Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 26

Biodiversity

M.Sc.-IX Sem Unit-3-Microbial Diversity

Dr. Darshan Marjadi SRKI, Surat

Which do you like better?

Which do you like better?

Biodiversity
What does Bio mean?

Bio =

Biodiversity
What does Diversity mean?

Diversity = Variety

The term Biodiversity was first coined by Walter G. Rosen in 1986. Our planet is only in the universe which support the growth of organisms.

Flora and fauna diversity depends onClimate Altitude Soils Presence of other species Most of the biodiversity concentrated in Tropical region. BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS: A region with high biodiversity with most of spices being Endemic. India have two Biodiversity Hotspots- East Himalayan Region and Western Ghat.

It simply means " the variety of life on earth It reflects the number, variety and variability of living organisms and how these change from one location to another and over time It is important all ecosystems. in

Why study biodiversity?

1. Humans altering/degrading environment at accelerating rate. 2. New uses of biodiversity for reducing suffering & environmental destruction. 3. Much diversity being lost through extinction.
If estimate 5 million spp., then can calculate rate at ~17,500 spp. / yr.

Archaea

there is:

and Bacteria are found wherever

Water

Energy source
C, N, P, S, etc. Within physicochemical limits (, pH, salt,...)

live almost anywhere there is liquid water

occur in large numbers


Most bacterial cells are relatively small Species diversity is very large (and growing)

Most of the ~35 phyla are poorly understood


Can be studied to some extent without

cultivation

Most of the 1030 bacterial cells are relatively small

soil bacteria marine bacteria Escherichia coli Epulopiscium* Thiomargarita*

0.3 0.5 m 0.3 1 m 1 3 m 50 600 m 750 m


* exceptions

Within

physicochemical limits:

TEMP: 10 to 113

pH: 0 to 11 (3 - 5 units for any one species) [NaCl]: 0 to 6 M (~saturation) depending on species Others: Oxygen (toxicity), pressure, radiation

Cultivation dependent - ideal, but has problems! Cultivation independent: Sequence information - eg. 16S rRNA sequences, genome sequences rRNA targeted probes, eg. FISH (Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization) Allows a visual inspection of phylogenetic groups of cells in a natural sample

Pure cultures are the basis of the traditional way of studying bacteria Usually only 1% of cells in a natural sample will form colonies on plates Different bacteria have different abilities to be cultured; from easy to difficult Known examples that cannot be cultured

Mycobacterium

leprae (leprosy) Treponema pallidum (syphilis) Epulopiscium fishelsoni All members of the TM7 phylum (a major lineage of Bacteria)

Mycobacterium leprae

Treponema pallidum

Epulopiscium

Novel Approch: Metabolic diversity. 3.2.2 Phylogenetic diversity. 3.2.3 Diversity of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem

Unit-3: Microbial diversity: 3.1 Microbial diversity- A changing paradigm. 3.2 Types of diversity: 3.2.1 Metabolic diversity. 3.2.2 Phylogenetic diversity. 3.2.3 Diversity of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. 3.3 Applications of Microbial diversity: 3.3.1 Use in Biogeochemical cycles. 3.3.2 Use in Bioremediation. 3.3.3 Use in Biotechnology industries. 3.4 Microbial diversity and global environmental issues