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MANAGEMENT

Wikipedia states that the term

management comes from the old French term menagement which means "the directing" and from the Latin term manu agere, which means "to lead by the hand."

Management
is a process
is universal occurs in organizations

requires getting things done through people


involves acting in a goal directed manner involves the attempt to accomplish tasks

managerial excellence requires commitment

Management
The manipulation of people,

the environment, money, time, and other resources to reach organizational goals To forecast and plan, to organize and to command, to coordinate, and to control (Fayol) The creation of an internal environment in an enterprise in which individuals work together as a group

Harbizon and Myers Management is 1.An economic resource 2.A system of authority 3.An elite class

ROLE OF MANAGERS(Mintsberg)
1. Interpersonal

- as a symbol because of his position - as a leader - as a liaison

ROLE OF MANAGERS(Mintsberg)
2.

Informational - monitors information - dissemnates information - as spokeperson

ROLE OF MANAGERS(Mintsberg)
3. Decisional - an entrepreneur, innovator, problem discoverer, designer - a trouble-shooter - as negotiator

DEVELOPING MANAGERS (Katz)


NECESSARY FUNDAMENTAL SKILLS 1.Technical proficiency in performing an actiivity 2. Human relationships dealing with people and how to get along with them 3. Conceptual ability to see individual matters as they relate to the total picture, develop creative ways , responding to problems, discarding irrelevant facts

DEVELOPING MANAGERS (Summer)


KNOWLEDGE ideas, concepts, principles
ATTITUDE beliefs, feelings, and values ABILITY FACTORS skill, art, judgment, wisdom

14 principles of management
Source: Robbins, et al. (2000) Management. Prentice Hall, Australia

1. Division of work. individual is responsible

for a given tasks of the organizations work load Specialisation increases output by making employees more efficient. 2. Authority. Managers must be able to give orders. Authority gives them this right. Note that responsibility arises wherever authority is exercised.

14 principles of management
3. Discipline. Employees must obey and respect the rules that govern the organisation. Good discipline is the result of effective leadership, a clear understanding between management and workers regarding the organisation's rules, and the judicious use of penalties for infractions of the rules.

14 principles of management
4. Unity of command. Every employee should receive orders from only one superior. 5. Unity of direction. Each group of organisational activities that have the same objective should be directed by one manager using one plan.

14 principles of management
6.Subordination of individual interests to the general interest.
7.Remuneration. Workers must be paid a fair wage for their services.

14 principles of management
8. Centralisation. Centralisation refers

to the degree to which subordinates are involved in decision making.

14 principles of management
9. Scalar chain. The line of authority from top management to the lowest ranks represents the scalar chain.

14 principles of management
10. Order. People and materials should be in the right place at the right time. 11. Equity. Managers should be kind and fair to their subordinates. 12. Stability of tenure of personnel. Management should provide orderly personnel planning and ensure that replacements are available to fill vacancies.

14 principles of management
13. Initiative. Employees who are allowed to originate and carry out plans will exert high levels of effort. 14.Esprit de corps. Promoting team spirit will build harmony and unity within the organisation.

The Management Process


Planning
Organizing

* staffing
Directing

Controlling

Planning
Encompasses determining philosophy, goals, objectives, policies, procedures, and rules; carrying out long- and short-range projections; determining a fiscal course of action; and managing planned change

Organizing
Includes establishing the structure to carry out plans, determining the most appropriate type of patient care delivery, and grouping activities to meet unit goals.

Staffing
Consists of recruiting, interviewing, hiring, and orienting staff. Scheduling, staff development, employee socialization, and team building are also often included as staffing functions.

Directing
Usually entails human resource management responsibilities, such as motivating, managing conflict, delegating, communicating, and facilitating collaboration.

Controlling
Includes performance appraisals, fiscal accountability, quality control, legal and ethical control, and professional and collegial control.

Assignment
Research on the management theories 2. By group 2.1 Get/copy VMG of any hospital 2.2 Organizational chart 2. 3 Get their schedule 3. Interview one nurse manager and asks What is your best management practices? (Submission on the 3rd week) 4. Bring 1 foot old newspapers and masking tape/group for next week activity 5. Everybody must have their syllabus and book. 6. Each RLE group must always have pentel pens, scoth tape, scissor, paste/glue, manila paper
1.

UNIT II MANAGEMENT THEORY

Scientific Management ( 1900--1930)


Frederick W. Taylor, the "father of scientific

management," was a mechanical engineer in the Midvale and Bethlehem Steel plants in Pennsylvania in the late 1800s. Taylor postulated that if workers could be taught the "one best way to accomplish a task," productivity would increase.

The four overriding principles of scientific management as identified by Taylor


Using time and motion studies and the expertise of experienced workers, work could be scientifically designed to promote greatest efficiency of time and energy.
A scientific personnel system must be established so that workers can be hired, trained, and promoted based on their technical competence and abilities.

The four overriding principles of scientific management as identified by Taylor


Workers should be able to view how they "fit"

into the organization and how they contribute to overall organizational productivity. The relationship between managers and workers should be cooperative and interdependent, and the work should be shared equally.

FRANK/LILIAN GILBRETH
- Time and motion studies
- Emphasized the benefits of job

simplification and establishment of work standards - Effects of the incentive wage plan and fatigue on work performance and fatigue on work performance

HENRY GANTT
- Concerned with problems of efficiency
- The Gantt Chart, a forerunner of the

PERT ( program evaluation and review technique) chart, it depicts the relationship of the work planned or completed and the amount of time needed or used

HENRY GANTT
- Developed a task and bonus

remuneration plan to stimulate higher performance - Workers to be selected scientifically - Be provided with detailed instructions

CLASSIC ORGANIZATION
In 1930, views organization as a whole

rather than focusing solely on production Managerial activities are classified as planning, organizing and controlling

HENRI FAYOL (1841-1925)


Father of the management process

school He studied the functions of management and concluded that management is universal first identified the management functions of planning, organization, command (issuing orders),

HENRI FAYOL (1841-1925)


Division of work
Specialization increases efficiency Development of group harmony

through equal treatment and stability of tenure A place for everything and everything in its place

MAX WEBER (1864-1920)


-Father of organization theory -Conceptualization of bureaucracy with emphasis on rules instead of individuals and on competence over favoritism as the most efficient basis for organization

MAX WEBER (1864-1920)


- he conceptualized a structure of authority that would facilitate the accomplishment of organizational objectives - Three bases of authority 1. traditional authority 2. Charisma 3. Rational, legal authority

JAMES MOONEY (1884-1957)


- Favor Fayol and Weber
- Believed management to be the

technique of directing people and organization the technique of relating functions - Organizations is managements responsibility

JAMES MOONEY (1884-1957)


- Four principles of organization

1. coordination and synchronization of activities 2. functional effects, performance of ones job description 3. scalar process organizes 4. authority into a hiechrarchy

LYNDALL URWICK (1891-1939)


- Fayol and Mooney with Taylor
- Managerial process as planning, coordinating and -

controlling Balance of authority with responsibility Span of control Unity of command Use of general staffs, the proper use of personnel Delegation and departmentalization

Human Relations Management (1934-1974)


- focused on the effect individuals have on the success or failure of an organization
Stresses social environment The main concern are individuals, group process, interpersonal relations, leadership and communication They encourage workers to develop their potential and help them meet their needs for recognition, accomplishment and sense of belonging

CHESTER BARNARD (18861961)


- Studied the functions of the executive
- Managers responsibilities are

1. defining objectives 2. acquiring resources 3. coordinating activities

CHESTER BARNARD (18861961)


- Stresses the importance of cooperation

between management and labor - Formal channel of communications must be known - Authority depends on acceptance by the followers

Mary Parker Follett (1868-1933)


- Stressed the importance of

coordinating the psychological and sociological aspects of management - Advocated that managers study the total situation to achieve unity because she believed that control would be obtained through cooperation among all of the elements, people, and materials

ELTON MAYO ( 1880- 1949) Studies done at the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company near Chicago between 1927 and 1932. Mayo discovered that when management paid special attention to workers, productivity was likely to increase, regardless of the environmental working conditions.

KURT LEWIN ( 1890-1947)


- Studied group dynamics

- Groups have personalities of their own:

composites of the members personalities - He showed that groups forces can overcome individual interests - He advocated democratic supervision

JACOB MORENO ( 1892-1974)


- Developed sociometry to analyze group

behavior - He developed the sociogram to chart pairings and rankings of preferences for others - To calculate which workers are capable of harmonious interpersonal relationships

BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
- 1950
- Emphasizes the use of scientific

procedures to study the psychological, sociological, and anthropological aspects of human behavior in organizations

BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
Stressed the importance of the following: - maintaining a positive attitude toward people - training managers - fitting supervisory action to the situation - meeting employees needs - promoting employees sense of achievement -obtaining commitment through

Douglas McGregor (1960)


reinforced these ideas by theorizing that

managerial attitudes about employees (and, hence, how managers treat those employees) can be directly correlated with employee satisfaction.
He labeled this Theory X and Theory Y.

Douglas McGregor (1960)


Theory X managers believe that their

employees are basically lazy, need constant supervision and direction, and are indifferent to organizational needs.

Theory Y managers believe that their

workers enjoy their work, are selfmotivated, and are willing to work hard to meet personal and organizational goals.

Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Frederick Herzberg (1991) is credited with developing a two-factor theory of motivation

Hygiene factors relate to the working

conditions such as salary, quality of supervision, job security, interpersonal relations policies, and supervision. These hygiene factors are called "dissatisfiers."

Frederick Herzberg (1991) is credited with developing a two-factor theory of motivation

Motivating factors relate to the job

itself and include opportunities for growth and development and advancement; added responsibilities, challenging aspects of work, recognition, and achievement. These factors are called "satisfiers."

OUCHI, PASCALE, ATHOS


Theory Z
They contrasted Japanese and American

organizations Japanese lifetime employment, slow evaluation and promotion , non specialized career path, implicit control mechanisms, collective decision making, collective responsibility and wholistic concern

OUCHI, PASCALE, ATHOS


American short term employment, rapid

evaluation and promotion, specialized career path, explicit control mechanisms, individual decision-making, individual responsibility, and segmented concern

Chris Argyris (1964) Employee participation.


stressed the need for flexibility within the organization and employee participation in decision

making
says that managerial domination causes workers to

become discouraged and passive.


He believed that if self-esteem and independence

needs are not met, employees will become discouraged and troublesome or may leave the organization