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Project Management

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 1

What is Project

A project is a sequence of unique , complex and connected activities having one goal or purpose and that must be completed by a specific time , within budget according to the desired specification.

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 2

What is Management

Management can be defined informally as the art of getting work done through other people More formally it may be defined as The creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups ,can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 3

Project management

Organising, planning and scheduling software projects

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 4

Objectives

To introduce software project management and to describe its distinctive characteristics To discuss project planning and the planning process To show how graphical schedule representations are used by project management To discuss the notion of risks and the risk management process

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 5

Topics covered

Management activities Project planning Project scheduling Risk management

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 6

Software project management

Concerned with activities involved in ensuring that software is delivered on time and on schedule and in accordance with the requirements of the organisations developing and procuring the software Project management is needed because software development is always subject to budget and schedule constraints that are set by the organisation developing the software

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 7

Software management distinctions

The product is intangible


(cannot be seen or touched)

Software engineering is not recognized as an engineering discipline with the sane status as mechanical, electrical engineering, etc. The software development process is not standardised Many software projects are 'one-off' projects

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 8

Management activities

Proposal writing Project planning and scheduling Project costing Project monitoring and reviews Personnel selection and evaluation Report writing and presentations

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 9

Management commonalities

These activities are not peculiar to software management Many techniques of engineering project management are equally applicable to software project management Technically complex engineering systems tend to suffer from the same problems as software systems

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 10

Project staffing

May not be possible to appoint the ideal people to work on a project


Project budget may not allow for the use of highly-paid staff Staff with the appropriate experience may not be available An organisation may wish to develop employee skills on a software project

Managers have to work within these constraints especially when (as is currently the case) there is an international shortage of skilled IT staff

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 11

Project Management Functions

Software project management usually involves planning , estimation and costing and scheduling the project activities, establishing the milestone, Controlling the project execution ,monitoring the progress ,replacing and reviewing the results

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 12

Project planning
Project planning is concerned with Defining and documenting the assumptions, scope, goals ,requirements and constraints of the project clearly to guide engineers in their daily decision making. Determining the resources and efforts required for the project and developing a plan which reconciles that how best the goals of the project can be achieved within given constraints and available resources
Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E) Slide 13

Project planning

Probably the most time-consuming project management activity Continuous activity from initial concept through to system delivery. Plans must be regularly revised as new information becomes available Various different types of plan may be developed to support the main software project plan that is concerned with schedule and budget

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 14

Plan Criteria

Meet its goal Deliverables based Short activities Show Dependencies Real time estimate Show resources usage Consistent with other Plans Realistic available time
Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E) Slide 15

Project Organizing
Project organizing function is concerned with Defining the necessary organizational & team structures. Devising roles for individuals and assigning responsibilities for different roles. Staffing the project with qualified and most suitable people in the roles and responsibilities identified earlier.

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 16

Project plan structure

Introduction Project organisation Risk analysis Hardware and software resource requirements Work breakdown Project schedule Monitoring and reporting mechanisms

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 17

Activity organization

Activities in a project should be organised to produce tangible outputs for management to judge progress Milestones are the end-point of a process activity Deliverables are project results delivered to customers The waterfall process allows for the straightforward definition of progress milestones

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 18

Milestones in the RE process


ACT IVITIES Feasibility study Requir ements analysis Prototype development Design study Requir ements specification

Feasibility report

Requir ements definition

Evaluation report MILESTONES

Architectural design

Requir ements specification

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 19

Project scheduling
Project scheduling function is concerned with : Estimating the time resources required complete activities. Organizing team in coherent sequences considering their independence.

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 20

Project scheduling

Split project into tasks and estimate time and resources required to complete each task Organize tasks concurrently to make optimal use of workforce Minimize task dependencies to avoid delays caused by one task waiting for another to complete Dependent on project managers intuition and experience

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 21

Scheduling problems

Estimating the difficulty of problems and hence the cost of developing a solution is hard Productivity is not proportional to the number of people working on a task Adding people to a late project makes it later because of communication overheads The unexpected always happens. Always allow contingency in planning

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 22

Project Control

Measuring progress Reporting progress Controlling changes Replanning Reporting on accessing likely impact of potential problems Reviewing and approving complete work Delivery of project deliverables
Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E) Slide 23

Out of Control

Unclear direction Over/under worked staff People / material are not available when needed Wasted effort /rework Project late / overspent Small problem /Big impact Last task rushed

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 24

Risk management

Risk management is concerned with identifying risks and drawing up plans to minimise their effect on a project. A risk is a probability that some adverse circumstance will occur.
Project risks affect schedule or resources Product risks affect the quality or performance of the software being developed Business risks affect the organisation developing or procuring the software

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 25

The risk management process

Risk identification
Identify project, product and business risks

Risk analysis
Assess the likelihood and consequences of these risks

Risk planning
Draw up plans to avoid or minimise the effects of the risk

Risk monitoring
Monitor the risks throughout the project

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 26

Risk identification

Technology risks People risks Organisational risks Requirements risks Estimation risks

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 27

Risks and risk types


Risk type Technology Possible risks The database used in the system cannot process as many transactions per second as expected. Software components which should be reused contain defects which limit their functionality. It is impossible to recruit staff with the skills required. Key staff are ill and unavailable at critical times. Required training for staff is not available. The organisation is restructured so that different management are responsible for the project. Organisational financial problems force reductions in the project budget. The code generated by CASE tools is inefficient. CASE tools cannot be integrated. Changes to requirements which require major design rework are proposed. Customers fail to understand the impact of requirements changes. The time required to develop the software is underestimated. The rate of defect repair is underestimated. The size of the software is underestimated.
Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E) Slide 28

People

Organisational

Tools Requirements

Estimation

Risk analysis

Assess probability and seriousness of each risk Probability may be very low, low, moderate, high or very high Risk effects might be catastrophic, serious, tolerable or insignificant

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 29

Risk analysis
Risk Organisational financial problems force reductions in the project budget. It is impossible to recruit staff with the skills required for the project. Key staff are ill at critical times in the project. Software components which should be reused contain defects which limit their functionality. Changes to requirements which require major design rework are proposed. The organisation is restructured so that different management are responsible for the project. The database used in the system cannot process as many transactions per second as expected. The time required to develop the software is underestimated. CASE tools cannot be integrated. Customers fail to understand the impact of requirements changes. Required training for staff is not available. The rate of defect repair is underestimated. The size of the software is underestimated. The code generated by CASE tools is inefficient. Probability Low High Moderate Moderate Moderate High Moderate High High Moderate Moderate Moderate High Moderate Effects Catastrophic Catastrophic Serious Serious Serious Serious Serious Serious Tolerable Tolerable Tolerable Tolerable Tolerable Insignificant

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 30

Risk planning

Consider each risk and develop a strategy to manage that risk Avoidance strategies
The probability that the risk will arise is reduced

Minimisation strategies
The impact of the risk on the project or product will be reduced

Contingency plans
If the risk arises, contingency plans are plans to deal with that risk

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 31

Risk factors
Risk type Technology People Organisational Tools Requirements Estimation Potential indicators Late delivery of hardware or support software, many reported technology problems Poor staff morale, poor relationships amongst team member, job availability organisational gossip, lack of action by senior management reluctance by team members to use tools, complaints about CASE tools, demands for higher-powered workstations many requirements change requests, customer complaints failure to meet agreed schedule, failure to clear reported defects

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 32

Projects
JAN
Build A A Done Build B B Done Build C C Done Build D Ship On time!

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

Unique, one-time operations designed to accomplish a specific set of objectives in a limited time frame.

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 33

17-33

Project Management

What are the Key Metrics


Time Cost Performance objectives Top-down commitment Having a capable project manager Having time to plan Careful tracking and control Good communications

What are the Key Success Factors?


Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 34

17-34

Project Management

What are the Major Administrative Issues?


Executive responsibilities
Project selection Project manager selection Organizational structure

Organizational alternatives
Manage within functional unit Assign a coordinator Use a matrix organization with a project leader

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 35

17-35

Project Management

What are the tools?


Work breakdown structure Network diagram Gantt charts Risk management

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 36

17-36

Planning and Scheduling


Gantt Chart
Locate new facilities Interview staff
MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

Hire and train staff


Select and order furniture Remodel and install phones Move in/startup

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 37

17-37

Key Decisions

Deciding which projects to implement Selecting a project manager Selecting a project team Planning and designing the project

Managing and controlling project resources


Deciding if and when a project should be terminated

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 38

17-38

Project Manager
Responsible for: Work Human Resources Communications Quality Time Costs

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 39

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Work Breakdown Structure


Project X

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

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17-40

PERT and CPM


PERT: Program Evaluation and Review Technique CPM: Critical Path Method

Graphically displays project activities Estimates how long the project will take Indicates most critical activities Show where delays will not affect project

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 41

17-41

The Network Diagram (contd)

Path
Sequence of activities that leads from the starting node to the finishing node The longest path; determines expected project duration Activities on the critical path Allowable slippage for path; the difference the length of path and the length of critical path

Critical path

Critical activities

Slack

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 42

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Project Network Activity on Node


Order furniture Locate facilities

AON

Furniture setup

1
Remodel

6
Move in

S
Interview
Hire and train

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 43

17-43

Example 1
Deterministic time estimates
8 weeks 6 weeks

2
11 weeks

3 weeks

1
4 weeks 9 weeks

Move in
1 week

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 44

17-44

Example 1 Solution
Critical Path

Path 1-2-3-4-5-6 1-2-5-6 1-3-5-6

Length
(weeks)

Slack 2 0 6

18 20 14

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

Slide 45

17-45

Project Management Software


Computer aided design (CAD) Groupware (Lotus Notes) CA Super Project Harvard Total Manager MS Project Sure Track Project Manager Time Line

Software Engineering-1 (CS-724), MCS-1 (M&E)

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