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Etch & Rinse

Multistep

Multistep total-etch adhesives


Generally, in commercial products, the acid component is between 30% to 40%; the application time on the enamel suggested by several should not be less than 15 seconds, while on the dentin, it should not be more than 15 seconds. Acid removes the smear layer, exposing both the intertubular and peritubular collagen, and opens the tubules in a funnel configurations. It also reduces the superficial free energy. The primer contains bifunctional molecules (both hydrophilic and hydrophobic). It wraps round the exterior of the collagen fibrils and brings the superficial free energy up to levels compatible with a hydrophobic restorative material. The resin fluid contains monomers that are mainly hydrophobic, such as Bis-GMA; in any case, it can contain a small percentage of hydrophobic monomers, such as HEMA. The resin fluid copolymerizes with the primer molecules. It penetrates and polymerizes the interfibrillar spaces, acting as a sustaining structure to the hybrid layer, and it also penetrates into the dentinal tubules, forming a resin plug.

Etch & Rinse


Single-step total-etch adhesives The acid removes the smear layer, exposing both the intertubular and peritubular collagen and opens the tubules in a funnel configuration. It also reduces the superficial free energy. The first layer applied on the etched dentin acts as a primer; therefore, it increases the superficial free energy of the dentin. The second layer acts in the same way as the fluid resin used in the multistep application materials; it fills the spaces situated in the dense network of collagen fibrils.

Self Etching
Multistep
multistep with primer The self-etching primer does not remove the smear layer of the preparation, but it modifies it and exposes roughly 0.5 to 1 m of intertubular collagen due to its acidity (pH 1.25 to 1.40). Although the smear plug that occludes the tubules becomes impregnated with acid monomers, it is not removed. By saturating the plug, the self-etching primer prepares the way for the penetration of the fluid resin, which will then be applied in the microcanals that crisscross the plug. The primer uses the same type of fluid resin belonging to the multistep total-etch adhesives. The plugs of resin are formed as the material penetrates into the microcanals of the smear plug saturated with primer.

Self Etching
Onestep

Single-step As the enamel is etched, the smear layer is integrated into the interface. The phosphonate monomer solution demineralises and penetrates the dentin at the same time, leaving a precipitate on the hybrid layer. This forms a very thin adhesive layer with a low resistance to the bonding; therefore, application of more than one layer is advised. These adhesives are more compatible with compomers than composites.