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Submitted BY: MahammadVasim Khatri

Automation or industrial automation is the use of control systems such as computers to control industrial machinery and processes, reducing the need for human intervention, in order to increase reliability and efficiency. It restricts a person from doing a job which can be monotonous if repeated again and again thereby decreasing the efficiency of his work and thus decreasing the efficiency of the industry as a whole. Thus , with automation that same work is performed with more accuracy and efficiency.

INPUT (Analog/ Digital)


OUTPUT (Analog/ Digital)

Field Wiring

Switches Pushbuttons Pressure Switches Level Switches Temperature Switches Vacuum Switches Float Switches Limit Switches Condition Sensors Encoders Photoelectric Sensors Proximity Sensors

Valves Motor Starters Solenoids Actuators Horns and Alarms Stack lights Control Relays Counter Pumps Printers Fans Light Emitting Diodes (LED)

A PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER (PLC) is an industrial computer control system that continuously monitors the state of input devices and makes decisions based upon a custom program to control the state of output devices. The biggest benefit in using a PLC is the ability to change and replicate the operation or process while collecting and communicating vital information. Another advantage of a PLC system is that it is modular. That is, you can mix and match the types of Input and Output devices to best suit your application









MicroLogix 1000

The relay's switch connections are usually labeled COM, NC and NO: COM = Common, always connect to this, it is the moving part of the switch. NC = Normally Closed, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is off. NO = Normally Open, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is on.

Connect to COM and NO if you want the switched circuit to be on when the relay coil is on. Connect to COM and NC if you want the switched circuit to be on when the relay coil is off.

Common Terminal (COM)

Normally Open (NO) Normally Close (NC)

A contactor is an electro-magnetic switching device used for remotely switching a power or control circuit. A contactor is activated by a control input which is a lower voltage / current than that at which the contactor is switching. Unlike a circuit breaker a contactor is not intended to interrupt a short circuit current. Contactors are used to control electric motors, lighting, heating, capacitor banks, and other electrical loads.

A proximity sensor is a sensor able to detect the presence of nearby objects without any physical contact. The object being sensed is often referred to as the proximity sensor's target. Different proximity sensor targets demand different sensors. For example, a capacitive or photoelectric sensor might be suitable for a plastic target; an inductive proximity sensor requires a metal target. The maximum distance that this sensor can detect is defined "nominal range". Proximity sensors can have a high reliability and long functional life because of the absence of mechanical parts and lack of physical contact between sensor and the sensed object.

A proximity sensor adjusted to a very short range is often used as a touch switch.

SCADA stands for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. It generally refers to an industrial control system: a computer system monitoring and controlling a process. The process can be industrial, infrastructure or facility based A SCADA System usually consists of the following subsystems: 1. Human-Machine Interface (HMI) is the apparatus which presents processed data to a human operator, and through this, the human operator, monitors and controls the process. A supervisory (computer) system, gathering (acquiring) data on the process and sending commands (control) to the process.

2. Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) connecting to sensors in the process, converting sensor signals to digital data and sending digital data to the supervisory system. 3. Programmable Logic Controller (PLCs) used as field devices because they are more economical, versatile, flexible, and configurable than special-purpose RTUs. These are communication infrastructure connecting the supervisory system to the Remote Terminal Units The term SCADA usually refers to centralized systems which monitor and control entire sites, or complexes of systems spread out over large areas. Most control actions are performed automatically by remote terminal units ("RTUs") or by programmable logic controllers ("PLCs").