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Kinetic-Molecular Theory

Postulates and Implications Chapters 13 and 14

Kinetic-Molecular Theory Postulates


1. Matter is made of particles containing mass. 2. Particles of substances are in constant, rapid, and random motion. 3. Collisions are either elastic or inelastic. 4. Temperature measures average kinetic energy.

Kinetic-Molecular Theory Postulates


5. Particles exert intermolecular forces.
These forces are non-existent in gases. These forces are strong in liquids and solids.

Comparing Two Theories


Atomic Theory Everything made of particles All atoms of an element are identical Atoms are neither created nor destroyed A specific compounds has the same ratio of atoms Kinetic-Molecular Theory Particles have mass Particles are constantly moving Particles collide Particles exert forces Temperature measures kinetic energy

Postulate 1
Matter is made of particles containing mass. 1 AMU = 1.66054 x 10-24 g
Proton1 AMU (1.0073) Neutron1 AMU (1.0087) ElectronWithout Mass (5.486 x 10-4 AMU)

Postulate 2
Particles of substances are in constant, rapid, and random motion.
Motion has 3 characteristics
Constant Rapid Random

Postulate 3
Collisions are either elastic or inelastic.
1. Inelasticloses energy (p. 421) 2. Elasticdoesnt lose energy (p. 421)

Postulate 4
4. Temperature measures average kinetic energy.
Temp., Temp., Kinetic Energy Kinetic Energy

Quick Question
After testing two unknown substances A and B, you find the boiling temperature for substance A to be 20C. Substance Bs boiling point is 34C. Which substance, A or B, has stronger intermolecular forces? Why?

Postulate 5
5. Particles exert intermolecular forces.
These forces are non-existent in gases. These forces are strong in liquids and solids.
Dispersion Forces (London Dispersion) Dipole-Dipole Forces
Ion-Dipole

Hydrogen Bonding

Postulate 5Dispersion

Dispersion Forces
Shape-induced charge (due to asymmetry) Weakest force Exists on all molecules

Postulate 5Dipole-Dipole

Dipole-Dipole Forces
Permanent dispersion force (Causes asymmetry, which gives rise to partial charges (-, +) Causes some molecules to be polar
Affects solubility

Postulate 5Hydrogen Bonds

Hydrogen Bonds
Most important biologically (induces protein folding) Assists in solubility Responsible for properties of water Strongest force

Kinetic-Molecular Theory (Gasses)


Intermolecular forces dont apply Describe 4 variables


Amount, volume, temperature, pressure

Kinetic-Molecular Theory (Gasses)


Amountgiven as n= mass/molar mass Volumegiven as L Temperaturegiven as K


To convert C to K, just add 273.15

Pressuregiven as atm or torr (mm of Hg)

Kinetic-Molecular Theory (Gasses)

These variables lead to 4 relationships


Boyles Law Charles Law Avogadros Law Daltons Law

Kinetic-Molecular Theory (Gasses)

Boyles Law
P, P, V V

Kinetic-Molecular Theory (Gasses)

Pressure has several units


1 atm 760 mm Hg 760 torr 1.01325 x 105 Pa 101.325 kPa

Kinetic-Molecular Theory (Gasses)

Charles Law
T, T, V V

Kinetic-Molecular Theory (Gasses)

Avogadros Law
If V, T, and P are held constant for 2 gases, then they contain an equal number of particles.

Kinetic-Molecular Theory (Gasses)

Daltons Law
If more than one gas is present, then the sum of the pressures of all the different gasses equals the total pressure. Pt = p1 + p2 + p3 + + pn

Kinetic-Molecular Theory (Gasses)



Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT R is a constant


8.314 m3-Pa/mol-K 0.08206 L-atm/mol-K 62.36 L-torr/mol-K