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Introduction to Sri Lanka & my undergraduate research

Presented by : Samanthi Renuka Date : 20/01/2011


3. 4.


Introduction to Sri Lanka My University life Carrier background Hometown and family Undergraduate research

1. 1. Location of Sri Lanka

1.2. Basic data of Sri Lanka

Full Country Name : Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka Area : 66,000 sq.km Population : 19.2 million Capital City :Colombo People :74% Sinhalese, 18% Tamils, 7% Moor, 1% other Language :Sinhalese, Tamil, English Religion : 69% Buddhist, 15% Hindu, 8% Muslim, 8% Christian Government : Republic

1.3. National Belongings

National Emblem National Flag

National Tree
Ironwood (Mesua ferrea)

National Bird
Jungle fowl

National Flower
Nympheae Stelleta

1.4. Sri Lanka




Sri Lanka


1.4.1. Natural Beauty

Tea estates Clear sun rise

Water falls

Misty highlands

Sun-soaked beaches

Sri Lanka (cont.)

Nature Wildlife


Sri Lanka


1.4.2. Wildlife

Sri Lanka (cont.)

Nature Wildlife


Sri Lanka


1.4.3. Cultural Festivals

Buddhist Festival

Traditional Dancers

Hindu Festival

Cultural Festivals(Cont.)

Wedding s

Bride Wedding group


Bride & Bride-groom

Cultural (Cont.)


Rice and curry

Traditional foods


Milk rice


Sri Lanka (cont.)

Nature Wildlife


Sri Lanka


1.4.4. Heritage

Dageba- Mirisawetiya & Abhayagiriya

Seegiriya kingdom and Seegiri Frescos

Ancient kingdom

Statues of load

Stilts fishing-only in Sri

Sri Lanka (cont.)

Nature Wildlife


Sri Lanka


1.4.5. Economy
Agriculture based economy

Tourism, tea export, apparel, textile, rice production and other agricultural products, gems, overseas employment

Sri Lankan Tea



Sri Lankan rice



2. University Life

Graduated in May, 2009 Faculty of Engineerig, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka 12 Departments,3500 students 125 Civil Engineers per year Around 40 senior professors and lecturers 4 years English medium engineering degree including 6 months industrial training

Department of Civil Engineering University of Moratuwa Sri Lanka

University classroom

Dept. of Civil Engineering


Industrial Training (6 months)


Bar binding

Back filling



Heavy vehicle training

3.Carrier Background

Graduated in May, 2009 June 2009-April 2010 Site Engineer in construction of a factory complex (Project cost 5,000,000 $) May 2010- September 2010 Assistance Lecturer in the Department of Civil Engineering, University of Moratuwa

My hometown

Tangalle - located in Southern province Temperature variation 23-32C degrees Average annual rainfall of 1074 mm Major occupation Paddy cultivation

Rice fields in my village

Harvesting of paddy

After harvesting


Undergraduate Research

Structural Aspects of Post Tsunami Domestic Constructions in Sri Lanka

Background Objectives Methodology Results Conclusion Recommendation

Tsunami was unexpected 26-12-2004, Indian ocean tsunami hit Sri Lanka 50,000 Houses were completely destroyed 88,500 Houses were damaged

Post Tsunami Constructions


Pelena - Weligama



Next Tsunami?

Will these constructions be able to withstand safely against another tsunami?

Next Tsunami?

Assessment of Sri Lankan domestic masonry constructions against tsunami induced loads. 2. Estimation of their vulnerability 3. Suggesting of suitable structural improvements.


Selection of suitable housing scheme Collection of Data

Structural data from Local Authority

Structural and social data from field survey

Structural analysis using Finite Element Analysis

Structural failure analysis according to Guidelines

Equivalent Static Analysis

Dynamic Analysis Results Vulnerability of structures Structural Improvements

Sample selection

Data collection
Two methods 1. From field survey 35 houses were surveyed 2. Local Authorities

During the questionnaire survey

Secretariat Office, Weligama

Equivalent Static Analysis

Objective s
To analyze,
Masonry wall behaviour Overturning effect Sliding effect under tsunami condition

Data collection Data Analysis
Manual methods Finite Element Modeling

Analyzed results Vulnerability of the structure Solutions

Data Analysis
1. Computer modeling (SAP 2000)

Property Thickness (mm) Density(KN/m3) Poisson ratio E (KN/mm2)

Brick wall 225 /113 18 0.4 0.3

Property Grade (N/mm2) Density(KN/m3) Poisson ratio

Concrete 20 24 0.2

Loads on Model load+ Imposed load+ Tsunami force Dead

Load Dead load Imposed load Load on rafters = 0.60 KN/m2. Load on first floor slab = 4.85 KN/m2. Load on first floor slab = 1.50 KN/m2

Pressure due to tsunami waves

Hydrostatic pressure Hydrodynamic pressure Impulse pressure 1 hg h 1 hg 0.625 hg 0.5 hg

Method modified by Prof. W.P.S. Dias

Inundation depth, h = 2m

Failure Evaluation of walls
1. Failure of masonry walls by Bending
Load case
Case -1 Case -2 Short wall Long wall

Max moment parallel to bed joints, M (KN.m/m)

Section modulus, Z= bh2/6 (mm3/m length)

8.437E6 0.6 0.1

8.437E6 0.78 0.1

Maximum flexural stress in model,= M /Z (N/mm2) Flexural capacity parallel to bed joints (N/mm2)

Case -1

Case -2

2. Failure of masonry walls by tension

Sea house side

Tsunami Loading



Maximum tensile stress from Sap, 2000 Characteristic tensile strength of masonry

= 0.382N/mm2 = 0.1 N/mm2

Manual methods

Failure by overturning of a two storied building

Load case Case1 Short wall
173 1833 277 10540

Force and moments for inundation depth of 2m

Total tsunami force (KN) Total weight of the building (KN) Total overturning moment ( KN.m) Total resisting moment ( KN.m)

Case-2 Long wall

280 1833 448 5040

Case -1

Case -2

Best orientation is short direction of house facing to sea.

2. Failure of a wall panel by sliding

Bond strength between wall bottom and plinth (BSI) fb = 0.15 + 0.6 (W/A) (in MPa) W = effective weight (N) A = area of wall-plinth contact(mm2)
Wall panel ,

Height Length

= 3m = 3m

Sliding resistance of wall panels

Condition Wall thickness Weight of roof (KN) Load bearing walls 113mm 6.3 225mm 6.3 Infill walls 113mm 0 225mm 0

Self weight of wall(KN)

Total weight, W (KN) Shear resistance (MPa) Sliding resistance (KN)

24.6 0.19 64.41

42.75 0.21 141.75

18.3 0.18 61

36.45 0.2 135

Tsunami induced load on wall panels

(Not-submerged) Inundation depth (m) Total tsunami force (KN) 1 1.5 2 2.5 64.4 96.6 128.8 161

Conclusion People are not

aware on NHDA/SES guidelines and only 45% of houses are following those guidelines Conventional infill masonry walls and load bearing constructions are in high risk. People are still doing their construction in buffer zone Still most of the houses are highly vulnerable and immediate actions should be implemented to enhance the chance of survival under tsunamis

1. In the planning stage - Shape of the house

- Orientation

Long wall facing to sea

Short wall facing to sea

- Openings - Openings should be avoided in walls

facing to sea. - More openings in the direction parallel to wave direction will lead to diagonal tension failure

2. Foundation - Foundation width and depthMinimum foundation depth Minimum footing = 1m = 1x1 m

- Ground improvement for loose soils.

3. Wall Construction - concrete shear wall for the wall facing to sea is better. - Conventional masonry construction is not longer valid and it has to be modified
2 Beams

In fill walls

1 Columns

Conventional method

Suggesting method

Load bearing walls should not be used for the houses in this region Resistance against out plane lateral pressure induced by tsunami and wind
Roof beam Lintel beam

Sill beam Plinth beam

Tsunami may happen again. lets minimize the disaster and save lives and property

Dr. C. S Lewangamage and Prof. M.T.R. Jayasinghe Prof. N. T. S. Wijesekare Prof. W. P. S. Dias, Dr. C. Jayasinghe, Dr. K.G.S Dilrukshi Staff, Divisional Secretariat Office, Weligama People of Pelena South, Weligama


Dead load (Gk) Load on rafters = 0.45 KN/m2. (Calicut tiles, timber reepers, heat insulation sheets, flat asbestos ceiling sheets ) Dead load of the first floor slab = 4.85 KN/m2
Load acting on the first floor slab 1.5 KN/m2
Load Dead load Imposed load Load on rafters = 0.60 KN/m2. Load on first floor slab = 4.85 KN/m2. Load on first floor slab = 1.5 KN/m2

2. Imposed load

2. Manual methods
Failure by overturning

2.75 m

Fx case 1

5.75 m

Fy Case 2

Data Collection

Local Authorities

- Divisional Secretariat office, Weligama

Bond strength between wall bottom and plinth (BSI)

British Standards Institution, Code of practice for use of masonry, Part 1. Structural use of unreinforced masonry, BS 5628: Part1: 1992, London.)