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GUIDED BY ~ MONIKA SURANA

http://powerpointpresentationon.blogspot.com

CONTENT
WHAT IS FIBER OPTICS?

History Need Working Types Advantages Disadvantages Application

HISTROY
It began about 40 years ago in the R&D labs (Corning, Bell Labs, ITT UK, etc.)
first installed commercially in Dorset, England by STC and Chicago, IL, USA in 1976 by AT&T. By the early 1980s, fiber telecommunications networks connected the major cities .

Modern fiber-optic communication systems generally include an optical transmitter to convert an electrical signal into an optical signal to send into the optical fiber. The information transmitted is typically digital information.

Why Optical Fibers ?


As mans need for communication increased, the amount of bandwidth required increased exponentially. Initially we used smoke signals, then horse riders for communicating. But these ways were way to slow and had very little bandwidth or data caring capacity. Optical Fiber,~ the diameter of human hair, can carry 5,00,000 circuits of voice and data. This capacity is increasing day by day as supporting electronics is developing.

The light source (LAZER) at the transmitting (Tx) end is modulated by the electrical signal and this modulated light energy is fed into the Optical Fiber. At the receiving end (Rx) this light energy is made incident on photosensors which convert this light signal back to electrical signal.

Telecommunications Internet Access Cable and Satellite Television Decorative Light Source

Components
Outside Jacket Cladding Core

Characteristics
Glass Core Glass Cladding Ultra Pure Ultra Transparent Glass Made Of Silicon Dioxide Low Attenuation Popular among industries

VARIOUS TYPES OF OPTICAL FIBER CABLES 1.OPGW Cable ADSS type OF Cable Self-Support AERIAL figure 8 type OF Cable LASHED type OF Cable UNDERGROUND / BURRIED type OF Cables DUCT Type OF Cable

OVERHEAD FIBRE OPTIC CABLE INSTALLATION

OPGW

WRAP AROUND

ADSS

UNDERGROUND / BURRIED type OF Cables

DUCT Type OF Cable

Fiber Optic Connectors Since fiber optic technology was


introduced in the late 70s, numerous connector styles have been developed - probably over 100 designs. Each new design was meant to offer better performance

Types Of Fiber Optic Connectors


The ST/SC connectors about 0.1 inch - so they can be mixed and matched to each other
Volition is a simple, inexpensive duplex connector It aligns fibers in a V-groove like a splice.

MTP is a 12 fiber connector for ribbon cable. It's main use is for preterminated cable assemblies

TEST AND MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS

OTDR SPLICING MACHINE OPTICAL TALK SETS

MECHANICAL SPLICE POWER METER, TOOL KIT

LASER SOURCE, ATTENUATOR

ADVANTAGES OF OPTICAL FIBERS


1. VERY HIGH INFORMATION CARRING CAPACITY. LESS ATTENUATION (order of 0.2 db/km) SMALL IN DIAMETER AND SIZE & LIGHT WEIGHT LOW COST AS COMPARED TO COPPER GREATER SAFETY AND IMMUNE TO EMI & RFI, MOISTURE & COROSSION FLEXIBLE AND EASY TO INSTALL IN TIGHT CONDUICTS ZERO RESALE VALUE (so theft is less)

DISADVANTAGES OF OPTICAL FIBERS


1. The terminating equipment is still costly as compared to copper equipment. IT has to be handled carefully. Communication is not totally in optical domain, so repeated electric optical electrical conversion is needed. Tapping is not possible. Specialized equipment is needed to tap a fiber. Optical fiber splicing is a specialized technique and needs expertly trained manpower. The splicing and testing equipments are very expensive as compared to copper equipments.

APPLICATIONS OF OPTICAL FIBERS


1.LONG DISTANCE COMMUNICATION BACKBONES 2.INTER-EXCHANGE JUNCTIONS 3.VIDEO TRANSMISSION 4.BROADBAND SERVICES 5.COMPUTER DATA COMMUNICATION (LAN, WAN etc..) 6.MILITARY APPLICATION 7.NON-COMMUNICATION APPLICATIONS (sensors etc)

SOME MANUFACTURERS OF OPTICAL CABLES

Furukawa Fujikura LG Cables Corning Philips-Fitel Pirelli TTL Sterlite Cables

REFERENCES
www.wikipedia.org Library Magazines (IEEE)

Thank You

Any Questions or Comments?