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. . VERA N.

WAGNER




METHODS OF TEACHING RUSSIAN
TO ENGLISH SPEAKERS AND FRENCH SPEAKERS
ON THE BASIS OF INTERLANGUAGE CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS
LA METHODE D'ENSEIGNEMENT DE LA LANGUE RUSSE
POUR LES ANGLOPHONES ET LES FRANCOPHONES
SUR LA BASE DE L'ANALYSE COMPARATIVE
INTERLINGUISTIQUE
. . .
, . .
Phonetics. Letters. Wordbuilding. Structures of Sentences,
Word Order. Parts of Speech.
La phonetique. Les lettres. Formation des mots. Les structures
des propositions, ordre des mots. Parties du discours.


,

2001

81.273
B12

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE DES MATIERES

:
,
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FOREWORD

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12
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. . .: . . , 2001. 384 .
ISBN 5-691-00618-5.
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81.2 73

AVANT-PROPOS

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12
12
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15
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27
29
34
35
37

37

40

40

42

ISBN 5-691-00618-5

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47

47
47

48

48

49

49

50

. ., 2001

, 2001
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, 2001

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51
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55

57
59
59

60

66

71
74
76
77
78

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79
87
87
87
88
95
100
104
106
106
113
115
115
118
121
122
124
130
139
140
140
143
145
147
148
152
156
161
164
168
168
171
174
176
176
177
178



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178
187
193
194
201
203
207
210
210
211
212
215
218
219
221
224
226
227
228
230
233
235
235
235
237
241
241
242
243
245
246
248
248
250
250
267
267
268
268
271
272
275
275
276



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2.





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280
281
294
297
299
301
306
312
312
316
316
321
321
323
325
328
337
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340
342
345
348
357
358
364
370
371

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, , Russian for English-Speaking
Learners Russian for English Speakers.
FOREWORD
The course represents the systematical partial methods of teaching
Russian as a foreign language to learners for whom English or French is the
first or second native language or the mediator language. The course is
intended for methodologists, Russian language teachers teaching Englishspeaking and French-speaking learners in Russia or other countries and for
philological students.
In the introductory chapter, the main theoretical fundamental principles

of the national language oriented methods of target and specially Russian


language teaching and the forms of their realization are examined. The
author's methodological conception based on the linguistic psychological
data and the comparative approach to the language phenomena is expounded.
The subsequent chapters contain the concrete Russian language material and the description of methods of its presentation in the English- and
French-speaking audiences. The chapters Letters of alphabet, The structures of sentences, Word order, The parts of Speech (Noun, Adverbs, Adjective, Proverbs, Conjunctions) are addressed to English- and Frenchspeaking learners. In these chapters, general and specific presentation forms
of Russian language themes and of single phenomena in both language
audiences are given. The other chapters are intended only for Englishspeaking learners. The materials examined belong to the initial and intermediate stage of the language teaching.
The Russian language phenomena are systematically described and
synchronously compared with the phenomena of the source language in single
themes and in isolate fashion. The data of interlanguage contrastive analysis
contained in corresponding grammars given in the bibliography and the
results of the individual author's analysis are applied.
On the basis of the results of contrastive analysis, the character of interlinguistic relations the similarity, the difference, the partial difference
are ascertained. According to interlinguistic relations, the character of the
influence of the target language system positive and negative is defined, specific comprehension and acquisition of Russian language phenomena by English- and French-speaking learners are linguisticaly proved.
The typical errors caused by interference are pointed out and analysed.
On the basis of the character of language phenomena and of the character
of interlinguistic relations, the scientificaly proved linguo-didactic universals
of target language materials presentation are determined. On the basis of
these linguo-didactic universals, the general model of any target language
materials presentation in any language audience is formed. The strategy of
language materials presentation to English- and French-speaking learners
providing the effective and intensive teaching is described. The concrete
recommendations for selection, grading, presentation, and training the
language materials are given, mostly adapted to the demands of Englishand French-speaking learners.
The liguistic phenomena are interpreted in such a way which provides
their most effective presentation to the English speakers and French speakers
respectively.
The morphological phenomena are presented on the syntactical basis.
Simultaneously with the grammar themes the corresponding lexical semantic and thematic groups, situations of their application, topics, and
texts are given.
The linguistic characterization of the language phenomena and the

description of their presentation methods are presented in a close


composition unity. In this way, the organic unity of linguistics and methods
is realised.
If English or French is the second native or mediator language, some
methodological recommendations are given about how to take into
consideration the influence of native language phonetic system. Native
language influence on the grammar level is usually minimal and is not
examined in the course.
For each language phenomenon different information is given:
information intended for the teacher and information to be presented to the
learners.
The materials given in the course which are meant for English-speaking
learners, are presented in our textbooks "Russian for English-Speaking
Learners" and "Russian for English Speakers".
AVANT-PROPOS
Ce livre presente la methode systematique et particuliere d'enseignement de la langue russe comme langue etrangere pour des etudiants connaissant bien le francais ou l'anglais en tant que la premiere ou la deuxieme
langue maternelle ou langue intermediaire. Ce livre est destine aux methodologistes et professeurs de russe, einseignant la langue aux francophones
ou anglophones en Russie ou dans les autres pays, et pour les etudiants en
philologie.
Dans le chapitre d'introduction sont etudiees les notions essentielles
theoriques de la methode de l'enseignement de la langue etrangere, orientee
vers la langue d'origine, specialement la langue russe, ses principaux et les
formes de sa realisation. L'auteur a expose sa conception methodologique
basee sur les donnees de la psychologie linguistique et l'approche
comparative aux phenomenes linguistiques.
Les chapitres suivants contiennent les matieres concretes de la langue
russe et la description des methodes de leur presentation aux francophones
et anglophones. Les chapitres Les lettres de Palphabet, Les structures
des propositions, ordre des mots, Parties du discours (Substantif,
Adverbes, Adjectif, Pronoms, Conjonctions) sont orientes vers des
francophones et des anglophones. Par consequent on trouve le general et
le particulier dans la methode de la presentation des themes et des
phenomenes particuliers de la langue russe a ces deux auditoirs. Les autres
chapitres sont destines seulement aux anglophones. Les matieres presentees
sont relatives aux etapes elementaire et moyenne d'enseignement.
Les phenomenes de la langue russe sont systematiquement decrits et
compares synchroniquement aux phenomenes des langues d'origine dans
les themes et isolement. Egalement sont employees les donnees de l'analyse
10

comparative interlinguistique contenues dans les grammaires


correspondantes citees dans la bibliographie et les resultats des investigations
de l'auteur individuels.
Sur la base des resultats de l'analyse comparative on determine les
rapports interlinguistiques de la ressemblance, de la difference ou de la
difference partielle. Conformement aux rapports existants entre les deux
langues est defini le caractere de l'influence de la systeme de la langue
d'origine positive ou negative, on presente une explication
linguistiquement prouvee de la comprehension et de l'assimilation specifique
des matieres de la langue russe par les francophones et anglophones, on met
en evidence et on analyse les erreurs typiques, provoquees par l'interference
de la langue d'origine.
Sur la base du caractere des phenomenes de la langue russe et du
caractere des rapports interlinguistiques sont establis les universaux linguodidactiques scientifiquement prouves pour la presentation des matieres de
la langue etrangere. Sur la base de ces universaux linguo-didactiques est
forme le modele general de la presentation de toutes les matieres de la langue
etrangere dans chaque auditoire. Une strategic de la representation des
matieres de la langue russe pour les francophones et les anglophones qui
garantit l'enseignement effectif et intensif est decrite dans cet ouvrage. On
fait des recommandations concretes sur la selection, l'organization, la
maniere d'exposer et de fixer le material linguistique, le plus repondant aux
besoins des contingents de francophones et d'anglophones. Les phenomenes
linguistiques sont interpretes de cette facon qui garantit la maniere la plus
effective de leur presentation aux francophones et anglophones.
Les phenomenes morphologiques sont presentes sur la base de la syntaxe.
On met les groupes lexicaux semantiques et thematiques, les situations de
leurs emploi, les themes de la parole et des textes simultanement avec les
themes grammaticaux, auxquels ils correspondent.
La characteristique des phenomenes linguistiques et la description de la
methode de leur presentation forment l'unite etroite de la composition. De
cette facon l'unite organique de la linguistique et la methode est realisee.
Dans le cas le francais ou l'anglais se trouve etre la deuxieme langue
maternelle des etudiants ou la langue intermediaire, quelques
recommandations methodiques sont donnees aussi bien sur la facon de la
consideration de l'influence de la phonetique de la langue maternelle.
L'influence de la langue maternelle sur le plan grammatical est normalement
minime, et n'est pas consideree dans le present livre.
Pour chaque particularite linguistique on differencie les informations
destine'es au professeur, et les renseignements que le professeur
communiquera aux etudiants.
Les matieres addressees aux anglophones qui sont examinees dans ce
livre, sont presentees dans les manuels de l'auteur Russian for EnglishSpeaking Learners et Russian for English-Speakers.
11

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, , , , , , , , , , , , ,, , .
,
, . , . (
)
.

1 2.
3, 4 5
, : [], [], [], []: "[]".


. 6

. ,
59

, , ,
; , , .
.
:
"[]", "[]".
.
:
1) ; 2)
; 3) , .


, (,
), ,
.
.
, .. . , UL
() *.
- , , . ,
. .
.
,
.
.
60

I
, ,
.
tiyeT .
,
. , . . ,
.
, .
( ,
, :
, (L, , , /, , j, U, u>, JO, . .
. .
i , . .
.
,
.
.

.
, .
,
. 61

, .
.
, ,
. , .
, ,
, - , .
- /V, Air.
. . .
, .
,
, .
. 3, , SP.
, .

, ,
.

,
: uc<|>a.rni
' U>nU6, lAfVii, (idntfXW^,
&: < -4 CUM.
: ,
, ,
, .
, .
, ,
, <>, <>, < $,.

( ty tty).
.
f*f> /
, i
. lenity i |
i
- .
/

, 4, ( . . , ..
A, Jb, *, , ,
, .
: Ofr, 0U; . '

, *, Ulr, &, .
62

0, , , , , J, , 3IC. <vic/i\ 1
, . >

, <
, '!
, /

. i
,

, >, <, >. ify. , *.

. < t
, U- . fiyu n
,
.
*, < >,
, d

6 .

!
, ,
63

: /& >, /- Ub, /I , & , , , .


: OOUMb,
, , , .. .

. , . , , R, ( ,
).
.
. , : ,, <, <. '
#, , ,.
,
Air; / /.

, , , , .
,
/
, / (
): 0, , 3), , , , ,
, : , :
-, U&, Hf} If; ,
64

: , , S, , , \ ,
: , , &; , :
@, >, <>.
.

.
.

, ,

. ,
, , .
.
.
*
.
[], ,
, *

.
, , , , .

.
. , .

,
;
.

, .
, . student students.
, ( ) .
, ,
. '
. :

-
-
, . / ,
: "".
: ^ -> . ,
. .
,
. ,
, , ,
to teach, I teach, teacher, teachers.
-, -, -, -, -, -.
66

.
( >
; > , > , > , >
, , , ).
: >,>,>,

> , > , > , > , > , cm > , > , > , > ,


> , > .
( , , , , , , ).

: , ,
: , , , .

.
,
.
, , "" .
.
, ,
(, , ..), ..
.
, ,
.
: , , winter, winter (coat), to winter.

,
.
- 67

: , , , , .
. . .
. .
:
(--, --, -
: , , ) (--/-- : , ; -
: ; - : ).
: -/- : quicker.
,
, : -() a l : mathematical. .
. - .
, (-: 1)
;
2) , ).

.

, : -() -tion:
station; -()/-() ish: , redish, bluish .
,
: - : ,
teacher, builder; gardener . : -, -, -(), -()
.

: re-:
reconstruction, - ism: socialism, organism.
, 68

: journalist , socialist
, tractor operator , chess player .
(
: , ; -() : , ; : , ;
- : , ; : ) ( -, -:
, ; -
, -: , ; -, -(),
~(): , , ).

, .

.
, ( , -
, ; ' ' '' , , , ). : "".

. , : - () ,
, ; - , ; - , .
,
:
-:
-:
-:
-:

-ty: beauty
-ty: necessity
-ness: quickness
-ness: weakness

. 69

: - quickness, - >
-ness, weakness -> "", weakness -> , -ness -
-, thickness "".
, ,
, : , , , , ; , , , , ,
, ..

.

:
.

,
, : , , , , , , .

,
,
,
.
, , , , (, ,
).
.
.

- , . ,
. , , -, -
, -, -, -().

, , -:
() (). 70

(
. : , : , , , .
.
, , ;
.

-: 1. , , , : / .
-: ,
teacher, builder.
;
. -, -(),
-(). 2. : , , , , , , , . . - .
-: : , , , ; , .
:
, . ,
:
, . [] [] .
[] []
: ['], ['], [']. - -
; ,

-(): -
71

-()
-,
: , African.
-()(), -(). .
-: , , , ; .
.
- -.
-(). . -. , , -:
: .
: . - -,
,
.
-.
, , : , , , .
-. : ,
: , , .
-ist: botanist, socialist -ian:
historian, technician. -ist -: biologist
, zoologist . -ist - : "", "", "".
, -, -,
-ist,
.
-. :
,
: ; , , . .
-(). -()
-tion.
station
72

: , , , ,
, , , .
-, -(), -(). ,
- . - - -();
-ness -ty,
.
. -() ,
: , , ( )
whiteness, yellowness, blue, -ness,
novelty. , , , , : redness. - ;
-(), -() .
-. - ( -ist), .
-. - -ty. () , . .
-(). -()
, .
:
peasantry, the students, , -ity, -ship: majority,
minority, dignity, curiosity,
equality, championship, leadership.
,

, , : , , ,
, .
-, -, -, -. : , , , , 73

, , , ) ; , .
-, -, -, -(), -(), -(); -, -, -,
-, -(), -(), -(), -().
, , .
: -: , , , ; , , , ; -,
-() -: , .
.
-(), -(), -(), -, -, -(). : booklet, rivulet. ( ) (
): , , .
.


.
.
. ,
.
: "" . , , , . ,
, , .
74


: , , , .
.
-() '
, ': , . -(), -(), -(),
-(). - -(): ,
.
nice, little: a nice/little red, new...
-() ( ): ,
, -() ( ):
-ish: sourish, redish, bluish. -()

-: stony, fleshy,
spotty; golden, sacharine.
, , .
, . --, -'-, --, --, --, -~.
, . , :
--: , ..., , ..., , ..., , ...
..;
-'-: , ..., , ... ..;
--: , ...;
--: , ...;
--; --: , ...; .
,
- : , , .
75

,
,
.
.


.
: housewife, landlord, South-west, south-western, RussianEnglish, fourlegged.
, : "", "", "-", "-", "-", "".
, , : -
; - , , ,
, ; -, -: , ,
-, -, -, , ,
, , .
. : , , , -.

. . :
, : -, -;
: -; : -; : ; / : , .

- self-, - mutual-, -()-shaped,

-() -shaped, -() -ty, - various, many-,


- mono-, - many-, - all-, - all-, omni-, - -1, 76

- high, -, - difficult: , , , , ; , , ; ; , , , ;
; ; ; ; ; ; ; .
, : -, -,
-; : -; , : .
, ; ,
. ,
.

: 1) , 2) .
1. (
), (, -, ).
2. ,
(-: , , , ).
, , .

,
. :
U.S.A.
.
. , , ,
,

: []
, [] ;
[] . : , . , , , ,
:
[] , [] .
.
, . : ; :
. .
, , , .
.

,
, .
1. : -, -, ; : , .
2.
: -.
3. , , , :
-, -, -, -.
4.
: -, --.
5. : -.

.
.
/ .
. - . .
,
,
,
, :
. ( ?) . ( ?)
. ( ?)
.
( ?)
, ,
; :

.
/
.
: ( ) (
) . .
, .
,
: ? " ";
? " ".
79

, , , , :
Dans la foret se promenaient les enfants. .
.


.

, , . , , + : ,
, : + + : ; +
+ + :
.
, .

,
. ,
+ +
/ -:
.
?
,
, - : + + + / + + + :
. ?
. ?

1! + , + : .
/
.
1. : . A new student entered the room. Un etudiant nouveau
entrait dans la chambre;
2. : a) there is/was, are/
were; il : . There is a table in the room. II
une table dans la chambre;
6) it is/was... that, c'est... qui/que: / .
It was yesterday, that I received this letter. C'est hier que j'ai recu cette
lettre.

, . -.
(
, ).
-
. : ) ; ) .
, ,
( ,
). , , / : , ; , ...; ;
, , .

, /
, : -


(- , , , , , .), .

80

81



.
1. .
2. ,
.
3. .
4. / , , .

, .
, ,
, ,
:
.
.
/
.
: " ". "
". .
.

.
1. , ,
, .
.
: Je vais a l'ecole, dit-il. , . , .
. - 82

. "I shall come at five o'clock",


my brother said/said my brother. -,
. "I shall come at five o'clock", he said. , .
2) . : + + + .
: I shall
ask him if he will go home. , .
.
, . , , , , .

: .
.

: , , + , ( ).
: that is who, what; c'est qui/que.

: , , ( : ; ).
, :
. : . , ,
/ .
83

,
, , ..
, .
, , / :
? Is his brother a doctor? Est son
frere medicin?
, , ( ). , , :
? Where did your friend go? Ou est votre ami
alle? ? Where did he go? Ou est-il alle?

. ,
, /
:
? Where does your brother live? Ou habite votre
frere?
, . asks me where my
brother lives. II me demande ou mon frere habite.
? Where do you live? Ou habitez-vous?
, . asks me where I live. II me
demande oil j'habite.

. .
;
, . ,
. , .
84

,


.
? .
? .
/ . , , -.

/
:
( ? ? ? ?):
( ?) . In the hospital. A l'hdpital;
(? ? ?
? .):
( ?) . the children. Aux enfants;

:
( ?) . My friend. Mon ami.
.
-.

,
-.

. ,
,
:
( ?) . My sister is. Ma soeur.
( ?) . My friend does. Mon ami.

: "".
85

, , / : ( ?) . is reading. II lit.

.
.
1) :
( -?) . .
/ . , / , sir, madam; monsieur, madame.
2) , , , .
:
? . Yes, I do. Oui.
3) . / + /. :
? , . Yes, I do. Oui.
, . No, I do not. Non.




/, , .
, .
/
/ ,
, , , , (, ) , ,
. / .
, who, qui .
(
, .) /
. /
.
,
( ),
, (
),
, , : /; /.
87

, (, , , , ),
: , .


, . .
1. .
, .
:
: , , ; : , ,
. ; .
2.
, , . , , , .
,
.
: , ,
, ,
: , . :

-
-
-
-

,
.

.
88

.
, , , , , , .
, , , ,
. . :
: , ; : , .
. ,
.

,
()
.
. : . "".
, , , ,
, (, ,
, ) , : , ; , , .
, ,
: .
.
:
le mur
la maison
"
"
le livre
la table

le cahier
la chaise


,

89

: . ""
.

.

, , , , , , .
, , , he, she, ,

, it:
he/it,

she/it.

. ; . .
. ; ? ?
it:
. .
:
he , she , it , , .
it .
, , ..:
, ,

: . "" .
90

it . it this/that,
, it ,
:
It (this) is a house. . It (the house) is there. .
, , ,
il, elle, :
il
.
, ,
elle

. ,
. ,
un, une (, )
:
. p. le/un texte , mon texte ;
. p. la/une chambre , ma chambre ;
un texte , une chambre .
, .

.
,
.
1. , , one,
:
the brother, a brother ; the sister, a sister ;
my father ; my mother ; my window ;
one boy ; one girl .
91

.

.
2. ,
..
(, , ), . ,
, , .
, ( ) .
, : ,
, , , , . : 1 ? ./
. , : ( -
).
,
:
; ; .
,
, .
1. , .
2. : .
.

.

i , ,
.
3. , , .
4. ( ) :
. .

2, 3, ( ):

,
it.
. ( ) ( ) . ( )
- , , :

.
bomb
guitare
machine
minute
music
orbite
planet
policlinic
rocket
republic
seconde
temperature
fabrique
form
formule

. (.)
bombe
guitare
machine
minute
musique
orbite
planete
policlinique
fusee
republique
reforme
seconde
temperature
fabrique
forme
formule

.
group

. (.)
grouppe

reform

93

vizum
palm
program
public
problem
system
telegramm

viza
palmier
programme
public
probleme
systeme
telegramme


orchestra (.), diploma (.)
, ,
,
, ,
,
, : " ", " ", " ".
-: "" .
. ,
: ( "");
, " ".
, :
-

-te
universite
faculte
-gramme
programme
telegramme

.
( -, ). .

94



,
. , , , , ,
. ,
.
, :
.
:

. :

-
-

( )

- , , (,
),
, ().
( , ,
) :
95



, ( , ):
, , ; ,
, ( ); .
, , .


, , . .

.
, ,
; :
> ( ), (
; ).
.
1. (
).
2.
. ( ):
? , ; 1 ? ?
; ? . ? .

,
. 96

,
.

.
1. / :
.

hair
money
vacation
fruit
watch, clock
chess

pantalon
argent

2. / :
.

potatoes

pommes de terre

clothes
arms
mathematics
physics

3.
, :
news
advice
knowledge
information
progress

(a piece of news)
(a piece of advice)


, { sugar, sucre; love, amour).
97

. : water
waters, wine wines, oil oils . .
, , . : trausers, scissors, spectacles, skis, skates;
: weight; gate, goal; ,
sleigh, siege; watch; chess.
.
, ,
: 1) (
-ics):
mathematics, physics, politics; 2) ,
: potatoes, onions,
carrots, , (garden) strawberries, peas,
beans. . .
,
-(), -(),
-() , , : , .: , , , , , ; 3)
, : clothes,
shoes, sports. . .
, , shoe shoes: , ^- . , : shoe , ;
shoes ; , .
: .
: ,
. : .
98

:
sport sports. .
I

,
, " ".
.

.
,
: . We turned
our heads.

. ( : .) life: . Their
lives were difficult. .

- -. ,
, ,
, .. .
(, , , ). : My
family live () in Nigeria. . ""... ,
-
.

, . - .

,
99

. . - , ,
: / .
- , : 1) : / , ; 2)
,
: / ,
; / , ; / , .

(,
, , ) . ",
, . , ,
, .
,
, - , .
.
,
.
, , :
The student is reading. Letudiant lit. Student, etudiant . .
The teacher is asking the student. Le professeur demande I'etudiant.
Student, etudiant . .
too

Our class-room is on the right. Norte classe est a droite. Class-room,


classe . .
We work in the class-room. Nous travaillons dans la classe. Classroom, classe . .
, .
. , ,
. ( ) , ,
.


.
, .
.
,

,
.
, , , . , , ,
, , , ,
, , (, : ,
.)
. ;
,
, , , . , , ..
.
(). 1- (, 101

) () (, ) (,
, ) (, ) . 2- (, , )
(, ,
) . 3- () (, ).

, .
, : , , , , , . , : . . , ; . .
, ; . . , ;
, . , ,
.
, .

.
; ,
. , , ,
.
-
, ..
. / . ,
: , , , , , .
102

.
. ,

( >
). . , .
( ) ( ).
. (? ?
?) ,
. ( ? ?,
? ?) ("" ?).
.
,
.
: .
,
, . ,
.
, ,
.
, . , ,
,
, .
.
1. , 103

, ,
( , ). - ( ), , , , ,
( , ), .
.
2. - , , ( ?, ?,).
3. , ,
( ; 20 ; ).
4. , ,
, - : - ( , , .).
- , , - .
( , , ) (
) .
- - - ,
.

, , ,
.
,
104

( "", ""). , ,

, . ,
, ,
- .
, , ,
, .
: . ,
: .
.
: . ( )
, .. . ,
, ,
. .
, , , ,
.
.

- : ;
.
,
- (,
, ,
):
?
?
?
?

.
.
.
.
105

, , ,
, ,
.
:
.
.

The student is reading. 'etudiant lit.


The picture is on the right.
Le tableau est a droite.

It is a student who is reading.


A student is reading.
'est un etudiant qui lit.
Un etudiant lit.
There is a picture on the right.
II a un tableau a droite.


:
? .
? .

The student is. L'etudiant.


He is reading. II lit.

. , , , .
.



- - .
: ; .
106

,) ,
,
- (
),

(there is/are, il ) :
. ?
The doctor works in the hospital. Le docteur travaille a l'hopital.
. ?
It is my friend who works in the hospital.
C'est mon ami qui travaille a l'hopital.
. ?
There is a book on the desk. II livre sur la table.
. 1 ?
The book is on the desk. Le livre est sur la table.

:
? . The book is. Le livre.
? . On the desk. Sur la table.
.
: -, -, -. -
, (, , , ). . -:
1- 2- ; -:
3- -, -,
-; - ( ):
1 - , (
, -). , :
. , : ^ .
: , .
There is/are
, , : "
107

".
.
, : 1)
; 2)
[] ( []
: "[' ']"); 3) : [...], [...]; 4)
[]: ['']; 5) ; 6) : ['].
,
(
).
: in
on, dans sur. -
, . . : in/dans, on/sur.
, , . , .
1. . - : ..., ..., ..., ..., ..., .
2. . ,
, .
( ).
3. . 1) , :
?; ? 2)
. : ?; 1 ?
3) .
: /
108

/ (); / (). 4) : ...


, , / .
-
, .
/ .
, .
:
in, at

on, at, in

dans, a, en

sur, a, dans

, ; : , , , , , , ..

.
( ) ( ).
/ in, dans/on, at,
sur, -
: , in London. , , .
. , , , ,
, , ..

, (/109

, , , , , , , ,
, ..), .
, , , . , , ,
: ().
:
in

in London
in England

sur la place

at a factory,

at a post-office,

at a (railway)
station,
at a station,
at a stop,
at a lesson,
at a meeting,
at a rally,
at an evening
party,
at a concert,
at an exhibition,
at a match,

a la (dans une)
fabrique
au bureau de
poste
a la gare
a la station

a l'arret

a la lecon
a la reunion
au meeting
a la soiree
au concert
a l'exposition
au match

sur

dans

on

on an island
on an excursion

in, a

at, a

at the university,
at an institute,
at school,
at a college,
at a theatre,

a Puniversite
a l'institut
a l'ecole
au college
au theatre

at the cinema,
at a hotel,
at a restaurant,
at a sanatorium,

au cinema
a l'hotel
au restaurant
au sanatorium
a Paris

en France
at, a

at work,
at a plant,
110

dans la rue
dans l'lle

au travail
a (en) l'usine
dans une usine





/
/








in the street
in the square
in a picture,
in a place,
in a field,
at/in the corner,
in the North,
in the South,
in the West,
in the East,
in one's native
country,
at home,
in the faculty,
in the course,
in the Caucasus,
in the Urals,

au tableau
a la place
au champ
au (dans un) coin
au Nord
au Sud
au l'Ouest
a l'Orient
a la patrie
au
au
an
au

faculte
cours
Caucase
(monts) Oura'


:
.
11!

. there is/are, il .
, ,
, .. {, ,
, , .), . ,
, , , , .
/
, , .

.
1. : ?
2. , , ) , ) : ) ... ();
) ... (, ).
3. : 1 ? ().
4. (, ) : ?; ?; 1 ?
5. :
; .
6.
there is/il :
What is there on the wall? There are pictures on the wall; The books
are in the bookcase; Qu' est-ce qu' il a sur le mur? Il a des tableaux
sur le mur; Les livres sont dans la bibliotheque.
7.
( ...). : ?
8. , : 1 ... ?;
1...? , , .
9. .
10.
.
112


. - , :
; . / about, of , de, a : The student talks about his friend. L'etudiant parle de
son ami. ( , , , , , ).
: , , ,
, , , , , , .

:
? . .
Who is the student speaking about? De qui l'etudiant parle-t-il?
? . .
What are you thinking about? A quoi pensez-vous?
( ,
, , .)
?
?

, .
, .

, .
, .
, .

. , :
, , :
to think about, penser a
to dream about, rever a
/? ? to remember smb., smth.;
se souvenir de, retenir qn, qch
/? ? to remember smb., smth., to recall smb.,
smth.; se souvenir de
113

/? ? to forget (about) smb., smth.; oublier qn, qch


/? ? to know (about) smb., smth.; connaftre qn, qch

, , , ( ), .
, . . , :
, . ,
:
, , ? ? = ', ': , ;
, ... = ', ,
, ': ; , .
'
: =
.
, ,
- ,
- :
, .
: , , , ,
, , .
: , , , , , .
? , (,
?, ...;, , , ...).
(, , )
- : ..., ..:,
:
114

{, ); : ?; : .
"
.

: ?;
. .


.

. , .
(
) .
(
) - .
-, - . : , ,
, , ~ , ; , , , , ,
, , .. , , .




115

. . (, )
.
, : ; .
. : , , , , , . : , , , , ,
, , .
- :
? . .
? . .
!} , . , .
? ( ) .
? ( ) .
, ,

:
. = .

I .

-
11 .

III .

. = .

1 - .
116

.
.

'
. .
.

.
. .

-
-

i :
, , .

: 1) , : ) (, , ; ); ) ; 2) :
) ( ?); ) (
?). :
(, ); (, ).
: , , , , , , . , ,
, ,
.
,
. ,
:

/her

-- them

^-him

"-her

"-his

^le

la

^son, sa, ses

" ^--son, sa, ses

^ their

^ les
\ leur/s


: , ( -
).
: - (I see him),
- (Je le vois). ,
, .
.
(, ) +
-
117

. :
My name is... (" ..."), Je m'appelle... (" ...").

, . ,

, .
, : . "(They) call me Nikolai". "(Us)
m'appelent Nikolai".
, , , , () , ,
3- .

,
, : , , ..
: (, , ), (, , ), .

, , .
, .
()
,
, , 118


: , .
, . ,
:
We are sitting in the room, We are going to the room.
:
Nous sommes assis dans la chambre, Nous allons dans la chambre.
.
.
,
.
, . ,
" ".
( ,
) .
,
. .
, ,
() .
;
, , , , . -, ,
:
?
? ( ) .
119

? ( ) .
? , , , .
? , . , . ,
.
/ + . . / .
, ,
where, ? ? ? ( ) : "1"
? , ? ?
. :
1 ?, ? ", . (? ?)
. where to: Where are the students
going to? ? : where to, ?,
.

3- ( ): , , .
, ? ? (, , ),
, , , ,
; ().

( , .).

.
.
120

1. . - :
; .
2. : ? ( ): ? ?
3. , .
4. ( , ) .
5. : ?..
, , ...?..
, , , .
,
. : .

: , ( ), by (by bus),
prendre (prendre l'autobus).


- , . :
I . . .: - , - (-, -,
-, -, -)
II .
III . -
: , , . , .
121

- :
, .

: 1) , ; 2)
; 3) ; 4) , ,
.


, ..

. . 1. , , , .

. . 2.
.
, , .
. 3. , ,
, .
, , .. , .
,
. .
-. - 122

, (), ,
() () .
: : , . ,
,
.
1- : -
, , , : , , , ; - : , ,
, , . .
:
I .

- , ...
- , ...

2- 3-


: , ; , . ,
. , .

. . , , . ,
, .

: ; ; , ; ;
; ; .

, : , .
3- -

123

( , , )
, , .
,
1- 2- ,
: me, moi; te, toi.

. , ,
.
, ,
. : , , , ,
.
, , . ,
.


, .
,
, :
1) , , ( , );
2) (, ),
( );
3) , /,
(
).
124

(. ):

+ . , + .
+ .
. to to the window
towards towards
to
to the doctor
to the child
the theatre
. a
a la fenetre
vers
vers le theatre chez chez le docteur
aupres de aupres de / Penfant


. , , ; , . .
:



to the theatre,
theatre
towards the theatre
vers le theatre

to the post-office
a la poste
towards the post-office
vers la poste

: / + . . to; a
+ . . towards; vers
,
, /
to, .
:
a la fenetre

chez le docteur.

, , :
to the window,

to the doctor.
125

,
, , ,
, , ,
: chez
ami , chez mon ami .
. , to ( ),
to ,
.. to
: " ".

to . , ,
, . ,
,
, :
at the university,
university.

to the

, ,
.
, ,
:
a 1'universite, a l'universite.

.

. . - ? (to whom?):
. ?
126

. ?
. / ?

- .
. ,
-
, . .

to see (),
: went to see the doctor.
: " ".
:
.
,
, , .
-, :
"} , . , .
? , . , .
? ; ? .
/. :
/ + .
+ .

'
i

"^ I
|
|

/ .
/ .

,
:
.
.
.
.

to the theatre
to the post-office
towards the theatre
towards the post-office
127

au theatre
a la poste
vers le theatre
vers la poste

, .
. : , , . :
( ) ( ).

:

+ .
/ + .
/ + .
+ .

vers + .
chez + .


- to/a :
to


, to the window, to the doctor
a la fenetre
( )
towards vers

towards the theatre, vers le theatre
( )


: () , . . house (), place () : to go to my (one's, sister's) house/place.
, 128

. " " , :
, .
, ,
, :
chez moi / .
-, ,
, , , : / .

,
.
1. : ; ; ;
.
2. ( )
, :
? , ( ), / . ,
; ? , (
) . , ...;
? () .
3.
.
: ; ;
; .

, , , -

,
,
,
...
...
/,
,
...
/
4.
: ?; / ?

3 4.
129


,

.
.
1. ,
, , (to, ), , :

to give
donner

to write
ecrire

to send
envoyer

?
to somebody
a quelqu'un

to -, -> , : to go to the
window, aller a la fenetre , , "
". ,
, , , . ,
.
2. , . , , ,
, . ,
, , , ..
, :
.

?
. to believe to help
to prevent to advise
somebody
to disturb
. croire
aider
empecher conseiller
quelqu'un
, , . , , , , , 130

, .
; , "".
11 , -: ? , , ; . ,
, ,
,
(): - - .


.
, ..
,
.
demander a quelqu'un ? "?": "" /.
. , ,

. . -. ,
, ,
,
. ? ?
1. + ." ( /)
.
.
/

to believe

croire

to answer
to belong

to phone

.
131

dre
appaitenir
telephoner

? . .
? , . , . .
, . , . .
, .
2. + . + .; + . + .
( , /)
.
.
.
,

to help
aider
/
to prevent, to disturb empecher
/
to advise
conseiller
.
/
to promise
promettre

to allow
permetre


to forbid
defendre
to order
ordonner
to offer
offrir
. ( ?)
. ( ?)
3. + . + .; + . + .
( ; )
( )

/





()

/

.
to give
to present
to show
to buy
to return
to explain
to sell
to ask
to offer
to promise

.
donner
fair un cadeau
montrer
acheter
rendre
expliquer
vendre
poser une question
offrir
promettre

/ . ( ?)
/ . ( ?)
132

? , /. , /.
? , . , .
4. + . + . + . ( - ): /, /, , ,
.
.
.
, ( ).

, , ,
. to :
/ / . I gave him/ brother a book.
/ /. I gave the book to him/to my brother.

: "
".
.

+ . + >, :
^ .
Le professeur passe le livre

a l'eleve.

- .
: Le professeur passe a l'eleve le livre, le cahier et la gomme.
133

]
, , , . , , . , .

croire a quelqu'un ? ?
to :
. .:
toT
/ + . .: /
+ . .:

, ,
i , - (); , , (
( , ). ,
ia : , .
, nous, vous, : ,
. ,
, ,

. 1- 2- .

+ . .:

.

:

, ,
us
, ,
him
, , () ,
you
, ,
her
, , () ,
, ,
it
, , () ,
them
, ,
, () ,

, him , her ,
, ,
, : / "". :
______^-
^____^_
^-
me ^^
him V~~~"^
her
^~"~-
it l ^ ^
it
^"~~~^
""""-
,
, , .
, -
1- (); 134

elle
nous
vous
ils

elles

je
tu
il

te

1
nous
vous
les

les

te
lui

lui

nous
vous
leur
leur

moi
toi
lui
elle
nous
vous
eux
elles

, ,
, ,
/, /, /
/, /,
, ,
, ,
/, /, /
/, /, /

.


3- : lui, lui, leur,
: 1)
: lui /; 2) . ( ) , :
Donnez-lui un livre!
/ !
: Donnez \
/ ! /!
135



, .
.
3- , :
Je lui donne un livre.
/ . / .
Ne lui donnez pas un livre! / !
Je le lui donne.
/. / .
1- 2- moi, toil
, !
|
, :
!
!

Montrez-moi un livre!
Montrez-le moi\

. . : moi, toi.
- j
,
, : me, j
te. ]
:
II montre un livre. .'",
II le montre. \
.

, 3- 1- 2- :
. , , ,

.
- ,
- , 136

1- 2-
8,!:

te

nous

^
vous

" ^

- .
, , . , moi,
toi, lui, eux , ,
.

: moi -> :
!
", .
"".

Donne-moi un livre!
Moi, je ne vous connais pas.
Tu et moi.

,
.

1- , :
: Who is that? Me. ( ? ),
Who has done it? Me. ( ? ),
my friend and me ( , ) . : ? "".

,
.
1. :
? ; / . , /. , /; /? , /
/. , /. ,...; ?
/ ; ? ,137

. , . , ;
/ ? , ... ? ,...;.
? ( / ) .
2.
:
?; ?;
?; ?;
?; ?; ?;
?
.
1. 2.
2. 1- 2- : ..:, ... .
3.
:
: .
! /, I , ...
, ,

: .

_ _ ~

I , , ,

, ,


/
/
/

4.
: (, ).
, .
5. / , to, ,
- .
6. .
, , , : , , ., , ,
, 138

", " . . , , ,
.
, , .
:
; , ;
.


, / .
, :
1) :

no

to walk along the road,


aller par le chemin
about the streets suivre les rues;

2) ,
: , to walk all over the town;
3) , , , , , . (in,
de): specialist in literature; specialiste de
literature; no by profession, de son etat;
4) ' ' (by, according to; d'apres): no
according to plan, d'apres le plan;
5) (by, par): no by post, par la
poste; no , () to ring smb., telephoner aqn.
: , ,
.

:
1) : ,
;
2) 139

: / ,
.
.

, ,
. 1 -
: , ; , . -/- 2- 3- .
' 2-
3- 1-
. ,
: . . , . .
; ~,...; , ...; , ...
. 1- -/- : ,
'..., , .
; ..
, ,
, .
, : , ,...
.
.

.
,
140

of: my father's house, the house of my father .


11 - .
. ,
(father's), (of my father) : " ".
. ,
( de):
la maison de (mon) . :
de.


.
, : , ; ;
; ;
..
, , ( / "", "").

: I took the book of my sister. J'ai pris le livre de
ma soeur, We are sitting in the room of my sister. Nous sommes assis dans
la chambre de ma soeur. : We are sitting in the room "in"
my sister. Nous sommes assis dans la chambre '"ma soeur.
, , , .
: ? (
) . Whose book is... My sister's is; ? Whose magazine have you taken? :
? ( ) . Whose book is that? It is my
sisters book.
141

: A qui est livre? C'est le livre de ma soeur. j


]
.
j
, -,
, )
(, ,
), -1
. , : - \
the teacher of physics, le professeur de physique, a}
, :
? What kind of is this teacher? Comment
est ce professeur?
, , ,
.

,
: , . ,
: . + . . - . + .: , , ; . + . .
. + + . >:
, .
+ , . : Moscow street
" ", riverbank " ". .

: " " , :
" ". , 142

, , :
, . , , + :
.

rue (), place ()
de, : a pris le
metro place Gagarin. .
/, :
.
,
: the student at
the university, Petudiant a l'universite; : the countries in Asia and Africa; : the University of Edinbourgh
; : the city of Moscow, " ", "".


,
, , -
-.
at (.) chez (.): at my place, chez moi; at his
place, chez lui; () ( ) at the doctor's, chez
le docteur; () ( ) at the uncle's, chez (son) oncle.
- , , : chez
le docteur.
. My brother has a headache. Mon frere
a mal a la tete, , (
, , .. ).
14S

,


.

( ) : /
( ). (There is a sofa) in my (my sister's)
room. (II a un divan) dans ma chambre (la chambre de ma soeur);
on the teacher's desk, sur la table du profeseur.
" ", " ".
, , , .
: , , .
,
, , .
, . (to have, avoir );
, , ;
, , : My brother
has a car. Mon frere a un auto. .

-. , , ,
, , , :
. ,
,
: A car is at my brother's. Un auto est chez mon frere.
, ,
- . -
: . My brother has a car. Mon frere a un auto.
144


,
"-", ..
,
: " "/"
".
?
-:
? ( ) , ? ( )
.
? ( ) , ?
( ) .


de.
-. : . n'a pas lu de journal;
/ . n'y a/n'avait pas de bane dans le jardin.

: , il ny a pas
( , ). , : .
Mon frere n'a pas de l'auto.
,
: / . Mon
frere n'est/n'etait pas chez lui.
, , - , ",
.
,
10,

145

:
. didn't read a newspaper.
there is (are) no/not, there was (were) no/not,
there will be no/will not be.
/ / . There is/was not/will not
be a bench in the garden; / / . My
brother has/had/will have no car (: There is/was/will be no
car at my brother's); / / . is/was not/
will not be in.
, -
3- .
de , . : Nous lisons de beaux livres. " ".
, .
? ?: / ?
, : , ,
: .

.
1. :
?;
?
2. : (, ),
3. , :
? (, , , ); ? (146

, ). : ? (, , , ).
4.
: (, ).
5.
: ?
?/.
1. ,
: ?
2. : " "?
.
1. ( ): ?;
?
2. ,
, . : ? ...;
?; ?
3. : ? ...
4. , (I have/not,
j'ai/je n' ai pas... , ...); , , (.: chez qn ? ?).



.

, ,
.
W

,
:

,
,
,


, , ,
, , ,
, , ,
,

: , ; -: , ; -,
-: , ; -:
, ; :
( -): , : ; ( -; -): , , ; : . -
: , ,, , ; , : , , , , , , .
,
:
, ; ; .
, , ( ).

, of, de.
( of/de +
): a cup of milk, une tasse du lait.
, : , , , , , , , .

.

: beaucoup de l'eau,
peu de mots, / combien/tant de livres. plusieurs,
:
148

plusieurs jours.
. ( de plusieurs : plusieurs de ces livres
. .)

. ;
,
:
how many books
so many books

many books

few books

a few books

how much water


so much water
much water
little water
a little water

, , , , -, : "", , -,
: "".
, , , ,
much, little ,
.
, , ,
, .
. + , ()
of,

, , 149

, , .. . , .

, , .
. ,
, , ,
,
one, un/une (), .. : thirty one books, trente et un livres . .
:
1) , , ; , ...;
2) , , , ; / , , ;
3) ,... , , ; ,....
, : //
, ,
.
.



- . - .
.
- .
150

/
, , , , , - :
1) (
): )
, , , , : ; ?; )
, : ;
;
2) , : / /
; / ;
3) ,
, :
.
- -
, , . :
, ,
()
() , ,
,

() ...

I, my brother/sister am, is (was, will be) 21,22... years old. J'ai... 21,
22... ans.
.
Yesterday, her mother was fifty-two.
, ,
, , -, .
,
, (I am 21 years old. J'ai 21 ans).

151

.
( , ),
: :
(, ); : ? (, );
? (, ); ? ,...
,
,
.
1. :
?
2. ,
, :
. .
3. - , ,
: /, , . , , .
4. ( , ) , (, ...) (, ...).


: , , ; , , /,
; , ; , .

for (.) pour (.).

- :
for (my) sister, pour ma soeur
for (his) work, pour (son) travail
for dinner, pour le df ner
()
for two months, pour deux mois ()
152

for,
pour, " ". ,
, ,
, , , - , , ,
, -. : (, , ...) , ; , , .

without, sans, : , , .
, , , ,
: , , .
by, near; . pres de, aupres de, a cote de. ,
: , , ; , .
.
- ,
. : , , ,
from,
: , , ( ) de,
( ) de chez. " ", " ". , , , ,
( , )
( , ). ,
, . ,

, , :

153

,

, de chez, (
de): , . ,
, , : , .
,

(de chez)
(" "). ' , ,
, . : about two hours ,
, at about two hours .
-
-: to take from the library, prendre
de la bibliotheque, " ".
, .
apres,
: apres le dfner.
after ,
: ,
after dinner, after five minutes ( ),
in five minutes ( ). ,
, : , (, ..).

154

. , : jusqu'au mur,
avant le diner. , : () up to, as
far as; ... from... to.
before, after, , : ,
before dinner, two hours before. ,
.
,
-
after, before .
.
1. , - : / / . /
; ? / .
2. -
: , ;
; : 1 ?, ?,
? (, ...); (,
...).
3. ,
.
4.
: , from,
, , ; for; , de, de
chez, , , .
155



.
.
1 - 2- ,
, :
-:
-:
-: -:
-: ,
.
.
. .
,
: , ;
: , , ,
3- .
,
.
with, avec:
with the teacher, avec le professeur. ( ; ), .
,
, . , , , , ,
, : ?
to work with, travailler avec. . 156

(, , , , ). -, ..
: to meet, rencontrer; to greet, saluer
( ); , to talk to, parler a, to say goodbye to, dire adieu (-).
. ,
.
.
- : / , : ? :
? , . , . , ; ? , . , .
, . , .
: , , ,
, with joy, pleasure, interest, difficulty, enthusiasm;
avec le joie, plaisir, l'interet, difficulte. ,

.
, . ;
,
, , de, k


bread and butter


coffee and milk
-five and a half

tartine de beurre
cafe an lait
cinq et demi

.
157


:
(, ) ()
(, ) ()

(together) with; avec


near, next to; a cote de

,
.
: 1) ,
; 2) ,
. /
:
1) our teacher and
we, notre professeur et nous;
2) my teacher and me,
professeur et moi.
, :
) :

you and me, tu et moi


you and me, vous et moi;

) .:

my sister and me, soeur et moi


friend and me, ami et moi.



.
:
with, and, with, and , .. "
".
. - : ; ,
158

?
: ? : ? , . , . ,
.

, , : ; ; .
to be, etre
(); to become, deviner ( )
: became a doctor.
devinait le docteur. "".
to work, travailler ()
as, comme (): worked as a doctor. II travaillait comme
le docteur. : " ". , /,

.
:
?; ?
what, que (): What he was? ("
?"); What did he become? Que devinait-il? (" ?")
.
.
1.
.
2.
.
3.
.
4. .
5. ,
( ).
6. , ,
15S

,
( ?, ).
7. , with, avec,

.
8. ( ).
9.
( ).
10. ) ?/
( ), )
/ /, /
/, ;
/ / ; , .
11.
, {, ,
, /, /, ).
12.
(, , ).
. each other, one another. : ,
,
: , , , . .

: , , ;
//, , ; /, ,
; , . .
160

!
. , : ;
.
. , .

. , : (
), - ( ).
,
,
.
.
1.
, :
: , , ... , ...; ,
, , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , ,
, , , .
2.
;
: ,
... , , ...; , , , , ,
, ; , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , .
3. ; .
1) -, -, -
: , ... ,
...; , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , ; ,
, , .
151

2) : , , , , ; , ,
, , , , , .
4. 1) ;
: , ,
; , , , , ; , , , , ,
, , .
2) ; ,
: , , , ,
; , cecmpbi , , ; , ,
, ; : , , ; , , .
5. ,
.
1) : ,
, , , ; , , , , , ,
.
2) ,
: , , , , ; , , , ; : , , ; , , .
6. : , , ; , , , .
- , :
, , , , , , , , .
. ,
.
, .
- , ,
.
.
1. : , , ...
2. : , , , ; , ; , .

3. : , , , .
4. ,
(, , , .); , : , ,
, ^, , , , , , , , , , , , , .
.
(-, -) : , , ; , , , ; , , ; , ,
; , , .
-- , . -
{, ), -, -, - (, , )
, .
. , , .
" ".
. - :
, . ( , ) : ,, , ,
, , , . . , , ..
-, -. , ; ,
: ; ,
-: , .

-

162
163

,

.

,
,
( ). (, , ), . ,
(, .).
( ? to be afraid of, avoir peur de)
( ? to be interested in, s'interesser ).
- , . :

. , .
,
.
:
?, ? ..
.
, :

/
/
?
/
/ ?
/


to be afraid of
to be frightened of
to wish
to want
to demand
to wait for
to obey


avoir peur de
avoir peur de
vouloir de
vouloir
demander
attendre
obeir

: "", " ", "


".
,
; ,
. , , , - ,
? ?, to be angry with, ,
to be angry at, .
, ,
(? ?, ?),


164

, :


// (?) ?

to be glad at
glad at
to be suprised at
to teach, to learn

se rejouir de
heureux de
s'etonner de
apprende qch
(a qn)
aimer
connu a
s'habituer a
se preparer de
pret a.

/
to like

known, to
to get used to
/
to prepare for

ready for

preparation

for

preparation, de

, :

?


to use
165


jouii de

/ ? ?
?
/ ? ?
? ?
/ ?
?

? ?
? ?
?
?
?

to be interested
to go for in
to admire
to be proud of
to be ill with
to be pleased with
to agree with

s'interesser a
s'occuper de
admirer
etre fier de
etre malade de
content de
se ranger a l'avis
de, approuver qch
etre d'accord avec
to agree with
se passer avec qn
to happen to
to congratulate smb. feliciter a
l'occasion de qch
on smth.

, :

to take care of
to worry about

prendre soin de
etre inquiet de
sur de
coupable de

right
guilty


. , ,
, -, , , : ? /,
/ ; ? (),
. , (/ ), , ( ),
, - , . ,
:

+ inf. habit

? ?
imperf. inf./... object clause

166

to get/be
used (to)

/ / ;
/, - / ,
-.
,
. .

.
1. : ?;
?; ?; ? (
.)
2. : (); ( ).
3.
( : ,
, , , , ,
, , , ).
.
. , -, - , . , - ,
?,
?, ?, ?, ?,
?, ?, ? ?, ?


:
1) : , , , ;
2) : , , , , , , , , , ;
3) : , , , , , , ;
4) : , , , , , ;
5) - : , , , , ,
, , , , , , , ;
6) : ) , , , ,, , , ; ) , , , ; ) , ,
, ; ) , , ;
7) : , , ...;
8) : , , , , ; , , , , , /, /, /, /, /, /, /, , /.
9) : , , /, , , , , , , , ;
10) : , , ; , ;
11) : -, -, -...;
12) , :
-...;
13) , -, -:
-, -, .


, , , ,
: , here, ici,
there, la, at home, a la maison.
, : ; .

( ):
. , , , , , .
168

, (where, ou)
, ( , , , ): 1 ?
.
.
: 1) , : 1 ?
; ? ; 2)
: .
. .
, , , ,

.

: at home home , on the right, on the left , to the right, to the left , . , where,
to:
? Where are you going (to)? , : , , . , , where,
to. ,

: here; there; up, upstairs; down, downstairs.
, , ,
.
.
: ?
? , , ici, la; , la, la-bas, ; , a la maison; , a. droite; , a. gauche;
, en haut; , en bas. , , ,
.
169

:
?
. a. At home.
. A la maison.
. .
. Ici.

?
, . .
. A la maison.
. .
. Ici.

, ,
, , .

. , , ,
, from ( ) de ( ):
a. from here, . d'ici; a. from the right, . de la gauche ..
,
: 1) : ? ;
? / ; 2)
. : 6 . : 6 ,
8 ; 3) ( ;
: , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , ).
,
.
.
, , ( ? ? ?): a. inside, within; .
l'interieur; a. outside; . en dehors, au loin; a. inside,
into; . a l'interieur; a. out, outside; . dehors; a. from
within; . de loin; a. far, in the distance; . loin; a. far,
into the distance; . loin; a. from afar; . de loin;
a. opposite; . en face, vis-a-vis; a. opposite; . en face de; a. to meet; . a la rencontre; a. across; . en travers.
, : , 170

, , , ,
if , , , ,
, -, .

, , : now, maintenant;
often, sauvant; rarely, rarement; usually, habituelment;
always, toujours; sometimes, parfois.
. , , ,
. , :
. I always read in the evening. Je lis toujours
le soir.
, :
. Usually I watch television in
the evening. Habituelment je regarde la television le soir.
, , :
. I watch television usually in
the evening. Je regarde la television habituelment le soir.
.
now ,
maintenant .
:
. Torn is working now.
Maintenant Tom traraille.
1

? ? Who is asking
now? Qui pose la question maintenant!
, - :
now/at present, at the moment, just a moment; maintenant,
en ce moment;
now/nowdays; maintenant, a present.
; ; ;
/ ;
, ;
! .
: then after. after (), after : ""!

.
, : ? ,
.
, , . : in the evening (" "), le soir.
(, ), :
""; "" . , ,
. : ( ? ); ( ? ).

, : 172

( ,
, ).
.
, /
, ,
: ? " ". -
, : . (
?) . ( ?)
: 1)
, ,
; 2) / , ,
.
, deja, encore . :
-. II parle dejalbisse.
. travaille encore; .
travaille pas encore.
. Je veux encore du cafe.

.
.
already, -:
-. speaks already Russian.
.
,
: still, yet, more, besides, as well,
else. , : :
( still). He still works;
( yet). He doesn't work
yet; ( - -
besides, more, as well). E want coffee as well. I want some more coffee.
173

" "
/ not yet, pas
encore. .
else encore,
: who else; qui... encore: -? Who else speaks Russian? Qui parle encore Russe?
,
: 1)
, , ; 2)
, : ? , .
, .
(still, de plus en plus)
( );
:
.


, , : , , , , .

, ( -1, -ment): to listen attentively, ecouter attentivement;
to read slowly, lire lentement.
,
,
; -.
.
.
, , . ,
. , ( )
.
174

. ( ?) . ( ?) students
are listening attentively. Les etudiants ecoutent attentivement.


( , ). -, -, -. ( -.)
-. ( ? ?)

!; !; ! : !; !
:
!, ! . () That's good! . () C'est bien!; !, ! (
) That's right! C'est juste!
,
: - : . =* good, well; =* correct, correctly, . * juste, justement. ,

, .
,
"",
( *-
). , ,
.

, 175

, : .

: It is warm in the room. II fait chaud
dans la chambre. .
, , ( ) .
-, -
-, - , . , , : -,
-, -, -, : -,, , . - .
:
- in Russian, en russe ' systematically, systematiquement. .

-
, , -,
. : opinion, avis ();
by my opinion, a mon avis. .
, (-, -), -, ,
: - as in winter,
comme en hiver; , , way (), facon: in a new way, a la nouvelle facon.

176


, , , very (much), many, much, a little tres,
beaucoup, peu, un peu ,
. , , , : very well, tres bien; very
good, tres bon, much water, beacoup de . , : , , , ., beaucoup () very much ( ). ,
, , ,
( , ): to love very much,
aimer beaucoup, to work hard, travailler beaucoup.
; : , , , ; .
,
, .
, , , .
, , ,
(a. hardly "", . a peine " ").
-
, :
/ . hardly walked. II marchait a peine.

almost, nearly; presque.
:
. It Is almost/nearlytwo o'clock, llestpresque
deux heures; . almost finished his
work. Il a presque fini son travail.
177

, faillir .
: il a failli tomber.
nearly,
almost .
: "". ,
, . ,
, . . , , ; nearly:
/. I nearly fell down; . nearly finished his work.


: 1) , : ? , ;
2) / ,
,
( nearly , ; faillir , ); 3) : . ; 4)
: , ...
.



, , . .
, ,
178

. ,

, , " ", "
" .. ,

, , ,
, . , .

.
( ,
, ).
, ,
, .
:
; ; ; , , , .
.
. - : le crayon rouge. , , .
grand, gros ; petit ; vieux ; jeane ; nouveau ; mauvais ; ; beau
; joli ; doux , ; large .
, , ,
, : .
179


, ..

.
,
: . .: . nouveau, . nouvelle; . .:
. nouveaux, . nouvelles. ,
,

. , .

(new), , : , , , .

, , , , , , : , ; , .
( ) , ..
: -, -.
,
: , "".

, - : , , , ; , , , .
, , .
: , , ( , , ). ,
, , , ,
, , , , . : -
[], - []/[], - [].
180

.
, . . ,
.

: , , ;
:
, , . , , , ,
, , ,
(
): "" . , ,
,
.
.
. ,
.. ,
.
. .
: , . .
, /
.
181

.
.

: - , ; -
, .. . - , (
, ),
.
, /'
. to be/etre ():
. . The text-book is/was new.
La manuel est/etait nouvelle.
, ,
-:


:
?; ?
: what, what kind/sort of, what is... like,
what :
What is there on the table?
What table is in the room?

?
?
182

: "" ?
:
What book is that? It is War and Peace. ? .
? .
What kind o/book is that?
What is that book like} It is an old book.


. , ,
, ,
, .
, : ,
.
.

.
quel, quelle: Quel livre est sur la table? La
guerre et la paix. Le livre russe. .
, , , . comment:
Comment parle-t-il? ?
Comment est la fenetre dans la chambre? Comment est cette manuel?
? ?
, comment
,
. : " "
? , .
183

, , , : ? What is your room (like)? Comment est votre


chambre? : ?
.
: , ? ,
:
It is a Russian book. C'est le livre russe. ,
.


, , cette, ces (, , ),
(that, these):
? What text is that? Comment est ce text?
? What is that room like? Comment est cette
chambre?
? What texts are these? Comment sont ces textes?
, "" ?, "" ?, : /.
, .

, : ?
134

what comment - to be, etre.


, , . :
?. A new one. Un nouveau livre.
? . It is a new book. C'est un nouveau livre.


. .
1. -: .
; .
; . ;
.
.
2. ,
: ?;
?; ?; ?
3.
: , , . ...
, , .
:
?
. ; ?
. / ; ?
. / ; . ()? . / .
: what
, , -, ; comment .
185

, . ,
It is warm.
fait chaud () . (
) :
/ .
:
. II parlait haut.
, : Russian, English , ; , -. :
(?) ; (?) .
'

: American (.); Americain, americain (.) , . "".
-:
-
-
, , , ,
. ( ?)
. ( ?)

, , , , : . .
, :
... ... (, ); ...
. ... (, ).
:
, . 186

.
;
, .
, ,
, .
,

:
! What a nice book! Quel beau livre!
! How he reads! Comme il lit!

, : comment, comme : Comment
allez-vous? ?; Comme il est change! !

.
,
: "" .
,

, , -: ,
, .. .


.
.
187

,
, .
,
,

.
,
. .
. , : .
.
.
. , - . ,
. . ,
: , , , .
, .
,
. :
, , , .

,
(
) .
: - [], - []/[], - [].
, , . . : , , , 188

, , , ; , , , , , , , , , , .
: , , , . ( )
. , - , .
:
,
,
.
,

,
.
: , , , , , :
. - () -
. - () -
.
:
, , ; /
, .
, .

, , (),
,
"".
, , ,
.
, : -, -:
189

(, , , ).

, : ? , ? ..
: ? , ?
.
, , (//): -, -, -/

-, -, - , -, -/, -, - -

, , : .
, :

. , .

(: , ,
, ) : 1) (
); 2) (, ); 3) , (, ); 4) , -, -, -; ,
-, -; , -, -; , -, -; : 1) ; 2) , , ; , , ; , , .


(-, -, -): , ;
, , ..
: , , .
(: , ,
, ) : , , , ; , , , , ...; , .
, , ..
, . [], (), :
+ [].
. , : "". 190

.
(-/-, -/-, -/-, -): , , ; , ,
; , .
; , ; , . , .
, .
. [], []
, []
:
[], [], [''], [''], ,
, , , , ..
, ,
, .
,
,
,
/ . , : 1) :
" "; 2) : " ", " ".
.
.
I. .
1. :
?; ?;
?
2. .
:
(, , ). , : ?
(, ).
3. .
. 191

: ... (, ).
(
; ): ... / ... ( ). , : ? ( ).
II. .
, / ,
. , , .. , ( ...?) , ( ...).
: ? ... ... ,
: 1 ?,
?, ? ( ). , , .
, : . ? .
III. .

, :
. . ...


: , .
, . .
,
, .

192


, , , . , :
a. Russian, . russe, Russe:
. . It is a Russian boy. He is Russian.
C'est le garcon russe. II est Russe.
,
: scientist, savant; worker, ouvrier .
: 1) , : ,, ; 2) : ,
.
,
: , ( , ), , , , , , , , ; : , . ,
.
, : /
(). , , (),
(the first, second, third course).
, . ,
: etudiant (.).
, , ,
: smoker (.),
fumeur (.). {, .).
, ,
: , ,
193

, , , , , , , , . thing, , () . : "
" ( ).
,
,
:
. We saw many interesting things.


.
,
. , . ,
. ( ), , ;
.

. , :
, -,
-,
-: , , , .
.
.
, :
: , , ,
: , , ,
: , ,
194

: , ,
: , , ,
: , , ,
: , , ,
: , ,
: , , ,
: , , ,
: , , ,
: , , ,
: , , ,
: , , ,
: , ,
: , ,
: , ,
: , , ,
: , ,
,
. ,
, (, ).

. , .. ,
,

to be/etre (): , ,
is (was, will be) sick; est (etait, sera) malade.
. ;
.
.

:
I. : .
.
II. .
1. :
1) :
;
2)
:
195

) . ( -1
, .)
) . (
; .)
2. :
1) : ;
2) : / ; ;
3) : .
. , ,
. , ,

, ,
.
.
, , -:
; , .

: .
( ) ,
.
too (.), trop (.)
(). , ,
:
, , , ( )
, , , ( ).
, : , .
196


,
.
, : . "The rich nature of India". , , to be, .. - is rich,
-
, .
, , : Grand fut
Petonnement du voyageur. .


,
.
. , , .
, . . .
-
(, , , ).
,
, .
: ; . , .
, : , ; , ; , ;
, ; , ; , ; , ; , ; ,
; , ; , ; , ; , .

197


, . .
1.

( ).
2. .
3. ,
, .
4.
, ( ,
, , , , , , ).

, , . ,
.
(glad .,
heureux .) , .
. glad ,
.

, : /
, "//".
se rejouir,
. . heureux /:
II est un homrae heureux. .
Je suis heureux de vous voir. / .
heureux (un homme
heureux),
, :
"/" . , heareux .
193

,
.
/
. . ( ?),
( , , /). ( / , / ).
, : /,
.

glad heureux. ,
, ,
, ,

: / . I am glad to see you. Je
suis heureux de vous voir.
: " / / "; "/
". , - ,
.

- (.:
glad + . - /, ; .: heureux de + . -
/, ); : ( ; ..).
, , -, -*. must, to have; devoir,
199

. (I had to do; je
devais). , . ,
, : " ".

obliged, oblige (, ),
.
,
to be,
etre, :
is obliged to come He was obliged to come.
est oblige a venir II etait oblige a venir.
.
: / . .
, .


,
( 7 ,
.).
, , , .
to need, to want.
. to
need ;
: "/ ".

, . necessary:
. It is a very necessary text-book. : . A warm cap is necessary to me.
200

, . ? ?, ,
,

.
- , . :

,
,

-,
: ?; ?
to need: I need/needed the text-book.
.

; ( ?; ?); to want,
to need, .


. ,
.
, ,
( /; /
, /).
,
,
:, .
, , :
201

I love my younger brother, My brother is younger than me.


, .
I saw the longest river, This river is the longest one. /
, / .
:
I have bought the more interestingbook, This book is more interesting.
/ , .
I have lost the most interesting book, This book is the most interesting.
/ , / .

,
. :
Nous avons choisi plus longue route, Quelle route est plus longue?
, '/
?
Nous avons choisi la plus longue route, Quelle route est la plus longue?
, /
?

, ..
, , , .
,
,
. .


( ""). ,
.
202


,
: ; . . - {- ): /.

( ):
. .
1. , , , , , cm -. .
:
/
,
/
/ , /
, / , /

> :
/
cm > : / , /
, , /
, / ;
> :
/ ;

/ .
> :
> :
> :
> :

2. , . :
/ , / , /
, / , /
, / , / , /
.
3. -:
/ , / , / , , / .
203

4.
:
/ , / , /
, / , .
:

earlier; plus tot

~- before; autrefois

/ .

^ after; plus tard

later; plus tard

: . than que, "


: / , ;
, .
. ,
, :
. ( , .)
. ( ,
.)
. ( , .)
: , .
, , , , : , .
:... " " (...than that
along the river).
: 1)
204

no longer, plus; : " "; 2) + as... as possible, le pluspossible; 3) ( ...) + ( ) two years/deux ans + .
11 , , : far; beaucoup;
/ much; trop; still, even; encore, toujours; still; de plus en
plus; , little; un peu.
, much
.
, . , ( ):
/ + / ,
-, -, -

/ , , -, -
/

, , .. ,
, . , .
:
;
.
:
/ , ().
/, ().
, ().
, (, ) . ,
, 20S

. !
, :
. , .

:
\.

\^


\.
\.

'

, , , ,, , , , , , , ,
.
. a little,
a bit; un peu: a little/a bit longer; un peu plus long:
; ; .

,
.

, ; .

.


- - . , , plus,
moins, , .
: more interesting, less interesting,
,
, , ( ""
). , ,

.
-, , : , , , , 206

, , :
;
; / (the highest, the most
difficult; le plus haut, le plus difficile).
,
. , , ;
:
+
, -, -, -

, , -, -

//.
.
207

.
.
- , ( ) ( ).
of all:
/ /
. The last story was the most
interesting/the best of all.
. The most difficult item
was the translation into Russian.
/ .

, . ,
-(), -() ( , > , > , > )
, :
, , (), , ,
, , , , , , , ,
,- , , , .
, , : 1) '...'; 2) ' ...', '...',
/ :
( ).
( ).

208

,
: '
(better, best; meilleur, le meilleur); , , , ,
, , :
, .
.

. ,
- ( , ) ,

:
, , , , , ; , , ..:
.
.
:
N.

N.

/
/

<
, .,
, -, -, .
209



,
, , . . 2- you.

: , , , , , ; .
we (" "). : we
, you. . : 1) , :
our teacher and we, notre professeur et nous; 2) :
teacher and me, professeur et moi. .

, .
.
,
. /
, "" ... .
, . , .
:
,
, .

210

,
3- , , ,
, .
-
, , ,
,
, :
. . :
. They build...; ,... People say...
.


; . 1- 2- :
. , , ,
,
: //
? , //.

. , .
3- ,

.
, ;
, , , ( son).
211


. , : ; .
: ; /
. /,
. , , .
, , , , .

, : / "" ; / "" .

,
-
.
.
son
3- .
3- , :
. "" . ""
. 3- , :
"" ; "".

. :
, : / /,
/ / / . 212

. : .
.
1- 2- ,
: /
; / . ( 1- 2- .) ,

3- . ,
, , .

, ()-; , , : /
( ); . ( ). (his sister, sa soeur).

. , ,
own () else's (). own 1- 2- , : It is my own car.
.
3- own , .
own . own
.
.
own, . eLse's, 3- .
.
213

, . ,
( + ) , -:
. : , .

3- ;
/ ,

, .
, , : , , .
. ,
: / /, / /
/ .
- ,
: je pense de moimeme, il pense de lui-meme ..
-self: I think about myself; He thinks about himself. -self - , : ,
()-.
( , , ). -self; : to feel, to include .

, , () :
; . (room,
place, house) : The
dean is in his room; I'll go to my place. ,
214

: Le doyen est chez lui; J'irai chez moi.


- : () . ,
. : in his study, dans son cabinet.
: , (. ,
).


,

( ; ) .
: C'est ma maison; Ce sont les etudiants,
-. , ,
:
It is my house - This is my house - That is your house.
These are our books Those are your books.
:
this/it, that (is); these, those (are).


, . this . , , : this boy , this girl ; This is my
215

teacher. This teacher speaks Russian. .


-. this . :
to be :
this/that

is

(//) these/those

was

are

()

were


:
this house , these houses .

:
. This is a student. . This student is
reading.
. This is a student. . This student
is writing.
. This is a window. . This window is on the
left.
. These are students. . These students
are at home.
,
.

(
, )
: .
. . . 216

this, that, these, those, it . .



, : . . , . p. cette, . .
ces, .
C'est ma chambre.
.
Cette chambre est grande. .
.


: this morning/afternoon/evening, tonight ///.
, that, those
cela, cette-la, ces-la.
-:
. () .
(, ), :
, () .
,
, ,
. ,

: .
.
:
.
. ,
:
, .
217

,
that ().
: . .
, : . ""
.
- ,
.
. that, ceci, cela,
1:
; / ;
, . (that, cela)
.
.
,
,
, : ;
.

,
, who, what, qui, que. . ,
, , .
.
218

, , ,
,
, :
/ ? /
/ / ;
/ ? /
/ / / (, ).
, ,
, .
.

, , , , ,
,
, , , , . ,
, . , .
(,
: ?;
!; , : ; !).

: ?; ?
:
; !
how, so ,
.
,
, ""
!; "" ! comme, si
, ,
.
, , ,
219


, , :

a. how; . comme
a. how; . comme, que
(, .) a. how;
. comment
(. .) a. how;
. comme

a. how; . quel, comme


(, .) a. what, what
kind of; . quel, comment
(. .) a. what;
. quel

!; !;
?; !; ?; !

a. so; . si
a. so; . si
a. so, like that, this way; . si, ainsi
a. so; . si
a. such ; . tel

!; !;
; / ; !;
.
so (, )
. ,
: , "" .
, .
, . .
: , to be/etre what is/are,
such is/are; comment/quel est, comme cela.
220

?; ; .

as, like; comme,
.
: ()... () as...as, as well as; aussi... que; ...
not so as; ne ... pas aussi... que; () ... () as ... as, just like;
aussi ... que; ... not so ... as; ne ... pas aussi ... que.
,
.
( ).
, , , ,
.


quel. :
quel; : ( lequel),
:
?; ?; ? which, . , :
?; ?; ? ,
, . : what (): ?
:
,
221

, : who , ; qui , ; que , . , : /


, "" . , . qui, que lequel. ,
.
,
: which. , , .
, ... what
/ , ... which
, : ;
, :
, .
(?)

who, qui (lequel)

, .'
( ?)

, ,
that.
, : , "" ;
, "" .
, , , . 222

: , () ;
/ , () /.
,
.
, , , , : / , "" .
, .
/
:
, , . The garden (which)
you are telling about is very nice. Le jardin, dont (duquel) vous parlez,
est tres beau.
,
which - ( who ) , ,
. : , ""
,...
. ,
,
, : " ".

, ,
: , . whose () , , of which, ,
:
, ( ) .
That is the girl whose brother came to see us yesterday.
, ( ) ,
.
The artist whose pictures you see, lives in our house.
223

, .
We saw a mountain on the top of which there were no trees.

, :

of which , , ,
, .

dont , quel de (duquel,
de laquelle, desquels, desquelles) :
, ( ) .
C'est un savant dont le nom est connu dans le monde entier.
, , . '
L'ecrivain, dont yous lisez le roman, est bien connu.
, , .
Le depute, dont elle etait secraitaire, est devenu ministre.'
, .
La fenetre donnait sur la rue du bout de laquelle etait un jardin.

>

; ;
/ ,

; .

( ) whose. : .
. . : 224

? Whose book is that?


? Whose books are these?,
- : "
?"; " ?"; " ?" ( ).
.
, qui () : a qui, de qui. a qui
: A qui
donnez-vous...? ...? a qui
,
, : A qui sont ces disques? ? de qui ,
,
: De qui a-tu mis le chapeau? /?

a qui: " "
? ,
,
: ?;
/?
, , -:
, .

:; :
A qui est livre? livxe est . livre est a ceteleve.
? . .
225

,

, .

:
(), ,
(). / : whose; dont, duquel, de
laquelle, desquels, desquelles.

, , ,
, , ,
, the whole ( ) all
( ) tout : the
whole day, tout le jour; all books, tous les livres. ,
tout : toute
ville . , , ( ), : ( )
everything, tout; ( ) everybody,
tous: . Everything has passed. Tout est passe;
; . Everybody was there. Tous etaient la.
.

every, each; chaque:
every morning, chaque matin. ,
everybody chacun ( ). , , , .
,
, : '', '', '', any, chaque; '226

, ', any, n'importe: . Anybody knows.


Chacun sait; . At place. A chaque place.
(any,
n'importe) :
= , ; = ( ); + . = , ( ); = ; = ( ,
); = ( , / ); = ( , / );
= ( ); = ; = ( ).
() ;
.

- , > , : 1 ? / / .
,
: . /
: at the very edge, juste au bord;
from, the very beginning, des le debut;
in reality, en affet.
. , ,
, , .
-self (myself,
yourself...), -m&me (moi-m&me, toi-m&me...). : myself,
moi-mme : the writer himself, l'ecrivain lm-meme.
221

, -self, -meme
, ,
.. himself/lui-meme = , , . ,
, . , , ,
(/ ).
, , :
; () .



: ^ ) -,
-
-.

,
. ,
, .
, .. .
(any ).
:
no one, nobody, not... anybody; personne; nothing, not...
anything; rien; , not ... any; aucun; nobody's; a
personne; nowhere, not... anywhere; nulle part; nowhere,
not... anywhere; nulle part; never, not... ever; jamais; by
no way, not... by any way; aucunement; not one, not a single,
no; personne; not once; jamais.
: - . 228

/ :
. Nobody has come. Anybody hasn't come. Personne
ti'est vemi.
. I'll go nowhere. I'll not go anywhere. Je n'irai nulle part.
, , , , : , , ..
:
. saw nobody. He didn't see anybody. II n'a vu
personne.
. thinks about nothing. He doesn't think about
anything. II ne pence a rien.
- : ?
; ? /.
- .
:
nobody, personne; nothing, rien; / nowhere,
pas de place; from nowhere, pas de place d'ou; (to
have) no time, (n'avoir pas) le temps.
. -
. , , ,
- : , , ...; , , ... ,
.
/ . - . 229

. there is no...;
il n'y ... (""); to have no, n'avoir... (" ") . - - 3- , -
. :
() . There is/was nobody to wait for. II n'y a/
avait personne a attendre; () . I have/had
nobody to wait for. Je n'ai/avais personne a attendre;
. We shall have nobody to talk to. Nous
n'aurons personne a parler; . There is no
place to put the books. n'y a pas de place pour ces livres.
: , - - (
. ), ' - ( , ).

-, -, -, -.
-, -, - -. . -,
-, - : -,
-, - quelqu'un; -, -, -; , -, - quelque part. , -, - : -, - n'importe
qui ( ); -, - n'importe ou ( ).
, some any-, , . : -, -, - some-; -,
230

, -, any-: -, -, - somebody;
-, -, , , , anybody.
( ) ( )
, , :
-" ; "-" .

. , :
-, -, -, -, -, -, -, ., -, -; -, -, -, -, -, -, -, -, ; -, -, -, -, -, , -, -, -, -; -,
-, -, -, -.
: -, -; -,
-.
- : -, ; -,
.
- - -
, - ,
- . -, - , , .
- , ..
, ( ).
, :
- ( ,
, );
- ( );
- . ( , ,
.)
231

,
- - ,
n'importe ():
- quelqu'un, n'importe qui; - quelque part,
n'importe ou
, , ,
, , -: - . ,
, .. , -: - ?
,
, -: - . ,
, -. : - . (
, .) -, . ( , .
.)
-
- , ,
:
- / ( , : one or two people; certain);
( , : on some points; quelque
chose);
- (here and there; ca et la); -
(just anyhow; tant bien que mal).
some any ( ) ,
-, -, , ,

. some

: asked me some
questions. .
some .
: Give me some bread. Give me some.
232

. some ( ) (),
: My friend has sent me some photographs.
.
-
any, : Have you got any
stamps? ? I haven't got any stamps.
; Have you got any knife? ? Yes, I have
someone. , .
any :
I haven't got any friends. () ; I'll not go
anywhere. .
, / .
, , ,
, ,

( ),
. , , , : / /; / .
some, quelques, , , .
: . '
:
some time, quelques temps.
, , , , ( ) : many, beaucoup (de);
not many, peu de; how many, combien (de); so many, tant; several, a
few, plusieurs, quelques. .
, ,
233

, , , , ,
,
.
.
, , , , ,

, , , , . , . ,
. .

, " " .
. , , , , . , - 3- ,
(
- ): ;
( ); / .
, : / ; . ,
, ,
: ; ; .
, , , ,
: ; .
/,
/ .
,
, .
234



() . ,
, .
, : ,
, . : , . ,
.
,
,
.
, , .
.
.
, , . ( : , , , , -


: , , , ).
: ,
/ .
. ..., ,
3- ,
: ,, ; , , . 235

, , ,
, :
, , , ,
: twice,
three times, four times,
, ..

.
, .

. , , , 3- , ; ,
, . , , , , . : , , , , ; ,
, , , . , , : , , ; , , . , ,
: , , , , /; , , ...; , ...; , ...
,
:
, /...
, :
one, a, single, alone, only, the same.
/ . I have bought one kilogramm of rice.
. told them one story.
236

. It was an old friend of mine.


. The chiLdren remained alone.
. I read only scientific
literature now;
one and the same; just a minute.
, , ,
- :
One must read correctly. .
One often makes mistakes. .
One is always glad to meet old friends.
.
I had lost my bag and bought a new one. /
/ .

: 70 30, 94
800, 6785 233, 243 571 895 144, 5378 47; : 2 6;
/one :
; ; ; : One morning we
decided...; They love one another; One must be attentive when...

+ .
: , , .

(, , , ) , :
, , ; / //;
//.
237

, . : /, ,
, - .
.
, : twenty one boys,
( ): ,
, .


?

, (,
, ).
. , , ,
, : , (, ). "",
"" .
: 1) ,
( ); 2) , .
/, , ( ) (,
) ;
: ()
, / , /.
238


, , , . :
, ; , ; , . , /, / : , () , , .

;
, : / ; /; / . ,
( )
: /
/ / .
.
+ + .
1. / :

/ //

,
//
/


. .
,
. .

. .
. ( )

...


, ,

239

2. :

/
/


/
,

/

()
()

( )

( )
: :
? (15);
? (3); 60 (),
573 (), 5000 (): ...? :
3 ; 6 :
/...; / ...
,
.
.
. 240


(. ).



,
each:
/ .
Mother gave the children two apples/an apple each.
: ( ) .
:
: /, , , , , , , ;
: /, , ;
: , ;
: /
..., /..., /, /,
/..., /, /..., /.
: .
( ,
, ) , , ..
, , : , , ,
, , , ,
, .


,
. ,
24-1

. , :
ten-year; fourty-year; twohundred-year; decade, decennary; two
hundred years, bicentenary; six-metre;
bilateral; threestoreyd; eight-form pupil.
:
, , , , , .
: .

: (15,20,100,160...); : ,
, . ,
, ; , : Last year, we marked our
father's sixtieth birhday; In 1990 we celebrated the 240th anniversary
of the foundation of the Lomonosov Moscow State University; In 1997
Russia celebrated the 850th anniversary of the foundation of Moscow.


.
. , : ,
approximately; on an average; about.
/ . The
aeroplane flew about two hours; . The students prepare for their lessons on an
average three hours daily.
,
: 1)
( ): . The aeroplane
flew about two hours; . I'll be back in
242

about five minutes; 2) , : - . The aeroplane flew two


or three hours. ,
/ . , , , . at about five o'clock ,
. :
.

: 40 ( 40 , ..., , 4050 ); (
, ...).

, ( ) ( , ),
, , . , , , , . ,
. :
, ; ,
, , ,
.
,
:
,
:
two hundred fourty seventh.
24J

, .. : ,
.

. , , ,
:
.

. ,
,
: on page fourty five, part one;
size fourty eight;
in 1999.

. ( , , ):
;
, .

.
. , .
,
. - . : twenty minutes past four ("
"), twenty minutes to five ("
").
: ,
(
?): , ,
;
( ) :
, , () , . /
: () . It is past eight.
244

,
.

: .

: ().

. :
/ (/) / (),
/ (/) / (). , , ,
, , : ()
, () , .
:
, , .
: 1,5 1.5 one point five; 0,03
; 4,07 .
( ), ( ). :
, ; /: , , / /, / /.
: ..., ..., ...,
...

245


. both, /. .
- /
/: (, ), (, ); ()
: /
, / () ;
: / . ,

,
, : ,
..
/ . : . Both students...; . We both...
of: both of us (" "). both... and , .

, .,.,
. .
: " ", " ".
:
: , , , , , ,
, , . . : ,
, ..., . :
, ; , . ,
, : 246

, . -
, : -
( ): / .
:
1) , :
, ; 2) , ,
: , ; 3)
: . : ; .
, , : . There were two of us.
, ,
: , , two, three, four together:
. She and I remained alone.
. The three of us have done it;
, , + twice, three times,
four times:
.
,
: . .
; ;
; .
: ,
, - , ^ .
247


, .
, .
, a hundred, hundreds; , a thousand,
thousands; tens; , dozen, dozens.
:
/// ; /// a hundred/a thousand/hundreds/thousands
of kilometers. a ten, :
. ,

, . : one,
two, three, four, five, six,
seven, eight, nine, ten.
" : 1) ( ), 2) (
, ), 3) ( ).

- .
,
,

- .
.
, . , , .
.
. ,
. 248

, : on the table. Co ,
.
/ : [' ],
3
[' ]. ,
, ,
[]: [''3].
, :
['].
[] : [''].
[].
- : , ,
, , , .
,
: , :
/, /, /, /, /.
,
: , , , , .
:
1)
: , , .
2) , ,
, , : , .
3) , , ,
: , , , ,
; , ; .
/,
/, / : , , , ,
.
, ,
. , after
, , , : after school
, three years after , after he came
, what will be after? ?
249

after
: "" , "" , "". ( )
, .
, .
.
, : What is he thinking about? ?
, , , , , "/,
?". .

.
, .. , to be: I am; he, she, it is; we, you, they are.
,
3- he, she reads : I, we, you, they read.
.
, ,
, ..
, , .
, , . , ,
[],
, .
2-
. 250

, , , , , ;
~ ( ): , ?; ,
/ ? ,
,
. , - -. , ,
. -. -
. .
, - , -.
,
. ,
. . , , ,
, ,
( , ),
.
:
- : -
, 3- : -.
.
Present Indefinite Present Continuous ,

.
251

: "
", "". ,
. ,
( )
.

:
-, [-'] [^].
, , , , .

.
. , , , ,
, . -,
, . , , ,
(
). , ,
. 1- 3-
, . -
: -, - ( - 1); - -, - (- 2). - -, -,
,
-, -am.
: 1) , 2) , 3) 1-
252

1 ; 2 -
.
, (-, -, -,
-, -, -, -). , ,
(, , ) [j], . ,
]
: [-] [4HTaj-], ['-] [yM'aj-],
[cM'3Ja-J. [')-], [-] [pneyj-], [-] [flaj-], [-]
[MOJ-], [6oja-] [6oj-]. ,
, ,
], : [4HTaj-] , [pneyj-] ..
: , , 1-
2- . , . 1-
,
1- , 2-
, .
:
, , - 1,

, , - 2,
, , - 1,

, , -,
, .
, ,
, , (write, wrote, written). .
253

, .
-, , : , /; , ; , /. - -,
. - -, -, - : , .
-: , /. , .

:
:
1. - 1) -,
-
-, -, -, -,
2) -,
-

. .

(, , ). .


.




254

(--/--; --/--; (-, -)


--/--)
(--/-)


(, , )






: /!




(--/--)

()


--

--

()







-
(--/--)


(--/--)

(--/--)



,

255

( --)


(
--)











.: /!

() (--/--)


)
/







(), (), (),
(), (), ()

. .:

, ,

, ,

, ,

-. /, /; 1- 3-
. .




/!
, ,

- (--/--)







, , /
,
. .:
,
,

256

. .: , , ; , ,
, (, , ); ,







: (/!)
. .: ,
,

)
/

-/-, -/-







, , ,
,
, ,

. - 1) -,

-
-, -, -, ,
2) -,
-am ( , , , )

. .
. 1- .
- -, ~, -

25?

.: /!
. :
, ,

. -
. , .
( -):
1) ; 2) ; 3) , , , ;
4) ; 5) , , ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) , ;
9) , , ; 10) , ; 11) , ; 12) , ; 13) ; 14) ; 15) ; 16) ; 17) ,
; 18) , ; 19) , ; 20) ; 21) ; 22) ; 23) , , ; 24) ; 25) ;
26) .
.
258

- 1.
(-/ -), .
, .
: , , , : . -: ( ), , (
); ,
: , , , ,
., . ,
, .

- 2.
. .
.
. /. : ,
. --: ,, ; : // > , > , / > ,

/ >,> 6, > , >,> , >


, , . , , , .
, ,

. :
, .
. ,
: , ; , .
.

- 2. . , :
, .
259

. .
, , ,
-.
(, , , ),
. 1-
. : , ; , ; , ; , .
, - -.
-. : , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , .
, -, - 2- ," .
2- , . ,
,
2- [].
-,
- -, - 2- .
-/-:
- 1.
--/--, --/--, --/--: -/-. , : , .
,
, , ..;
( );
/, ( );
( ); ( );
, ( ); 260

( - ).
: , , , , , , , ,
--, -&-: , .
-: , ,
- 1. --:-/-, --/--, --/--.
, : , .
: , , , , , , ; , , , , .
, , ,
, ,
.
,
- 1.
/, /: -/-, -/-. : ,
; , .
.
,
, :
, , . /
, ,
, .
,
- 2. . , .
-, -- : , ; ,
, , ; , ;
/, /. ; -- .
261

-: , ,
- 2.
-. : --/
- , : ,
; , ; --/-
:
, ; --/- : , ; , . : ,
, , ; , , ,
; , , , ; , , , , ;
, , , ; , , ,
.
( ), (
).
,
- 2, -.
-/-, -/-.
, : , ;
, .
-: , , ; , , , .
.

- 1,
, [j]. -/
['|-/']-]. , :
, .
( , , ..).
--:
- 2.
--/--: -/-, -/-. , : , ; , .
262

-. :
, , ; , , : , , .
.
-: ,
- 2. / /, -,
;
: , , ...;
, , . -.
: , , ; , , .
, , ( ), , ;
.
, , ; ; ;
: (, ), (), ().
-: ,
- 2.
--/--. : ,
; , . - . --. :
, , . , , , , , ,
/, , , , , . --, , ; -: , , .
- .
, , , , , , ;
, , , , .
263

,
(, ). . - : (, ), (, ),
( ) ..
-/-, -/-: ,
- 2. -, - .
, . .
: -/-.
-: , ; ,
, . , ,
, , , , . ,
: -/-,
-/-.
: , ; , ,
; , , , .
, , , ,
, , , . , , , ,
; : (), (), ( ), ( )
.
; -/
-, -
: , ; , , . .
-/-: , .
:
, ; , ;
, , , , , . ,
: , , . .

264

- 2. -/
-, : , .
, , . . , .
, , ,
- 1, --/
[-j-]; , : , .'
: /. , .

- 1. --/[-'-]; : ,
. .
.
,
, ..
1- 2-
.
: , ['] : 2- 3-
,
. . , .
, .

, - 2. -/-, , :
, . :
/.
.
265

; , : /: , , ; : ; , , , ,
, , . ; .


.
1. . , ( , ): ().
2. .'
1) , : ... (). 2) : ) (),,)
( ), ) ( ). 3) (
): ?;
?
3. , , ( ) . 1)
: / 8 . 8 ; 8 .
8 2) ,
: (, ,
, , , , ).

.
1. : ? ( ); ? ( ).
2. :
(, /, , ,
).

266


. , .
Present Indefenite Present Continuous
.
Present Perfect Continuous.

,
.
. , - . , . ,
. :
1) , :
. I am reading now. Present Continuous;
2) , , .. :
. I have been reading for one hour. Present Perfect
Continuous;
3) ( , ) ,
: . I always read correctly.
Present Indefinite.
:

267


Present Continuous
Present Perfect
Continuous
Present Indefinite

, Present
Continuous ;
, .



.

, .

,
.
- , .
, . :
\^
^

\
^

4
^ -
-
, ,

-
, ,

-
, ,

- +
, ,

, ,

, ,

- +

- +
, ,

, ,

, ,


: , ?; , ?
,
. 268

.

.
:
, , , ; , , , ; , , , ; , , ,
; , , , ; , , .
: , , , .
-.
-, , - -.
. : -: ; -/-, -/- ( ): ;
- ( ): .

: " ".
-,

: " ", " ". , : " ". ,
.
, .
: " ". Past Continuous: he was writing. , ,
, .

, . , who
what 3-

269

: Who is (are, was, were) sitting in the room? The student is


(was)./ The students are (were); What is (are, was, were) on the desk?
The book is (was)./ The books are (were),
, - , , ,
- ,
:
/ ? /
/ / :
/ ? /
/ / / (, ).
- , . .
,
.
. - , , : , / . - , : 1)
: / ,
; 2) ,
: / , / ,
/ , .
, , , , , : ;
.

. , . , , :
270

.
.
.

.
. , . :
Past Indefinite, Past Continuous, Past Perfect:
/. I wrote, I was writing, I had written.
:
( ) ( ). ,
, , , , , , , , , , ,
, ,
. , ,
: / I am
tired, / I am sick, / I am cold, he has
got suntanned, he has fallen. , :
/. . , :
/ I was tired
, .
.

, 271

.
:
, / / . Well, I/we'll be off.
! Let us go!; ! Let us run!
.
,
.

.
1.
.
2.
.
3. .
4. ( ) , ) , )
.


: , I shall write.
. ,
, .
.


,
272

.
, : " ".

.
.
:
: I shall be.
. , ,
-:
.
.
.
.

: , ,
. .
shall,
will. , : I shall not read.
. . :
I shall write, I shall be writing; I shall write, I shall have written.
.
,
. , ; ;
, ; , :
(I shall study...); (We shall read...); (I shall write...);
273

(I shall watch...); (I shall translate...),


(he will write...); , (... I shall read).

, ; , ; / ; , :
(I shall buy...); (I shall
read...); (We shall go...);
( will return...); (You will
see...); (I shall write...) .
- :


.
1. : ( )
.
2. :
.
3. : ;
:
;
-; : , , ..

274





Future Indefinite, Future Continuous,
Future Perfect.
Present Indefinite, Present Continuous, Present Perfect: When my friend
lives in Moscow, he will study Russian; If the weather is fine, we shall go
for a walk.
, , "" ,
; " ", . , , ,
.
, , : ,
, .
, ,
: , .
Present Indefinite Present Perfect: I
shall ask him about that when (after) he has come/comes back from India.
Present Perfect
, : I have
received a letter. / ,
: ,
"" .
- .
(
),
. .
275

-1
]
:
,...; -|
, ...; /, ...;
/,...; ,....

-1
, -
.

.
-;
, ,
: , ? ( ? ? ^
.). : , /, , /, ,
, , , /, , /, , : ?;:
?; ? .. |
, . - 1
-
, . -^
. -.
-1

, *
(, , - j
). -
. ,
, , :
( ), .
Past Indefinite, Past Continuous -;
Future in the Past - <
Present Indefinite, Present]

< >ntinuous, Future Indefinite, Future Continuous.


!> Past Perfect, Past Perfect
Jntinuous. . '--I -
*
, ..
. ,
; , 1 - ,
, - ; , - , 1 , -
. >, .
,
: ]
^ , "" ( ).

i .
, , i > (), 1
.

) ,
> ,
> , .

,
,
, ,
,
, .

, . said that she worked there.


, . said that she had worked there.
, . said that she would
work there.
1 . -

276
277

,
, , :
: . , .
said, "I work there". He said that he worked there.
: . , on .
said, "I worked there". He said that he had worked there.
: . , .
said, "I shall work there". He said that he would work there.
,
,
.

, ,
, , , , .: /,
.
- , :
, ,
, "" .
.
,
.

: : , ... who
lived... , , ,
. . ,

.

278

:
1. .
:
, ( ?)
...worked.
...works.
, ( ?) ...worked.
...works.
:
, ( ?) ...worked.
...works.
:
, ( ?) ...was
sick.
, ...is sick.
2. .
:
, ( ?) ...worked.

, , . .
.
1. :
-
; , ;
.
279

2. :
1) : / :
?; 2)
-
.



, ,
- .

.
, ,


, ,
:

Past Indefinite I wrote


,
/, /,
() .
/, /, ()
,



, ,
,

/, , .

I said that I should be glad when (if)


they wrote to me.
I said that I should be glad when (if)
they wrote to me every week.
Past Continuous I was writing
He said that he would be reading
when I was writing the letter.
Past Perfect 1 had written
I said 'that I should show them the
letter after I had written it.
280


: /, ,
"/'"'.
.
, .

.

,
.
, .
, ,
.
, . ,
.
, ,
.
,
- ,
.
281


. - . .
,
: , . ,
, :
to write, to decide.

, .
1. ():
-:

-:
-:
-:
/-:
-:
-:
-:
-:

-:

, , , , , ,
, , ^
;
, , , ;
, ;
;
, ;
( ): ,
, ;
(, );
;
, , , , , , ,
, , ,
;
, ,
, , ,
, ,
;
, , ,
, , ;
, ,
, , .

2.
(),
:
282

-, -- -: , ,
/ /, / /, , , ,
, , ;
--, -- --, --: , , ,
, , ;
- : , , / , , , .
3. ():
, / /, , , , , / /, , , , ,
, , , , .
, , ; :
, , , , ( ), , ,
, , , , , .
, ,
.


.
,
.

. , , .


283

. , .
,
, . -
.
:
I.
1) , :

5) :
. There was a big map hanging on
the wall;
6) , , :
/. My brother can/could draw well;
7)
, :

() . It was raining in the (last)


morning;

,
. The students were listening attentively when the teacher
was explaining the new rule;
/ , . When I was writing
the letter, my friend called me.

2) ,

( ) , .:

, , , /, /, /
:

. We walked in the park for a long time;


3) . : , , , , , ,
.:
. The students used to play/
played voleyball in summer;
. This sportsman wants
always to win;
4) , ( ), . , , :
/ . I watched TV in the evening.
/ ? / . "What were
you doing at the post office?" "I was receiving a parcel";
. I like to dance;
284

; ; .
,
. :
/ ( ;
); / ( ); / ( );
/ (); (
).
,
, - .
: , ; ;
.

II.
1) : , , ,
, , , , , , ^ ]
, , , , ,
: , , , , .
/ . I received a letter yesterday.
/ . I have opened the window.
. I want to buy a new hat;
2) , ;
: ,
, , , , /, ,
, , , , , , , ,
: , , , , , :
/ . I have learned all the new words.
. couldn't learn the rule.
/ / . I wrote the letter
for a long time and at last finished it;
3) ( ); -: , to go, to start (for); -:
, , , , ;
, : to love, to fall in love
(with), to conceive a desire : ,
, :
. My friend went to the theatre.
. The train started.
. After lessons we wanted
to go to buffet.
. must go to the post-office;
4) , ,
( ),
: , ; --: , :
286

() . At once (suddenly) we saw a


dog in the street; . The cat j umped on the table;
5) :
, . When he was going
along the street, he met his friend;
:
/ / . I took the book and
put in into my brief-case.
. , ,
: ,
.
- :
, .
: ( ), ( ); ? to learn, ?
to teach, + to learn how to do: / ;
; .
( ): , ,
, .
, , - .
- : (
), ( ).

,
,
. :
, + , , + to manage
to do, to succeed in doing smth.
. , ,
28

, , () . ,
() :

, : "/ " .

( ) , ; ( )
( ).

,
: / / .
:
/ . : "/".

/ /, / /. /, /
; /, /
:
() ()
; ()
() .
, , , , , ,
, , , , , , ,.
: , ,
:
. We saw an interesting
film yesterday.
/ . I have already read this story.
? Have you had dinner?

:

.
.

/ / .
/ ,
.
.
.
ii

. / . I have finished reading it.


/? ( ) Have you finished?

, , 288

When I was taking dinner,


my friend called me.
When I was taking dinner, it
began to rain.

, , , , ,
, , :

I was writing a letter and


drinking tea.
Whille I wrote the letter,
my friend listened to the radio.

) , :

/,
.
/, - .

, ,
:
/ .

) :

1 i

.
/ ,
/ .
/ /
.

When I wrote the letter,


I went to the post office.
I took the book and
put it in the shelf.

,
:
"".
: ,
289



:

) .
:
.
/ When/If I translate the text,
, . I'll look into the dictionary.
.
) . iI
, , :
,
When I walk I shall
.
meet me friend.

.
.
/ ,
.

.
.
1
.
,
.

) ,
.
When/If I receive a letter,
I'll reply it.
I shall write a letter and
I shall go to the post-office.
) , , :
When I return home I shall
watch TV.

-
- ,
,
Past Indefinite , Present Perfect . , ;
290

, . -

. - ,
.

. ,
; ,
.
:
Past Continuous used
to +
:
I used to read at night.
/.
I was reading while he was writing. /, .
to finish, , , .
.
.

has finished his breakfast.


He finished writing the letter.

:
.
/ ,
/ .
I made two mistakes in the
dictation yesterday.
Why have you made these mistakes?
We corrected mistakes which
we had made in the dictatioa.

We often made mistakes in a


dictation.
When I was writing a dictation,
I made a mistake.
/
.
?
, .

.
1. : 291

,
; .
2. : 1) , ,
;
- ;
2) , (, )
; 3)
/ ,
; 4) ,
, /.
3. : 1) ; 2) , :
; ...; 3) , :
/ .... / ...
. / /, / /: , , (, ..):
,

I ,


5. ,
, : 1) ,
: , ( ...); 2) : ... (/) ;
, ... (/) ; 3)
, ,
-
.
6. -
292

: ( ;
..).

, .
.

.
1. ,
: , , , , , , , , , /, /, , , /, ,
: , , , , , . , , . , : . ( .)
. ( , .)
. ( .) . ( .)
2. :
. , ,
, ,
: ( ).
.
3. () :
. It is impossible to lift the suit-case.
+
: . You must not get up.
, : .
.
1. , , .
2. ,
;
: ?
293

3.
.
4. ,
, , ,
( ; ).


. .
.

2-
. , ,
2-
(-).
,
: , , , read, don't read.
() ()
2- . ( : , ;
: , ). :
--: /, /.
1- --: /, /,
/, /.

1- -/-:
/. 1- ; 3-
: /. -, ,
[]-], .. .
294

, . -, --, --
: /, /,
/. /;
/; , ,
--: /, /. /
,
.
,
, : /, / write.

. , : ! Write...! ] Don't write...!

, ,
Will...?/Please...: , ,
] Will you show (me) the photographs? Please show (me)
the photographs.
, - 1-
3- , ,
: !
: ! ! Don't catch cold!
: !! Be careful not fall down!

: ) ,
:
!, ! Go and look; ) , , : /
/! Take care not to fall down!
.
1. 2- ,
.
2. , .
3. - ,
,
.
295

4.
.
5. ,
.
1- 3-
. . 1- 3-
let. ,
: Let him speak, Let me speak, Let us speak. 3- ,
.
let. let , . "
". . , ,
, -
:
. Let your brother call me
tomorrow; . Let her speak; .
They needn't be afraid.
3- ,
1- : " "; " ".
, 1- 3-
. .
1- : . 1-

: , ! Sasha, let's
go home! ,
, -:
296

! !; , . / 1 - .
: / ! ! Let us read!;
. Let us go to the theatre!
1- . 1- /. : / /! /
/!
.
1. 2- 1- .
2. , /. ( . .)
3.
, 3-
. ( . .)
4. ,
2- 1- ( : , ,
, ..).


,
Subjunctive mood . , , , . ,
-, , /. /6 , . ,
, :
297"

/ / . should (not) come should (not) have come.



:
/ . In August, I should like to
go to the seaside; . You should help me.
.
:

/
, / .

,
.

,

should/would + Ind.
Inf.

Past Subjunctive
If I knew his address,
I woulld write him.
If he were free
tomorrow,
he would go to the
theatre.

should/would + Perf.
Inf.

Past Perfect
Subjunctive

,
.

298

If we had not hurried


(Had we not hurried),
we should have been
late.


,

.

If we had met you


yesterday, we should
have asked you to
help us.


/ ,
/
.

If I had finished my
work yesterday,
I should have been able
to go to the excursion
tomorrow.

.
1. , : ) ; ) .
2. , , :
; !
/
/ , , .
/, -
.
/
.
.

. ( , ): ,
, , , , . : .
,
299

,
: /^, , , /^ /, /, , , , , .
,
: to help the friend.
" ". , /, ( ? to wait for).
/ - , ( , ,
) -.
/ : ( )

.
. -
: , . - (, ) .

, : / /, / .
,
.
: to change ,
] to wake (up) /, .

/ , "", "".
, ,
. 300

, : " "; " ". , , : , , : ; / . (


: ; / .) ; / ;
; .
, , ,
.

.
1.
-.
2. ( /).
3. , , .

()
. . , Passive Voice.

: The
scientists discuss the problem The problem is discussed by the
scientists.

. to be .
,
.
-;
, , ( 301

) .

. .
- .
. ,
: , ,
; ,
, by.
,
,
-: , -'
, , , , -; ,
,
,
. , 2- , .

;
; .

. ,
, , , . , , : "
". ,
302

, . , ;
.

:
() . The problem is being discussed.
The problem is discussed by the
scientists.
The problem has been discussed
()
two years.
.
The problem was being

discussed the whole day.
() .
The problem was discussed
.
yesterday.
The problem will be discussed

by the scientists.
.


.

.
. ,
, , ,
.
, -.

.
.
The problem is discussed.
. The problem has been discussed by
the scientists.

The problem was discussed by the
.
scientists.

The problem will be discussed by the
.
scientists.

303

,
,
-:
.

.
.
.

, , : : "",
: "''/"".

: , .
, ,
,
. ,
. , ,

. , , ,
.
-,
, , , :

( ).

(-).
304

The pupil's pencil broke.


The pupil's pencil was broken.

The window opened.


The window was opened.

().
(-).

, . . , - ,
, ,
:
was invited to the concert.
An important question was discussed
at the conference.

.
.

.

.

, - : I want to be invited. , .

. , , . , . , ,
( )
- :
I was helped.
I was shown a new dictionary by
my brother.
He was given a ticket to the concert.

.

.
.

.
1. .
2. .
305


. ; -, . -/-
-. . - : - , - ,
, . : - , ..
. ,
,
.
.
,
. - ; - . - -/-. ,
. -/-,
( ), : -
, ;
- , . -, -, [] + []: ['],
[']. , - , ..
, :
, : . , "I wash myself my hands".
- . -self (myself, yourself, himself,
306

herself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves); , .


:

CD

, -
-/- ,
: . washed in the morning.
"". : ,
.
, , , ., - .
. ,
.


. , . . .

, . , to study, , :
.
,
, "" .

. -
- .
. :
307

: to return, to give back


.
: to return, to come back
.
: to study, to learn .
: to study
.
.
, :
. , , , . , , , :

:

to start
to begin

to finish
to continue

to start to end
to begin

'
to last

9 ; ; 8 ;
.
,
, : to study, to lie
down, to sit down, to be situated.
- , , - .
, ,

, , -
. , ,
. :

308

,
- .
, .
- : 1) , ; ; 2) . ,
, :
1) / / to throw; / /;
// to prepare; / /; / / to change; / /; // to treat, to cure, to undergo a cure, to be cured; // to
break, / / to name, to be named; /
/; / /; / / to stop; / / to send, to set off;
( ), to turn; / / to
repeat; / / to raise, to ascend; /
; // to hide; / / to break; / to accomplish, to happen; / / to save;
/ / to drop, to go down; // to lose,
to be lost; // to learn, to teach;
2) / to worry, / to be worried; to worry, / to be worried, anxious; /
to introduce, / to make acquaintance; to excuse, to appologize; / to interest, / to be interested; / to
frighten, / to be frightened; / to make happy/glad,
/ to be happy/glad; / to make angry, / to be angry; to surprise,
to be suprised.
, -/-: , /, , , , , ,
/, , , /,
.
, . , , ,
. (,
: , /, ..)
309

- , , : . The pupil's pen broke; .


My spectacles have been lost.
-
. ,
- .
-/- .
-
- .
,
-,
.
, /, /, /
to meet, to greet, to say good-bye, to make
acquaintance.
/ / ,
-/-.

to meet,
. , " "; " "; " ".
. ,
(), :
. . , ()
: .

,
. : /
; /
. 310

one another, each other: They met one another.


,
-/- (. ).
/, /
, , , . -/- ,
-
(. ).
.
1. - ,
.
2. , .
3. , , , , .
4. ,
: 5 .
5 .
5. ...?; 1 ...?
6. , : . .
7. to begin, to return .
8. , - , .
9. to meet, .
10. ( , .).
11. ,
: / ; .
12. ,
311

, , , : , , , , .
13. ,
, : / . .
14. , .



Present Participle Active.

,
. ,
Present Participle Active. , .
.
Walking in the park, I met my friend When I was walking...
I met my friend walking in the park ...who was walking...
Present Participle Active
, , .
. , ,
.
.
(-, --):
.

, Present
Participle Active, when: Walking in the park, I met my friend. (When I was
312

walking...). , / .
:
, / , , , /
/ .
. , .
. , , : . : , ///
; , ; , .
: , / / ,
, , / .
, ; . , . : The weather being fine,
we went for a walk. ,
( ).
.
,
,
.
, : ,
, . Having read the book/After (on) reading the book...
. , :
Present Participle Active,
when/while + Present Participle Active: reading, when/while
reading;
313

Present Participle Active,


Perfect Participle Active, on/after + Gerund: receiving, having
received, on/after receiving.
without + Gerund: , .
left without saying good-bye.
, , , ,
.
.

-, - ( ); 1-
: - ; - ; , - . -, --, -- : . . , -,
-: .
, -, - ( ,
), , , , , , , ,
, .
-/- ( ),
-- ( -): /
, ; - ( -): , .
-/-, -/- , ,
/ - ( ) - (
): /; /; / ( -);
-: , , .
, .
314

,
( ). , , . ,
, :
, / / ... / / .
,
, .
,
, .
, - , , .
, , ,
: ,
. , - .

: ,
; ,
.
.
1. :
) , ) ( -,
-, --, -, --, -).
2.
: , ...; , ...
3. ,
, .
4. ,
( ,
).
315

5. , .
6. , -ing Present
Participle Active, Continuous Tense, Verbal Noun, Gerund,
, , , .
7. , without + Gerund, .
8. , ,
, , .

, .
, .

. . Present
Participle Active, who, which :
We looked at the man, sitting at the window.
, ,
.

. , ,
, : , .. , , .. . , , ? : ?
() , ; ?
316

() , . , . ,
, ,
: ? () ; ?
() .
, , : // . .

. : ; , , Present
Participle Active : ,
playing.
, . : //
.

, , .
:

...which has come,


,
...which had come.

, .
.
( ),
.. ,
( ), .. .
: .
Participial Phrase.
:
. ,
317

, -:
1) ,

2) ,
.

3)
.

: We admired the raising sun; The parties
participating signed the agreement.
(" "). .
3. ,
( ) : " ".
3
, : . ,
: ... ,
, , , .
3, , : 1)
; 2) ,
, : ... . 2 - . 3 ,
.
, .
,
318

: .
. , , . ,
. , , .
.
.

(
3- )
--, --: , -, -, -;
, -, -, -; --, --\ , -, -, -; , -, -, -.
: 1) --\ , -, -, -; 2)
/ -( ): )
, -, -, -; ) , -, -, -; , -, -, -; ) , -, -,
-; , -, -, -;
, -, -, -; , -, -, -;
, -, -, -; , -, -, -; ) , -, -, -; ,
-, -, -; ) , -, -, -.
,
-, - : , ..

. .
. ,
319

, , : , "" ; , "".
, , , ( )
( ). , , ,
.
:
=* , .
,
, :
office worker; beginners;
smokers; guests (at a holiday centre, etc.); those present; those seeing smb. off;
students, pupils; former; outstanding, eminent;
typewriter; the future;
mammal.
.
1. :
) ; ) ; ) .
2. .
3.
.
4.
.
5. ( 2 3).
6. ;
2 3.
7.
.
8.
.
9.
: / .
.
320

10. , , ,
.
11. , Present Participle Active,
.


-/-,
,
, :
. Past Participle Passive.
/.
,

! Past Participle Passive: the
letter received. ,
, ,
. Past Participle Passive

, :
, : / .

, , ,
,
. ? . .

:
321

1) / .

2) / ,
3) / . ?
, ,
. :
The broken cup lay on the table.
The results obtained were very important.


.

.

3, .

Past Participle Passive, , . , .
, Past Participle Passive
: The work finished we went home.
, .

.

--, --, -~, --
. . :
) -- -, -, -; , -/-,
: , -, -, -; , -, -, -;
) --, -- ( )
- ( 1- ;
322

2- ):
, ; ,
; , ;
, ; -/
-, -/- ' / : , ; , ;
- / ;
:
; ;
) - , , , ,
, , -, -, -. ,
- -(), :
, , ,
, , , , , ,
, ; : ,
.
,
, :
wounded man, scientist, data, all that was told, all that was heard.
2.
, .

.
, .
--, --
. 1- .
1- : , -, -, -; , -, -, -. 323

-,
--, --: , ,
.
, , - (), (, , , ),
, , - (, ).
. , , Present Participle Passive , , Past
Participle Passive , : , , . The
question now being discussed at the meeting is very important . The question discussed is very
important.
,
? . .
:
1) .
2) , ,
.
3)
.

'


--, -- ( -), -ible, -able,
-uble: / in/visible, / in/divisible, /
in/admissible, unforgettable, / in/
dependent, invincible, unrecognisable, respected, minerals, ()
(all) visible and invisible things
-, -(bili)ty, -ence: /
in/divisibility, / in/admissibility, / in/dependence, reccurence, resistibility.

-, ,
: , being
built: / . We
approached the house being built.
324



.
, .
. , , --,
: , -, -, -; ,
-, -, -; , -, -, -; ,
, , .

,
.
(. ), ..
to be Past
Participle Passive.
--, -- / :
; , ( / ).
Past Participle Passive ( ) ( to be).
.
.
, ?, .
.
,
to be.
/ .
() .

...letter received
...is/was received

,
.
325

.

.
, ,
( ). : The actor inyited
by us to the party came at six o'clock. ,
, The actor, whom we invited to the party,
came at six o'clock. , ,
. , whom
, , ,
,
by , , -. , ,
: , (which) /, .
, . , to be;
: The actor
who was invited by us to the party came at six o'clock. , , .
, , ~,
-; , , , (to be seen, to be heard) , . : (, ) ;
; () .
,
: , . One could hear birds
singing; () . I can/could see well.

:
326

.
1. .
2. .
3.
.
4.
.
5. , .
6.
( , ) .
7. ( , ) .
8. ) -, ) .
9. .
10.
, .
11.
;
2 3.
12. .
327

13 ) ,

^ .
14. ^
^ .

15 )
' , ) : /

- .
16
;
.
17.




18.

18
, -

.
19. , , , () / , ()

/,/.


.
: . -. , -* -. Coo6^ a e M i 0
1]0, .
) to.
< . , ,
(.<' . Hiioi ,
iicoftnf .
. : : |) . . 1 ( | | | | | , it, it ' 1
'/.) | ' , 1 (I |,| .
< > 111||,|

- . .
: . skate
is pleasant; , , , , , .;
, /, /, , /
, , ,
, , /,
, , /, /, /:
. We begin to work at nine
o'clock; . I like to read.
: I like reading.

, ,
, :
"". , , . , ,
, . , to ( must, can, may), .

: "".
,
.
: ;
.
,
,
: We begin
329

13. ) ,
) .
14.
.
15. )
, ) : /
. .
16.
;
.
17.
.
18. ,
, -
.
19. , , , () / , ()
/, / .


.
: . -. , - -. ,
, .
to.
,
. .
.
: 1) , ; 2) , .

328

- . .
: . skate
is pleasant; , , , , , .;
, /, /, , /
, , ,
, , /,
, , /, /, /:
. We begin to work at nine
o'clock; . I like to read.
: I like reading.

, ,
, :
"". , , . , ,
, . , to ( must, can, may), .

: "".
,
.
: ;
.
,
,
: We begin
329

our lessons, We begin our work, We begin learning Russian.


,
, : (, ..).
, , ( , , )
. to know
, .
how ().
: " , ".
, , ( ' ',
'
', ' ')
: 1) ? ?, 2) ,
; , + , .

. glad, happy .
,
: / , / ,
/ , / .
: /, ( ). I am glad to live in Moscow. : /, .
,
: , ,
.

to see y/; to watch, to observe ; to notice ; to hear /; to feel /
330

to think no/; to believe , ; to expect ; to suppose ; to


know ; to hope , ,
. : We did
not see her enter the room We saw her entering the room; I knew
his friend to work at the university; I find him to be a very clever
man. ,
.
, : " () /
"; " / "; " ".
,

,
, . ,
: () , / ; /, /
( );
, .
,
,
,
,
: , /
. We saw the sportsmen playing volleyball.


: , , , , .
.
1. :

331

: . ,
; . ,
.
2. :
1) , : ) ; ) ; 2) : / . ;
3)
.
: . I want to dance. ,
: I want my sister (her) to meet me; . ,
,
, ,
,
, , , , - : ,
() .

, to want
;
,
: . , .
,
,
, , , , , ,
: /, /, /,
, , , , , /.
: !
, / .
My friend asked me to help him.
332

. to say, to tell, to write. , -

, /
.
:
: !
, .
The teacher told the student to come to the blackboard.


" ". -

. , / .

,
, , , . - : ; . ,
, : ;
.
, .
,
: "" .
, ,
. : , .
; , .
333

.
/
.
for + :
( ),
. Minimum
amounts of adrenalin are sufficient to normalise the vital activity of the
organism;
, . It was
enough for me to say two words for the child to calm down.
, -,
, / .
, ,
. ( ) ,
:
, . I don't know what to do; ,
. did not know whether to go there or not.
,
: 1) to
say ; to report ; to suppose ; to think
, ; to expect ; to know ; to understand
''; to consider ; to see ; to hear
2) to seem, to appear /; to
prove ; to happen .

- 3- ,
- 3- , ,
:
334

is said to live in Kiyev.


He seems to be pleased.
Oxygen is known/proved to
support burning.

, .
, () .
/,
.

, /,
:
. This method is considered to
be correct.

-.
, ,
, , ,
. .

/, , . ()
:
" ".
, .

, . ,
-
(, ...
, ...), ( ... , ...).
335

, , : desire to
dance. ,
- -'
, .
+ /
+ /of : / an opportunity to study/of studying. , .
: Passive Infinitive
:
We shall tell you about experiments to be carried out. , / .
Passive Infinitive, , + :
Bacteria are too small to be seen with naked eye. , / ...
' , ; ;
, .
.
336


, : ,
, .

before:
,
...
Before leaving/Before he had left for Ukraine he called on his friend.
,
(
/ before), ,

.

,
- .
, one 1- : , () .
:
....

-ing, .

, . :
,, -(): , , , , ,
337

, ;
-() : , ,
, , , , ; , .
,
,
, , "". ,
.
:
( ); ;
--, --,
: '
; (--, --, --),
: ; .
.

. . : , ,
, , , , , , .
was awakened by their loud talking.
.
( ) :
. Swimming is a good sport;
. I like reading,
. There are different ways of solving this problem.
338

,
,
"". .
, , ,
: .
, , ,
Gerund
: ; .

, .

: , , , .
( - ; --, --, --, -- ). - ,
-
. . --, , ' , ': / ' - '.
to show, to become, to
turn, to get, to grow . --,
, '
339

': , , , , .
:
; ,
- .


,
.
,
, .
-, , , , .
-

(--/--):

to write

to copy
to sign
to insert (in writing),
to inscribe
to write out
to write down
to describe

, ( ) : , . -


340

, :
"", "".
: : 1)
: to make; 2)
:
to do anew.
. -,
-, -, -, -, - ,
; , . : -/-, -/

-, -/-, -/-, -/-, -/-, -/-, -/


-. ,
, - : , , [-'], ; , , .
,
. - , , . .
, , .
. ,
, - ( -: ) . , : -, -
(, ),

(, ).

,
:
341



-/- in,
into, to
-/-/-
up/ward(s)

-/-

re-

- out
doto add
- behind

, ? ?

, ? to go up,
to ascend, to run up
,
to reconstruct, to reproduce

, ? ?
to pour smth. out of
, to reach
, to add to,
to complete
?

1)

2)

? ? ?
,
( ?) to call for smb.,
at some place, at smb.
3) - , , ? to drop in on
smb., to call on smb.
4) - ,
(
. )
-on, upon
? ? to stick on

, , ,
to plot on (a
map)
- super-,

to
superscribe
supra
? ?
-

,
- un
to understimate

0-/06-/060- 1)
to surround,

? ?
2) ; ,
(
)
,
-/-

,
-
342

<
.'
'.

-/- off, ,

away from
-

? ? to take off,
to separate,
to cut off
? ? to cross
1)

- trans,

.
ii,
x*^w
crossing, transition

-
across, over
2)

to transplant,
trans-,
, ,
,
-
to move to
, ,
a different

place
3) to rewrite,
re-, again,

to anew, to rework
anew
()
4) to overheat,
over-, too

much
,
1)
no- to start
(doing smth.)
(

)
, , ,
(to do smth.) 2)
, ,

(
for a while

)
-/-/ 1) ?
?
to come
sub-, under-,
sup-

11

npetrans-

2) ? ?,

?, ? to underline,
to support
1)
,


2)

to transform,
?
343

,
to foresee, ,
,
npu- to come 1) ? ?
to come running to
2) ? ? to stick on,
to add
to attach to
- through 1) ?

-
, ,
2)
()

? ?
3)
-
to devide,
-/-/ 1)
to cut into (parts),
- dis-, di-, ,
,

apart
, ,
2)

to disarm,
3)

?,
c-/co- down/ 1)

ward(s), off
to call
2)
together
together, /,
,
(with)
/, ,
,
,

to converge
3) , ?
? to go/to drive

4) - ? to accompany
,
to collaborate,

?,

?
,
1)

y- away
2) , ,
( ,
)
- before,
fore-, pre-

344



, ,
, ,
( )
, ,
, ,

unsafe,
it is dangerous,
,

-
-
- above
- ,
-

, ,

- beyond


internal political
-
intemal


- out of
-
combined,
-
,
-,
international
,
inter

- trans
-
,
-
,
- ,

- post -

mi-, im-, ir-,

dis-, mis-, less


-/-/-
im-, in-, un-,

dis-/-/

345

anti- anti
- superultrapseudo- false-

,
,
,

, ,

,


-

."
1. , .
2. , .
3. .
4. , (-: . ...).
5. , .
6. , ;
.
7. -

.
8.
, .
9. .
10. .
11. ( ).
346

12. (
).
13. , : , , ,
, ..
14. , .
. . .

, :
" ".
.

/
/
(, )
/
()

( )

( )

(, )


/ / to join,
to unit
(, , , )
to cure
()
to seize
(, )
? to run away;
(, ) to avoid
to let out;
(, ) to eradiate

, ( , ); .


, ,
.
, ,
. to walk,
. :
""; "" . : to go for a walk, to stroll; to walk, to go, to be
going .
to go,
, .
.
: ; .
. , by:
, , , :
; . to drive, to ride. /
, to
come: Come here!
.
1. ,
: ?; ?
2. , to go, to walk, to come.
3. : ?
...

. , .
: , .
348

, .
. ,
. 1) , 2) , 3) , 4)
: /?; ;
; ; .
.
. ,
Continuous,
Indefinite:
? Where are you going}; / ,
/ . When I wasgoingby bus, I was reading newspaper;
. went to his work by bus;
. His son already walks.

:
^^-

to be going

^ " - -

to go

(on foot)

(by vehicle)

,
.
.
1. , , ,
, .
2. 1 ?,
.
3. , ,
( , ) .
. ,
. 349

: , to go, to
start, to set off. ( . .)

- /- /-


. , , -/-/-, -,

+ . ?
to walk/to come/
to arrive up to

-, -, -/-/-, -/-/-, -. -

.
, , .. , .
: ,
: to learn, to prepare.
. ,
,
, : to go, to come.
.
, . , . : ,
, : , , ; , , ( , ) : ,
, , ; , .
- :
-/-/>
,
+ . ?
to walk/to go/
to come/
to drive into,
to enter,
to get into

<

y<


+ . ?
to walk/to go/to
drive out of,
to get off /out of
, + .
?
to go/to come/
to drive into
+ . ?

350

,
+ . ?
, + . ?
, , + .
?
to come to/from,
to arrive in/at/from

,
, , + .
?
, + , ?
+ . ?
to go/to drive
away from,
to leave for

om-/omo-.otm-

do^

,
+ . ?
to walk/to go/
to move/to drive
away from

,
+ . ?
to walk/to go as far as,
to reach, to get to

.
1) - ,
:
-. My friend left for SanctPetersburg.
-. My friend came/arrived to
Sanct-Pentrsburg.
2) , ,
, , , :
/ , , , ; , ,
. , , :
( ).
3) ' ', ,
' '.
to leave.
( ) :
? May I come in? ! Come in!;
. entered the room; . went out of
the room; . The passengers left the coach;
. We left Moscow at six o'clock;
351

. went into the corridor; .


went out; . got off at the stop; . came into the class-room; ?
/ . Where did you come from? I came from England;
. came to the doctor's; .
left the classroom; . left Moscow
for Sanct-Petersburg; . left the doctor's;
. has already left; . came up to the
blackboard; . stepped away from the blackboard;
. The train has left; . I am comming;
. reached the shop; ? Have you a good
journey?; () ? How can I get to the station?
.
1. ,
, .
2. .
3. , , .
.
, ~ . , :

,
.
-. : , , , ,
, , , . , , ,
, . 352

. :
, ,
.
-/
- -/-, -/-. , .
, . / , / , /
to take,
, . , ,
to take, ,
, , / , /
/ . , ;
/ , / , / .
,
, .
, to take in hands:
. / to take, to carry in hands: . /
to take, to carry in a vehicle: /
. / to take,
to lead: .
,
, to wear
: , ,
to wear a dress, watch, spectacles.
/ to swim, to sail, to boat, to float: . The boy
started swimming to the bank; . can swim well;
. The ship was sailing on the sea;
. We boated down the river; .
Clouds are floating across the sky.
/ , , ,
: The bus is running fast. /
353

; Rivers run into the sea. ; The tears ran


down her cheeks. ; The play ran for two
years. ; The road ran to the left. ;
There are shelves running round the walls. .

: / to drive a car, / to fly an aeroplane, / to
navigate a ship..
.
1. , , /, /, / - -.
2. , ,
, , , .
3. .
4.
.
'
5. , .
6. ,
, , , , , , , :
. .
7. , ,
: .
8. , , ,
.

.
:


. , , , ( -)
, , : to go, to come. ,
() ().
,
. -

354

,
.
, , (-, -, -): , ,
.
-, -, -, -, -, -
, , :
to go away

to come up (to)

to run away

to swim up (to)

, , ,

.
:


to bring

to take

away

to carry/

to carry/

take out

bring in

355

:
. The postman brought me the parcel.
. The builders brought sand.
. Mother brought her son to school.
- , , , ,
, -, -:
?

to
take
(to)


-

/ . I took the book to the library.


. took his things to the station.
. Mother took her son to school.
*

-- -- :
--: trip, journey; arrival; departure;
porch, entrance; train; driving, riding;
--: entrance; entrance; exit; exit;
day off; () arrival; ()
departure; passage, crossing.
.
1.
.
2. , , , .
3. , , ,
, , , , , .
4. , , , , .
5. ,
-- -- ( ,
.).
,
, .
356

. , ?
-, -, -, - ( )
(, , . .).


to be
; ; ; .
/ + + + ,
there is/are: /.
.
, : . ,
, to have, to have , ,
: | has | a book. \ \ ; | has | blue
eyes. \ "" \ .

.
1. , , , :
? Have you a house? , . ? What is your
house like? . It is big.
to have. to have
.
2. -
( ): ; .
3. :
. :
357

? :
.
.
1. ,
, :
. .
2. , , .
3. to have (
).

: . . .
,
, , . ,
. and
.
: . ,
, ,
, ,
[]:
[], [' ].
.
, , , , .
and but :

358


, and, , but, : ""
; , "" . . ,
,
, , , .
; ,
(and). : , (and); , (but).
; ,
, , ,
:
, (but) ( : ).
, , .
.


. : . .
or .

,
, , :
?; ...
, , , : ...; , ...; .
( ); , and but,
.

359


. ,
. .
, .
, .
also, too; aussi.
. ;
. .
.
. .

. , ; ; too , also -:
. My brother lives also in Moscow.
My brother lives in Moscow, too. Mon frere habite aussi Moscou.
,
.
: also, too; aussi; not... either; non plus:
. ( ). I don't work either. Moi
plus, je ne travaille pas.
so do I
, I do not either ,
.
/
aussi . aussi : 1) que, 360

: aussi gai que , ; 2) (si): C'est une question aussi


importante. , 3) ,
(c'est pourquoi): II est tres intelligent aussi tout le monde lui
demande son avis. ,
. .
,
aussi ,
.

, .
" ",
, : . . also aussi
.
, :
"" . ,
:
, , (besides that, autre cela).
,

besides that, autre cela,
.
; , .
,
and, et.
:
. ? , .
. .
/ . /.
361


, , .
. ,
.
that.
: (what), that.
.
.
:
what

that

.
that . , , , : ,
, . who, which: who, which
: , /. This
is the man I have told you about.
, , , : I know your brother is / to be
a clever man. , .
.
1.
: , ;
, .
2.
362

: I know him to be a student; I know she lives


in Petersburg.
,
, . .
... , ... ,
.
... , ... , ... . .
.
, . , : ... both... and, ... either... or,
... either... or, () ... neither... nor. ..., ,
not only... but. ... both... and, , .

... . and ; , .
.
... , ... .

:
, ...;
: Both professor and
students were at the meeting.
, , , .

363


particle .
, , , .
. , .. .
.
.
: , only, even,
just. . , , , ; .
. . , , , ,
, , , .
,
, , ,
.
, , .

, .

, , , .
, ,
. 364

, ,
.
, . (, ); , (, ). ,
; .
, .
, really, surely, can.
, .
:
? ( /, .) ? Don't you know?; ? ( /, .) ? Has he really arrived?;
? Can that be true?; . ? Really?
, here, there, over there.
, , . , - :
(). ; ()! There!; . Here is our
house; . There is our village; .
There is our bus coming; . You will have classes in this lecture room.
, : ; !
Very well! and so :
. Here is our bus (at last).
. And so we have arrived.
but; but, then, after all, on earth;
well, now.
, .
365

,
, . , :
/ , / . But I
told you that;
..., ... But you know;
. is a good specialist after all; ? Where
on earth are you going?; \ Go then!; !
Come back immediately!
, : , ! , ! Go then, let us go!; ,
\ ,
: ? ? Well, do you like my new hat?; ! What then?
: . All right; , .
Well, let us begin our work; . Well then; ,
. Well then, come tomorrow.
, , , also, (the) same. .
, . (,
), and:
( also).
, , , ,
: ... / not... either:
.

()...,
; ()..., . : at the same place, to
the same place, at the same time, as much,
() the same, () the same, he also:
.
, , , .
366

-
. same. ,
: "" .
.
:

. .
, , , ,
, .
it is (was,...) that, who; that is how (who, what, where...).
... ()
() / . That is precisely what I wanted
to say.
.
namely:
, , . Fruits contain vitamins, namely , and .
just
. You have just come in time.
Bom + that is (was) + : , , , , , that
is who/what/how/where/how many (much)/why:
. That is how we lived; . That is why John was ]ate; . That is
what my mother was thinking about.
367

( ) It is/was... who/that...; as/so much:


... it is/was he who..., ... ... it is/was this..., ... ... it is/
was there that, ... it is/was then that, ... ... it is/was in this
way that...:
. It was he who told me that;
. It was there that we lived; /. I thought as much;
. It was this man who helped me.
:
It was yesterday that I saw him. /
/.
it/that is... who/what... " '
"; " /"; " /".
, , " ,/..."
.
:
? What kind of tree is it?

, , ,
, , , .
.
: , ;
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