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MOTIVATION

DUBIN Motivation refers to the complex of forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organisation . To put it generally, motivation starts and maintains an activity along a prescribed line. Motivation is something that moves the person to action and continues him in the course of action already initiated.

Koontz and ODonnell Motivation is a general term applying to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes and similar forces.

Terms of Motivation
Motives Needs Incentive Disincentive Drives

THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
I. TRADITIONAL THEORY 1. Be Strong or Fear of Punishment Theory 2. Efforts and Rewards Theory 3. Monastic Theory 4. Carrot and Stick Theory 5. Be Good or Paternalistic Theory II. MODERN THEORY 1. Mc Gregors Theory X and Y 2. Abraham Maslows Theory 3. William Ouchis Theory Z 4. Herzbergs Hygiene-Motivation Theory 5. David C. Mc Clellands Three-Need Theory 6. Vrooms Expectancy Theory

McGregor Theory X & Y Theory


McGregor Theory X 1. Without active intervention by Management, people would be passive-even resistant to organisational needs. 2. Authority to be clear and flow directly from superiors to subordinates without reservation. 3. Management should be hard and strong. Close Supervision and Tight Control over Individual Behaviour

McGregor Theory Y-(If You will)


1.Management is responsible for elements of productive enterprise-money, materials, equipment, people in the interest of economic ends. 2. People are not by nature passive or resistant to organisational needs because of their experience in organisations. 3. Motivation and potential for development is present with people.

Ouchis Theory Z
Major Characteristics (a) Trust (b) Subtlety Intimacy Features 1. Long-term employment 2. Emphasis on training 3. Seniority based rewards 4. The Ringi system of Collective Decision Making 5. Holistic concern for employees and their families

Abraham Maslows Theory


Self Fulfillment Needs Esteem & Status Needs

Social Needs Safety, Security Needs


Basic Physiological Needs

Herzbergs Hygiene-Motivation Theory


Need Structure
Physiological Social Psychological

Primary Needs Salary

Egoistic / Secondary Needs Job itself

Company Policy
Administration Job Security Working Conditions Personal Life Status Technical Supervision

Feeling of Achievement
Recognition Responsibility Advancement Opportunity of Growth Challenging task

Interpersonal Relationships

David McClelland Three Need Theory


1. Need for Achievement

2. Need for Power


3. Need for Affiliation

Vrooms Expectancy Theory


1. Valence Value of outcome for person, like
salaries, promotion. 2. Instrumentality Persons perception of relationship based on valence. 3. Expectancy-extent to which efforts lead to outcome.

HAWTHRONE EXPERIMENTS
Elton Mayo of Harvard conducted experiments at Hawthrone Plant of Western Electric Company, Chicago. Worker was not only motivated by economic, incentives but also by diverse social and psychological factors.

Incentive
Morale