Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 52

Computer Graphics


Computer Graphics is concerned with all aspects of producing pictures or images using a computer.

What is computer graphics?
Imaging = representing 2D images Modeling = representing 3D objects Rendering = constructing 2D images from 3D models Animation = simulating changes over time

Jurasic Park(Industrial, Light, & Magic)

Alone in the Dark 4(Darkworks/Infogrames)

Manipulating images
Filtering Warping Composition Morphing
Image Warping

Image Composition

Image Morphing

Describing shapes and surface properties
Curves Surfaces Solids

Creating 2D image from 3D model
Camera models Hidden surface removal Light transport

Creating 2D image from 3D model
Camera models Hidden surface removal Light transport


Rendering Caustics

Describing how models move
Kinematics Dynamics Planning Learning

Describing how models move
Kinematics Dynamics

Ice Queen

Diving Simulation

Why are graphics so popular?

A picture is worth ten thousand words. A moving picture (animation) is worth ten thousand static ones.

Applications of Computer Graphics

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. User Interface Computer Aided Design Graphs and Charts Virtual Reality Environment Education and Training Computer Art Entertainment Image Processing Office Automation Desktop Publishing Cad\cam Commerce Process Controling

Applications of Computer Graphics

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

Computational Physics & Biology Computer Simulation Graphic Design Info Graphics Scientific Visualization Video Games Digital Art Web Design

Applications of Computer Graphics

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Winter Spring Summer Automn

1. Graphical user interface

In computing a graphical user interface GUI is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices with images rather than text commands. GUIs can be used in computers, hand-held devices such as MP3 players, devices, household appliances and portable media players or gaming office equipment.

A GUI represents the information and actions available to a user through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, as opposed to text-based interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation. The actions are usually performed through direct manipulation of the graphical elements. The term GUI is historically restricted to the scope of two-dimensional display screens with display resolutions capable of describing generic information, in the tradition of the computer science research at the Palo Alto Research Center (PARC).

The term GUI earlier might have been applicable to other high-resolution types of interfaces that are non-generic, such as videogames, or not restricted to flat screens, like volumetric displays.

Computer Aided Design

Computer-Aided Design (CAD), also known as Computer-Aided Drafting, is the use of computer software and systems to design and create 2D and 3D virtual models of goods and products for the purposes of testing. It is also sometimes referred to as compute "CAD" and "CADD" redirect here.

For other uses, Computer-aided design (CAD), also known as computer-aided design and drafting (CADD), is the use of Computer technology for the process of design and design-documentation. Computer Aided Drafting describes the process of drafting with a computer. CADD software, or environments, provides the user with input-tools for the purpose of streamlining design processes; drafting, documentation, and manufacturing processes.

CADD output is often in the form of electronic files for print or machining operations. The development of CADD-based software is in direct correlation with the processes it seeks to economize;

Computer-aided design

Image processing
In computer science, image processing is any form of signal processing for which the input is an image, such as a photograph or video frame; the output of image processing may be either an image or, a set of characteristics or parameters related to the image. Most image-processing techniques involve treating the image as a two-dimensional signal and applying standard signalprocessing techniques to it. Image processing usually refers to digital image processing, but optical and analog image processing also are possible. This article is about general techniques that apply to all of them. The acquisition of images (producing the input image in the first place) is referred to as imaging.

Computer vision Optical sorting Augmented Reality Face detection Feature detection Lane departure warning system Non-photorealistic rendering Medical image processing Microscope image processing Morphological image processing Remote sensing

office automation
The integration of office information functions, including word processing, data processing, graphics, desktop publishing and e-mail. Office automation was a popular term in the 1970s and 1980s as the desktop computer exploded onto the scene.
The backbone of office automation is the company's local area network (LAN). All office functions, including dictation, typing, filing, copying, fax, microfilm and records management and the telephone switchboard, fall into this category.

Office automation refers to the varied computer machinery and software used to digitally create, collect, store, manipulate, and relay office information needed for accomplishing basic tasks and goals. Raw data storage, electronic transfer, and the management of electronic business information comprise the basic activities of an office automation system. Office automation helps in optimizing or automating existing office procedures. The backbone of office automation is a LAN, which allows users to transmit data, mail and even voice across the network. All office functions, including dictation, typing, filing, copying, fax, Telex, microfilm and records management, telephone and telephone switchboard operations, fall into this category. Office automation was a popular term in the 1970s and 1980s as the desktop computer exploded onto the scene.[2]

A chart is a graphical representation of data, in which "the data is represented by symbols, such as bars in a bar chart, lines in a line chart, or slices in a pie chart".A chart can represent tabular numeric data, functions or some kinds of qualitative structures. The term "chart" as a graphical representation of data has multiple meaning A data chart is a type of diagram or graph , that organizes and represents a set of numerical or qualitative data. Maps that are adorned with extra information for some specific purpose are often known as charts, such as a nautical chart or aeronautical chart. Other domain specific constructs are sometimes called charts, such as the chord chart in music notation or a record chart for

Types of charts


Bar chart

Pie chart

Line chart


graph is a chart or drawing that shows the relationship between changing things. They are a diagram displaying the relationship between numbers or amounts. Common graphs use bars, lines, or parts of a circle to display data.

Information graphics or infographics

are graphic visual representations of information, data or knowledge. These graphics present complex information quickly and clearly, such as in signs, maps, journalism, technical writing, and education. With an information graphic, computer scientists, mathematicians, and statisticians develop and communicate concepts using a single symbol to process information.

Graphic design

is a creative process most often involving a client and a designer and usually completed in conjunction with producers of form (i.e., printers, programmers, sign makers, etc.) undertaken in order to convey a specific message (or messages) to a targeted audience. The term "graphic design" can also refer to a number of artistic and professional disciplines that focus on visual communication and presentation. The field as a whole is also often referred to as Visual Communication or Communication Design. Various methods are used to create and combine words,

symbols, and images to create a visual representation of ideas and messages. A graphic designer may use typography, visual arts and page layout techniques to produce the final result. Graphic design often refers to both the process (designing) by which the communication is created and the products (designs) which are generated. Common uses of graphic design include identity (logos and branding), web sites, publications (magazines, newspapers, and books), advertisements and product packaging. For example, a product package might include a logo or other artwork, organized text and pure design elements such as shapes and color which unify the piece

. Composition is one of the most important features of graphic design, especially when using pre-existing materials or diverse elements.

Data visualization

Data visualization is the study of the visual representation of data, meaning "information which has been abstracted in some schematic form, including attributes or variables for the units of information". According to Friedman (2008) the "main goal of data visualization is to communicate information clearly and effectively through graphical means. It doesnt mean that data visualization needs to look boring to be functional or extremely sophisticated to look beautiful. To convey ideas

effectively, both aesthetic form and functionality need to go hand in hand, providing insights into a rather sparse and complex data set by communicating its key-aspects in a more intuitive way. Yet designers often fail to achieve a balance between design and function, creating gorgeous data visualizations which fail to serve their main purpose to communicate information". Data visualization is closely related to Information graphics, Information visualization, Scientific visualization and Statistical graphics. In the new millennium data visualization has become active area of research, teaching and development. According to Post et al (2002) it has united the field of scientific and information visualization".

Data visualization strategies were recently used by the Barack Obama administration as a way to enhance and broaden the support of his campaign. The "Road to Recovery" visualization became famous by showing US job loss figures between December 2007 and January 2010. This enabled people to compare the number of jobs lost during President Obamas first year in office with the number of jobs lost during President Bushs last year in office.

video game

A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device. The word video in video game traditionally referred to a raster display device.[1] However, with the popular use of the term "video game", it now implies any type of display device. The electronic systems used to play video games are known as platforms; examples of these are personal computers and video game consoles. These platforms range from large mainframe computers to small handheld devices. Specialized video games such

Entertainment Games

as arcade games, while previously common, have gradually declined in use. The input device used to manipulate video games is called a game controller, and varies across platforms. For example, a dedicated console controller might consist of only a button and a joystick. Another may feature a dozen buttons and one or more joysticks. Early personal computer games often needed a keyboard for gameplay, or more commonly, required the user to buy a separate joystick with at least one button.[2] Many modern computer games allow, or even require, the player to use a keyboard and mouse simultaneously.

Video games typically also use other ways of providing interaction and information to the player. Audio is almost universal, using sound reproduction devices, such as speakers and headphones. Other feedback may come via haptic peripherals, such as vibration or force feedback, with vibration sometimes used to simulate force feedback

Digital art

Digital art is a general term for a range of artistic works and practices that use digital technology as an essential part of the creative and/or presentation process. Since the 1970s, various names have been used to describe the process including computer art and multimedia art, and digital art is itself placed under the larger umbrella term new media art. The impact of digital technology has transformed traditional activities such as painting, drawing and sculpture, while new forms, such as net art, digital installation art, and virtual reality, have become

recognized artistic practices. More generally the term digital artist is used to describe an artist who makes use of digital technologies in the production of art. In an expanded sense, "digital art" is a term applied to contemporary art that uses the methods of mass production or digital media.[4]

Desktop publishing
(also known as DTP) combines a personal computer and WYSIWYG page layout software to create publication documents on a computer for either large scale publishing or small scale local multifunction peripheral output and distribution. The term "desktop publishing" is commonly used to describe page layout skills. However, the skills and software are not limited to paper and book publishing. The same skills and software are often used to create graphics for point of sale displays, promotional items, trade show exhibits, retail package designs

DTP applications
Adobe FrameMaker Adobe InDesign Adobe PageMaker CorelDRAW Corel Ventura iStudio Publisher Microsoft Office Publisher OpenOffice.org PageStream (used to be "Publishing Partner") QuarkXPress Ready,Set,Go

Web design

Web design is a broad term used to encompass the way that content (usually hypertext or hypermedia) is delivered to an end-user through the World Wide Web, using a web browser or other web-enabled software is displayed. The intent of web design is to create a websitea collection of online content including documents and applications that reside on a web server/servers. A website may include text, images, sounds and other content, and may be interactive. Web design involves the structure of the website including the information architecture (navigation schemes and naming conventions), the

layout or the pages (wireframes or page schematics are created to show consistent placement of items including functional features), and the conceptual design with branding.


in the largest sense is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense, education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills and values from one generation to another. Etymologically, the word education is derived from educare (Latin) "bring up", which is related to educere "bring out", "bring forth what is within", "bring out potential" and ducere, "to lead".[1]


Human Skeleton

computer simulation

, a computer model, or a computational model is a computer program, or network of computers, that attempts to simulate an abstract model of a particular system. Computer simulations have become a useful part of mathematical modeling of many natural systems in physics (computational physics), astrophysics, chemistry and biology, human systems in economics, psychology, social science, and engineering. Simulations can be used to explore and gain new insights into new technology, and to estimate the performance of systems too complex for analytical solutions.

Computer simulations vary from computer programs that run a few minutes, to network-based groups of computers running for hours, to ongoing simulations that run for days. The scale of events being simulated by computer simulations has far exceeded anything possible (or perhaps even imaginable) using the traditional paper-and-pencil mathematical modeling: over 10 years ago, a desert-battle simulation, of one force invading another, involved the modeling of 66,239 tanks, trucks and other an in May 2005, to create the first computer simulation of the entire human 4]

vehicles on simulated terrain around Kuwait, using multiple supercomputers in the DoD High Performance Computer Modernization Program; a 1-billion-atom model of material deformation (2002); a 2.64-millionatom model of the complex maker of protein in all organisms, a ribosome, in 2005; and the Blue Brain project at EPFL (Switzerland), beg brain, right down to the molecular level.[

Virtual reality (VR)

is a computer-generated three-dimensional environment that generally provides real-time interactivity for the user. Within this broad construct are many different forms of VR simulations, some quite simple and others extremely sophisticated. The technology is still quite newin many cases practical implementations have only been in place since the early and mid-1990sand relatively underdeveloped. For business uses, some successful applications of VR have been in such areas as product design and modeling, employee training, data

visualization, and management decisionmaking aids. Consumer-oriented applications of VR include games and VR-enabled interactive Internet sites. Overall, in the first years of the 21st century design and education/training applications are seen as the most important for VR technology.