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Chapter 12

Communicating in the Internet Age

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Chapter Outline

The Communication Process


Encoding Selecting a Medium Decoding Feedback Noise

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Chapter Outline
(continued)

Dynamics of Organizational Communications


Needed: More Coordinated Communication The Grapevine Nonverbal Communication Upward Communication

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Chapter Outline
(continued)

Communication Problems and Promises in the Computer Age


Barriers to Communication Sexist and Racist Communication Communicating in the Online Workplace

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Chapter Outline
(continued)

Becoming a Better Communicator


Effective Listening Effective Writing Running a Meeting

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THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS

Communication: the transfer of information and understanding from one person to another person.

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THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS


(continued)

Key Elements of the Basic Communication Process


Encoding (by sender) Selecting a medium (by sender) Media richness: a mediums capacity to convey information and promote learning. Decoding (by receiver) Feedback (from receiver to sender)

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Figure 12.2 The Basic Communication Process

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Figure 12.3 The Lengel-Daft Contingency Model of Media Selection (a)

Source: Robert H. Lengel and Richard L. Daft, The Selection of Communication Media as an Executive Skill, Academy of Management Executive, 2 (August 1988): 226, 227, exhibits 1 and 2. Reprinted by permission.

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Figure 12.3 The Lengel-Daft Contingency Model of Media Selection (b)

Source: Robert H. Lengel and Richard L. Daft, The Selection of Communication Media as an Executive Skill, Academy of Management Executive, 2 (August 1988): 226, 227, exhibits 1 and 2. Reprinted by permission.

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THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS


(continued)

Noise: any interference with normal flow of communication

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THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS


(continued)

For Discussion: In face-to-face communication (a rich medium), which link in the communication process is most vital? Why?

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Figure 12.1 The World of Communication Overload (average daily number of messages sent and received by office workers)

Copyright from Message Overload? USA Today (September 13, 1999): 1B. Source: Data Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS


(continued)

Conclusion from a recent survey of 10,000 U.S. companies:


Although senior managers cite communications as a top business priority that they plan to devote more time to, they are focused on technological solutions (for example, electronic mail and Internet connections) when the answers have more to do with words and thoughts than tools.

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THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS


(continued)

For Discussion: What does this mean to you? What recommendations would you make to management?

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NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
Body language: nonverbal communication based on facial expressions, posture, and appearance.
Three Kinds of Body Language
1. Facial 2. Gestural 3. Postural
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NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
(continued)

One expert contends that only 7 percent of the impact of our face-to-face communication comes from the words we utter; the other 93 percent comes from our vocal intonations, facial expressions, posture, and appearance.

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NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
(continued)

For Discussion:
1. Is dressing for success a career booster, or simply an excuse for showing off?
2. Which form of body language -- facial, gestural, postural -- tends to influence you most in face-to-face communication? 3. What is your most expressive form of body language: facial, gestural, or postural? Will it help to hinder you as a manager?
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UPWARD COMMUNICATION

Upward communication: process of systematically encouraging lower-level employees to share with management their feelings and ideas.

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UPWARD COMMUNICATION
(continued)

Types of Upward Communications


Formal

grievance procedures Employee attitude and opinion surveys Suggestion systems Open-door policy Informal meetings Internet chat rooms Exit interviews
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UPWARD COMMUNICATION
(continued)

For Discussion:
1. All things considered, which type of upward communication probably is the most useful for todays busy managers? 2. How would you respond to a manager who made this statement? An open-door policy is an open invitation to a lot of junk visits.

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BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION Process Barriers


Sender

barrier Encoding barrier Medium barrier Decoding barrier Receiver barrier Feedback barrier

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BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
(continued)

Physical Barriers
Semantic Barriers

Semantics: the study of meaning of words.


Psychosocial Barriers

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Figure 12.4 Grapevine Patterns

Source: John W. Newstrom and Keith Davis, Organizational Behavior: Human Behavior at Work, 9th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993), p. 445. Reproduced with permission of McGraw-Hill Companies.

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BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
(continued)

For Discussion: Which barrier is managements most challenging problem? Explain.

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HOW TO COMPOSE A CLEAR E-MAIL MESSAGE


Table 12.2

Concise (simple conversational language) Logical (context plus logical steps) Empathetic (identify with your reader) Action-Oriented (explain what you want the
reader to do)

Right

(all key facts; correct spelling)


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EFFECTIVE LISTENING

Listening is the forgotten stepchild in communications skill training.

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EFFECTIVE LISTENING
(continued)

Tips for More Effective Listening:

Tolerate silence. Listeners who rush to fill momentary silences cease being listeners. Ask stimulating open-ended questions, ones that require more than merely a yes or no answer. Encourage the speaker with attentive eye contact, alert posture, and verbal encourages such as umhum, yes, and I see. Occasionally repeating the speakers last few words also helps.
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EFFECTIVE LISTENING
(continued)

Paraphrase. Periodically restate in your own words what you have just heard. Show emotion to demonstrate that you are a sympathetic listener. Know your biases and prejudices and attempt to correct for them. Avoid premature judgments about what is being said. Summarize. Briefly highlight what the speaker has just finished saying to bring out possible misunderstandings.
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EFFECTIVE LISTENING
(continued)

For Discussion:
1. Are you a good listener? Why or why not? If not, what do you need to do to improve? 2. Which of the above tips is most difficult to implement? Why?

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TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE WRITING

1. Keep words simple. 2. Dont sacrifice communication to rules of composition. 3. Write concisely. 4. Be specific.

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TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE WRITING


(continued)

For Discussion:
1. Do you consider yourself a good writer, as far as business communication is concerned? Why or why not? If not, how can you improve? 2. Have multiple-choice exams and computer E-mail taken a toll on your writing skills? Explain. 3. What would you say to a student who made these statements? Standard rules of writing and grammar arent important in todays world of voice mail and the Internet. Quickly get the idea across; thats the point.
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RUNNING A MEETING

Prepare ahead of time. a reason for the meeting. an agenda before the meeting. participants at least a days notice. should come prepared.

Have

Distribute Give

Participants Limit

attendance and designate a leader.

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RUNNING A MEETING
(continued)

Start

and end on time. broad discussion but stick to the

Encourage

agenda.
Foster
Use

rigorous debate and brainstorming.

visual aids. up with notification of outcomes.


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Follow

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