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-

xWDM?



, , OSNR
(EDFA), , FEC


PMD, FWM, SPM, XPM

DWDM-
/ /

: OADM / ROADM

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

xWDM?

Wavelength Division Multiplexing


WDM-



TX
TX
TX

RX

RX

TX

Cisco Public

RX
RX

WDM

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

850

1310

, ,

:
850 , 1310 , 1550 , 1625

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

1550

1625

C =x l

: l()
: ()

ITU-T
= = () =

l()
1675

1625

1565

1530

S C L
1460

E
1360

1260

0.4

()

1528.77
50

1552.52

193.1

1578.23

()
190.1

196.2
Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

DWDM CWDM
Dense WDM

Coarse WDM

Long Haul, Metro

Metro

88-

8-

0.4

20

3000

80

1528 1562

1270 1610

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

,


()

()

Cisco Public


2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Bit Error Ratio (BER)


BER




,
BER,
BER
BER

DWDM-
BER=1012

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.



(BER)
=




2-3
,
,


,
Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

10

-
= -2
= -28

= -2 (-28) = 26

-2

-28
= 26

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

11


:
(Core) ,

(Cladding)
8
.

125

(Coating)


250
Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

14

(1)
(MMF):

50
62,5

(SMF):


WDM-

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

n2

n1

n2

n1

15

(2)
DS

NZDS+

NZDS-

SMF

SMF (NDSF) G.652


>90%

(/*)

25
20
15
10
5
0
-5

-10

DSF G.653
NZDSF G.655

-15

-20
1350

1390

1430

1470

1510

1550

1590

1630

()
Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

16

(3)

SMF
(G.652)

1310
OK 1550
OK DWDM ( )

DSF
(G.653)

OK 1310
1550
DWDM (C-Band)

NZDSF
(G.655)

OK 1310
1550
DWDM (C + L Bands)

Extended Band
(G.652.C)

1310
OK 1550
OK DWDM ( )
CWDM (>8 )

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

17


,
,

.



OSNR



OSNR

()
Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

19



(/)

S-band:14601530nm

2.0

0.5

C-band:15301565nm
L-band:15651625nm

Loss (dB/km)

0.2
800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

Wavelength (nm)

(CD)
()


/ (OSNR)


Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Time Slot

2.5Gb/s

10Gb/s

Fiber

Fiber

S+N

20





()

()
()

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

21

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

850 nm

1310 nm

1550 nm

22



S-band:14601530
C-band:15301565
L-band:15651625

(/)

OH-

0.5 dB/Km

0.2 dB/Km
800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

()
Hydroxyl ion absorption is the absorption in optical fibers of electromagnetic waves,
due to the presence of trapped hydroxyl ions remaining from water as a contaminant.
Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

23



(Microbends)


(Macrobends)






/


Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

24


:
() = 10log10 (P /P)
L ()

:
(/) = 10log10 (P/P)/L

:
P () = 10log10(P / 1 )
P

P
T

T
Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

25

P/P

:
Gain = 10log10 P/P

: P/P = 2; Gain = 10log10 2 = 3

: Gain = 17 , P/P = 1017/10 = 50


Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

26

EDFA-
Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFA)
:
C-band: 1530 1565
L-band: 1605 1625

30
+27 , 500

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

27

EDFA-

,

, 980 1480


WDM
980- 1480-

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

28

EDFA-
,
.
,

~1u

Energy = h*

980

Energy = h*

+ =


1550


1550


Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

29


Bit 1

Bit 2

Bit 1

Bit 2

Bit 1

Bit 2

Bit 1

Bit 2

Bit 1

Bit 2

, ,

(ISI),



/ (/*)



Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

30



(DCF)



O-E-O

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

31

(1)

, (D>0),
,
(D<0),
,

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

32

(2)

(DCF),
,

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

33

(3)

[/*]

[/]

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

34

/
OSNR (1)

OSNR,

OSNR ()

OSNR

()

OSNR = ----------------

()

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

35

/
OSNR (2)

EDFA-.
C (ASE)
EDFA
(OSNR)

(OSNR)

Pin

(OSNR)out =

1
1
+ h*f*B*NF
(OSNR)in
Pin

NF

, OSNR
OSNR O-E-O

OSNR,

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

36

G.709 Forwarding
Error Correction (FEC)

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

37

/
G.709 Forwarding Error Correction (1)

OTUk
OH

2
3

ODUk

OPUk OH

1 Alignm

Client Signal
OPU
k Payload
Mapped
in
OPUk Payload

4080

3824
3825

14
15
16
17

7
8

G.709

Forwarding Error Correction (FEC)

OTUk
FEC

Client Signal
OPUk Optical Channel Payload Unit
ODUk Optical Channel Data Unit
OTUk Optical Channel Transport Unit
Alignment

k Indicates
the Order:
1
2.5G
2
10G
3
40G

FEC
,
Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

38

/
G.709 Forwarding Error Correction (2)
, ,

,
1011
1000
1011
0100

1
1
1
1

1100

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

1011
1000
1001
0100

1
1
1
1

1100

1 =
0 =

39

/
G.709 Forwarding Error Correction (3)
0

FEC
OSNR

FEC
OSNR
8.4

2
3
4
5
6

BER

G.709 FEC
OSNR 6.2
(BER 10-15)

7
8
9
10
11

12

EFEC = 8.4 dB

13
14
15

FEC = 6.2 dB
4

10

11

12

13

14

15

OSNR ()

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

40

/
(1)
20-

,


,

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

41

/
(2)

100

~48

DWDM

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

DWDM

10

20

30 40 50 60 70
()

80

90 100

42

2.5G



OSNR

28
1600 /

21

SMF-28

120

0.25

30

25

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

43

EDFA

2.5G

+5



OSNR

28

11

1600 /

21

SMF-28

120

0.25

25

20

0
9

+5

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

44

EDFA

2.5G

+5

28

11

1600 /



OSNR

21

SMF-28

120

0.25



2004 /

16.7 /*

1670 /

334 /

0 /

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

45

EDFA

DCF

2.5G

1950 /

+5

10

28

11

1600 /



OSNR

21

SMF-28

120

0.25

35
54 /
25
2004 /

16.7 /*

20
1670 /

+0
334 /

9 dBm
+ 5
0 /

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

46


OSNR

EDFA 2

DCF

2.5G

35

1950 /

15

10



OSNR

28

20

1600 /

21

OSNR

SMF-28

120

0.25

OSNR
16.9 dB

35
15
54 /

16.7 /*

25
2004 /
20
1670 /

+0
334 /

9
+ 5
0 /

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

47


OSNR

EDFA 2

DCF

2.5G

35

1950 /

15

10



OSNR

28

20

1600 /

21

SMF-28

120

0.25

OSNR
21.9 dB
16.9

RAMAN

15
54 /

16.7 /*

25
2004 /
20
1670 /

+0
334 /

9
+ 5
0 /

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

48


OSNR FEC

EDFA 2

DCF

2.5G

35

1950 /

15

10



OSNR (E-FEC)

28

20

1600 /

OSNR
16.9 dB

12

SMF-28

120

0.25

15
54 /

16.7 /*

25
2004 /
20
1670 /

+0
334 /

9
+ 5
0 /

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

49



(PMD)



Ey
nx
Ex
ny
Pulse As it Enters the Fiber

(FWM)

Spreaded Pulse As
it Leaves the Fiber

-5

Power (dBm)

-10

-15
-20
-25
-30
-35
-40
1542

1543

1544

1545

1546

1547

1548

(SPM, XPM)

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

SPM Distortion

Wavelength (nm)

Power

51


Ey
nx

Ex

ny

X Y.
- ,
.
.
PMD , CD
PMD
(10 / )

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

52

(FWM)

, ,

l1

l2

l3
5

Input Power = +4 dBm/ch

f213

f231

f123
f113

f112

f312
f223

f132

f321
f221

f332

f331

CD
Cisco Public

()

10

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

15
20
25
30
35
40
1542 1543 1544 1545 1546 1547 1548

()
53

(SPM)


,
,
. ,
.



SPM + Dispersion < 0

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

SPM + Dispersion > 0

54

- (XPM)
XPM
,

XPM
, ,

XPM

XPM

XPM

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

c XPM

55


2.5 /

FEC

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

56

DWDM-

DWDM-
,

,
- (OADM)
OADM (R-OADM)
, ,

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

58

DWDM-

ITU-T

O-E-O

Tx

850, 1310, 1550

15xx.xx

G.709
Rx

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

59

DWDM-

ITU-T

O-E-O

Tx

850, 1310, 1550 nm

15xx.xx

G.709
Rx

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

60

DWDM-

N

1, 2, .N
1

DWDM-

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

61

DWDM-
-

1Ch OADM

1 drop

Rx
Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

1 add

Tx
62

DWDM-
OADM (R-OADM)
R-OADM (

/)

/

, R-OADM
2-
, /

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

R-OADM
Line
West

ROADM
West

ROADM
East

Add/Drop
West

Add/Drop
East

Line
East

63

DWDM-
R-OADM

(Pass-through/Add/Block)

80/20

Pass

DWDM

Add
Pass

Add

l1

block drop block

l3

drop

l1

l3

l1

l1

l3

l3

l1

l3
Add

DWDM

l1

l3

drop block drop block

Pass

80/20

Add
Pass


(Pass-through/Add/Block)
Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

64

DWDM-
2-Degree Multi-Degree R-OADM
ROADM
(East)

ROADM
(West)

2-Degree R-OADM (R-OADM 2-


)
/

ROADM
(Side B)

Multi-Degree R-OADM (R-OADM


)

PP-MESH

/

(Mesh)

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

65

DMX

MUX

WXC

DWDM-
4-Degree R-OADM

A
MUX

WXC
P

MUX

D PP-MESH-4

DMX

WXC
P

DMX

DMX
P

MUX

WXC

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

66

DWDM-
4-Degree Broadcast & Select

MUX

D PP-MESH-4

1C

2C

3C

4C

...

80C

1D

2D

3D

4D

...

80D

1A

2A

3A

4A

...

80A

...

80

WXC
P

C
DMX

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

67

DMX

WXC

MUX

DWDM-
8-Degree R-OADM

A
H

MUX

MUX

8-Degree
Patch Panel

WXC

WXC
P

DMX

DMX

DMX
P

WXC

MUX

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

68

DWDM-
Omni-Directional R-OADM
West

East

DCU

AMP-C

AMP-C
ROADM


.

West,

.

AMP-C

ROADM
AMP-C

DCU

Directional DWDM
West

East

DCU

AMP-C

AMP-C
ROADM
AMP-C

AMP-C

DCU

Omni-Directional DWDM

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

69

DWDM-
West
Colorless R-OADM

East

DCU

,

. 1
1,
2
2
Colorless



AMP-C

AMP-C
ROADM

ROADM

AMP-C

AMP-C

DCU

Color-Specific DWDM
West

East

DCU

AMP-C

AMP-C
ROADM
AMP-C

AMP-C

DCU

Colorless DWDM
,
Colorless/Omni-Directional
,

DWDM-
Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

West

East

DCU

AMP-C

AMP-C
ROADM
AMP-C

AMP-C

DCU

Omni-Directional & Colorless

70

DWDM-
EDFA, VOA, DCU


(EDFA)


(VOA)


(DCM/DCU)

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

71

DWDM-

VOA

VOA
OSC

EDFA

OSC
EDFA

DCU

DCM

EDFA

EDFA
OSC
VOA

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

OSC

VOA

72

DWDM
Terminal

EDFA

OADM

EDFA

OADM

(Ring)

Terminal

Amplified OADM

(Linear)

ROADM

(Mesh)
Hub
EDFA


(Open Ring)
OADM

Multidegree
ROADMs

ROADM
Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

73

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

74

Cisco Public

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

75