaling and switching system Transmission system

receiver microphone

SWITCHING SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Base station (BS) at center of each cell Antenna, controller, transceivers Controller handles call process Number of mobile units may in use at a time BS connected to mobile telephone switching office (MTSO) One MTSO serves multiple BS MTSO to BS link by wire or wireless

RECALL : MTSO

It is a sophisticated computer that monitors -- all the cellular calls --tracks location of all cellular equipped vehicles -- arrange for hanoffs -- and the billing information,too. MTSO acts as a central switch that controls the entire operation of cellular system.

HOW DOES MTSO WORK

The area (a city) is divided into a number of cells (typically 2 to 10 miles in size, but can be smaller for more crowded areas) and a base station is positioned within each cell.

If a user (mobile phone) is within a particular cell, the call is handled by the corresponding base station within that cell. The base station transmits the signal to the mobile switching center (MTSO).

HOW DOES MTSO WORKS

MTSO then switches the signal to another base station, or to a Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), depending on the destination of the call: whether another mobile unit or a regular telephone.
As a user moves from one cell to another, the call is handed over to the base station of the other cellThis is called hand-off . The handover is (hopefully) transparent to the user.

OVERVIEW OF CELLULAR SYSTEM

CALL STAGES OVERVIEW

Mobile unit initialization

Scan and select strongest set up control channel Automatically selected BS antenna of cell Handshake to identify user and register location Scan repeated to allow for movement

Change of cell

Mobile originated call


Check set up channel is free

Monitor forward channel (from BS) and wait for idle

Send number on pre-selected channel MTSO attempts to connect to mobile unit Paging message sent to BSs Paging signal transmitted on set up channel

Paging

CALL SYSTEM OVERVIEW

Call accepted

Mobile unit recognizes number on set up channel Responds to BS which sends response to MTSO MTSO sets up circuit between calling and called BSs MTSO selects available traffic channel within cells and notifies BSs BSs notify mobile unit of channel

Ongoing call

Voice/data exchanged through respective BSs and MTSO


Mobile unit moves out of range of cell into range of another cell Traffic channel changes to one assigned to new BS Without interruption of service to user Hard and soft are two types of handovers Hard handover uses one channel for a call whereas soft handover uses more than one

Handoff

STAGES

OTHER FUNCTIONS
Call blocking During mobile-initiated call stage, if all traffic channels busy, mobile tries again After number of fails, busy tone returned Call termination User hangs up MTSO informed Traffic channels at two BSs released Call drop BS cannot maintain required signal strength Traffic channel dropped and MTSO informed

FREQUENCY REUSE

It is a technique of reusing frequencies and channels within a communications system Each cell has a frequency that is far enough away from the neighbouring frequency

It improves capacity and spectral efficiency


The reuse distance, D is calculated as where R is the cell radius and N is the number of cells per cluster.

FEATURES :
Sophisticated computer

Monitors all cellular calls Tracks the location of all cellular equipped vehicles traveling in the system Arranges handoffs

Keeps track of billing information

Its subordinate BSC/RNC are responsible for

Assigning frequencies to each call.

Reassigning frequencies for handoffs.

Provides resources needed to efficiently serve the mobile subscriber : Registration

Authentication
Location updating Call routing

ADVANTAGES:
Allows cell phone users to experience max. amount of reception without manually switching to each tower

They are nearly instantaneous


Monitor users cell reception at all the times

And works without the user ever even knowing about it

MOBILE DATA SERVICES

THE ESSENTIALS OF MOBILE MULTIMEDIA COME TOGETHER


Photo and audio MMS MIDI ringtones Video MMS

Interactive applications Presence Push-to-talk

Mobile browsing

Downloada ble application s

Video streaming

COMMUNICATION BECOMING RICHER


Seamless voice

Push to talk Multimedia messaging between mobile and PC

Rich Call

Access Corporate Systems & E-mail

Real Time Video Sharing from mobile phone to PC Browse Internet Rich Media Delivery

Mobile meeting with PC and mobile terminals

Interactive on line gaming with PC and mobile

KEY TRENDS IN ENVIRONMENT


millions

2,000
1,800 1,600

Towards the 2 billion milestone

2 billion in 2006!

Mobile phone subscriptions globally

1,400
1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 Current global penetration 24 %

THANK - YOU