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Integrated Language Arts

The Philippine Roadmap to Multi-literacy

Dina Ocampo Leonor Diaz Portia Padilla Liu Vilbar Victor Villanueva Mark Norman Maca Pau Fontanos Liza Villanueva Roberto Ruda

Foundations of the Policy Recommendations thru BESRA

Philippine language context and the evolution of language use Cultural identity, language and social development How language is learned; Multilingualism How literacy is learned; Multiliteracy The Cross Linguistic Transfer of Literacy and Thinking Skills across languages Global studies/experiences in bilingual education
Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education

We are multilingual
We are by virtue of our geography and history, a multi-lingual people. This gift has for too long been viewed as a liability.

Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education

The Philippine Language Context

120 languages (McFarland, 1993) or 171 (Philippine Commission on Educational Reform, 2000) Eight major languages are Ilocano, Pangasinense, Kapampangan, Tagalog, Bicol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon and Waray-Samarnon (Belvez, 2002) Filipino is the national language, and incorporates vocabulary from the other Philippine languages and non-local languages used in the Philippines, i.e., English, Arabic and Spanish (Gonzales, 1998)
Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education

Cultural identity, language and literacy

Culture is the sum total of ways of living built up by a group of human beings transmitted from one generation to another. The shared values, customs and histories characteristic of culture shape the way a person thinks, behaves and views the world. Culture is perhaps the strongest determinant of identity Language is intrinsic to the expression of culture Language is fundamental to cultural identity

Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education

Language Acquisition and Learning

Language Acquisition the way children learn their mother tongue the process of natural assimilation of a language requires good models of the language that is to be learned and immersion in its use and function. all children can acquire language ability because humans have the capacity to learn language (Brown, 1994).
Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education

Language Learning The process used by learners when languages are added to their linguistic repertoire Refers to second, third, nth language learned by a person Can be learned (or not learned) well by Immersion Structuralist or Formalist Audiio-lingual Communicative competence

Childhood Bilingualism
from Monolingual
Through interactions in the community

to Bilingual


Through teaching in school

Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education

The Issue of Biliteracy

The prevailing ideas posit that literacy is outside the domain of bilingualism. For our purposes, we should look at it this way:





Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education

Experience Oral Symbols Printed Symbols

In L2
Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education

Oral Symbols

Printed Symbols


Word Reading and Spelling

Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education


Sentence and Listening Comprehension

Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education


Whats going on here?

50.00 45.00 40.00 35.00 30.00 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00

% of Schools Surpassing 60% on NAT

2002/3 2003/4 2004/5

Dina Ocampo, UP College of 0.00 Education

Math % English % Science % Overall %


The Reality
Experience Oral Symbols in L1

Whats missing here?

Printed Symbols in Filipino

Oral Symbols In English Printed Symbols In English
Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education

Oral Symbols in Filipino


Cross-linguistic Transfer of Literacy Ability

Considerable and wealthy evidence to show the literacy transfers across languages Ocampo (2002) showed that cognitive & linguistic skills used to read in one language (Filipino) were also used in another language (English) Aquino (2005) reports that beginning reading instruction in Filipino or English had positive effects on alphabetic knowledge and phonological awareness in the other language Ocampo (2005) found the ease of learning to read words and comprehend sentences better in Filipino than in English for elementary grade students
Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education


Arabic Other Languages

A global language Continues to be a language of aspiration among Filipinos

Easier to learn to read Language of the media Understood by most Filipinos

Cross Linguistic Transfer Of Literacy

Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education

Childs Language
Provides the foundation for additional languages Facilitates learning subject matter Increases school participation


National Language and Literacy Strategy #1

Implement a developmentally and culturally sound programming of language and literacy development in schools

Revise the implementing rules for the Bilingual Education Policy

Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education


Programming of Languages of Learning

Domains of Use 4th Yr 3rd Yr 2nd Yr

Languages of Learning

Grade/Year Levels

1st Yr Grade 6 Grade 5 Grade 4 Grade 3 Grade 2 Grade 1 ECCD 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Child's Language Filipino English Arabic/Others

Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education


National Language and Literacy Strategy #2

Create better learning environments to support language and literacy education of students.
1. 2. 3.

Articulate how language and literacy will be developed in learners at specific grade/year levels of basic education. Use childrens literature to support language and literacy development through exposure, immersion, and practice. Support student learning through the development, production, and distribution of instructional materials in the designated languages of learning at the school, division, and regional levels.

Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education

National Language and Literacy Strategy #2

4. Ensure that teachers at different grade/year levels have the knowledge and competencies
in the languages they are supposed to use for teaching on language and literacy education in a bilingual/multilingual context in the subject(s) they are supposed to teach

5. Match the assessment of language and literacy with curriculum content and the languages of learning at specific grade/year levels. 6. Provide students with language and literacy difficulties remedial instruction based on assessment results.

Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education


Instructional Materials should be made for:

1. Beginning Reading in the mother tongue for Preschool and Grade 1. 2. Childrens literature in the mother tongue for Preschool until Grade 3. 3. Math in the mother tongue from Preschool until Grade 3. 4. Science in the mother tongue from Preschool until Grade 3. 5. MAKABAYAN in the mother tongue for Grades 1 and 2. 6. Filipino materials using local context and literature (where possible) for Preschool, Grades 1 to 6. 7. English materials using local context and literature (where possible) for Preschool, Grades 1 to 6.
Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education

8. Beginning Reading in Filipino for Grade 2. 9. Beginning Reading in English for Grade 3. 10.MAKABAYAN in Filipino for Grade 3 to support the transition of the language of learning from mother tongue to Filipino. 11.Edukasyong pangkabuhayan in Filipino for Grades 4 onwards. 12.Math in English for Grade 4 to support the transition of the language of learning from mother tongue to English. 13.Science in English for Grade 4 to support the transition of the language of learning from mother tongue to English.

National Language and Literacy Strategy #3

Enliven critical social support structures in the community to support learners in school.


Ensure maximum LGU/community participation and support for the implementation of the language and literacy programming strategy. Raise critical awareness among parents about effective language and literacy learning processes.

Dina Ocampo, UP College of Education

1. Introduction to the presentation 2. Our process

a. Review of the curriculum given to the LAT (Grades 1-10)

b. Affirmation of the philosophy of language and literacy development c. Some issues on the assessment framework

3. Groups

a. English - Grade 1-3; Grades 4-6; Grade 7-10

b. Filipino - Grade 1-3; Grades 4-6; Grade 7-10 c. Mother Tongues

3. Uses literature (various forms) 4. Follows an explicit process for teaching that is (mostly) consistent throughout the languages curriculum indicating recognition of Filipino and English as second languages of our students 5. Builds on our culture and literatures

6. Encourages indigenous process of learning such as group work, group goal-setting, cooperative activities and collective decision making

7. the 3 curriculum sets for the languages communicate
8. second language development is built on first language abilities

Main Characteristics
1. Multilingualism is the basis for the Language Curriculum of the K-12 Basic Education Program, building upon the natural ability of Filipinos for language learning. 2. The curriculum spirals the competencies across the levels but in the high school levels, there is greater emphasis on reading comprehension of various texts, writing and composition, study and thinking strategies which are all in support of critical and creating thinking development.

Coherence with the Basic Education Program Goals 1. The K-12 languages curriculum ensures that processes and products of learning actively foster and contribute to the achievement of the basic education program goals. 2. Competencies are spiralled across the curriculum and year levels. Upper level courses will focus on writing, comprehension and study strategies. 3. Content includes print and electronic texts that are age, context and culture appropriate.

Early Grades (Grade 1)

Outline per language area 1. Main features of the curriculum

2. Standards 3. Key stage outcomes -- at grade 3, 6, 10 and 12

4. Competencies
5. Texts

6. Organization of the teachers guide

7. Organization of the learning package

Mother tongues

1. Ilocano 2. Pangasinan 3. Kapampangan 4. Tagalog

7. Waray 8. Cebuano Chavacano Meranao Maguinadano Tausug

5. Bikol Albay/Legaspi
6. Hiligaynon

Features of the Curriculum



Mother Tongues
As a result of curriculum planning,

teachers guide containing the orthography, phonological guides, literacy program sequences, common utterances for each of these languages has been prepared.

1. Alphabet

Batayang Aklat sa Bawat Wika

2. Vowels -- keywords, key pictures 3. Consonants -- keywords, key pictures 4. Spelling and orthographic rules 5. Grammar rules 6. High frequency words with their Filipino and English translations

7. Common utterances with their Filipino and English translations

8. Sequence of letters for teaching word recognition and spelling 9. List of phrases, sentences, stories for developing word recognition and spelling 10. Big books 11. Rules that govern borrowed words (based on KWF)

Sample Output: Cebuano Gramatika

Pandiwa- Berbo Panahunan

Karon Na (present)
nagkaon nagsayaw nagkanta nagsulat naglangoy

Nahuman Na(past)
nikaon nisayaw nikanta nisulat nilangoy

Umaabot (future)
mokaon mosayaw mokanta mosulat molangoy


Sample Common Expressions: Bikol

Filipino English

Dios mabalos po.

Daeng anu pa man. Puede tabi? Makihoron man Patawad tabi

Maraming salamat

Thamk you

Walang anuman. Its all right. Pwede po ba? Paghingi ng tawad. May I? Im sorry

BANSAG KAN PUTI KAY PULA Ha hula Ginhawa baz tawagun sin mahardika bazsa, awn piyag anak

Sample Story: Tausug

nahiluwakag pa kamatauran. ziyanan


maas nila hi Puti (WBC) kay Pula (RBC) pagka in sila piyag anak mapula iban maputi in warna sin pamaranan nila.

Chavacano Alphabet
How many How many Consonants? 24 Vowels? 5 a atis e- ekis I -ibon o - okra u - ulan b - baso d - damo g - gulay j - jacket l - lapis n - nanay n - nino q - queso s - sabon v- vinta x - x-ray z - zipper How many Dipthongs?

c - computer ay - palay f - Filipino oy - kahoy h - holen iw - baliw k - kubo ts - tsinelas m - manok ng - ngipin p - pusa r - relo t - tatay w - watawat y - yoyo

Filipino: Grade 1

Oral language development and

Songs, rhymes, language games Sight words

UNANG MARKAHAN Unang Linggo Tema: Ako at ang aking Pamilya Wikang Binigkas at Pag-unawa sa Napakinggan: Nakikinig at tumutugon sa mga tanong ukol sa sarili Gramatika: Natutukoy ang pangalan ng tao, bagay, pook o hayop Phonological Awareness: May kakayahang ipalakpak ng papantig ang isang salita
Paunang Pagtaya Tukoy-Alam Tunguhin Paglalahad Pagtuturo at Paglalarawan Kasanayang Pagpapayama n Kasanayang Pagkabisa Pagtataya

Unang Araw
Paunang Pagtaya Tukoy-Alam Tunguhin Paglalahad Pagtuturo at Paglalarawan Kasanayang Pagpapayama n Kasanayang Pagkabisa Pagtataya

Wikang Binigkas at Pag-unawa sa Napakinggan ; Gramatika

Nakatutugon sa sariling pangalan; Nakapagbibi gay ng impormasyon tungkol sa sarili

Nagbibigay ng pangalan ng mga miyembro ng pamilya Nakikinig sa pagpapakilal a ng guro sa kaniyang sarili

Natatanong at nasasagot ang Ano ang pangalan mo?

Nakakaawit ng Sino ang Kaibigan Ko? (Hanapin sa banghay aralin linggo 1)

Nakikinig ng pag-uusap sa pagitan ng guro at kaklase T: Ano ang pangalan mo? S: Ako si ________.

Ikalawang Araw
Paunang Pagtaya Tukoy-Alam Tunguhin Paglalahad Pagtuturo at Paglalarawan Kasanayang Pagpapayama n Kasanayang Pagkabisa Pagtataya

Wikang Binigkas at Pag-unawa sa Napakinggan ; Gramatika

Nasasabi at naipapalakpa k nang papantig ang pangalan

Naaawit muli ang Sino ang Kaibigan Ko?

Nagagaya ang guro sa papantig na pagpalakpak ng pangalan

Naipapalakpa k ang mga pantig ng pangalan binibigkas ito

English: Grade 1

Begins oral language development activities
in the second semester of Grade 1

Songs, rhymes, language games, LEA, Integrates science concepts that are basic to
understanding the self and the immediate environment

Give teachers options on what activities to do

What do we need to do?

all that for the other mother tongues more texts for the many mother tongues Filipino Sign Language

High School (Grade 7)

Filipino: Grade 7

Mga Pangkalahatang Pamantayan sa Bawat Yugto (12)

Sa dulo ng baitang 12, kailangang nakakya

ng mga estudyante na pagsanibin ang mga kasanayan sa komunikasyon at wika tungo sa paglikha ng kahulugan na gumagamit ng pabigkas at pasulat na mga teksto, ibat ibang anyong pampanitikan, at mga kontekstong diskursibo para sa mga personal at propesyonal na layunin.

sa dulo ng Baitang 10
kailangang nakakya ng mga
estudyante ina ipaliwanag, bigyan ng halaga, at ipakatawan ang impormasyon sa loob at sa pagitan ng mga teksto at konteksto ng larang ng kaalaman.

Sa dulo ng baitang 6
kailangang nakakya ng mga
estudyante na bumuo ng mga kahulugan at ipahayag ang mga ito sa pamamagitan ng malikhain, angkop, at wasto ang gramatikang pabigkas at pasulat na wika.

Sa dulo ng baitang 3
kailangang nakakya ng mga
estudyante na ipakita ang sigla sa pagtuklas at pagdanas ng pabigkas at pasulat na mga teksto at ipahayag nang mabis ang mga ibig sabihin at mga nadaram.

social and practical contexts for
language use (projects and activities)

integration of contemporary texts in

Filipino with the more traditional titles

Has content standards pertaining to

Tatas, Pakikitungo sa Wika at Panitikan, and Mga Estratehiya sa Pag-aaral


PAMAGAT NG AWIT/ AKLAT Batang-bata ka Pa Sundalong Patpat Isang Dosenang Klase ng High School Students (mula sa ABNKKNSNPLako) Sandaang Damit Kung Bakit Umuulan Alamat ni Tungkung Langit Salamin Ang Pintor


Virgilio S. Almario

4 5 6 7 8

Bob Ong
Fanny Garcia Rene Villanueva Roberto Aonuevo Assunta Cuyegkeng Jerry Gracio

Impeng Negro

Rogelio R. Sicat

LINGGO 11 12 13 14 15 16

PAMAGAT NG AWIT/ AKLAT Ang Ambahan ni Ambo Nemo, ang Batang Papel Mabangis na Lungsod Daragang Magayon Kay Mariang Makiling Ang Duwende

AWTOR Ed Maranan Rene Villanueva Efren Abueg

Edgar Samar

18 19

Trese Isyu 5
Alamat ng Waling-Waling Mga Alamat (Mula sa El Fili)

Budjette Tan
Gaudencio V. Aquino Jose Rizal

English: Grade 7

English Key Stage Standards (12)

Students should be able to
integrate communication and language skills for creating meaning using oral and written texts, various genres, and discursive contexts for personal and professional purposes.

by the end of Grade 10

Students should be able to interpret,
evaluate and represent information within and between learning area texts and discourses.

by the end of Grade 6

Student should be able to construct
meanings and communicate them using creative, appropriate and grammatically correct oral and written language.

by the end of Grade 3

Students should be able to demonstrate
eagerness to explore and experience oral and written texts and to communicate meanings and feelings effectively.

Thematic design Renaming of the traditions of Philippine literature, e.g. instead of pre-colonial, folk literature in translation Non-genre based; Uses literature as primary reading material and informative texts as parallel/supplementary texts Discourse-oriented grammar focusing on specific areas of difficulty assessed in international language proficiency tests Integration of media literacy principles

RECOMMENDED PRIMARY SELECTIONS First Grading Period: Folk Literature in English

Week 1: Filipino Traditional Proverbs Week 2: Origin of this World (Maranao) Week 3: How the World was Created (Panayan) and Legend of the Seafoam (Neil Garcia) Week 4: Samal Genesis Week 5: Three Versions on Why the Sky is High (Tagalog, Iloko, Hiligaynon) Week 6: Four Rice Legends (Tagalog, Nabaloi, Ibaloi, Bohol) Week 7: Three Monkey Legends (Iloko, Maranao, Tagalog) Week 8: The Heroes of Ibalon (Excerpts) Week 9: Indarapatra and Sulayman (Excerpts) Week 10: The Life of Lam-Ang (Excerpts)

Second Grading Period: Philippine Literature in English during the Apprenticeship Period
Week 1: Dead Stars (Paz Marquez Benitez) Week 2: The Mats (Francisco Arcellana) Week 3: The Small Key (Paz Latorena) Week 4: How My Brother Leon Brought Home a Wife (Manuel Arguilla) Week 5: Wedding Dance (Amador Daguio) Week 6: The Bread of Salt (NVM Gonzales) Week 7: The Day the Dancers Came (Bienvenido Santos) Week 8: Moonlight on Manila Bay (Fernando Maramag) Week 9: Inviting a Tiger for a Weekend (Jose Garcia Villa) Week 10: If You Want to Know What We Are (Carlos Bulosan)

Learning Package


Teachers Guide


next steps


is socializing the child into the learning

environment, finding ones place in school

helping children develop fundamental

abilities such as listening to others, speaking freely, the value of basic numeracy and literacy, following direction, working together, managing their behavior within a group


Language and Literacy in the Mother Tongue Maths Science (integrated within English, Health, PE) Arts (Music, Visual Arts, Movement)

Values Health MAPE Filipino (phased in over 2 years) English (phrased in over 3 years)

whats new in Grades 1-3?

developing language and literacy in the
mother tongues

integrating Science in various subject


revising the way Social Studies are

taught (away from rote learning!)

Grades 4-6
Filipino English Maths Science Social Studies



Whats new in Grades 4-6?

Filipino and English will still be in development but using a content driven process. Contentbased instruction for language development and/or content literacy.

Social studies uses an history framework for developing social science competencies and knowledge. Math, Science, Values, MAPE, EPP content and competencies will spiral.

Grades 7-10

Filipino English Maths Science Social Studies


exploratory courses

Whats new in Grade 710? the curriculum will spiral veers away from disciplinal organization
of the curriculum using content as the only organizing factor

begins a program where students will

have college courses, voc-tech courses, and science/sports/arts/courses

Whats new n Grades 1112? well.... Grades 11 and 12! most interesting is the TESDA
integration and the possibility of students being able to get COCs at the end of Grade 12

must consider college readiness skills have a counterpart in the ALS

programming for basic education