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This is one of the parameters use in biometrics. Others include; iris scanning, finger printing and lip printing.

Introduction
Facial recognition is a form of comp-

uter vision that uses face to attempt to identify a persons claimed identity.
Early pioneers of automated facial

recognition include; Woody Bledsoe, Helen Chan Wolf and Charles Bison. They work on using the computer to recognize human face by using a large database of images and select from the database a small set of records such that the image records matches the photograph in book of musshets.

FIVE STEP PROCESS (STEP 1)


ACQUIRING THE IMAGE OF AN INDIVIDUALS FACE 2 WAYS TO AQUIRE IMAGE 1)Digitally scan an existing photograph 2)Acquire a live picture of a subject

FIVE STEP PROCESS (STEP 2)


LOCATE IMAGE OF FACE -software is used to locate the faces in the image that has been obtained

FIVE STEP PROCESS (STEP 2)

FIVE STEP PROCESS (STEP 3)


ANALYSIS OF FACIAL IMAGE -software measures face according to is peaks and valleys (nodal points) -focuses on the inner region of the face known as the golden triangle -nodal points are used to make a face print

FIVE STEP PROCESS (STEP 4)


COMPARISON -the face print created by the software is compared to all face prints the system has stored in its database.

FIVE STEP PROCESS (STEP 5)


MATCH OR NO MATCH -software decides whether or not any comparisons from step 4 are close enough to declare a possible match

FINAL STEP
THE HUMAN OPERATOR

TECHNIQUES
Facial recognition algorithm; This

algorithm identify relative position Shape and size of the eyes, nose, cheek Bone and jaw.

Some facial recognition algorithms identify faces by extracting landmarks or certain features from an image of the subject face. this image are used to search for other images with matching features.

Face Detection Algorithm

Lighting Compensation Color Space Transformation

Skin Color Detection


Input Image

Variance-based Segmentation Connected Component & Grouping


Face Localization

Eye/ Mouth Detection

(Zhang et al.,
2000)

Face Boundary Detection Verifying/ Weighting Eyes-Mouth Triangles


Facial Feature Detection

Output Image

Face Recognition: 2-D and 3-D


2-D
Recognition Comparison

Time (video)

2-D

3-D

3-D Recognition Prior knowledge Data


of face class

Face Database

Advantage of 3 dimensional facial recognition; It is not affected by change in lighting like other technique.

It can also identify face from a range of viewing angles.


The main disadvantage of this techniques is that it could be sensitive to expression

Examples of software's that uses facial recognition system.


Googles Picasa digital image.
Apple photo Face book.

Uses of facial recognition system.


1.

Security: notable users in the area of security include;


The Germany federal police The Australian customs service U.S department of state

Spaceship earth in Epcot.

Used in search for potential criminals and terrorist 3. It could also be use to prevent voters fraud 4. Similar technologies were used in united states to prevent people from obtaining fake identification cards and driving licenses.
2.

Uses of facial recognition system.


5. Also in addition to biometric usage, modern digital cameras often incorporate a facial detection system. This allow the camera to focus and measure exposure on the subject face, thus guarantying a focused portrait on the person photograph. In addition some cameras ,incorporate a smile shutter or take automatically a second picture if someone eye is closed during exposure.

Uses of facial recognition system


Others potential uses of facial recognition that are

currently been develop includes:


using it as a security measure at ATMs; instead of using

a bank card or personal identification numbers. The same concept can also be applied to computer; using ones face to replace password as a mean to log-in.

ADVANTAGES OF FACIAL RECORGNITION SYSTEM.


It does not require consent from the test subject.
Properly designed systems installed in Airports and public places can identify individuals among

crowds.

LIMITATIONS.

Faces with intra-subject variations in pose, illumination, expression, accessories, color, occlusions, and brightness

(Bledsoe, 1996).

RECENT IMPROVEMENTS.
In 2006 the results obtain after evaluating the recent facial

recognition algorithms indicate that the new algorithms are 10 times more accurate than that of 2002 and 100 times more accurate than that of 1995.
Some of the algorithms were able to outperform human

participants in recognizing faces and could uniquely identify identical twins.


The issue of insufficient resolution has been resolve as a

result of further improvement in high resolution mega pixel cameral.

CONCLUSION.
As a result of certain limitation in finger print lip print

and others biometrics parameters use as a means of recognition, nowadays facial recognition system are finding market penetration as attendance monitoring alternatives.

REFERECES
Bonsor,K.(2008).How facial recognition works(3 ed.)

Brunnelli,R(2009). Template matching techniques in

computer vision: Theory and practice, ISBN 978-O-410517(1).

Kimmel Ron.(2005). Three dimensional face recognition(2

ed.)