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Overview

Discuss Test 1 Review


Kirchoff's Rules for Circuits Resistors in Series & Parallel

RC Circuits

Text Reference: Chapter 27, 28.1-4

Current- a Definition
If there is a potential difference between two points then, if there is a conducting path, free charge will flow from the higher to the lower potential. The amount of charge which flows per unit time is defined as the current I, i.e. current is charge flow per unit time.

dq I dt
UNIT: Ampere = A = C/s

i.e. no longer electrostatics.

Devices

Resistors:
Purpose is to limit current drawn in a circuit. Resistors are
basically bad conductors. Actually all conductors have some resistance to the flow of charge.
Resistance
Resistance is defined to be the ratio of the applied voltage to the current passing through.

R I I V

UNIT: OHM = W

Resistivity
Property of bulk matter related to resistance :
The flow of charge is easier with a larger cross sectional area, it is harder if L is large.

E I A L

The constant of proportionality is called the resistivity

The resistivity depends on the details of the atomic structure which makes up the resistor (see chapter 27 in text)
eg, for a copper wire, r ~ 10-8 W-m, 1mm radius, 1 m long, then R .01W

Ohm's Law
Demo:

R I

Vary applied voltage V.

Measure current I
Does ratio (V/I) remain constant??
V slope = R

Only true for ideal resisitor!

Two cylindrical resistors, R1 and R2, are made of identical material. R2 has twice the length of R1 but half the radius of R1.
V

Lecture 11, CQ 1

These resistors are then connected to a battery V as shown: I I


1 2

What is the relation between I1, the current flowing in R1 , and I2 , the current flowing in R2?
(a) I1 < I2 (b) I1 = I2 (c) I1 > I2
The resistivity of both resistors is the same (r). Therefore the resistances are related as: L 2 L1 L R2 r 2 r 8r 1 8R1 A2 ( A1 / 4 ) A1 The resistors have the same voltage across them; therefore

I2

V V 1 I1 R 2 8R1 8

Kirchoff's First Rule


"Loop Rule" or Kirchoffs Voltage Law (KVL)
"When any closed circuit loop is traversed, the algebraic sum of the changes in potential must equal zero." Vn 0 KVL: loop
This is just a restatement of what you already know: that the potential difference is independent of path! RULES OF THE ROAD:

We will follow the convention that voltage drops enter with a + sign and voltage gains enter with a - sign in this equation.

Move clockwise around circuit:

e11 e
- e1

II

R11 R

R22 R
+ IR2

e22 e
+ e2 0

+ IR1

Kirchoff's Second Rule


"Junction Rule" or Kirchoffs Current Law (KCL)
In deriving the formula for the equivalent resistance of 2 resistors in parallel, we applied Kirchoff's Second Rule (the junction rule).

"At any junction point in a circuit where the current can divide (also called a node), the sum of the currents into the node must equal the sum of the currents out of I in I out the node."
This is just a statement of the conservation of charge at any given node.

The Voltage drops:

Resistors in Series
Vb - Vc IR 2

R1
b

Va - Vb IR1

Va - Vc I(R1 + R 2 )
Whenever devices are in SERIES, the current is the same through both ! This reduces the circuit to:

R2
a
c

Reffective
Hence:

R effective (R1 + R 2 )

Resistors in Parallel
What to do?

V IR

Very generally, devices in parallel have the same voltage drop

I I1 R1 I2 R2

But current through R1 is not I ! Call it I1. Similarly, R2 I2. KVL I1R1 - V 0
I2 R2 - V 0

V
d a

I I
R

How is I related to I 1 & I 2 ?? Current is conserved!


I I1 + I 2

V
1 1 1 + R R1 R 2

V V V + R R1 R 2

Loop Demo
R1
b a

e1
f

R4 I

I
c d e

R2
KVL:
Vn 0
loop

e2

R3

IR1 + IR 2 + e 2 + IR 3 + IR 4 - e1 0

e1 - e 2 R1 + R 2 + R 3 + R 4

Lecture 11, CQ 2 Consider the circuit shown.


The switch is initially open and the current flowing through the bottom resistor is I0. Just after the switch is closed, the current flowing through the bottom resistor is I1. What is the relation between I0 and I1?
R I 12 V

12 V

12 V

(a) I1 < I0

(b) I1 = I0

(c) I1 > I0

Lecture 11, CQ 2 Consider the circuit shown.


The switch is initially open and the current flowing through the bottom resistor is I0. After the switch is closed, the current flowing through the bottom resistor is I1. What is the relation between I0 and I1?
R
12 V

a I
12 V R

12 V

(a) I1 < I0

(b) I1 = I0

(c) I1 > I0

Write a loop law for original loop:

-12V -12V + I0R + I0R = 0

I0 = 12V/R
Write a loop law for the new loop:

-12V + I1R = 0 I1 = 12V/R

or, Lecture 11, CQ 2 Consider the circuit shown.


The switch is initially open and the current flowing through the bottom resistor is I0. After the switch is closed, the current flowing through the bottom resistor is I1. What is the relation between I0 and I1?
R
12 V

a I
12 V R

12 V

(a) I1 < I0

(b) I1 = I0

(c) I1 > I0

The key here is to determine the potential (Va-Vb) before the switch is closed.
From symmetry, (Va-Vb) = +12V.

Therefore, when the switch is closed, NO additional current will flow!


Therefore, the current after the switch is closed is equal to the current after the switch is closed.

Junction Demo
Junction:
I1 I 2 + I 3

e1 R I1 I2 I3

Outside loop:
I1R + I 3R + e 3 - e1 0

e2

Top loop:
I1R + e 2 + I 2 R - e1 0
2e - e 2 - e 3 I1 1 3R
e + e 3 - 2e 2 I2 1 3R

R
e3

R
e + e 2 - 2e 3 I3 1 3R

R
b

I
Q

1 Ce

RC 2RC

f( x ) 0.5

0 00

2 x t/RC

Overview of Lecture
RC Circuit: Charging of capacitor through a Resistor RC Circuit: Discharging of capacitor through a Resistor

Text Reference: Chapter 27.4, 28.2, 28.6

RC Circuits
Add a Capacitor to a simple circuit with a resistor Recall voltage drop on C?

I R

Upon closing circuit Loop rule gives:

Recall that

Substituting:

Differential Equation for q!

Compare with simple resistance circuit


Simple resistance circuit:
Main Feature: Currents are attained instantaneously and do not vary with time!!

Circuit with a capacitor:


KVL yields a differential equation with a term proportional to q and a term proportional to I = dq/dt.
Physically, whats happening is that the final charge cannot be placed on a capacitor instantly. Initially, the voltage drop across an uncharged capacitor = 0 because the charge on it is zero ! As current starts to flow, charge builds up on the capacitor, the voltage drop is proportional to this charge and increases; it then becomes more difficult to add more charge so the current slows

We have to find q such that

is satisfied.

The differential equation is easy to solve if we re-write in the form:

dq e C - q dt RC

or equivalently,

dq dt e C - q RC
Integration constant

Integrating both sides we obtain,

Exponentiating both sides we obtain, If there is no initial charge on C then: Thus,


Determines integration constant

Charging the Capacitor


Charge on C
q Ce 1 - e - t / RC
1 ce

RC

2RC

Max = Ce
63% Max at t=RC

f( x ) 0.5 q

0 0

2 x t/RC

dq e - t / RC e dt R

Current

1 e/R 1

f( x ) 0.5 I

Max = e/R

0.0183156

Lecture 12, CQ 1
a

I R
b

1A

At t=0 the switch is thrown from position b to position a in the circuit shown: The capacitor is initially uncharged.

What is the value of the current I0+ just after the switch is thrown?

(a) I0+ = 0

(b) I0+ = e/2R

(c) I0+ = 2e/R

1B

What is the value of the current I after a very long time?

(a) I = 0

(b) I = e/2R

(c) I > 2e/R

Lecture 12, CQ 1
1A At t=0 the switch is thrown from position b to position a in the circuit shown: The capacitor is initially uncharged.

I R
b

What is the value of the current I0+ just after the switch is thrown?

(a) I0+ = 0

(b) I0+ = e/2R

(c) I0+ = 2e/R

Just after the switch is thrown, the capacitor still has no charge, therefore the voltage drop across the capacitor = 0! Applying KVL to the loop at t=0+, IR + 0 + IR - e = 0 I = e /2R

Lecture 12, CQ 1
1A At t=0 the switch is thrown from position b to position a in the circuit shown: The capacitor is initially uncharged.

I R
b

What is the value of the current I0+ just after the switch is thrown?

(a) I0+ = 0

(b) I0+ = e/2R

(c) I0+ = 2e/R

1B

What is the value of the current I after a very long time?

(a) I = 0

(b) I = e/2R

(c) I > 2e/R

The key here is to realize that as the current continues to flow, the charge on the capacitor continues to grow. As the charge on the capacitor continues to grow, the voltage across the capacitor will increase. The voltage across the capacitor is limited to e; the current goes to 0.

Lecture from position b to 12, CQ 2 At t=0 the switch is thrown


position a in the circuit shown: The capacitor is initially uncharged. At time t=t1=t, the charge Q1 on the capacitor is (1-1/e) of its asymptotic charge Qf=Ce. What is the relation between Q1 and Q2 , the charge on the capacitor at time t=t2=2t?

I R
b

(a) Q2 < 2 Q1

(b) Q2 = 2 Q1
Hint: think graphically!

(c) Q2 > 2 Q1

At t=0 the switch is thrown from position b to position a in the circuit shown: The capacitor is initially uncharged.

I R
b

At time t=t1=t, the charge Q1 on the capacitor is (1-1/e) of its asymptotic charge Qf=Ce. What is the relation between Q1 and Q2 , the charge on the capacitor at time t=t2=2t?

(a) Q2 < 2 Q1

(b) Q2 = 2 Q1

(c) Q2 > 2 Q1

The charge q on the capacitor increases with time as: So the question is: how does this charge increase differ from a linear increase? 2Q1 From the graph at the right, it is clear that 1 the charge increase is not as fast as linear. Q2 In fact the rate of increase is just Q1 proportional to the current (dq/dt) which f( x ) 0.5 q decreases with time. Therefore, Q2 < 2Q1.
Q

2t
2

RC Circuits
(Time-varying currents)
Discharge capacitor:
a b

I R

I + + C - -

C initially charged with Q=Ce Connect switch to b at t=0. Calculate current and charge as function of time.
Loop theorem
Convert to differential equation for q:

RC Circuits
(Time-varying currents)
Discharge capacitor:
Solution:
a
b

I R

I
+ + C - -

Check that it is a solution:


Note that this guess incorporates the boundary conditions:

RC Circuits
(Time-varying currents)
Discharge capacitor:
a
b

I R

I
+ + C - -

Current is found from differentiation:

Conclusion:
Capacitor discharges exponentially with time constant t = RC Current decays from initial max value (= -e/R) with same time constant

Discharging Capacitor
RC

Charge on C
q = C ee -t/RC
Max = Ce 37% Max at t=RC

C1 e

2RC

f( x ) 0.5 q

0.0183156

0
1 0
0 0 1 2 x

4 4

Max = -e/R 37% Max at t=RC


0 -e/R 0 1 2 x

dq e - e - t / RC dt R

Current

f( x ) 0.5 I

Lectureposition a CQ 3 12, At t=0 the switch is connected to


in the circuit shown: The capacitor is initially uncharged.
a b

At t = t0, the switch is thrown from position a to position b. Which of the following graphs best represents the time dependence of the charge on C?

R e C

2R

(a)

(b)

(c)

At t=0 the switch is connected to position a in the circuit shown: The capacitor is initially uncharged.

Ce 1

At t = t0, the switch is thrown from position a to position b. Which of the following graphs best represents the time dependence of theCe charge on C? 1

R e C

2R

Ce 1

(a)
f( x )q 0.5

(b)
q f ( x ) 0.5
Q
Q

(c)

x )q 0.5

0 0

t0 1

2 x t/RC

0 0

t0 1

2 x t/RC

00 0

t0

2 x t/ RC

For 0 < t < t0, the capacitor is charging with time constant t = RC For t > t0, the capacitor is discharging with time constant t = 2RC (a) has equal charging and discharging time constants (b) has a larger discharging t than a charging t (c) has a smaller discharging t than a charging t

Charging
1 Ce

Discharging
1 1 Ce

RC

2RC

RC

2RC

f( x ) q 0.5

q Ce 1 - e - t / RC

)
4

f( x ) 0.5

q = C ee -t/RC

0 0
1 e/R 1

2 x t/RC

0.0183156

2 x

4 4

1 0 0

I f( x ) 0.5

dq e - t / RC I e dt R

f( x ) 0.5 I

dq e - e - t / RC dt R

3156

0
0 1 2

0 -e/R