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# FORCE & MOTION

## 2.1 LINEAR MOTION

LEARNING OUTCOME
By the end of this lesson, you will be able to: Define distance and displacement Define speed and velocity Define acceleration and deceleration Calculate speed and velocity Calculate acceleration / deceleration

## How to describe the motion of a car?

How far the car move? How long the car takes time to move? How fast does the car move? The motion can be described in terms of distance, displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration and deceleration.

Siti has been told to go to a textile shop located 20 m from where she is standing. Where is the location of the shop?

Siti is standing in front of Liz Restaurant. Where is the textile shop from where she is standing now?

The textile shop is located 20 m to the right from Liz restaurant. How far Siti has to walked to the textile shop?

She has to walk for a distance of 20 m. She walks 20 m to the right. Her displacement is 20 m to the right from Liz Restaurant.

## Define Distance and displacement

Distance is the total path length traveled from one location to another Scalar Quantity SI unit: meter (m)

Displacement
How far is it from Johor Bharu to Desaru? 2 possible answers because there is 2 possible route to Desaru from JB.

Displacement
You can travel by car using the existing road via Kota Tinggi Or travel by a small plane along a straight path. The distance travelled by the plane, or displacement shorter than the distance travelled by the car.

Displacement 1
Displacement, s is the distance in a specified direction

Displacement 2
The distance between two locations measured along the shortest path connecting them in a specific direction

Displacement 3
The distance of its final position from its initial position in a specified direction

Displacement
Vector quantity SI units : meter (m)

Every day Rahim walks from his house to the junction which is 1.5 km from his house. Then he turns back and stops at warung Pak Din which is 0.5 km from his house.

## Distance & Displacement

(a) What is Rahims displacement from his house: 1.5 m to east when he reaches the junction. When he is at warung Pak Din. 0.5 m to west (b)After breakfast, Rahim walks back to his house. When he reaches home, what is the total distance traveled by Rahim? 4 km what is Rahims total displacement from his house? 0 m

## Speed and Velocity

Speed or velocity are used to describe how fast a car is moving. How is velocity different from speed?

## Time taken to travel 1 km or 1 000 m

Supersonic car

The fastest speed on the land is 1220.9 km per hour. This speed is achieved by Andy Green which drove his supersonic car, Thrust in Black Rock Desert, Nevada 1997. This speed is faster than the speed of sound

Speed, v
Speed is the rate of change of distance

## Scalar quantity Unit : m/s or m s-1

Example 1
A car travels 600 m in 30 s. What is the average speed? v = 600 m 30 s = 20 m/s

Example 2:
A car has a steady speed of 8 m/s (a)How far does the car travel in 8 s? 1 sec = 8 m 8 sec = 64 m (b) How long does the car take to travel 160 m? t = s/v = 160 /8 = 20 s

Velocity, v
Velocity is the rate of change of displacement

## Direction of velocity is the direction of displacement Vector quantity SI unit: ms-1

A cyclist has a velocity of 10 m/s due east. It means the speed is 10 m/s and he moves to the east / right
10 m/s

- 10 m/s

## Average speed and velocity

Average speed = Total distance total time taken Average velocity = Total displacement Total time taken

Uniform speed: the speed that remains the same in magnitude regardless of its direction.
Uniform velocity: velocity that remains the same in magnitude and direction. An object has a non uniform velocity if: 1. The magnitude of its velocity changes 2. The direction of motion changes or the motion is not a straight line.

Example 2

An aeroplane flys towards the north with a velocity 300 km/hr in one hour. Then, the plane moves to the east with the velocity 400 km / hr in one hour. (a)What is the average speed of the plane? 700/2 = 350 km/hr (b)What is the average velocity of the plane? 500/2 = 250 km/hr (c) What is the difference between average speed and average velocity of the plane? Average speed does not have direction. Average velocity has direction.

Example 3
The speedometer reading for a car traveling north shows 80 km/hr. Another car traveling at 80 km/hr towards south. Is the speed of both cars same? Is the velocity of both cars same? The speed of both cars are same ie 80 km/hr but the velocity are not same because different direction.

Acceleration, a
Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity SI unit = ms-2

Calculate acceleration
A motorcycle change its velocity from 0 to 280 km/hr in 40 seconds. What is the acceleration in SI unit? Movie Change velocity to SI units: 280 x 1000 = 77.78 ms-1 3600 a = v u = 77.78 0 = 1.94 m s t 40
-2

Positive acceleration, a
The velocity of an object increases from an initial velocity, u to a higher final velocity, v

movie

## Decelaration Negative acceleration

The velocity of an object decreases from an initial velocity, u to a lower final velocity, v

Zero acceleration, a = 0
An object is at rest OR An object moves with constant velocity.

Constant Acceleration
Velocity increases at a constant rate. When a car moves at a constant acceleration of 5 ms-2 , its velocity increases by 5 m/s for every second.

Example 4
A bicyclist starts from rest and increases his velocity at a constant rate until he reaches a speed of 4.0 m/s in 5.0 s. What is his average acceleration? Strategy: (i) state the initial velocity = 0 (ii) state the final velocity = 4.0 (iii)state the time taken = 5.0 (iv)apply formula a = 4.0 0 = 0.8 ms-2 5.0

Example 5
Observe the motion of a car in Diagram 1 (a) and Diagram 1(b).

Describe the changes in velocity of a car in Diagram 1(a). Is the car accelerate or decelerate? The distance between the two images increases. Velocity of the car is increasing. The car accelerates. Describe the changes in velocity of a car in Diagram 1(b). Is the car accelerate or decelerate? The distance between the two images decreases. Velocity of the car is decreasing. The car decelerates.

Notes

Exercise 1

Exercise 1
2. You walk along a long straight school corridor for 55 m, then you turn around and walk 30 m in the opposite. Finally, you turn again and walk 39 m in the original direction and stop. What is your displacement from your starting point? 55 30 + 39 = 64 m

Exercise 1
3. A boy walks finish the following path AB. Find: (a) total distance traveled 5 + 7 + 5 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 = 57 m (b) displacement 7 + 10 + 10 = 27 m

4. Fill in the blanks: 1. A steady speed of 10 m/s = A distance of 10 second ...is traveled every .. 2. A steady velocity of -10 m/s = A distance Of . second to the left. 10 m is traveled every .. 3. A steady acceleration of 4 ms-2 = Speed goes second up by 4 m/s every . 4. A steady deceleration of 4 ms-2 = speed goes second down .. by 4 m/s every . 5. A steady velocity of 10 m/s = A distance of 10 m is traveled every second to the right

Note:
KINEMATIC is the study of motion of objects but does not consider the causes of motion . It came from the Greek word kinema , meaning motion the same root from which we get the word cinema.

Calculate displacement, speed, velocity, time and acceleration by : 1. ticker timer and ticker tape 2. solving equations of motion

Ticker timer
Use: 12 V ac power supply 1 tick = time interval between 2 dots Time taken to make 50 ticks = 1 sec 1 tick = 0.02 s

## STEP 1 : Determination of time taken

0.02 Time taken for 1 tick = _______ s 10 Time taken from A to B = _______ ticks 0.2 = _______ s

## Constant velocity Distance between dots stay the same

Constant acceleration

## Distance between dots increases

Chart Tape

Exercise 2
1. Based on the figure above, calculate the acceleration . Solution u = 0.2/0.02 = 10 cm/s v = 1.4/0.02 = 70 cm/s t = (5 1) x 0.02 = 0.08 s a = 70 10 = 750 cms-2 = 7.5 ms-2 0.08

2. The figure above shows a ticker tape contains 5 ticks for every interval AB.BC.CD and DE .Calculate the acceleration. Solution u = 2/0.1 = 20 cm/s v = 8/0.1 = 80 cm/s t = (4 1) x 0.1 = 0.3 s a = 80 20 = 200 cms-2 = 2.0 ms-2 0.3

## Time for 1 strip = 10 x 0.02 = 0.2 s

Initial velocity = 2 cm/0.2 = 10 cm/s Final velocity = 12 cm/0.2 = 60 cm/s Time interval from u to v = (11 1) x 0.2 = 2.0 s Acceleration = v u = 60 10 t 2.0 = 25 cm s-2

4. The following figure shows a tape chart. Calculate (a) the acceleration (b) the average velocity Solution u = 4/0.2 = 20 cm/s v = 24/0.2 = 120 cm/s t = (6 1) x 0.2 = 1.0 s a = 120 20 = 100 cms-2 = 1.0 ms-2 1.0 Average velocity = 4 + 8 + 12 + 16 + 20 + 24 = 84 = 70 cm/s 6 x 0.2 1.2

problems

## Activity 4: To determine displacement,

average velocity and acceleration

Apparatus: Ticker timer, trolley, 12 V power supply, runway, ticker tape, ruler Procedure: Raise one end of runway to a reasonable height. Pass the ticker tape through the ticker timer and attach it to a trolley at the top of the runway. Switch on the ticker timer and release the trolley. When the trolley comes to a stop, cut the tape. Mark and cut the tape into 10-tick strips from the start of the first clear dot Paste the 10-tick strips side-by-side on a paper to make a tape chart.

Result

## The Equation of Motions

Example 1

Example 1

Example 1

Exercise 3
1. A car accelerates from rest to 25 m s-1 in 4 s. Find the acceleration of the car. u = 0, v = 25, t = 4, a = ? v = u + at a = (25 0) = 6.25 ms-2 4

2. A car accelerates from rest at 3 ms-2 along a straight road. How far has the car traveled after 4 s? u = 0, a = 3, t = 4, s = ? s = ut + at2 = 0 + (3)(16) = 24 m

3. A car is traveling at 20 m/s along a straight road. The driver puts the brakes on for 5 s. It this causes a deceleration of 3 m s-2 , what is the cars final velocity? u = 20, t = 5, a = -3, v = ? v = u + at = 20 + (-3)(5) = 5 m/s

4. A car moving with constant velocity of 40 ms-1. The driver saw and obstacle in front and he immediately stepped on the brake pedal and managed to stop the car in 8 s. The distance of the obstacle from the car when the driver spotted it was 180 m. How far is the obstacle from the car after it stops. u = 40, v = 0 , t = 8 , s = ? s = (40 + 0) 8 = 160 m 2 the obstacle from the car after it stops: 180 160 = 20 m