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Kirchoff's Rules for Circuits Resistors in Series & Parallel

RC Circuits

Current- a Definition

If there is a potential difference between two points then, if there is a conducting path, free charge will flow from the higher to the lower potential. The amount of charge which flows per unit time is defined as the current I, i.e. current is charge flow per unit time.

dq I dt

UNIT: Ampere = A = C/s

Devices

Resistors:

Purpose is to limit current drawn in a circuit. Resistors are

basically bad conductors. Actually all conductors have some resistance to the flow of charge.

Resistance

Resistance is defined to be the ratio of the applied voltage to the current passing through.

R I I V

UNIT: OHM = W

Resistivity

Property of bulk matter related to resistance :

The flow of charge is easier with a larger cross sectional area, it is harder if L is large.

E I A L

The resistivity depends on the details of the atomic structure which makes up the resistor (see chapter 27 in text)

eg, for a copper wire, r ~ 10-8 W-m, 1mm radius, 1 m long, then R .01W

Ohm's Law

Demo:

R I

Measure current I

Does ratio (V/I) remain constant??

V slope = R

Two cylindrical resistors, R1 and R2, are made of identical material. R2 has twice the length of R1 but half the radius of R1.

V

Lecture 11, CQ 1

1 2

What is the relation between I1, the current flowing in R1 , and I2 , the current flowing in R2?

(a) I1 < I2 (b) I1 = I2 (c) I1 > I2

The resistivity of both resistors is the same (r). Therefore the resistances are related as: L 2 L1 L R2 r 2 r 8r 1 8R1 A2 ( A1 / 4 ) A1 The resistors have the same voltage across them; therefore

I2

V V 1 I1 R 2 8R1 8

"Loop Rule" or Kirchoffs Voltage Law (KVL)

"When any closed circuit loop is traversed, the algebraic sum of the changes in potential must equal zero." Vn 0 KVL: loop

This is just a restatement of what you already know: that the potential difference is independent of path! RULES OF THE ROAD:

We will follow the convention that voltage drops enter with a + sign and voltage gains enter with a - sign in this equation.

e11 e

- e1

II

R11 R

R22 R

+ IR2

e22 e

+ e2 0

+ IR1

"Junction Rule" or Kirchoffs Current Law (KCL)

In deriving the formula for the equivalent resistance of 2 resistors in parallel, we applied Kirchoff's Second Rule (the junction rule).

"At any junction point in a circuit where the current can divide (also called a node), the sum of the currents into the node must equal the sum of the currents out of I in I out the node."

This is just a statement of the conservation of charge at any given node.

Resistors in Series

Vb - Vc IR 2

R1

b

Va - Vb IR1

Va - Vc I(R1 + R 2 )

Whenever devices are in SERIES, the current is the same through both ! This reduces the circuit to:

R2

a

c

Reffective

Hence:

R effective (R1 + R 2 )

Resistors in Parallel

What to do?

V IR

I I1 R1 I2 R2

But current through R1 is not I ! Call it I1. Similarly, R2 I2. KVL I1R1 - V 0

I2 R2 - V 0

V

d a

I I

R

I I1 + I 2

V

1 1 1 + R R1 R 2

V V V + R R1 R 2

Loop Demo

R1

b a

e1

f

R4 I

I

c d e

R2

KVL:

Vn 0

loop

e2

R3

IR1 + IR 2 + e 2 + IR 3 + IR 4 - e1 0

e1 - e 2 R1 + R 2 + R 3 + R 4

The switch is initially open and the current flowing through the bottom resistor is I0. Just after the switch is closed, the current flowing through the bottom resistor is I1. What is the relation between I0 and I1?

R I 12 V

12 V

12 V

(a) I1 < I0

(b) I1 = I0

(c) I1 > I0

The switch is initially open and the current flowing through the bottom resistor is I0. After the switch is closed, the current flowing through the bottom resistor is I1. What is the relation between I0 and I1?

R

12 V

a I

12 V R

12 V

(a) I1 < I0

(b) I1 = I0

(c) I1 > I0

I0 = 12V/R

Write a loop law for the new loop:

The switch is initially open and the current flowing through the bottom resistor is I0. After the switch is closed, the current flowing through the bottom resistor is I1. What is the relation between I0 and I1?

R

12 V

a I

12 V R

12 V

(a) I1 < I0

(b) I1 = I0

(c) I1 > I0

The key here is to determine the potential (Va-Vb) before the switch is closed.

From symmetry, (Va-Vb) = +12V.

Therefore, the current after the switch is closed is equal to the current after the switch is closed.

Junction Demo

Junction:

I1 I 2 + I 3

e1 R I1 I2 I3

Outside loop:

I1R + I 3R + e 3 - e1 0

e2

Top loop:

I1R + e 2 + I 2 R - e1 0

2e - e 2 - e 3 I1 1 3R

e + e 3 - 2e 2 I2 1 3R

R

e3

R

e + e 2 - 2e 3 I3 1 3R

R

b

I

Q

1 Ce

RC 2RC

f( x ) 0.5

0 00

2 x t/RC

Overview of Lecture

RC Circuit: Charging of capacitor through a Resistor RC Circuit: Discharging of capacitor through a Resistor

RC Circuits

Add a Capacitor to a simple circuit with a resistor Recall voltage drop on C?

I R

Recall that

Substituting:

Simple resistance circuit:

Main Feature: Currents are attained instantaneously and do not vary with time!!

KVL yields a differential equation with a term proportional to q and a term proportional to I = dq/dt.

Physically, whats happening is that the final charge cannot be placed on a capacitor instantly. Initially, the voltage drop across an uncharged capacitor = 0 because the charge on it is zero ! As current starts to flow, charge builds up on the capacitor, the voltage drop is proportional to this charge and increases; it then becomes more difficult to add more charge so the current slows

is satisfied.

dq e C - q dt RC

or equivalently,

dq dt e C - q RC

Integration constant

Determines integration constant

Charge on C

q Ce 1 - e - t / RC

1 ce

RC

2RC

Max = Ce

63% Max at t=RC

f( x ) 0.5 q

0 0

2 x t/RC

dq e - t / RC e dt R

Current

1 e/R 1

f( x ) 0.5 I

Max = e/R

0.0183156

Lecture 12, CQ 1

a

I R

b

1A

At t=0 the switch is thrown from position b to position a in the circuit shown: The capacitor is initially uncharged.

What is the value of the current I0+ just after the switch is thrown?

(a) I0+ = 0

1B

(a) I = 0

(b) I = e/2R

Lecture 12, CQ 1

1A At t=0 the switch is thrown from position b to position a in the circuit shown: The capacitor is initially uncharged.

I R

b

What is the value of the current I0+ just after the switch is thrown?

(a) I0+ = 0

Just after the switch is thrown, the capacitor still has no charge, therefore the voltage drop across the capacitor = 0! Applying KVL to the loop at t=0+, IR + 0 + IR - e = 0 I = e /2R

Lecture 12, CQ 1

1A At t=0 the switch is thrown from position b to position a in the circuit shown: The capacitor is initially uncharged.

I R

b

What is the value of the current I0+ just after the switch is thrown?

(a) I0+ = 0

1B

(a) I = 0

(b) I = e/2R

The key here is to realize that as the current continues to flow, the charge on the capacitor continues to grow. As the charge on the capacitor continues to grow, the voltage across the capacitor will increase. The voltage across the capacitor is limited to e; the current goes to 0.

position a in the circuit shown: The capacitor is initially uncharged. At time t=t1=t, the charge Q1 on the capacitor is (1-1/e) of its asymptotic charge Qf=Ce. What is the relation between Q1 and Q2 , the charge on the capacitor at time t=t2=2t?

I R

b

(a) Q2 < 2 Q1

(b) Q2 = 2 Q1

Hint: think graphically!

(c) Q2 > 2 Q1

At t=0 the switch is thrown from position b to position a in the circuit shown: The capacitor is initially uncharged.

I R

b

At time t=t1=t, the charge Q1 on the capacitor is (1-1/e) of its asymptotic charge Qf=Ce. What is the relation between Q1 and Q2 , the charge on the capacitor at time t=t2=2t?

(a) Q2 < 2 Q1

(b) Q2 = 2 Q1

(c) Q2 > 2 Q1

The charge q on the capacitor increases with time as: So the question is: how does this charge increase differ from a linear increase? 2Q1 From the graph at the right, it is clear that 1 the charge increase is not as fast as linear. Q2 In fact the rate of increase is just Q1 proportional to the current (dq/dt) which f( x ) 0.5 q decreases with time. Therefore, Q2 < 2Q1.

Q

2t

2

RC Circuits

(Time-varying currents)

Discharge capacitor:

a b

I R

I + + C - -

C initially charged with Q=Ce Connect switch to b at t=0. Calculate current and charge as function of time.

Loop theorem

Convert to differential equation for q:

RC Circuits

(Time-varying currents)

Discharge capacitor:

Solution:

a

b

I R

I

+ + C - -

Note that this guess incorporates the boundary conditions:

RC Circuits

(Time-varying currents)

Discharge capacitor:

a

b

I R

I

+ + C - -

Conclusion:

Capacitor discharges exponentially with time constant t = RC Current decays from initial max value (= -e/R) with same time constant

Discharging Capacitor

RC

Charge on C

q = C ee -t/RC

Max = Ce 37% Max at t=RC

C1 e

2RC

f( x ) 0.5 q

0.0183156

0

1 0

0 0 1 2 x

4 4

0 -e/R 0 1 2 x

dq e - e - t / RC dt R

Current

f( x ) 0.5 I

in the circuit shown: The capacitor is initially uncharged.

a b

At t = t0, the switch is thrown from position a to position b. Which of the following graphs best represents the time dependence of the charge on C?

R e C

2R

(a)

(b)

(c)

At t=0 the switch is connected to position a in the circuit shown: The capacitor is initially uncharged.

Ce 1

At t = t0, the switch is thrown from position a to position b. Which of the following graphs best represents the time dependence of theCe charge on C? 1

R e C

2R

Ce 1

(a)

f( x )q 0.5

(b)

q f ( x ) 0.5

Q

Q

(c)

x )q 0.5

0 0

t0 1

2 x t/RC

0 0

t0 1

2 x t/RC

00 0

t0

2 x t/ RC

For 0 < t < t0, the capacitor is charging with time constant t = RC For t > t0, the capacitor is discharging with time constant t = 2RC (a) has equal charging and discharging time constants (b) has a larger discharging t than a charging t (c) has a smaller discharging t than a charging t

Charging

1 Ce

Discharging

1 1 Ce

RC

2RC

RC

2RC

f( x ) q 0.5

q Ce 1 - e - t / RC

)

4

f( x ) 0.5

q = C ee -t/RC

0 0

1 e/R 1

2 x t/RC

0.0183156

2 x

4 4

1 0 0

I f( x ) 0.5

dq e - t / RC I e dt R

f( x ) 0.5 I

dq e - e - t / RC dt R

3156

0

0 1 2

0 -e/R

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