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Part-2

By

Jithender Tulasi

Data generalization is a process that abstracts a large set of task-relevant data in a database from a relatively low conceptual level to higher conceptual levels. Data warehousing and OLAP perform data generalization by summarizing data at varying levels of abstraction.

1. Efficient Methods for Data Cube Computation: Data cube computation is an essential task in data warehouse implementation.

1.1:A Road Map for Materialization of Different Kinds of Cubes: Data cubes facilitate the on-line analytical processing of multidimensional data.

1.1:

Cube Materialization: Full Cube, Iceberg Cube, Closed Cube, and Shell Cube Figure below shows a 3-D data cube for the dimensions A, B, and C, and an aggregate measure, M. A data cube is a lattice of cuboids. Each cuboid represents a group-by. ABC is the base cuboid, containing all three of the dimensions. Here, the aggregate measure, M, is computed for each possible combination of the three dimensions.

The base cuboid is the least generalized of all of the cuboids in the data cube. The most generalized cuboid is the apex cuboid, commonly represented as all. It contains one valueit aggregates measure M for all of the tuples stored in the base cuboid. To drill down in the data cube, we move from the apex cuboid, downward in the lattice. Roll up, we move from the base cuboid, upward. A cell in the base cuboid is a base cell. A cell from a non base cuboid is an aggregate cell.

Example: Base and aggregate cells. Consider a data cube with the dimensions month, city, and customer group, and measure price. (Jan, * , * , 2800) and (*, Toronto, * , 1200) are 1-D cells. (Jan, * , Business, 150) is a 2-D cell, (Jan, Toronto, Business, 45) is a 3-D cell. Here, all base cells are 3-D, whereas 1-D and 2-D cells are aggregate cells.

Example : Ancestor and descendant cells. Referring to Ancestor and descendant cells: 1-D cell a=(Jan, * , * , 2800) and 2-D cell b = (Jan, *, Business, 150), are ancestors of 3-D cell c = (Jan, Toronto, Business, 45); C is a descendant of both a and b. b is a parent of c, and c is a child of b. In order to ensure fast on-line analytical processing, it is sometimes desirable to pre-compute the full cube (i.e., all the cells of all of the cuboids for a given data cube).

A data cube of n dimensions contains 2^n cuboids. Individual cuboids may be stored on secondary storage and accessed when necessary. Partial materialization of data cubes offers an interesting trade-off between storage space and response time for OLAP. Many cells in a cuboid, the measure value will be zero. When the product of the cardinalities for the dimensions in a cuboid is large relative to the number of nonzero-valued tuples that are stored in the cuboid, then we say that the cuboid is sparse.

If a cube contains many sparse cuboids, we say that the cube is sparse. The cells that cannot pass the threshold are likely to be too trivial to warrant further analysis. Such partially materialized cubes are known as iceberg cubes. The minimum threshold is called the minimum support threshold, or minimum support(min sup). An iceberg cube can be specified with an SQL query, as shown in the following example.

A cell, c, is a closed cell if there exists no cell, d, such that d is a specialization (descendant) of cell c and d has the same measure value as c. A closed cube is a data cube consisting of only closed cells.

For example, (a1, * , * ,* , ) : 20 can be derived from (a1, a2, *, * , ) : 20 because the former is a generalized nonclosed cell of the latter.

1.1.1:

In general, there are two basic data structures used for storing cuboids. 1. Relational tables are used as the basic data structure for the implementation of relational OLAP (ROLAP), 2. Multidimensional arrays are used as the basic data structure in multidimensional OLAP (MOLAP). Although ROLAP and MOLAP may each explore different cube computation techniques, some optimization tricks can be shared among the different data representations.

The following are general optimization techniques for the efficient computation of data cubes. 1. Optimization Technique 1: Sorting, hashing, and grouping. 2. Optimization Technique 2: Simultaneous aggregation and caching intermediate results. 3. Optimization Technique 3: Aggregation from the smallest child, when there exist multiple child cuboids.

4. Optimization Technique 4: The Apriori pruning method can be explored to compute iceberg cubes efficiently. The Apriori property, in the context of data cubes, states as follows: If a given cell does not satisfy minimum support, then no descendant (i.e., more specialized or detailed version) of the cell will satisfy minimum support either. This property can be used to substantially reduce the computation of iceberg cubes.

The Multiway Array Aggregation method computes a full data cube by using a multidimensional array as its basic data structure. It is a typical MOLAP approach that uses direct array addressing, where dimension values are accessed via the position or index of their corresponding array locations. Hence, MultiWay cannot perform any value-based reordering. A different approach is developed for the array-based cube construction, as follows:

1. Partition the array into chunks. A chunk is a subcube that is small enough to fit into the memory available for cube computation. Chunking is a method for dividing an n-dimensional array into small n-dimensional chunks, where each chunk is stored as an object on disk. The chunks are compressed so as to remove wasted space resulting from empty array cells (i.e., cells that do not contain any valid data, whose cell count is zero). For instance, chunkID + offset can be used as a cell addressing mechanism to compress a sparse array structure and when searching for cells within a chunk. Such a compression technique is powerful enough to handle sparse cubes, both on disk and in memory.

Because this chunking technique involves overlapping some of the aggregation computations, it is referred to as multiway array aggregation. It performs simultaneous aggregation i.e. it computes aggregations simultaneously on multiple dimensions.

Example : Multiway array cube computation. Consider a 3-D data array containing the three dimensions A, B, and C. The 3-D array is partitioned into small, memory-based chunks. In this example, the array is partitioned into 64 chunks as shown in Figure 4.3. Dimension A is organized into four equal-sized partitions, a0, a1, a2, and a3. Dimensions B and C are similarly organized into four partitions each. Chunks 1, 2, . . . , 64 correspond to the sub cubes a0b0c0, a1b0c0, . . . , a3b3c3, respectively. Suppose that the cardinality of the dimensions A, B, and C is 40, 400, and 4000, respectively. Thus, the size of the array for each dimension, A, B, andC, is also 40, 400, and 4000, respectively. The size of each partition in A, B, and C is therefore 10, 100, and 1000, respectively. Full materialization of the corresponding data cube involves the computation of all of the cuboids defining this cube. The resulting full cube consists of the following cuboids:

1.3:BUC:

Computing Iceberg Cubes from the Apex Cuboid Downward: BUC is an algorithm for the computation of sparse and iceberg cubes. Unlike MultiWay, BUC constructs the cube from the apex cuboid toward the base cuboid. This allows BUC to share data partitioning costs. This order of processing also allows BUC to prune during construction, using the Apriori property. BUC stands for Bottom-Up Construction.

It consolidates the notions of drill-down (where we can move from a highly aggregated cell to lower, more detailed cells) and roll-up (where we can move from detailed, low-level cells to higher level, more aggregated cells).

Star-Cubing: Computing Iceberg Cubes Using a Dynamic Star-tree Structure: Star-Cubing algorithm for computing iceberg cubes. Star-Cubing combines the strengths of the other methods like top-down and bottom-up cube computation and explores both multidimensional aggregation and Apriori -like pruning. It operates from a data structure called a star-tree, which performs lossless data compression, thereby reducing the computation time and memory requirements. Star-Cubings approach is illustrated below for the computation of a 4-D data cube.

To explain how the Star-Cubing algorithm works, we need to know more concepts,like cuboid trees, starnodes, and star-trees. We use trees to represent individual cuboids. Figure below shows a fragment of the cuboid tree of the base cuboid, ABCD. Each level in the tree represents a dimension, and each node represents an attribute value. Each node has four fields: the attribute value, aggregate value, pointer(s) to possible descendant(s), and pointer to possible sibling. Tuples in the cuboid are inserted one by one into the tree.

A cuboid tree that is compressed using star-nodes is called a star-tree. The following is an example of star-tree construction. Star-table is constructed for each star-tree. Star-tree construction. A base cuboid table is shown in Table 4.1. There are 5 tuples and 4 dimensions. The cardinalities for dimensions A, B, C, D are 2, 4, 4, 4, respectively. The one-dimensional aggregates for all attributes are shown in Table 4.2. Suppose min sup = 2 in the iceberg condition. Clearly, only attribute values a1, a2, b1, c3, d4 satisfy the condition. All the other values are below the threshold and thus become star-nodes. By collapsing star-nodes, the reduced base table is Table 4.3.

2.Further Development of Data Cube and OLAP Technology: 2.1: Discovery-Driven Exploration of Data Cubes: A data cube may have a large number of cuboids, and each cuboid may contain a large number of (aggregate) cells. With such an overwhelmingly large space, it becomes a burden for users to even just browse a cube. Tools need to be developed to assist users in intelligently exploring the huge aggregated space of a data cube.

Discovery-driven exploration is such a cube exploration approach. In discovery driven exploration, precomputed measures indicating data exceptions are used to guide the user in the data analysis process, at all levels of aggregation. An exception is a data cube cell value that is significantly different from the value anticipated, based on a statistical model. For example, if the analysis of item-sales data reveals an increase in sales in December in comparison to all other months, this may seem like an exception in the time dimension.

Three measures are used as exception indicators to help identify data anomalies. These measures indicate the degree of surprise that the quantity in a cell holds, with respect to its expected value. They are as follows: 1. SelfExp: This indicates the degree of surprise of the cell value, relative to other cells at the same level of aggregation. 2. InExp: This indicates the degree of surprise somewhere beneath the cell, if we were to drill down from it. 3. PathExp: This indicates the degree of surprise for each drill-down path from the cell.

The InExp values can be used to indicate exceptions at lower levels that are not visible at the current level. For Example: Discovery-driven exploration of a data cube. Suppose that you would like to analyze the monthly sales at AllElectronics as a percentage difference from the previous month. The dimensions involved are item, time, and region. You begin by studying the data aggregated over all items and sales regions for each month, as shown in next slide.

3.Attribute-Oriented InductionAn Alternative Method for Data Generalization and Concept Description: Data generalization summarizes data by replacing relatively low-level values with higher-level concepts. Concept description, which is a form of data generalization. A concept typically refers to a collection of data such as frequent buyers, graduate students, and so on.

It is sometimes called class description, when the concept to be described refers to a class of objects. Characterization provides a summarization of the given collection of data, while concept or class comparison (also known as discrimination) provides descriptions comparing two or more collections of data. An alternative method for concept description, called attribute oriented induction, which works for complex types of data and relies on a data-driven generalization process.

3.1:

The attribute-oriented induction (AOI) approach to concept description was first proposed in 1989. The data cube approach is based on materialized views of the data, which typically have been precomputed in a data warehouse. In general, it performs off-line aggregation before an OLAP or data mining query is submitted for processing. On the other hand, the attribute-oriented induction approach is basically a query-oriented, generalization-based, on-line data analysis technique.

The general idea of attribute-oriented induction is to first collect the task-relevant data using a database query and then perform generalization based on the examination of the number of distinct values of each attribute in the relevant set of data. The generalization is performed by either attribute removal or attribute generalization. Aggregation is performed by merging identical generalized tuples and accumulating their respective counts. This reduces the size of the generalized data set. The resulting generalized relation can be mapped into different forms for presentation to the user, such as charts or rules.

Example: A data mining query for characterization. Suppose that a user would like to describe the general characteristics of graduate students in the Big University database, given the attributes name, gender, major, birth place, birth date, residence, phone, and gpa (grade point average).

A data mining query for this characterization can be expressed in the data mining query language, DMQL, as follows:

1. Data focusing should be performed before attribute-oriented induction. 2. The data are collected based on the information provided in the data mining query.

The data mining query presented above is transformed into the following relational query for the collection of the task-relevant set of data:

Attribute-oriented induction. Here we show how attributeoriented induction is performed on the initial working relation of Table 4.12. For each attribute of the relation, the generalization proceeds as follows:

1. name: Since there are a large number of distinct values for name and there is no generalization operation defined on it, this attribute is removed. 2. gender: Since there are only two distinct values for gender, this attribute is retained and no generalization is performed on it. 3. Major: Suppose that a concept hierarchy has been defined that allows the attribute major to be generalized to the values farts&science, engineering, businessg.

4. birth place: This attribute has a large number of distinct values; therefore, we would like to generalize it. Similarly consider others.

The descriptions can be presented to the user in a number of different ways. Generalized descriptions resulting from attributeoriented induction are most commonly displayed in the form of a generalized relation. Example of Generalized relation (table). Suppose that attribute-oriented induction was performed on a sales relation of the AllElectronics database, resulting in the generalized description of Table 4.14 for sales in 2004. The description is shown in the form of a generalized relation.

Generalized data can be presented graphically, using bar charts, pie charts, and curves. Visualization with graphs is popular in data analysis. Such graphs and curves can represent 2-D or 3-D data. Example for Bar chart and pie chart using the sales data of the crosstab shown in next slide which can be transformed into the bar chart representation and the pie chart representation.

The size of a cell (displayed as a tiny cube) represents the count of the corresponding cell, while the brightness of the cell can be used to represent another measure of the cell, such as sum (sales). A generalized relation may also be represented in the form of logic rules. A logic rule that is associated with quantitative information is called a quantitative rule.

The crosstab can be transformed into logic rule form. Let the target class be the set of computer items. The corresponding characteristic rule, in logic form, is:

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