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Selection of artificial lift type

S. Raja Rajeshwary

LECTURE CONTENTS
1. Introduction and selection criteria

2. Review on artificial lift technique


3. Selection of artificial lift criteria 4. Rod pumps, electric submersible pumps, hydraulic pumps, progressive cavity pumps, gas lift

5. Well performance analysis

Introduction and selection criteria


Artificial lift - Any method used to raise oil to the surface through a well after reservoir pressure has declined to the point at which the well no longer produces by means of natural energy. It may prove necessary from the beginning of production for oil wells when the reservoir does not have enough energy to lift the fluid to the surface process facilities or when the productivity index is deemed inadequate.

The most common of artificial lift are: rod pumps, electrical submersible pumps, hydraulic pumps, progressive cavity pumps, Gas Lift.
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ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS


Gas Lift
PC Pumps Hydraulic Pumps Rod pump

ESPs

ARTIFICIAL LIFT ASSISTED PRODUCTION

6500

INITIAL PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE

Outflow
6000

NATURAL FLOW

5500

Pwf, psi

Reservoir Inflow Performance


5000

4500

4000 0 3000 6000 9000 12000 15000

Flow Rate ( STB/day )

ARTIFICIAL LIFT ASSISTED PRODUCTION

6500

FINAL PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE

Outflow
6000

NOT FLOWING

5500

Pwf, psi

5000

4500

Reservoir Inflow Performance

4000 0 3000 6000 9000 12000 15000

Flow Rate ( STB/day )

ARTIFICIAL LIFT ASSISTED PRODUCTION

6500

6000

BACK TO PRODUCTION BY ARTIFICIAL LIFT Outflow

5500

Pwf, psi

5000

4500

Reservoir Inflow Performance

4000 0 3000 6000 9000 12000 15000

Flow Rate ( STB/day )

Review on artificial lift technique


The most popular forms of artificial lift are illustrated in the figure below.

The most popular types of artificial lift

Review on artificial lift technique


Rod Pump A downhole plunger is moved up and down by a rod connected to an engine at the surface. The plunger movement displaces produced fluid into the tubing via a pump consisting of suitably arranged traveling and standing valves mounted within a pump barrel.

Electric Submersible Pump (ESP) employs a downhole centrifugal pump driven by a three phase, electric motor supplied with electric power via a cable run from the surface penetrates the wellhead and is strapped to the outside of the tubing.
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Review on artificial lift technique


Hydraulic Pump uses a high pressure power fluid to: Drive a down-hole turbine or positive displacement pump (or) Flow through a venturi or jet, creating a low pressure area which produces an increased drawdown and inflow from the reservoir.

Progressing Cavity Pump (PCP) employs a helical, metal rotor rotating inside an elastomeric, double helical stator. The rotating action is supplied by down-hole electric motor or by rotating rods.
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Selection of artificial lift criteria


Factors influencing the preferred form of artificial lift Well and Reservoir Characteristics Field Location

Operational Problems
Economics

Implementation on Artificial Lift Selection Techniques


Long Term Reservoir Performance and Facility Constraints
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Selection of artificial lift criteria


Advantages of artificial lift methods

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Selection of artificial lift criteria


Disadvantages of artificial lift methods

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Rod Pumps
The first type of artificial lift introduced to oil field; most widely used for the following reasons
Low cost Mechanical simplicity Easy installation and operation

Rod pumps can lift


o o moderate volumes (1000 bfpd) from shallow depths (7,000 ft) Small volumes (200 bfpd) from greater depths (14,000 ft)
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Rod Pumps
Pumping Unit

The surface equipment for a rod pump is illustrated in the following figure.
Prime mover electric motor or gas engine, 600 rpm and reduces
the speed to 20 strokes per minute (spm) or less.

Polished rod and sucker rods connection between pumping unit


and downhole pump.

Polished rod moves up and down through a stuffing box which seals
against the polished rod and prevents surface leaks.
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Rod Pumps

Fig.3 The surface equipment for a rod pump

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Rod Pumps
Pump

located near perforations at the bottom of the sucker rods string consists of a hollow plunger with circular sealing rings mounted on the outside circumference moves inside a pump barrel which is either inserted into the tubing or is part of the tubing Standing Valve mounted at the bottom of pump barrel Traveling Valve installed at the top of plunger Standing and Traveling valves contain a ball which closes the passage in the plunger and the pump inlet.
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Rod Pumps
Rod pump operation

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Electric submersible pumps


-

Electric submersible pumps are used as an

artificial lift method to produce from 150 to 60,000 bpd.

-Effective and economical means of lifting


large volumes from great depths -Performs at highest efficiency when pumping liquid only -Operating life expected 1 to 3 years -Motor and pump rotates at 2,900 rpm for 50

Hz power
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Electric submersible pumps


Vertical arrangement of gas anchors: -makes separation of gas from liquid -makes liquid entering into the bottom of pump

ESP completion designs with gas anchors to aid gas separation in the casing
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Electric submersible pumps

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Electric submersible pumps

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ASSIGNMENT
Compare and contrast the following artificial methods in terms of (a) taking space, (b) handling capability of viscous oil, (c) requirement of power source, (d) maintenance and (e) operational procedures

1. Rod pumping 2. ESP(Electrical Submersible Pump) 3. GL(Gas Lift) 4. PCP(progressing Cavity Pump) 5. Hydraulic Pumping