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Bird flu / Avian flu

Defination ;
Bird flu

is an infectious disease caused by strains of the Type A influenza viruses that ordinarily only infect birds. Avian influenza A virus infected and caused the deaths of people.

The Orthomyxoviridae includes five genera: Influenzavirus A, Influenzavirus B, Influenzavirus C, Isavirus Thogotovirus. Influenza A viruses may be further divided into subtypes HA, of which there are fifteen, and NA of which there are nine subtypes. For example ; H7N2, H5N1 , H1N1, H1N2,H3N2 etc.

Characteristics of AI virus :

Three prominent subtypes of the avian influenza A

viruses that are known to infect both birds and people are: AH5, AH7, AH9. Avian influenza A H5 is low pathogenic
AH7 viruses is high pathogenic Influenza AH9 virus is in low pathogenicity form.

RNA virus segmented genome of eight negative sense, singlestrands of RNA PB2, PB1, PA, HA, NP, NA, MP and NS. HA codes for hemagglutinin and is responsible for binding the virus to the cell . NA codes for neuraminidase It facilitates the release of progeny. (HA) & (NA) RNA strands specify proteins that are targets for antiviral drugs and antibodies

VIROLOGY

Morphology ; Virion is pleomorphic Envelope can occur in spherical and filamentous forms. Spherical is 50 to 120 nm in diameter Filamentous virion 20 nm in diameter and 200 to 300 nm long 500 distinct spike-like surface projections of the envelope

Lipoprotein membranes enclose the nucleo-capsids. The nucleo-capsids have a helical symmetry . Total genome length is 12000-15000 nucleotides . They have high mutation rate.

HOW AVIAN FLU WORKS ?


Viral

binding to victims lung cells .

The

virus shell fuses with the cell membrane and moves through it.

Emerging into the cytoplasm of the cell. The shell opens, releasing the RNA inside.

-ive sense ss RNA moves into the nucleus of the cell.

cell's machinery makes positive copies.

travel back out into the cytoplasm.

Cytoplasm make copies of the viral proteins.

Positive copies of RNA in nucleus make negative sense RNA

Negative

strand comes out in cytoplasm and combine with proteins.

Budding

in cell membrane.

New

virion form is ejected out .

LIFE CYCLE OF AI VIRUS

BIRD FLU SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS


Initial symptoms include ;
High fever, Diarroea, vomiting, abdominal pain, chest pain, and bleeding from the nose and gums, lower respiratory tract illness.

Life threatening complications ; Pneumonia,Collapsed lung,respiratory


failure,kidney dysfunction, heart problems .

Laboratory tests: Samples of fluids from nose or throat. The virus can be detected in sputum by culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Imaging tests X-rays may be useful in assessing the condition of lungs.

DIAGNOSIS IN ANIMALS ;

Soft-shelled eggs Sudden drop in egg production Loss of appetite Edema and swelling of head, eyelids, comb, wattles, and hocks Green diarrhoea Incoordination, including loss of ability to walk and stand Respiratory distress Increased death losses in a flock Sudden death Ruffled feathers

ANTIVIRAL TREATMENT
Oseltamivir, can reduce the duration of viral replication. Amantadine, prevents the virus particle from opening after it enters the cell. Relenza and Tamiflu stop the virus from budding out of the cell. Antiviral drugs are helpful only if they are given within a day or two after the onset of the disease.

VACCINES UNDER OBSERVATIONS ;

Peramivir
Fludase ALN-RSV01

FluMist for Bird Flu

Wash your hands. This is one of the simplest and best ways to prevent infections of all kinds. Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer containing at least 60 percent alcohol when you travel.. Poultry and egg products Because heat destroys avian viruses, cooked poultry isn't a health threat. Avoid cross-contamination. Use hot, soapy water to wash cutting boards, utensils and all surfaces that have come into contact with raw poultry. Cook thoroughly. Cook chicken until the juices run clear, and it reaches a minimum internal temperature of 165 F (74 C). Steer clear of raw eggs. Because eggshells are often contaminated with bird droppings, avoid foods containing raw or undercooked eggs.