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O - ..

6 McCreary Trail, Bolton, ON, Canada L7E8 2C


.
.
. ,
, , ,
, ,
, .

1.
,
. ,
,
1827 . , .
20- .
(1905 .).
1908 ., ,

, .
,
, , .
,
[1-3]. 1993 . .. ..
[4].
[4,5] ,
. [6],
2005 . Chaos, Solitons
& Fractals.
. [6] [7],
,
. ,
,
.
[8],
[8], [9], [10],
[10],
[11], [12] [13].
[8, 14, 15],
[16], [17-20], [8, 21-23],
[24-25], [13].

.
[4-25].

2. , &

.

[1-3].
:
x2 = x + 1.

(1)

(1) .
, .
(1) :

n = n-1 + n-2 = n-1>

(2)

n : 0, 1, 2, 3, .

Fn = {1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, },

(3)


Fn = Fn-1 + Fn-2

(4)

F1 = F2 = 1,

(5)

Ln = {1, 3, 4, 7, 11, 18, 29, 47, 76, },

(6)


Ln = Ln-1 + Ln-2

(7)

L1 = 1; L2 = 3

(8)


n (. 1).
1.
n

10

Fn

13

21

34

55

F-n

-1

-3

-8

13

-21

34

-55

Ln

11

18

29

47

76

123

L-n

-1

-4

-11

18

-29

47

-76 123

.1,
. , n=2k+1 Fn F-n
, , F2k+1 = F-2k-1, n=2k ,
, F2k= -F-2k. Ln , , L2k = L-2k; L2k+1 = -L-2k-1.
, [2, 3]
, 19 . . ,
, Fn Ln

(9)
,
:

(10)
.
k : 0, 1, 2, 3, .

3.
3.1.
(9), (10)
(11)
,

(12)
.
, (11),
(12). , [4].
k (9), (10)
x, .
,
[4]:

(13)
.

(14)
.

(15)

(16)

Fn Ln
(13)-(16) :
sF(k) = F2k; cF(k) = F2k+1; sL(k) = L2k+1; cL(k) = L2k,

(17)

k= 0; 1; 2; 3,....
[5] (13)-(16)
. ()
, (17),
(13)-(16). ,
,
,

.
(17).
3.2. (
)
(13)(16)
(11), (12). , ,
(11), (12), (14)
y, (15) .
, (13)-(16).
[6]
, .

(18)
.

(19)
.

(20)

(21)


:
(22)
;

. 1 2 (18)-(21).

>>>

>>>

1.

2.

. 1 2, (18)-(21)
(11), (12). , x=0
cFs(x)
,
cLs(x) cLs(0) = 2. ,
Fn (n = 0, 2, 4, 6, )
sFs(x) x = 0, 2, 4, 6, , Fn
(n = 1, 3, 5, ) cFs(x)
x = 1, 3, 5 . ,
cLs(x) x = 0, 2, 4, 6 ,
sLs(x)
x = 1, 3, 5 .

(11) (12) :

3.3.

(18)-(21)
, ,
. ,
(11) (12) , , .
(18)-(21) . 2.

2.

Fn+2 = Fn+1+Fn



sFs(x+2) = cFs(x+1) + sFs(x)

cFs(x+2) = sFs(x+1) + cFs(x)

[sFs(x)] cFs(x+1) Fs(x-1) =


-1

[cFs(x)]2 sFs(x+1) sFs(x-1)


=1

Ln+2 = Ln+1 + Ln

sLs(x+2) = cLs(x+1) + sLs(x)

cLs(x+2) = sLs(x+1) + cLs(x)

Ln2 2(-1)n = L2n

[sLs(x)]2 + 2 = cLs(2x)

[cLs(x)]2 2 = cLs(2x)

Fn+1 + Fn-1 = Ln

cFs(x+1) + cFs(x-1) = cLs(x)

sFs(x+1) + sFs(x-1) = sLs(x)

Fn + Ln = 2Fn+1

cFs(x) + sLs(x) = 2sFs(x+1)

sFs(x)+ i>cLs(x) = 2cFs(x+1)

n+1

Fn Fn+1 Fn-1 = (-1)


2

, [26]
Fn 2 Fn+1 Fn-1 = (-1)n+1,

(23)

,
,
:
[sFs(x)]2 cFs(x+1) Fs(x-1) = -1

(24)

[cFs(x)]2 sFs(x+1) sFs(x-1) = 1,

(25)

(23)
.
3.4.


. 3.

3.

[ch(x)]2 [sh(x)]2 = 1



[cLs(x)]2 [sLs(x)]2 = 4

[cFs(x)]2 [sFs(x)]2 =
ch(xy) = ch(x)ch(y)

2cLs(xy) = cLs(x)cLs(y)
cFs(xy) = cFs(x)cFs(y)

sh(x)sh(y)

sLs(x)sLs(y)

sFs(x)sFs(y)
sh(xy) = sh(x)ch(y)
ch(x)sh(y)

2sLs(xy) = sLs(x)cLs(y)
sFs(xy) = sFs(x)cFs(y)

cLs(x)sLs(y)

cFs(x)sFs(y)
ch(2x) = [ch(x)] + [sh(x)]
2

2cLs(2x) = [cLs(x)]2 +

cFs(2x) = [cFs(x)]2 + +[sFs(x)]2


sh(2x) = 2 sh(x)ch(x)

+[sLs(x)]2
sLs(2x) = sLs(x)cLs(x)

sFs(2x) = sFs(x)cFs(x)
[ch(x)]

(n)

[cFs(x)](n) =

[cLs(x)](n)=

,
[ch(x)]2 [sh(x)]2 = 1

(26)

[cFs(x)]2 [sFs(x)]2 =

[cLs(x)]2 [sLs(x)]2 = 4.

(27)

(28)

,
(. 3),
() , (. 2).
, ,
, (22)
, x : 0, 1,
2, 3, . , (24)-(28), , . 2 3,

.
3.5.
,
[27].
( , , ,
..) , :

(29)
.
. ,
(29),
.

, :
?
,
. ,
, (29). , ,
, ,
: , . ,
()
:
(30)
(30)
[27]. , , ,
. ,
.. ,
.
, (30)
. ,
(30) , , ,

.
[27].
, ,
,
,
.
,

,
.
,

,
,
.

4.
4.1. -
[2,3]
:
(31)
,
n= 0, 1, 2, 3, .
(31)
(18) (19), , - (18) (19)

n -n (31), n = 0, 1, 2, 3, .
(31) (-1)n, -1 +1
n = 0, 1, 2, 3, .
cos(x), -1 +1 x = 0, 1, 2, 3, .
, (31)
.
1. -
:
(32)
.

3. -
, Fn, (31)
- , (32):

(33)
,
n= 0, 1, 2, 3, .

(.3), x = 0, 1, 2, 3,
, (33).
(. 1) -
( . 3
).
- (32) ,
(. 4).

4. -

-
Fn+2 = F n+1 + Fn:

FF(x+2) = FF(x+1) + FF(x)


n+1

Fn F n+1 Fn-1 = (-1)

[FF(x)]2 - FF(x+1) FF(x-1) = cos(x)

Fn+3 + Fn = 2 Fn+2

FF(x+3)+FF(x) = 2FF(x+2)

Fn+3 Fn = 2Fn+1

FF(x+3) - FF(x) = 2FF(x+1)

Fn+6 Fn = 4Fn+3

FF(x+6) + FF(x) = 4FF(x+3)

2
n+1

F2n+1 = F

+F

2
n

FF(2x+1)=[FF(n+1)]2 + [FF(x)]2

(23) -
:
[FF(x)]2 - FF(x+1)FF(x-1) = cos(x)

4.2.

,

, 1, , .
,
f(x) = cos(x) + isin(x),
.
, - (32)
,
,
(. 4), ,
.

Figure 4.

2. :
(34)
FF(x) =

+i

,
(. 4).
[7] (34)
:
FF(x+2) = FF(x+1) + FF(x).

(35)

, (35) (4).
4.3

(34):
(36)
Re[CFF(x)] =

(37)
Im[CFF(x)] =

(36) y(x) (37)


z(x), :
(38)
y(x)

=-

z(x) =
.
(38) . y z
, (38) .
3.
(. 5):
(39)
+ z2 =

5. ,
.
. 5,
.
. ( ).

>>>

>>>

6.
XOY

7.
XOZ

(39)
(18) (19):
z2 = [cFs(x) y][sFs(x) + y].

(40)

XOY . 6.
(. 1).
(34) -
(32).
(34) XOY ,
(. 6).

XOZ . 7.

5.

2004 . [28] .
, 2003 NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy
Probe (WMAP) [28] .
,
.
[28]
:
1. (.8).
. 8
.

>>>

8.
, , ,
. [4-7] ,

,
.
, ,
.
1
[7] .

6.
6.1.
[8], ,
. =0, 1, 2, 3,...
:
Fp(n+1) = Fp(n)+Fp(n-p) n>p+1;

(41)

Fp(1) = Fp(2) =... = Fp(p+1) = 1

(42)

, (41), (42), [8] p- .


[8], p-
:
(43)
, (41), (42)
, . , =0
(41) (42) : 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32,...,
=1 (3). =1 (43)

++

(44)

= 2n ,

.
=1 (43)
,

(45)

(3) .
6.2. -
[1-3], Fn/Fn-1
. [8] , -
Fp(n)/Fp(n-1) ,
:
x+1 = x + 1.

(46)

[8] - , =1
. (46) [9]
, =1 (46)
(1).
, =0 = 0 =2, = = =1. ,
2 1
,
.
(46) ,
-:
(47)
(46) (+1)- , , +1 x1,
x2, x3, , xp, xp+1. , x1 -

p, , x1 = p. (46)
, x1, x2, x3, , xp, xp+1:
(48)
n = 0, 1, 2, 3, ; xk (46); k = 1, 2,..., +1.
[9] (46):
1+2+3+ 4+... +++1 =1

(49)

123 4...-1 +1 = (-1)p

(50)

, [9], =1, 2, 3,... k=1, 2, 3, , p


(46) :
1k + 2k + 3k + 4+... +k + +1k = 1.

(51)

[9] , ,
(46), p. :
(52)
Fp(n-+1) Fp(n--t) - , (41), (42), n +1.
, =1 (52) :

n = Fn + Fn-1,

(53)

Fn, Fn-1 .
n=4 (53) :
x4 = 3x + 2.

(54)

(54) ,
. , (54)
, .
,
(54) :
!
.
,
(52) (53). ,

.
6.3.
-, (47).
(47)

. , :
(55)

.
(47), (55),
-:

(56)

, [13],
, :
(57)
,
, =0 (57) :
(58)
[29], (58) ,
( )
.
, =1 (57) :
(59)
, (59) [29],
.
, (57)
, [13] . ,
(=0)
(=1).
6.4. -

[10] ,
. , >0 Fp(n) (n=0, 1, 2, 3, )
(46) :
Fp (n) = k1(x1)n + k2(x2)n + + kp+1(x+1) n

(60)

x1, x2, , xp+1 (46), k1, k2, , kp+1


, :
Fp (0) = k1 + k2 + + kp+1=0
Fp (1) = k1x1 + k2x2 +...+ kp+1x+1=1
Fp (2) = k1(x1)2 + k2(x2)2 + + kp+1(x+1) 2=1
......................................................................
Fp () = k1(x1) + k2(x2) + + kp+1(x+1) =1

(61)

, =1 - Fn
(60) [2, 3]
:
Fn = k1(x1)n + k2(x2)n,

(62)

x1, x2 (1), :
(63)
x1 =

; x2 =

k1, k2 :
F0 = k1 + k2 = 0
F1) = k1 + k2(-1/) = 1

(64)

(64)
k1 k2:
(65)
k1 =

; k2 =

(63), (64) (62),


:

(66)
.
[2, 3], Ln x1, x2 :
(67)
[10] , n- x1, x2, , xp+1

(46)

, [10] - Lp(n), =0, 1, 2, 3,..., ,


Lp (n) = (x1)n + (x2)n + + (x+1)n

(68)

(46), (48)-(51)
, , (68),
:
Lp (n) = Lp (n-1) + Lp (n--1)

(69)

:
Lp (0) = +1

(70)

Lp (1) = Lp (2) =... = Lp () = 1.

(71)

. 5 - =1, 2, 3, 4.
5. -
n

0 1 2 3 4 5

10

11

12

L1(n) 2 1 3 4 7 11 18 29 47 76 123 199 322


L2(n) 3 1 1 4 5 6 10 15 21 31 46

67

98

L3(n) 4 1 1 1 5 6

8 13 19 26

34

47

L4(n) 5 1 1 1 1 6

23

31

9 10 16

, [10]
, ,
(68)-(71), , ,
.
, (13)-(16) (18)-(21)
(9)-(10) . [10]
(60), (68), - (46),
- - ,
.
[11]. , ,
(13)-(16) (18)-(21), , [11]
, , , -
.

6.5.


. , Q-
[2]. 2 2
:
(72)
, Q- -1, ,
Det Q = -1.

(73)

Q- ? ,
Q- n- . :
(74)
Fn-1, Fn, Fn+1 .
(73), , (74) :
Det Qn = (-1)n,

(75)

n .
, (74) :
Det Qn = Fn-1Fn+1

= (-1)n.

(76)

, (76), ,
17- ; (76)
[26]. , Q-
, (76), Q-, (75),
!
Q- (72)
. [12] ,
Qp-:

(77)

p : 0, 1, 2, 3, .
, Qp- (p+1) (p+1)-.
p p , , ,
, , . p = 0, 1, 2, 3,
4 Qp- :

Q0 = (1);

[12] Qp, n:

(78)

=0, 1, 2, 3, , n = 0, 1, 2, 3, , -
, (41) (42).
[12] , (78)
:
Det

= (-1)pn,

(79)

p = 0, 1, 2, 3, ; n = 0, 1, 2, 3, .
, [12] ,
: (79)
1, p n ( =0, 1,
2, 3, , n = 0, 1, 2, 3). , (78)
+1, -1.
, (77), (78)
. (79)

(76). , =2
:
Det

= F2(n+1)[F2(n-2) F2(n-2)- F2(n-1)F2(n-3)] +


(80)

+F2(n)[F2(n)F2(n-3)- F2(n-1)F2(n-2)] +
+ F2(n-1)[F2(n-1) F2(n-1)- F2(n)F2(n-2)] = 1.

(78),
, (80) 2- F2(n-3), F2(n-2), F2(n-1), F2(n)
F2(n+1) n (n = 0, 1, 2, 3, ).
, , (80)
(79), , , ,
=1, 2, 3,....

6.6.
[13] . (74)
, (n=2k) (n=2k+1) n:
(81)

(82)
(22), (81), (82)
(18), (19):
(83)

(84)
k , k=0, 1, 2, 3, .
k (83), (84)
x, ,
x:
(85)

(86)
, (85), (86) Q- (74) .
. ,
:

(85)

(87)

, Q-,
(87)!
(85), (86)
, (24), (25).
(85), (86), (24) (25),
(85), (86),
x:
Det Q2x = 1

(88)

Det Q2x+1 = - 1

(89)

, (75) (76),
, (88), (89) ,
(75) !
,
(78), (85), (86),
(79), (88), (89).
[13, 24, 25].
7.
, [4-25]
.
:
1. .
, (12), (13),

. ,
( ,
.),
, .
, ( ),
.
, , , ,
, , , ,
.. , ,
( ).
, [4-7],
, -,
,
.
2. . ,
,
.
Hyperbolic Universes with a Horned Topology and the CMB Anisotropy [28]
, ,
.
3. , - ,
-,
- - ,
, - , ,
, ,
,

. ,
, .
.
,
,
. , ,
, . ,
-, 20-
, ,
. [30-38]
-.
, (Shechtman), (Mauldin), (William), (El
Naschie), ,
.
. [36],
,
.
, - . ( )
[38] : ,
,
, .

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