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Lesson objectives

After this lesson, you will be able to


Define the main functions of a BTS Define the three functional parts of one BTS and their role Indicate the three different connection modes of a BTS and their benefits/drawbacks Describe the BCF module Describe the TRX Describe the coupling system.

RGM TTC CHENNAI-27

BSS Architecture
Public Switched Telephone Network

BSS
TRAU (TCU) e-Cell BTS

S2000 H&L BTS

NSS MSC
A Interface

Radio Interface

Ater Interface

OMC-R

BSC

S8000 Outdoor BTS

MS
Abis Interface
Sun
StorEdge A5000

S8000 Indoor BTS

OMN Interface Agprs Interface

Radio Interface

Internet

GPRS Core Network

S12000 Indoor BTS Gb Interface PCUSN

MS
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Capabilities of a BTS
Traffic
Reception

Features of the radio interface


Signal processing
DDDDDDDD 12345678 DDDDDDDD 1234 56 78

Transmission Coding Speech


00 2 10 4 01 7 11 3 00 2 10 4 01 7 11 3
5/4 3/2 7/4

Ciphering

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Interleaving
Q 3/4 /2 /4 0 0 I

GMSK and/or 8-PSK

Demodulation

Modulation
Call clearing Power Control

Measurement preprocessing
Handover

Data

Short messages

Frequency hopping Coupling system

L1M (Call sustaining)

RGM TTC CHENNAI-27

Modulation and demodulation, equalisation Ciphering /deciphering Coding/decoding, Interleaving/ de-interleaving Frequency hopping Radio measurements preprocessing

Handover
Power control Call clearing

Coupling system

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Capabilities of a BTS (continue)


Link and Site optimization
LAPD

Backup

LAPD
LAPD

Control and Switching Unit A

Control and Switching Unit B

Multi-cell site

LAPD concentration Synchro A Synchro B

Duplication
(Full multi-drop) DSC DSC DSC

Drop and Insert techniques

DSC

COM 1

COM 2

COM 3

COM 4

Time Slot PCM

Link optimization

n+1 redundancy Automatic reconfiguration

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Functional Architecture
Antenna

Coupling System

Radio Interface

TRX (Transceiver Equipment) MS

BSC
Abis interface

BCF (Base Common Functions)

RGM TTC CHENNAI-27

A Base Common Function Module performing all the common functions of the site. A coupling System (one per Cell) One or Several Tranceivers TRX( one per TDMA frame)

RGM TTC CHENNAI-27

Generic Architecture
BTS (site)

Coup syst Coup syst

Coup syst Coup syst

TRX n TRX n-1

TRX n-1

Coup syst Coup syst

TRX n

TRX n
TRX n-1

BSC

TRX 2 TRX 1 BCF

TRX 2 TRX 1

TRX 2 TRX 1

Base cabinet

Extension cabinets

RGM TTC CHENNAI-27

A BTS may consists of one or more cabinets: The cabinet that contains the BCF (plus TRXs and Coupling systems) is called a Base cabinet.

The other cabinet containing the TRXs and coupling system


is called an Extension cabinet.

RGM TTC CHENNAI-27

BCF
Abis interface management Alarm management Fans GSM time Power supply Temperature Audible alarm BSC BTS

Signaling concentration

Warning

Operation and Maintenance Switch A Out of order

Backup Switch B

In service

Synchro A

Synchro B

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The purpose of the BCF is: Abis interface management GSM time distribution External alarms Operation & Maintenance

Backup by redundancy of its main units


Signalling concentration/deconcentration

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TRX
Generic Architecture

TRX
TX PA

BCF

FP (Frame Processor)
RX

Coupling system

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Transmission Chain

BCF

Frame Processor

TX Logic

Modul. Synchro (GMSK or 8-PSK)

Odd TS

Low power Amplifiers and IF Transpos.

RF Transpos. RF Transpos.

IF
Even TS

RF

PA

Coupling system

FH bus

RGM TTC CHENNAI-27

Conversion of bit stream (I&Q) to be transmitted into an IF Transposition of GMSK signals on to the frequency band Frequency hopping management, acording to the coupling mode hybrid or cavity. Final amplification of the Radio signal according to the level of each TS

RGM TTC CHENNAI-27

Reception Chain
Main Path
Main odd TS

RX or DRX Radio

A
Amplification even TS A/D Conversion Frequency Transposition

Coupling
Diversity

Frame Processor
Diversity Path

system
odd TS

A
Amplification even TS Frequency Transposition A/D Conversion

RGM TTC CHENNAI-27

Filtering of the RF signal coming from the RX multicoupler (splitter) to limit the noise level in the mixer. Pre-amplification of the filtered signals from the frequency band (GSM 900 Mhz band)

To allow frequency hopping (at Time slot level), the frequency transposition needs two identical stages (one for odd TS and one for even TS) thus avoiding overlap delay when changing the frequency.

RGM TTC CHENNAI-27

Coupling System
TX Coupler TX (Hybrid or Cavity) Downlink
-1 dB
TX band Duplex filter shift RX band filter

Duplexer

RX Uplink
-1 dB

RX Splitter

TX1

TX2

TX3

TX4

RX1

RX2

RX3

RX4

Four TRX
RGM TTC CHENNAI-27

There are two types of Transmission coupler but only one type can be ussed in the same BTS. Hybrid or Cavity couplers.

The Hybrid combiner is a broad band coupler enabling the combination of two RF signals generated by two transmitters into one signal, with high flexibility in frequency management.
The minimum frequency separation required between TXs connnected to one coupler is 200 Khz. The receive coupling is achieved by means of two components LNA and the RX splitter.

RGM TTC CHENNAI-27

RX splitter is aimed at at pre-amplifying the signal received from the duplexer, and splitting it into several outputs to drive the receivers. For diversity purposes, the RX Splitters are duplicated onto the diversity receive path. The duplexer allows the connection of the transmission and reception paths onto a single antenna. The device mainly consists of two pass band filters tuned on the transmit and receive frequency bands.

RGM TTC CHENNAI-27

BTS Connection Modes


Air interface Abis interface
CHAIN Connection

(single multi-drop)
BS

STAR Connection

LOOP Connection

MS

(full multi-drop)

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BTS Configuration Table


Maximum Configurations and Transmission Power (1/3)
BTS type Band S4000 Indoor S4000 S4000 Outdoor Smart S2000E Indoor S2000E S8002 Outdoor Outdoor S8003 Indoor S8006 Outdoor S2000L S2000H e-cell

25 / 35 W

25 W

25 W

25 W

30 W

30 W

2.5 W

20 W
O1E O2 2O4 2O2_2 S11 2S22 2S2_2

1W

900

2O8 2S323 3S444 6S888

O3 2S222 2S34

O1 2O2

2O2

O2

O3 S21 S111

O2 2O4 2O2_2

O2 2O4 2O2_2

20 / 30 W

20 W

20 W

20 W

30 W

30 W
O6 S42 S33 S222

2.5 W

20 W
O1E O2 2O4 2O2_2 S11 2S22 2S2_2

1W

1800

2O8 3S444 6S888

O3 2S222 2S34

O1 2O2

2O2

O3 S21 S111

O2 2O4 2O2_2

O2 2O4 2O2_2

20 W

20 W
O3 2S222 2S34

20 W
1S111 2S222

20 W
O1 2O2

20 W
2O2

2.5 W
O2

20 W
O1E O2 S11

1W
O2 2O4

1900

2O8 3S444

Nominal power at TX (PA) output O1E = O1 Extendible with two DRX 2O2_2 = dual band 900_1800
RGM TTC CHENNAI-27

BTS Configuration table


Maximum Configurations and Transmission Power (2/3)
BTS type Band O8 2O16 S44 S422 3S888
)

S8000 Indoor
30W/30 W45 W 60W/30W

S8000 Outdoor
30W/30 W45 W 60W/30W

S12000 Indoor
30W/30 W45 W 60W/30W

S12000 Outdoor
30W/30 W45 W 60W/30W

850 / 900 / 1800

O8 2O16 S44 S422 3S888

O12 2O24 S66 S444 3S121212 (1)

O12 2O24 S66 S444 3S121212 (1)

30 W / 45 W / 60 W
O8 2O16 1900 S44 S422 3S888

30 W / 45 W / 60 W
O8 2O16 S44 S422 3S888

30 W / 45 W / 60 W
O12 2O24 S66 S444 3S121212 (1)

30 W / 45 W / 60 W
O12 2O24 S66 S444 3S121212 (1)

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Coverage Solution
Capacity

18000 Outdoor 18000 Indoor


IFM ICM SPM

ABM

ABM

ABM

BTS 18000

S12000
S12000 S12000 Outdoor Indoor

BTS 18000 Indoor + MCPA

S8000
S8000 Outdoor S8000 Indoor S8006

S8003 e-cell S2000L S2000H S8002

Coverage

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Compact BCF Module


Enhanced Performances
Rapid installation into both S8000 Indoor and Outdoor cabinets.
TEST

100 mm
CMCF

CMCF boards BCFICO board

SKP BIST

+5 V RDY

RRA

NOS

0 1

LFA

ABIS ON BIST

+5 V RDY RUN

RST

300 mm
HLDVR LOCKED OVEN CLK0 CLK1 CLK2

RL0 LP0 XL0

CPCMI boards
TX LNK COL RX

RL1 LP1 XL1

CPCMI E1

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ETH

The Compact Base Common Function module is composed of six boards One BCF Interconnection Three Compact PCM Interface Two compactMain commonfunction The CBCF module manages Abis PCM interfaces,Signalling concentration (Lap D ) and Routing functions BTS synchronisation The RECAL board is incharge of collecting and managing internal and external alarms.
RGM TTC CHENNAI-27

BCF View/Shelf/Placement

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S8000E TRX
Functional view
(e)DRX (e)TRX (e)DRX digital
TX Logic

(e)DRX Radio ((H)e)PA TX Driver


Coupling System

BCF

Frame Processor

RX Main RX Diversity

Where : For DRX: DRX digital part = DRX Logic board + Power Supply board, DRX Radio part = DRX Radio board + Power Supply board. For eDRX eDRX digital part = e-LDRX Digital board, eDRX Radio part = e-RDRX Radio board.
RGM TTC CHENNAI-27

The e-DRX is designed to work in one of the frequency range used by the BTS (GSM 850,GSM900,E-GSM 900,GSM 1800 and GSM 1900), the personalisation is done by the radio board. The (e) DRX is split into. a DRX digital part including a frame processor, a TX logic (GMSK and 8-PSK or only GMSK modulation) and a local time base, working for all frequency bands.

A DRX Radio part including a low power driver and dual receiver
The use of DRX by separating the TX power Amplifier (PA) from the rest of the transmit chain, allows different power classes of transmission to be envisaged.

RGM TTC CHENNAI-27

S8000/S12000 EDGE TRX


From HW point of view
TRX DRX PA TRX eDRX ePA or HePA
eDRX: EDGE DRX ePA: EDGE PA HePA: High Power ePA

Non EDGE capable TRX

EDGE capable TRX

Characteristics of the ePA: Available in GSM 850, 900, 1800 and 1900 MHz frequency bands. RF Output power: 30 W Characteristics of the HePA: Only available in GSM 1900 MHz frequency band. RF Output power: 60W for GMSK modulation. 45W for 8-PSK modulation.
RGM TTC CHENNAI-27

The introduction of EDGE requires two new boards: An Edge driver+Receiver+Frame processor(eDRX) board. An Edge power Amplifier (e PA ) board The e DRX is fully backward and forward compatible with the current DRX versions. A combination of DRX, eDRX,PA and ePA (or HePA) can coexist in a single BTS configuration (same cabinet and / or same cell)The association of both eDRX +e PA or HePA) enables the EDGE capability of the TRX.

SW updation required in the BCF

RGM TTC CHENNAI-27

S8000 Coupling
1 - Standard Coupling
1 TRX
Duplex. Main LNA PA 1 Splitter Div. Duplex. LNA Splitter

2 TRX
Duplex. Main LNA PA 1 Splitter Div. Duplex. LNA Splitter PA 2

2 antennas per cell

H2D

Main

3 TRX
Div. LNA PA 3 PA 1 H2D H2D

Main

4 TRX
Div.
LNA PA 3 PA 4 H2D

Combiner Type Dp H2D H4D

Insertion Loss -1 dB -4.5 dB -8 dB

LNA PA 1 PA 2

LNA

Splitter Splitter

PA 2 Splitter Splitter

H4D

Main LNA

5 - 8 TRX
LNA

Div.

H4D

PA 1

PA 2

PA 3

PA 4 Splitter

Splitter

Splitter

PA Splitter 5

PA 6

PA 7

PA 8

RGM TTC CHENNAI-27

Hybrid couplers 2 ways and Duplexer (H2D):up to 2 TRXs Hybrid couplers 4ways and Duplexer (H4D):up to 4 TRXs (8 TRXs per cell) Duplexer only (Dp) 1 TRX ( 2 TRX s per cell) Reception multicoupling is aimed at preamplifying the signal received from the duplexer and splitting it into several outputs to drive the DRX receivers.

RGM TTC CHENNAI-27

S8000 Coupling
2 - Cavity Coupling: Two Antenna per Cell
. Duplex Main CC8 Duplex Div.

2 antennas per cell

LNA

PA 1

PA
2

PA
3

PA
4

PA 5

PA 6

PA 7

PA 8

LNA

Splitter

Splitter

5 - 8 TRX

Splitter

Splitter

Max. Config. = O8, 2O16 or 3S888

Combiner Type Dp
CC8

Insertion Loss

-1 dB
-5 dB*

* 4.8 dB for a 1200 kHz spacing, 5.3 dB for a 600 kHz spacing

RGM TTC CHENNAI-27

S8000 Coupling
3 - Mixed Coupling: H2D and CC8
1st cabinet
1 H2D Main LNA PA PA 2 Splitter Splitter PA 3 PA PA 4 5 PA H2D H2D LNA PA PA 8 6 7 Splitter Splitter Div. H2D

5 - 8 TRX

2nd cabinet

Duplex. Main

Duplex.

CC8

Div.

LNA

PA 1

PA 2

PA 3

PA 4

PA 5

PA 6

PA 7

PA 8

LNA

Splitter

Splitter

5 - 8 TRX

Splitter

Splitter

RGM TTC CHENNAI-27

BTS S8000 Indoor


1 - Characteristics
Compact packaging:

8 TRXs (DRX + PA) in each cabinet Compact BCF integrated in the first cabinet Optimized ratio size versus capacity:
Floorspace: 2 x 0.90 m2 Cabinet size = 170 x 75 x 45 cm (72 l / TRX) Power Supply: -48 V dc PA TX Power: 30 W RX sensitivity: -110 dBm Extended operating temperature range: -5 C to +45 C Cabinet weight: Fully equipped = 250 kg Empty (pre-cabled) = 110 kg

RGM TTC CHENNAI-27

S8000 Downlink

CBCF
CPCMI
To/ from BSC

CMCF CMCF Switching

DRX Logic TX Logic

DRX
CTRL_PA

Coupling System

CPCMI CPCMI
PCM Interface

TX Driver

PA
S p l i t

Private PCM bus Control, Signal.Concentr. Synchronization Management

Frame Processor

DRX Radio

RF Combiner

RX Main RX Diversity

S p l i t

RECAL
Alarms Concentration

COMICO
COMbiner InterCOnection

RGM TTC CHENNAI-27

S8000 Uplink

CBCF

CMCF CMCF Switching

DRX Logic TX Logic

DRX
CTRL_PA

Coupling System

CPCMI
To/ from BSC

CPCMI
CPCMI
PCM Interface

TX Driver

PA
S p l i t S p l i t

Private PCM bus Control, Signal.Concentr. Synchronization Management

Frame Processor

DRX Radio

RF Combiner

RX Main RX Diversity

RECAL
Alarms Concentration

COMICO
COMbiner InterCOnection

RGM TTC CHENNAI-27