Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 20

7/13/12

AUTO PROTECTION OF TRANSFORMER (welding transformer ,circuit protection and energy saving)

MADE BY: RAJAT RAWAT B.Tech (power system)

INTRODUCTION

7/13/12

Saving of energy is presently one of the most vital Objectives of modern science because of the limited resource of fossil fuel, which is likely to be exhausted within a few years. Our country is facing acute shortage of energy .For saving energy , transformer and welding machine an energy saving circuit has been designed to switch off any welding machine during its idle period and switch it on to resume the welding process as soon as the welding rod touches the job.

7/13/12

if the welding machine is tripped by a timer after it becomes dead, sensing for the resumption of job becomes impossible as there is no power. It is not convenient for a welder to come to the welding machine and switch it on after every tripping by the energy saver device

. pecial feature of the project is that while it is connected with the welding machine, the welder will not feel any difference and need not switch on/off any device repeatedly for activation/ deactivation of the energy saver.
After the mains switch is closed, the welding machine may be started either by pressing a push-to-on switch or by touching the welding electrode with the base metal (job). The primary of the welding transformer will de energies if it is not in use for a particular set time . when the welding process is carried out within the set time, the timer starts new timing again, the time duration is reset from the beginning.

Circuit diagram
7/13/12

7/13/12

230V AC primary to 12V, 500mA secondary transformer

7/13/12

Current transformer 560microfarad, 25V electrolytic capacitor 1000microfarad, 35V electrolytic capacitor

7/13/12

1N4007 rectifier diode

BC548 NPN transistor


230V, 15A contact rating contactor (capable of handling Welding transformer primary current) contactor

12V battery (or any external 12V DC source) battery

contactor

MOUNTING & SOLDERING of the connections Soldering is process of joining together two metallic parts. It is actually a process of function in which an alloy, the solder, with a comparatively low melting point penetrates the surface of the metal being joined & makes a firm joint between them on cooling & solidifying

7/13/12

THE SOLDERING KIT 1. SOLDERING IRON: As soldering is a process of joining together two metallic parts, the instrument, which is used, for doing this job is known as soldering Iron. Thus it is meant for melting the solder and to setup the metal parts being joined. Soldering Iron is rated according to their wattage, which varies from 10- 200 watts. 2. SOLDER The raw material used for soldering is solder. It is composition of lead & tin. The good quality solder (a type of flexible naked wire) is 60% Tin +40% Lead which will melt between 180 degree to 200 degree C temperature. 3. FLUXES OR SOLDERING PASTE When the points to solder are heated, an oxide film forms. This must be removed at once so that solder may get to the surface of the metal parts. This is done by applying chemical substance called Flux, which boils under the heat of the iron remove the oxide formation and enable the metal to receive the solder. 4. BLADES OR KNIFE To clean the surface & leads of components to be soldered is done by this common instrument. 5. SAND PAPER The oxide formation may attack at the tip of your soldering iron & create the problem. To prevent this, clean the tip with the help of sand paper time to time or you may use blade for doing this job. Apart from all these tools, the working bench for soldering also includes desoldering pump, wink wire (used for desoldering purpose), file etc.

7/13/12

7/13/12

Components used
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

RELAY TRANSFORMER LED DIODES RECTIFIER CIRCUIT BREAKER INTEGRATED CIRCUITS PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD(PCB

7/13/12

RELAY

Relay is a common, simple application of electromagnetism. It uses an electromagnet made from an iron rod wound with hundreds of fine copper wire. When electricity is applied to the wire, the rod becomes magnetic. A movable contact arm above the rod is then pulled toward the rod until it closes a switch contact. When the electricity is removed, a small spring pulls the contract arm away from the rod until it closes a second switch contact. By means of relay, a current circuit can be broken or closed in one circuit as a result of a current in another circuit. Relays can have several poles and contacts. The types of contacts could be normally open and normally closed. One closure of the relay can turn on the same normally open contacts; can turn off the other normally closed contacts. Relay requires a current through their coils, for which a voltage is applied. This voltage for a relay can be D.C. low voltages upto 24V or could be 240V a.c.

7/13/12

TRANSFORMER

7/13/12

PRINCIPLE OF THE TRANSFORMER:-

Two coils are wound over a Core such that they are magnetically coupled. The two coils are known as the primary and secondary windings.

In a Transformer, an iron core is used. The coupling between the coils is source of making a path for the magnetic flux to link both the coils. A core as in fig.2 is used and the coils are wound on the limbs of the core. Because of high permeability of iron, the flux path for the flux is only in the iron and hence the flux links both windings. Hence there is very little leakage flux. This term leakage flux denotes the part of the flux, which does not link both the coils, i.e., when coupling is not perfect. In the high frequency transformers, ferrite core is used. The transformers may be step-up, step-down, frequency matching, sound output, amplifier driver etc. The basic principles of all the transformers are same.

MINIATUR E TRANSFOR

7/13/12

INTEGRATED CIRCUIT
Integrated Circuit, tiny electronic circuit used to perform a specific electronic function, such as amplification; it is usually combined with other components to form a more complex system. It is formed as a single unit by diffusing impurities into single-crystal silicon, which then serves as a semiconductor material, or by etching the silicon by means of electron beams. Several hundred identical integrated circuits (ICs) are made at a time on a thin wafer several centimetres in diameter, and the wafer is subsequently sliced into individual ICs called chips. In large-scale integration (LSI), as many as 5,000 circuit elements, such as resistors and transistors, are combined in a square of silicon measuring about 1.3 cm (0.5 in) on a side.

7/13/12

The 555 timer is one of the most remarkable integrated circuits ever developed. It comes in a single or dual package and even low power cmos versions exist - ICM7555. Common part numbers are LM555, NE555, LM556, NE556. The 555 timer consists of two voltage comparators, a bi-stable flip flop, a discharge transistor, and a resistor divider network.

USE OF IC555 IN PROJECT


In this project an IC555,transistor BEL187 &a 12 volt relay have been used. Also one light dependent resistance[LDR] is used to act with light intensity .the resistance of LDR increases or decreases on the intensity of light, when the light falls on the LDR its resistance decreases and in darkness the resistance increases. We are using this IC555 as bistable multivibrator mode &as a timer . Pin no. 4 of this IC555 is earthed through a 2.2k preset which keeps the flip flop system of the IC at high state in darkness .The IC 555 does not operate in the condition of darkness ,but when light falls on LDR ,the resistance of LDR decreases ,as a result of which , pin no 4 of the IC gets positive voltage, the flip flop system of IC gets into low state and internal inverting amplifier of the IC comes to high state resulting a voltage develop at pin no.3. this voltage biases the transistor BEL187 and the transistor operates the relay. When the relay is on ,the bell starts ringing.

7/13/12

DIODE
7/13/12
The simplest semiconductor device is made up of a sandwich of P-type semiconducting material, with contacts provided to connect the p-and ntype layers to an external circuit. This is a junction Diode. If the positive terminal of the battery is connected to the p-type material (cathode) and the negative terminal to the N-type material (Anode), a large current will flow. This is called forward current or forward biased.

Some types of diode

7/13/12

RECTIFIER

A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC) to direct current tDC), a process known as rectification. Rectifiers have many uses including as components of power supplies and as detectors of radio signals. Rectifiers may be made of solid state diodes vacuum tube diodes, mercury arc valves, and other components. A device which performs the opposite function (converting DC to AC) is known as an inverter.

LIST OF COMPONENTS
PCB [CODE 2TP17]=1 SET IC 555=..1 CD 4027=..1 IC BASE [8+16 PIN]=... 1EACH BC 148=.1 PUSH SWITCH=..1 Resistance 1M=...1 220K=..1 1 MFD/16V=1 Relay 9V=.1 Photo Diode=1 Infrared LED=..1

7/13/12

ASSOCIATED COMPONENTS
POWER SUPPLY [9-12V DC]=1 BATTERY CELL [3V]=.1 CABINET=..1

7/13/12

Thank you & Have a nice day