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-

, 0 8, ,
,
, ,
, , :
-9, 10. 10 , 1 9.
R N M.
, N1 N2 R1 R2,
M.
N1 N2 M
N1N2(mod ).
, mod-1 , 1:
2 1 = 21+0, 12 1=121+0,
123 1 = 1231+0, 765 1 = 7651+0,
2121237650 (mod 1).
mod-2 :
1, 3, 5, 7,.. 12345,.. .
2, 4, 6, 8,.. 12346,.. ,
2 1,
2 0:
123 2 = 612+1 1231 (mod 2).
124 2 = 622+0 1240 (mod 2).
, , 14, 23, 32 41 mod-9, , ,
, 5:
(8)
14 9 = 91+5. 23 9 = 92+5. 32 9 = 93+5. 41 9 = 94+5.
142332415 (mod 9).
mod 9,
R, N 9,
N 9, ,
N, .

43

..

mod , .
, , 14, 23, 32 41 5 (mod 5),
:
14 5 = 52+4 (mod 5),
23 5 = 54+3 (mod 5),
32 5 = 56+2 (mod 5),
41 5 = 58+1 (mod 5),
9
5 . (8). ,
, 9,
(, ) , . ,
10- , 9, , , ,
,
.
18. .
=0 0, 9, 18, 27, .... , .... ..99, ... 1233, ... -0
=1 1, 10, 19, 28, . , 100, 1234, -1
=2 2, 11, 20, 29, . , 200, 1235, -2
=3 3, 12, 21, 30, . , 300, 1236, -3
=4 4, 13, 22, 31, ..40, 400, 1237, -4
=5 5, 14, 23, 32, ..50, 500, 1238, -5
=6 6, 15, 24, 33, ..60, 600, 1239, -6
=7 7, 16, 25, 34, ..70, 700, 1240, -7
=8 8, 17, 26, 35, ..80, 800, 1241, -8
=9 9, 18, 27, 36, ..90, 900, 1242, -9
, =0 =9 . ,
10=1+0=1, 19=1+9=10=1. 10=1, 19=1 1=1, 0=9.
0 9 9 0, . :
230=2+3+0=5 239=2+3+9=14, 14=1+4=5.

, .
.
. 19 . 18:

( ) ,
, ,
.

44

-
mod 9,

=, , : 14=23=32=5.

19. .
=N .
N N- . N N- .

=1
-1 (1), . 1
-10 (8), . 0.
-19 (1), . 1
-28 (8), . 2, 3
-37 (1), . 1
-46 (8), .1,
2, 3, 4, 5, 6
-55 (1), . 1
-73 (5), . 5
-82 (4), . 2, 4

=2
-2 (8), . 0
-11 (1), .1
-20 (2), . 2
-29 (1), . 1, 2
-38 (2), . 2
-47 (1), . 1, 2

=3
-3 (1), . 1
-12 (2), . 2
-21 (3), . 3
-30 (2), . 2
-39 (3), . 3
-48 (2), . 2

-56 (2), . 2.
-74(6), . 2,
3, 4, 5, 6.
-83 (5), . 3, 5.

-57 (3), . 3
-75 (7), . 1, 2, 3, 4,
5, 6, 7
-84 (6), . 2, 4, 6

- 1- -11
(1) 2- -20 (2) ,
,
. ,
-11 -20 (11=2 20=2).
- 1- -3
(1) 2- -12 (2) , ,
.
=3 (3=3 12=3).
- -12 (2) -30
(2) -48 (2), , 12 (2), 2- . =3 (12=3, 30=3 48=3).

=4
-4 (2), . 1, 2
13 (3). . 3
-22 (4), . 3, 4
-31 (3), . 3

=5
-5(3), . 3.
-14 (4), . 2, 4
-23 (5), . 5, 4,
3, 2
-32 (4), . 4

=6
-6 (4), . 2, 4
-15 (5), . 3, 5
-24 (6), . 6, 3, 2
-33 (5), . 5, 3

-40 (4), . 1, -41 (5), . 5, 3


2, 3, 4
-49 (3), . 3
-50 (4), . 4, 2

-42 (6), . 6, 5,
4, 3, 2
-51 (5), . 5, 3

-58,

-76 (8), . 2, 3, -77 (8), . 1, 2, -78 (8), . 2, 4


4, 6, 8
3, 4, 6
-85 (7), . 1,3,5,7 -86 (8), . 0
-87 (1), . 1

45

..

-4 (2), 2-, - 3- -13(3).


=4 (4=4 13=4).
-5 (3), 3-, 4- -14
(4) 5- -23 (5), =5
(14=5, 23=5).

=7
-7 (5), . 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
-16 (6), . 2, 4, 6.
-25 (7), . 2, 3,
4, 6, 7
-34 (6), . 2, 4, 6
-43 (7), . 1
7
-52 (6), . 2, 4, 6
-79 (1), . 1, 3

=8
-8 (6), . 2
-17 (7), .1, 3-7
-26 (8), . 2, 3, 6

=9 (0)
-9 (7), . 1, 7
-18 (8), . 0.
-27 (8), . 1,
2, 3
-35 (7), . 1, 3, 5, 7
-36 (8), . 0
-44(8), . 3, 4, 6, -45 (8), . 1, 2,
8
3, 4, 5
-53 (7), . 1, 3, 5, 7
-54 (8), . 0
-80 (2), . 1, 2
-81 (3), .1, 3


9, , 0. -18, -36
-54 =90.
-0, -9
, 18=9, -36=9 -54=9
=0,
0 9, =9
(. 18).

.
.. , , 56 2 ,
.
56 30
.
,
:
-20, -38 -56 20=38=56, =2.
-13, -22 -58 13=22=58, =4.
-5 -23 5=23, =5.
, .
, :
-11 -11 (NH4=7+14=11) 11, =2.
-9 -9 (=8+1=9) 9, =9.

46


-20 (2) -26 (8) -26 -20.
.
20=2 26=8.
, , , , , ,
-20 -26:
: Ca3Al2Si3012 203+132+143+812=224, 224=8, =8.
: Fe3AI2Si3012 263+132+143+812=242, 242=8, =8.
=8 , ( )
-20 (203=60 60=6, =6) -26 (263=78 78=15=6,
=6), .


. ,

. .
, . , .

, , , , :
1 ( -1) 10 (
-10) 1- 2- .
11 ( -11) 18 ( 18) 3- .
19 57 ( -19
-57) 4, 5 6 .
20 ( 4, 5 6)
.
20. .
-4
-5
-6
-0
-18
-36
-54 18=36=54=9=0
-1
-19
-37 -55 19=37=55=1
-2
-20 -38 -56 20=38=56=2
-3
-21 -39
-57 21=39=57=3
-4
-22
-40
22=40=4
-5
-23 -41
23=41=5
-6
-24
-42
24=42=6
-7
-25 -43
25=43=7
-8
-26
-44
26=44=8

47

..

-58 -71 () , .
-71 -89 ,
( -90, -93, -92-88 --92-89 7 ).

, 90 , -

.
. -88
, ,
. , , (.. . : , . 2 ().
.. ()

48

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