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VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY

IMMUNOLOGY the scientific study of all aspects of immunity IMMUNITY non- susceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of microorganisms Is an enhanced state of responsiveness to a specific substance, induced by prior contact with that substance State of resistance to an infection

Historical Highlights in Veterinary Immunology


Date 12th century Event Variolation or Inoculation -Chinese rubbed infected pox materials on cuts of skin Rinderpest or cattle plague outbreak started inoculation of healthy animals with piece of string soaked in the nasal discharge of infected animal as preventive measure to control rinderpest Edward Jenner used cowpox to vaccinate humans against small pox. Vaccination term was coined from vacca latin for cow

1754

1798

1879

Louis Pasteur established the general principle of vaccination using Pasteurella multocida model in chickens.

1879

Louis Pasteur Founder of the Science of Immunology Father of Immunology First to produce Bacillus antracis vaccine Developed the first Rabies vaccine using dry spinal cord of rabies infected rabbits Daniel Salmon and Theobald Smith used heat killed culture of Salmonella enterica cholerasuis to protect pigeons Von Behring and Shibasaburo Kitasato sucessfully tested vaccines for diptheria and tetanus Von Behring named and discovered antibodies

1890-1904

1905
1955- 1960

Robert Koch discovered the tuberculin reaction and won the Nobel Prize
Jonas Salk and Alfred Sabin discovered the different forms of the poliomyelitis vaccine which was used to control the disease worldwide. George Kohler and Cesar Milstein won Nobel Prize for production of monoclonal antibodies

1984

Defense of the body or protection of the body is a function of multiple defense systems that can control or destroy most of invaders An effective immune system is essential to life

TYPES OF IMMUNITY
NATURAL OR INNATE IMMUNITY
Nonspecific Present from birth Consists of a. Barriers to antigens: e.g. skin, mucous membranes, b. chemical and cellular defense mechanisms , e.g. Inflammation- a focused defense response where local changes in tissues brought about by microbial invasion or tissue damage result in increased blood flow and local accumulation of cells that can attack and destroy the invaders. Complement System

TYPES OF IMMUNITY
ACQUIRED IMMUNITY (Specific/ Adaptive)
Expressed after exposure to a given substance or antigen and is specific An adaptive response wherein the system can learn to recognize invaders when it encounters them again and that can respond even more rapidly and effectively. The acquired immune system can recognize foreign invaders, destroy them and retain the memory of the encounter. Consist of: Humoral Immunity Cell Mediated Immunity

A comparison of Innate and Acquired Immunity


INNATE IMMUNITY Always on Cells involved Macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils Rapid ( min- hrs) Common microbial structures Maybe overwhelmed None Does not improve ACQUIRED IMMUNITY Turned on by antigens T and B cells

Onset Specificity Potency Memory Effectiveness

Slow (days weeks) Unique antigens Rarely overwhelmed Significant memory Improves with exposure

THE BODYS DEFENSES


Invading Microorganisms

Physical Barriers

Examples:

Innate Immunity

Examples:

Specific Immunity

Examples:

BODY DEFENSE

Acquired Immunity

Innate Immunity

Humoral Immunity

Cell mediated Immunity

Antibodies

Lymphocytes

TYPES OF IMMUNE RESPONSE


A. Humoral Immune Response (Antibody mediated Immunity)- acquired immunity response to exogenous antigens that are extracellular Antibodies or Immunoglobulins- protective factors synthesized by the body against an antigen or upon exposure to an antigen. Ex. Tetanus antitoxin when injected to a horse prevents tetanus infection.

HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE


A. Primary Immune Response- response that occurs following a first exposure to an antigen, antibodies produced are relatively small, no antibodies are detected for a week ( lag period) after injection. Antibodies peak at 10-14 days before declining. B. Secondary Immune Response- a response that occurs following a second or subsequent exposure to antigen, the response is immediate and antibody rises rapidly at a higher level than the primary response. The features of the secondary immune response indicate that the immune system is able to remember previous exposure to an antigen also known as ANAMNESTIC RESPONSE.

TYPES OF IMMUNE RESPONSE


B. Cell Mediated Immune Response (CMI)
Mediated by lymphocytes and phagocytes E.g. Graft rejection demonstrates the existence of a mechanism wherein foreign cells differing slightly from an animals own normal cells are rapidly recognized and eliminated. CMI and Humoral Immune Response not entirely separate but they act together.

TOLERANCE
The immune system must recognize its own cells as not foreign and not mount an immune response. Tolerance breakdown results to autoimmune disease. Examples. Systemic Lupus Erythromatosus (SLE), Hemolytic anemia and myasthenia gravis

MECHANISM OF IMMUNE RESPONSE


1. Method of trapping and processing antigens (Ag) 2. Mechanism of reacting specifically to an Ag 3. Produce antibodies (Ab) or participate in CMI 4. Cells retain memory of event and able to react to the same Ag in the future.

Mechanism of Acquired Immune Response Foreign Material Extracellular (Exogenous)


e.g. parasite, protozoa, bacteria, fungi Antigen Processing Cells ( APC)

Intracellular (Endogenous)
e.g. viruses, intracellular protozoa , cancer cells

Antigen sensitive Cells B cell Memory cells Ab producing cells Ab production Antigen elimination Stop T cell Effector cell Memory cell

Cell mediated Immunity