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Project management training series No.

KhoaNT

Project mangement knowledge area

SCOPE MANAGEMENT
June 2012 WO Department
BEFORE WE START

Human
9 Project Management
Knowledge Area
Scope
Resources

Communication Procurement

Integration Quality

Cost Time
Risk
BEFORE WE START

Human
9 Project Management
Knowledge Area SCOPE
Resources

Communication Procurement

Integration Quality

Cost Time
Risk
BEFORE WE START

Initiating 5 Monitor
&
Project Management Controlling
Process Group

Planning Executing Closing


BEFORE WE START

Initiating 5 Monitor
&
Project Management Controlling
Process Group

Executing Closing
Planning
BEFORE WE START

• Learning objectives

– Figuring out what is scope management in project


management and why we need to perform this

– Learn how to do it right through many practical


example and best practices
TABLE OF CONTENTS (est. 2 hours)

1
CHAPTER 01

What is project scope?


Knowledge
2
CHAPTER 02

Why is project scope important?

3
CHAPTER 03

How to manage project scope? Implementation

4 Summary

5 References
What is
project scope?

“ What is the term project scope


in project management? ”
1. What is project scope?

• Product scope

– Means the features and functions of the product


or service that you and your team are building
1. What is project scope?

• Project scope

– All the work that need to be done to make the


project done
1. What is project scope?

• Project scope

– All the work that need to be done to make the


project done

“ THIS is a big part of what the project


manager is concerned with… the work the
team has to do ”
1. What is project scope?

• Project scope

– Deals with the client's requirements for function,


capacity, and content is defined as follows

“ The bounded set of verifiable end products,


deliverables, or outputs that the project team
undertakes to provide to the client (the owner
or sponsor) of the project ”
1. What is project scope?

• Project scope: eg. Build a customer website

Server Deployment
Planning

Marketing Graphic UI

Coding Operation
Content Maintenance
Testing

Forum
1. What is project scope?

• Project scope: eg. Build a customer website

Server Deployment
Planning

Marketing Graphic UI
Bounded set
Coding Operation
Content Maintenance
Testing

Forum
1. What is project scope?

• Project scope:

“ Using the explicit term project scope,


not scope to avoid missed understanding to
product scope or the others ”
1. What is project scope?

• Scope creep

– Means uncontrolled changes that cause the team


to do extra work
“ Changes went in without any
bothering to figure out what effect
they’d have on project’s time, scope,
quality, risk or resources ”
1. What is project scope?

• So we must get familiar with

– Product scope

– Project scope

– Scope creep
1. What is project scope?

• Quick exercise:

– Product scope vs. Project scope


Why is
project scope
important?

“ How much does project scope affect to


the success of a project? ”
2. Why is project scope important?

• Fast facts
Brodkorb’s report
“ On a survey of several thousand people in the gas and electric utility
industry and its major suppliers. An inadequate "definition of
requirements (scope)" is ranked as the second most difficult obstacle to
project success, exceeded only by unrealistic projections of anticipated
cost and schedule performance, in the frequency of responses “

Cleland and Kerzner’s report


“ Among interviewees in their investigation of critical success factors, the
prime indicator of project success for the majority of both executives (62
percent) and project managers (75 percent) was "performance"
(meaning meeting objectives and user or client satisfaction) ”
2. Why is project scope important?

• Fast facts
Gobeli and Larson’s survey
“From a survey of 1,484 respondents working in a variety of project
structures, show that planning problems were cited as the most frequent
barrier to success. Within this category, unclear definition of goals,
objectives, scope, plans, or design was the predominant planning
problem, accounting for 50 percent of the reported instances, and was
present to almost the same level for all structures“
2. Why is project scope important?

• Fast facts
Genest’s examining
“ In examining the reasons why cost and schedule overruns are
experienced on software development projects, Genest et al. identify the
failure to manage scope as a probable cause. An insufficient definition of
the nature and configuration of the desired end product, lack of
knowledge of the expected project output, and failure to manage
changes in product configuration are described as management errors
that drive up the originally estimated volume of work and consequently
cause cost overruns ”
2. Why is project scope important?

:|
“ Project Scope Management
Important but Neglected ”
2. Why is project scope important?

:(
“ Project Scope Management
Important but Neglected ”

Main factor
cause project to fail!
2. Why is project scope important?

• Project scope can help

– Avoid building any thing we do not intend to

– Figuring out what will be done(and nothing else!)

– Manage changes
How to manage
project scope?

“ See it(project scope) in action ”


3. How to manage project scope?

• Firstly we need

“ Scope management plan ”


3. How to manage project scope?

• Scope Management Plan will describes:

– How to write down the scope

– Make sure scope is right

– Keep scope up to date


3. How to manage project scope?

• The process
Scope management process
Process Output

Collect requirements Requirements documents

Define project scope Project scope statement

Create WBS WBS, WBS dictionary

Verify project scope Acceptance deliverables

Control project scope Change requests


3. How to manage project scope?

• In action
HOW TO?

Collect Control
requirements scope

Define Track Manage


scope progress changes

Create
WBS

Verify
scope
3. How to manage project scope?

• In action
HOW TO?
PLANNING MONITORING & CONTROLLING

Collect Control
requirements scope

Define Track Manage


scope progress changes

Create
WBS

Verify
scope
3. How to manage project scope?

• In action
HOW TO?

Collect Control
requirements scope

Define Track Manage


scope progress changes

Create
WBS

Verify
scope
3. How to manage project scope?

• Collect requirements

– Project Charter
– Stakeholder Register
3. How to manage project scope?

• Collect requirements

– Find out all of stakeholder’s need

– Then write down to ensure: what to build,


requirements can be measurable and tracked
3. How to manage project scope?

• Collect requirements: tools

– *Interview: one-to-one

– *Focus group: group of people discuss their needs

– Facilitated workshops: more structured group


with a moderator
3. How to manage project scope?

• Collect requirements: tools

– *Questionaire

– *Affinity diagram: group ideas using Post-it on


wall, move ideas around, changes group…->
categorize ideas

– *Prototype
3. How to manage project scope?

• Collect requirements: tools

– Brainstorming

– Mind Maps

– Nominal Group: write most vote to rank

– Delphi: anonymous idea


3. How to manage project scope?

• Quick exercise:

– Collecting Requirement Techniques


3. How to manage project scope?

• Collect requirements: problem

“ Problem arise when there are so


many stakeholders, means a lot of
opions. How can you decide? ”

?
3. How to manage project scope?

• Collect requirements: problem-solved

“ Problem arise when there are so


many stakeholders, means a lot of

:)
opions. How can you decide? ”

? “ Decision-making techniques ”

– Unanimity: everyone same decision


– Majority: more than ½
– Plurality: most vote wins
– Dictatorship: he is king
3. How to manage project scope?

• Collect requirements: problem-solved

– Requirements decision making


3. How to manage project scope?

• Collect requirements: ouput


3. How to manage project scope?

• Collect requirements: ouput


3. How to manage project scope?

• Collect requirements

– Funtional requirement: features, bug fixes, behaviors

– Non-functional requirement: not a specific features


(aka. Quality attributes)
eg. performance, reliability
3. How to manage project scope?

• In action
HOW TO?

Collect Control
requirements scope

Define Track Manage


scope progress changes

Create
WBS

Verify
scope
3. How to manage project scope?

• Define scope: input

– Project Charter
– Organizational Process Assets
– Requirement Documents
3. How to manage project scope?

• Define scope: tools

– Facilitated workshops
– Product analysis
– Alternatives identification
– Expert judgement
3. How to manage project scope?

• Define scope: tools -> example

– Alternatives identification
3. How to manage project scope?

• Define scope: project scope statement


3. How to manage project scope?

• Quick exercise:

– Scope statement

– Requirements vs. Scope Statement


3. How to manage project scope?

• In action
HOW TO?

Collect Control
requirements scope

Define Track Manage


scope progress changes

Create
WBS

Verify
scope
3. How to manage project scope?

• WBS (Work Breakdown Structure): input

– Requirements Documents
– Organizational Process Assets
– Project Scope Statement
3. How to manage project scope?

• WBS (Work Breakdown Structure): input


3. How to manage project scope?

• WBS (Work Breakdown Structure): what?

– Breaking down the main project deliverables into


smaller, more manageable deliverables
3. How to manage project scope?

• WBS (Work Breakdown Structure): what?

Level 01
3. How to manage project scope?

• WBS (Work Breakdown Structure): what?

Level 01

Level 02
3. How to manage project scope?

• WBS (Work Breakdown Structure): what?

Level 01

Level 02

Level 03
3. How to manage project scope?

• WBS (Work Breakdown Structure): what?

Level 01

Level 02

Level 03
3. How to manage project scope?

• WBS (Work Breakdown Structure): what?

– From the WBS above, project team will know


exaclty

“ How many and what things


they should deliver
at the end of the project ”

:)
3. How to manage project scope?

• WBS (Work Breakdown Structure): what?

– From the WBS above, we will learn:

Elements

Work package
3. How to manage project scope?

• WBS (Work Breakdown Structure): what?

– From the WBS above, we will learn:

• The element in the lowest level is called


“work package”

Task Activity

• Element are Noun


3. How to manage project scope?

• WBS (Work Breakdown Structure): what?

“ But how many levels


we should go in depth? ”

:)
?
“ ehh... let see some
examples below ”
3. How to manage project scope?

• WBS (Work Breakdown Structure): eg.

“ simple 3 levels

:)
WBS ”
3. How to manage project scope?

• WBS (Work Breakdown Structure): eg.


“ complex 7 levels

:|
WBS ”
3. How to manage project scope?

• WBS (Work Breakdown Structure): eg.

“ common 3 levels

:)
WBS use in WO ”
3. How to manage project scope?

• WBS (Work Breakdown Structure): what?

– WBS can be done by Phase or by Deliverable


3. How to manage project scope?

• WBS (Work Breakdown Structure): what?

– By Phase
3. How to manage project scope?

• WBS (Work Breakdown Structure): what?

– By Deliverable
3. How to manage project scope?

• WBS (Work Breakdown Structure): what?

– So it’s about breaking down big thing into smaller


and managable things
-> decomposition technique
3. How to manage project scope?

• WBS (Work Breakdown Structure): what?

– Decomposition
technique
3. How to manage project scope?

• Quick exercise:

– WBS by Phase vs. by Deliverable

– (Homework) Break down WBSes in above exercise


more levels to see the different
3. How to manage project scope?

• WBS (Work Breakdown Structure): why?

– Well-known and widely used

– Easy to understand
(but implementing it well is not too easy)

– Easily tracking and controlling project scope

– Many best practice and templates


3. How to manage project scope?

• WBS Dictionary

– WBS do not contains details about work

– and who are responsible for work

-> so the WBS Dictionary come to solve


3. How to manage project scope?

• WBS Dictionary

– Contains the details of every work package


3. How to manage project scope?

• WBS Dictionary
3. How to manage project scope?

• WBS (Work Breakdown Structure): output

Very important
3. How to manage project scope?

• WBS (Work Breakdown Structure): output

– Scope baseline
3. How to manage project scope?

• WBS (Work Breakdown Structure): output

– Scope baseline
3. How to manage project scope?

• WBS (Work Breakdown Structure): output

– Scope baseline is where you can compare your


work against during project lifetime
3. How to manage project scope?

• In action
HOW TO?

Collect Control
requirements scope

Define Track Manage


scope progress changes

Create
WBS

Verify
scope
3. How to manage project scope?

• Verify scope
3. How to manage project scope?

• Verify scope
3. How to manage project scope?

• Verify scope
3. How to manage project scope?

• Verify scope
3. How to manage project scope?

• Verify scope
3. How to manage project scope?

• Verify scope
3. How to manage project scope?

• In action
HOW TO?

Collect Control
requirements scope

Define Track Manage


scope progress changes

Create
WBS

Verify
scope
3. How to manage project scope?

• Control project scope: Track progress

– Verify each deliverables against scope baseline to


make sure you deliver right thing
3. How to manage project scope?

• In action
HOW TO?

Collect Control
requirements scope

Define Track Manage


scope progress changes

Create
WBS

Verify
scope
3. How to manage project scope?

• Control project scope: Manage changes

– Categorize changes as: good changes and bad


changes

– Good change: make product/service better with


very little downside. It does not affect timeline,
cost and does not destabilize product/service or
threaten its quality

– Bad change: scope creep, gold plating


3. How to manage project scope?

• Control project scope: Manage changes

– Scope creep: you think you know the impact, but


in fact, it does not. So change will be made
continuously without control

– Gold plating: you think it is an improvement and


do without checking the impact
eg. When a programmer think a way to make feature
better and implement it without checking impact, so it will
end up with feature you never asked for -> must pay more
3. How to manage project scope?

• Quick exercise:

– Scope creep vs. Gold plating


3. How to manage project scope?

• Control project scope: Manage changes


3. How to manage project scope?

• Control project scope: Manage changes

Traceability Matrix
3. How to manage project scope?

• Control project scope: Manage changes

Traceability Matrix
3. How to manage project scope?

• Control project scope: Manage changes


3. How to manage project scope?

• Control project scope: Manage changes

– Anatomy of a change

A change is needed Create a new baseline

Create change request Replan the work

Get change approved Do variance analysis


3. How to manage project scope?

• Control project scope: Manage changes

– Anatomy of a change

A change is needed Create a new baseline

Create change request Replan the work

Get change approved Do variance analysis


3. How to manage project scope?

• Control project scope: Manage changes

– Anatomy of a change

A change is needed Create a new baseline

Create change request Replan the work

Get change approved Do variance analysis


3. How to manage project scope?

• Control project scope: Manage changes

– Anatomy of a change

A change is needed Create a new baseline

Create change request Replan the work

Get change approved Do variance analysis


3. How to manage project scope?

• Control project scope: Manage changes

– Anatomy of a change

A change is needed Create a new baseline

Create change request Replan the work

Get change approved Do variance analysis


3. How to manage project scope?

• Control project scope: Manage changes

– Anatomy of a change

A change is needed Create a new baseline

Create change request Replan the work

Get change approved Do variance analysis


3. How to manage project scope?

• Control project scope: Manage changes

– Anatomy of a change
Initial change Plan the change

A change is needed Create a new baseline

Create change request Replan the work

Get change approved Do variance analysis


3. How to manage project scope?

• Control project scope: Manage changes

– Anatomy of a change:

• A change is needed
3. How to manage project scope?

• Control project scope: Manage changes

– Anatomy of a change:

• Create a change request


3. How to manage project scope?

• Control project scope: Manage changes

– Anatomy of a change:

• Get change approved


3. How to manage project scope?

• Control project scope: Manage changes

– Anatomy of a change:

• Do variance analysis
3. How to manage project scope?

• Control project scope: Manage changes

– Anatomy of a change:

• Replan the work


3. How to manage project scope?

• Control project scope: Manage changes

– Anatomy of a change:

• Create a new baseline


3. How to manage project scope?

• Control project scope: Manage changes


3. How to manage project scope?

• Control project scope: Manage changes


3. How to manage project scope?

• Control project scope: Manage changes


3. How to manage project scope?

• Control project scope: Manage changes

– Tools: only one VARIANCE ANALYSIS


3. How to manage project scope?

• Control project scope

:)
“The goal of Control Scope is updating the
scope, plan, baseline, and WBS info ”
Summary

“ Review all we have learned ”


4. Summary

• Product scope vs. Project scope

• Scope screep vs. Gold plating

• Scope Management Plan


– Requirement Documents
– Traceability Matrix

– Scope Statement
– WBS, WBS Dictionary, Work package
– Scope Baseline
References

“ Good things you should explore ”


5. References

• References:

– [Book] Head First PMP 2nd Edition published by


O’Reilly
5. References

• References:

– [Article] Managing project scope


by Walter Wawruck
Link: http://www.maxwideman.com/guests/scope/note.htm

– [Video] Scope Management Course


http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=NxoO
bNImpII

– [Video] Work Breakdown Sctructure


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PTVECJn59Bg
3. How to manage project scope?

• References:

– And more on internet :)


Q&A

“ Now, it’s your turn”