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. .

2006

539.3 (075.8)
38.112
47

. . ( )

, . .
47

: -.
/ . . . :
, 2006. 57 .
ISBN 985-468-075-4
. .
.

. .
539.3 (075.8)
38.112

ISBN 985-468-075-4

. ., 2006
. , 2006

1
1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.5
. . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
1.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
1.9 . . . . . 31
2
2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

. . http://mechanika.org.ru

1.1

,
, ( 1.1, ).
:
, , . .
. . ,
,
( 1.1, , ).
)
q

.

,
)
q
.
q
q q q q q q

2
2
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
)
2
2
.

,
, .
1.1
, , .
(, )
4

. . http://mechanika.org.ru

, . .
, , . .
.
- .
,
, . - .
, , , . , , . .
.
( 1.2) . , ,
.
. , ,
() () .
, , ,
, .
.

1.2

, ,
,
, .
5

. . http://mechanika.org.ru

, 1/ 8 ... 1/ 10.

1.2
.

.
, .
, , , .
.
:
( 1.3, );
, ( 1.3, ), ;
( 1.3, ),
;
- ( 1.3, ) .
)

1.3
6

. . http://mechanika.org.ru

( 1.4):
;
;
;
().

, .
- , , . , .


()

1.4


.
( 1.5) :
,
;
,
.
;
. .
, .
7

. . http://mechanika.org.ru

1.5

, .
( 1.6) :
.
( ) ;
;
.
.
,
.
,
.

1.6
8

. . http://mechanika.org.ru

.
.
() - .
( 1.7) , -
( ), -, , .

V
-

1.7

.
( 1.8). , ,
, , , .

H
V

V
1.8

, ,
. , ,
1.9, , , 1.9, .
9

. . http://mechanika.org.ru

)
V

V
H

1.9


,
( 1.10).

1.10

.
,
.

1.3
, , ,
. , . W , .
:
) W
;
)
.
. . , ,
10

. . http://mechanika.org.ru

( 1.11, ). , , .

.
:
) ,
( 1.11, );
)
( 1.11, ).

1.11


:
) , ( 1.11, );
) ( ),
;
) (
; ).
W
W = 2 ,
;
, .
11

. . http://mechanika.org.ru


, :
W = 3 2 ,
;
;
.
- , , ,
.
W > 0,
().

W 0.
W = 0

. W < 0
.
( ),
:
= 2 3,
.
- , ,
.
. , , .

.
(. . 11), .
, , 1.12, , .
= 14, = 25. 2 3 =
= 2 14 3 = 25.
12

. . http://mechanika.org.ru

13

14

13

14

11

12

12
7

10

11

10

13

11

14

12

13

14

12

1.12

. 1, 2, , 11 ( 1.12, , )
, 121314 ( 1.12, ). , .
1.4

. ,

. , .
, , ,
.
. ,
, .
.
, .
( )
-
x, y:

Mk
k

= 0,

Xk
k

= 0,

Yk

= 0.

,
. .
- .
13

. . http://mechanika.org.ru


1) 2) .
,
[2, 6]. , .


. . ( ) .
. , .
:
1) ;
2) , ;
3) , . ;
4)

;
5) ,
. .
6) , . .
.
.
.
,
,
.
1)
(Maxwell James Clerk) (18311879), , , . .
2)
(Cremona Luigi) (18301903), . 1872 . , , .

14

. . http://mechanika.org.ru

. ,

. .
, 1.13, .
F
F
F
F
)
0
V0 =3,5F

) y

F
V8=3,5F

l=4d
)

N0-1
N0-2

1
x

N1-0

N1-3
x

180-2

V0 =3,5F

N1-2
1.13

,
:
V0 = V8 = 3,5 F.
0 ( 1.13, ).
,
, , . N
,
. , 01 N01.
0.

Y = N0 1 sin() + V0 = 0

X = N0 1 cos() + N0 2 = 0 ,

N01 =

V0
3,5F
,
=
sin()
sin()

N02 = N01 cos() = 3,5Fctg() .

15

. . http://mechanika.org.ru

N01 < 0, , , , . 02 , . . N02 > 0. N01 N02 .


1 ( 1.13, ).
2.

Y = N1 0 sin() F N12 sin() = 0 ,


X = N1 0 cos() + N1 2 cos() + N13 = 0 .

N10 sin() + F
2,5F
,
=
sin()
sin()
3,5F
= N10 cos() N12 cos() =
cos()
sin()
2,5F

cos() = 6Fctg() .
sin()
< 0, , 12 , 13 .
N12 =

N13

N12 > 0, N13

2, 3 . .
7.
8.
,
,
.
, . . ,
. 1).
:
1) ;
2) , ;
3) , ;
4) , .
1)

(Ritter) (18261908), . 1863 . .


. . .
16

. . http://mechanika.org.ru

h = 0,75 d

, ,
;
5) .
( 1.14, ).
)
F
F
I
II
1

II

VB = F

VA = F
y

N1-2

)
2

h = 0,75 d

N6-2
A

N6-7
I

VA = F

N4-3

II

N8-3
8

N8-7

II

1.14

VB = F

,
:
VA = VB = F.
12.
II (. 1.14, ). 62
67. , ( 1.14, ). , . .
. VA
N12, N62 N67.
62 y, . .
12 67 :

Y = N6 2 + VA = 0 ,
17

N62 = VA = F .

. . http://mechanika.org.ru

, , 62 .
, . N12 6.
N62 N67 , :

M6 = N1 2h VA (d + 0,5d ) = 0 ,

N1 2 =

VA 1,5d
1,5d
=
F = 2F .
h
0,75d

, , 12 .
N67 ,
2, 12 62:

M2 = N6 7h VA (d + 0,5d ) = 0 ,

N6 7 =

VA 1,5d
1,5d
=
F = 2F .
h
0,75d

, , 67 .
IIII.
43, 87 83. ( 1.14, ):
V
Y = N8 3 sin + VA = 0 , N8 3 = sinA = sinF ;

M3 = N8 7 h + VA (d + 0,5d ) = 0 ,

N8 7 =

VA 1,5d
1,5d
=
F = 2F ;
h
0,75d

M8 = N4 3h + VA 0,5d = 0 ,
N4 3 =

VA 0,5d
0,5d
=
F =2F.
0,75d
3
h

, 43 83 , 87 . .
. ,
. , ,
. 1.15 -,
, .
18

. . http://mechanika.org.ru

N1-3

I
1

I 3

N2-3

A
2 I 4

N2-4

1.15

AB,
, A.
1.5

:
. ,
, .
( 1.16).
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
K

N
N
VA
P

P
B

VA

P
K

MK

QK

1.16

N.
K,
Nh = V 2d P 2d Pd ;
MK = V 2d P 2d Pd .
19

. . http://mechanika.org.ru

, ,
: Nh = MK .
N = MK / h ,

. . . , . h
, .
h d.

45.
,
, . , (. 1.5)
(. 1.6) .
, ,
, , .
( 1.17).

1.17

N (.
1.16). ,
N sin = V 3P ;
Q = V 3P .
, ,
: N sin = Q .

N = Q / sin ,
20

. . http://mechanika.org.ru

. . .
Q > 0. , , . . , , . . .
1.6
, ,
,
. , ,
. , , . ,
, ,
, .

. ,
, . . ,
. ,
, .

, ,
, .
. (. .) , - P = 1 .
.
, l ( 1.18, ). VA, VB
MC .
= 1 z . . :
B

M B = 0,

VA l (l z) = 0;
21

. . http://mechanika.org.ru

M A = 0, V l + z = 0,

z
lz
; VB = .
l
l
VA VB
( 1.18, , ).
.
y
)
P= 1
z

z
VA =

VA
)

0,5l

VB

0,5l

1
. . VA
1

)
. . VB

)
. . MC

0,25l

1.18

, VA
.
MC ,
.
( 1.1).

( 1.18, ) ,
( z = 0,5l , MC = 0,25l ).
.
, -
,
.
22

. . http://mechanika.org.ru

1.1

= 1 . (z l/2)

= 1 . (z l/2)

= 0; + VB 0,5l = 0;

= 0; M V 0,5l = 0;

M = VB 0,5l = 0,5z
( )

M = V 0,5l = 0,5 (l z)
( )

M z = 0 = 0 ; M z = 0,5l = 0,25l

M z = 0,5l = 0,25l , M z =l = 0

[5].
.
,
( 1.19).

1.19

, , .

,
( , ).

.

, ,
. , , , .
23

. . http://mechanika.org.ru


: . ,
. ,
. .
:
1) ;
2) ,
;
3) Y = 0 = 0
, = 1 , ,
.
;
4)
, , .
:
1) ,
;
2) Y = 0 = 0, = 1
,
. ,
z ;
3)
, , .

12, 34 32 , 1.20, .
. ,
, . 1.20,
VA VB.
II ( 1.21).
12 3, .
34 ,
2.
B

24

. . http://mechanika.org.ru

y, 32.
,
. 1.2.


()

P=1

I
1

A
3

VA

VB

1
. . VA
1

. . V

2,5 d

1,5 d

. . N3-4

) . . N
3-2

1
sin

1
sin

) . . N
1-2

d
h

3d

1.20
y
1

N1-2

N3-2

N1-2

N3-2

A
3

VA

d/2

N3-4

N3-4

1.21
25

VB

. . http://mechanika.org.ru

, ,
, . . ,
.
1.2

= 1 II

M2

= 1 II

= 0 ; VB 2,5d N34h = 0 ;

2,5d
VB
h
( )

N3 4 =

Y = 0 ;

VB N23 sin = 0 ;

1 V
B
sin
( )

VA + N23 sin = 0 ;

1 V
A
sin
( )

N2-3 =

M3 = 0 ;

N34h VA 1,5d = 0 ;

1,5d
VA
h
( )

N34 =

Y = 0 ;

M2 = 0 ;

N2-3 =

M3 = 0 ;

VB 3d + N12h = 0 ;

N12 = 3d VB
h
( )

VA d N12h = 0 ;

N12 = d VA
h
( )

, . . , 1.2,
1,5d/h VA ( 1.20, ). 2,5d/h N34.
1 2 . ,
N34 3 : 1
, 2 , 12 .
N32 N12 ( 1.20, , ).
P = 1 ( 1.22, ).
, 1.20, , . . ,
.
3, 4.
. 1.22, , , .
26

. . http://mechanika.org.ru

I
1


()

P=1

A
3

VA

VB

1
. . VA
1

. . V

2,5 d

1,5 d

. . N3-4

) . . N
3-2

1
sin

1
sin

) . . N
1-2
d
h

3d

1.22

1.7
.
.
.
N = Py ,
y .
, y , . , ,
.
( 1.23), 27

. . http://mechanika.org.ru

N = P1y1 + P2y2 + P3y3 + ... + Pn yn = Pi yi ,


i =1

yi Pi (. 1.23),
.
, , , .
P1
P2
P3
Pn

. . N

y1

yn

y2

y3
1.23

.
L
q.
, , , , , , .

N = q ,

, q.
, q
dz ( 1.24). , , dF = q dz, ,
, dN = dF y(z)= q dz y(z).
, dN :
N = dN = qy(z)dz = q y(z)dz = q .
L

28

. . http://mechanika.org.ru

dz

dF=qdz
. . N

y(z)

1.24

, ,
. .
.
1.8

, ,
.
.
,
.
, , .

, .
, . 45
, . , .
. ,
,
.
. ,
. , .
29

. . http://mechanika.org.ru


, ,
.
. , . ,
, ( 1.25).

( )


( )

1.25

, ( 1.26), :
1 , .
. . 1.26, .
2 , (
1.26, ).
, .
3 ,
( 1.26, ). , .

. ,

.
. , , , ( ) .

(. 1.26), 4, 3, 7 F. F 4 1 3. F 7 3 6 . , 1 6
0,5F, 3 0,5F + 0,5F + F = 2F ( 1.26, ).
30

. . http://mechanika.org.ru

, , , ( 1.26, ).
( ) .
1015% (
).
,
.

)

5
2
.

1
4 3 7 6

F
F
;
F

)
;
,
0,5F
2F 0,5F

,
2
5
- )

,
4
7
3
1
3
6


F
F
1.26
.
1.9
,
.
, , [5].

:
1) ( ),
,
;
31

. . http://mechanika.org.ru

2)
;
3)

.
.
,
.
( 1.27, ).
, , 34',
( 1.27, ).

I II. 34 3'4' , I II. = 1 (
3 4').
, .
N34'.
34 ( 1.27, ) = 1
3 4. I II 4', .
N34 .

N5'6'.
5' 6' I II ( 1.27, ), 5
, N5'6'.
22' = 1 2 2' ( 1.27, ).
12 23 , 2 . ()
N22'.
, , , .
,
.
, .
32

. . http://mechanika.org.ru

P=1

5'

6'

7'

1'
3'

2'

4'
4

=1

4'

3'

. . N3-4'

4
=1

3'

. . N3-4

4'

=1
5'
6'

. . N5'-6'
1

3
2
=1

2'

. . N2-2'
1.27

33

. .

http://mechanika.org.ru

2.1
1. ( 2.1)
, F1 = 300 , F2 = 200 .
,
.
. 0 7, :

Mk 0

= 0,

F1d F1 2d F2 3d + V7 4d = 0 ,

V7 =

1
(3F1 + 3F2 ) = 1 (3 300 + 3 200) = 1 1500 = 375 ;
4
4
4

Mk7

V0 4d + F1 3d + F1 2d + F2d = 0 ,

= 0,

V0 =

1
(5F1 + F2 ) = 1 (5 300 + 200) = 1 1700 = 425 .
4
4
4
2

F2

F1

0
V0

F1

7
V7

l=4d
2.1

, ,
. :

Yk

= V0 F1 F1 F2 + V7 = 425 300 300 200 + 375 = 0 .

34

. .

http://mechanika.org.ru

, , .
:
d
tg( ) = = 1 ,
d
= 45.

sin( ) = sin(45) = 0,707 ,
cos( ) = cos(45) = 0,707 .
0. (
2.2, ). :

Yk

= 0,

N0 2 sin( ) + V0 = 0 ,

V0
425
=
= 601 ;
sin( )
0,707

N0 3 =

Xk

= 0,

N0 1 + N0 2 cos( ) = 0 ,

N0 1 = N0 2 cos( ) = ( 601 0,707)= 425 .


N0 2 < 0 , , 02 .
N0 1 > 0 .
1 ( 2.2, ).
:

Yk

= 0,

N12 = 0 ;

Xk

= 0,

N1 3 N1 0 = 0 ,

N1 3 = N1 0 = 425 .

13 . 12 , ,
.
2 ( 2.2, ).
:

Yk
k

= 0,

N2 0 sin( ) N21 N2 3 sin( ) F1 = 0 ,

N2 0 sin( ) N2 1 F1
=
sin( )
( 601 0,707) 0 300
=
= 177 ;
0,707
N2 3 =

35

. .

Xk

N2 4 + N2 3 cos( ) N2 0 cos( ) = 0 ,

= 0,

http://mechanika.org.ru

N2 4 = N2 3 cos( ) + N2 0 cos( ) =
= 177 0,707 601 0,707= 425 .

23 24 , ,
.
y

a)

N1-2

NA-2
A

VA
y
)

N1-3

N1-A

NA-1 x
)

F1 2

1
y

N2-4

N3-4

N3-2
x

N2-A

N3-1

N2-3

N3-5

N4-2

N4-6

N6-4

y
F1

F1

N5-4

N5-6

N5-3

N4-5

N4-3

N2-1

N5-B
NB-6

5
y

6
x

NB-5

N6-B

B
x

N6-5

VB
2.2
36

. .

http://mechanika.org.ru

3 ( 2.2, ).
:

Yk

N3 4 + N32 sin( ) F1 = 0 ,

= 0,

N3 4 = F1 N32 sin( ) = 300 177 0,707 = 175 ;

Xk

N35 + N31 N32 cos( ) = 0 ,

= 0,

N35 = N31 + N32 cos( ) = 425 + 177 0,707 = 550 .


34 35 , ,
.
4 ( 2.2, ).
:

Yk

N43 N45 sin( ) = 0 ,

= 0,

N4 5 =

Xk

= 0,

N4 3
175
=
= 247 ;
sin( )
0,707
N46 N42 + N45 cos( ) = 0 ,

N46 = N42 N45 cos( ) = 550 ( 247 0,707) = 375 .


, , 45
46 .
5 ( 2.2, ).
:

Yk

= 0,

N5 6 + N5 4 sin( ) = 0 ,

N56 = N5 4 sin( ) = ( 274 0,707) = 175 ;

Xk

= 0,

N5 7 N5 3 N5 4 cos( ) = 0 ,

N5 7 = N5 3 + N5 4 cos( ) = 550 247 0,707 = 375 .


, . . .
6 ( 2.2, ). N6 7 . :

Yk

= 0,

N6 5 N6 7 sin( ) F2 = 0 ,

37

. .

N6 7 =

http://mechanika.org.ru

N6 5 F2
175 200
=
= 530 .
sin( )
0,707

Xk

= 0,

N6 4 + N6 7 cos( ) = 0 ,

N6 7 =

N6 4
375
=
= 530 .
cos( ) 0,707

67 , . . N6 7 < 0 .
7 ( 2.2, ). , , , :

Yk

= N7 6 sin( ) + V7 = 530 0,707 + 375 = 0 ;

Xk

= N7 5 N7 6 cos( ) = 375 ( 530 0,707) = 0 .

, , .
( 2.3).
550
375
601
530
175

175
274

177

425

425

550

375

2.3

2. , ( 2.4), , F= 450 .
:
38

. .

http://mechanika.org.ru

3
= 0,866 ,
2

sin( ) = sin(60) =

cos( ) = cos(60) = 0,5 ,

3
= 0,577 .
3
HA,
HB, VB.
ctg() = ctg(60) =

tg() = tg(60) = 3 = 1,732 ,

MkA

Fd + Fd + F 2d + F 3d HBd tg( ) = 0 ,

= 0,

HB = 9F ctg( ) = 9 450

MkB

3
= 2339 ;
3

Fd + Fd + F 2d + F 3d H Ad tg( ) = 0 ,

= 0,

H A = 9F ctg( ) = 9 450

Yk

= 0,

3
= 2339 ;
3

VB F F F F F = 0 ,

VB = 5F = 5 450 = 2250 .

HA

HB

B
5
VB

l=3d
2.4

1 ( 2.5, ). , ,

Yk

= 0,

N13 sin( ) F = 0 ,

39

. .

N13 =

Xk

http://mechanika.org.ru

450
F
=
= 520 ;
sin( ) 0,866
N12 N13 cos( ) = 0 ,

= 0,

N12 = N13 cos( ) = 520 0,5 = 260 .


y

N1-3

N1-2
1

N3-4

N2-1

N2-5

x
F
)

N2-3

N4-A

F
4

N4-3
x

N3-1

N3-5
N3-2
)

N4-5

N5-4

N5-A

N5-3
N5-2

N5-B
5
y

x
F

NB-A

HA

NA-4
x

HB

NB-5
x

VB
2.5
40

NA-B

NA-5

. .

http://mechanika.org.ru

13 , 12 . ( 2.6).
2 ( 2.5, ).
:

Yk

= 0,

N23 F = 0 ,

N23 = F = 450 ;

Xk

= 0,

N21 N25 = 0 ,

N25 = N21 = 260 .

23 , 25 .
3 ( 2.5, ).
:

Yk

N31 sin( ) N32 N35 sin( ) F = 0 ,

= 0,

N35 =
=

Xk

520 0,866 450 450


= 1559 ;
0,866

= 0,

N31 sin( ) N32 F


=
sin( )

N3 4 N35 cos( ) + N31 cos( ) = 0 ,

N3 4 = N31 cos( ) N35 cos( ) =

= 520 0,5 ( 1559 0,5) = 1040 .


35 , 34 .
4 ( 2.5, ). :

Yk

= 0,

N4 5 F = 0 ,

Xk

= 0,

N43 N4 A = 0 , N4 A = N43 = 1040 .

N45 = F = 450 ;

45 , 4A .
5 ( 2.5, ).
, , :

Yk
k

= 0,

N5 A sin( ) + N5 4 + N5 3 sin( ) F = 0 ,

N5 A =

N5 3 sin( ) N5 4 + F
=
sin( )
41

. .

( 1559 0,866) ( 450) + 450


= 2598 ;
0,866

Xk

http://mechanika.org.ru

= 0,

N5 2 N5 B + N5 3 cos( ) N5 A cos( ) = 0 ,

N5 B = N5 2 + N5 3 cos( ) N5 A cos( ) =

260 1559 0,5 2598 0,5 = 2339 .


5A , ,
. 5B .
B ( 2.5, ) N A B , :

Yk

= 0,

N A B + VB = 0 ,

N A B = VB = 2250 .

, ,
. . :

Xk

= 0,

NB 5 + HB = 0 ,

1040

NB 5 = HB = 2339 .

1040

2250
450
2598

1559

520

450

260

260

2339
2.6

NB 5 , 5 B, , , B 5 .
42

. .

http://mechanika.org.ru

,
.

B ( 2.5, ):

Yk

= N A 5 sin( ) NA B = 2598 0,866 ( 2250) = 0 ;

Xk

= H A + NA 4 + N A 5 cos( ) = 2339 + 1040 + 2598 0,5 = 0 .

, , .

(. 2.6).

2.2
3. , 2.7,
,
F = 200 .
. , :

MkA

= 0,

Fd F 2d F 3d F 4d + VB 4d = 0 ,

10F 10
=
200 = 500 .
4
4
,
, . .
VB =

VA = VB = 500 .
1

IV

II III 5

IV

A
VA

3
4
I II
F III V
d

B
VB

l=4d

2.7

II ( 2.8, ). 12.
43

. .

http://mechanika.org.ru

A :
MkA = 0 , N12d = 0 , N12 = 0 .
k

N1-2

II

N2-5

NA-2

N2-3

NA-3 x

VA

NA-3 3

II
VA

y
)
1

III

N2-5

N3-5
A
3
VA

IV

)
F

N3-4

III

N1-2

N4-5

N4-3

IV

N1-A

N4-6
V

2.8

A3 A2
Mk2 = 0 , NA 3d + Fd VAd = 0 ,
k

N A 3 = VA F = 500 200 = 300 ;


44

. .

Yk

N A 2 sin( ) F + VA = 0 ,

= 0,

N A 2 =

http://mechanika.org.ru

F VA 200 500
=
= 424 .
sin( )
0,707

25 23
IIII ( 2.8, ). 3, A3
23:

Mk3

= 0,

N25d + Fd VAd = 0 ,

N25 = F VA = 200 500 = 300 .


N23
:

Yk

= 0,

N23 F + VA = 0 ,

N23 = VA F = 500 200 = 300 .


IIIIII,
( 2.8, ). 34 5:

Mk5

= 0,

N3 4d + Fd + F 2d VA 2d = 0 ,

N3 4 = 2VA 3F = 2 500 3 200 = 400 .


N35 , y:

Yk

N35 sin( ) F F + VA = 0 ,

= 0,

N35 =

2F VA 2 200 500
=
= 141 .
sin( )
0,707

A1, 1
( 2.8, ).
Yk = 0 , N1 A F = 0 , N1 A = F = 200 .
k

45 ( 2.8, ), . .
Yk = 0 , N45 = 0 .
k


45, :
45

. .

http://mechanika.org.ru

,
, . .
N5 6 = N35 = 141 , N5 7 = N25 = 300 ,

N46 = N3 4 = 400 ,

N6 7 = N23 = 300 ,

N7 B = NA 2 = 424 ,

N7 8 = N12 = 0 ,

N6 B = N A 3 = 300 , N8 B = N1 A = 200 .
( 2.9).
300
200

300

424

300

300

141
300

424
200

141

400

400

300

2.9

2.3
4. , 2.10,

23, 28, 78, 38, 89. .
,
( 2.10, ).
II ( 2.1).
32 8, . 87 , 2. y, 82.
,
( ) .
2,
3. 2, 3 . .
IIII ( 2.2).
46

. .

http://mechanika.org.ru

I II

P=1 5

)
A
d

VA

II

10

VB

l=5d

. . V A
1

. . V B

. . N2-3

0,6

1,2

1,41

0,85

. . N2-8
0,28

1,41

0,8

0,6

. . N7-8

e)

0,2

. . N3-8
1

0,6

1,2
2

. . N8-9

2.10
47

0,8

VA

N2-8

N2-3

7
I N7-8
2d

N 8 -2 =

VB
VB
=
= 1,41 VB
sin( )
0,707

N82 sin() + VB = 0;

VA
VA
=
= 1,41 VA
sin( ) 0,707

N2- 8 =

N28 sin() + VA= 0;

Y = 0;

VB

Y = 0;

2 = 0;
N78 d VA d= 0;
N78 = VA

10

2 = 0;
N87 d + VB 4d= 0;
N87 = 4 VB

8 = 0;

9
l=4d

N32 d + VB 3d= 0;
N32 = 3 VB

I 8

= 1 II ( 3)

8 = 0;
N23 VA 2d= 0;
N23 = 2VA

N8-7

N8-2

2 N3-2 I

= 1 II ( 2)

2.1

. . http://mechanika.org.ru

. .

http://mechanika.org.ru

2.2

= 1 IIII
II

= 1 IIII

y
3

N3-2

II

N2-3 3
N8-3

N3-8

B
N9-8 II

VB

l=3d

3 = 0;

7
2d

VA

3 = 0;

N98 d + VB 3d=
0;
B

II

N89 d VA 2d= 0;

N89 = 2 VA

N98 = 3 VB

( )

( )

Y = 0;

N8-9

10

Y = 0;

N38 + VB = 0;
B

N83 + VA= 0;

N3-8 = VB

N8-3 = VA

( )

( )

38
. 3,
98. ,
3, 2.
.
, 38
.
.
5. (. 2.4) : ) 34, 35, 25; )
N35, N25, N34 ( 2.11)
2. .

.
34, 2.11, ,
II, , = 1. 2, y , z . 49

. .

http://mechanika.org.ru

. 2.3.
2.3
= 1 II
= 1 II
( 5)
( 2)

= 0; N34 d P (z + d) = 0;
5
5
= 0;
P(z + d ) z
N34 = 0
N3-4 =
= +1
d
d
( )
( )
N3-4 z = 0 = 1 ; N3-4 z = d = 2 .
P

3 = 0;

3 = 0;

N25 d P z= 0;
Pz
z
N2-5 =
=
d
d
( )
N2-5 z = 0 = 0 ; N2-5 z = d = 1 .

N25 = 0
( )

Y = 0;

Y = 0; N35 sin()= 0;

N35 sin() P = 0;
1
P
N 3-5 =
=
= 1,155
sin()
0,866
( )

N35= 0
( )
)

B
5
d

l=3d
)

2
1

. . N3-4
. . N2-5
1

. . N3-5
1,15

2.11

1,15


5
, .
2 5
. . 2.11, .
,

.
(
) :
N2-5 = F (1) = 450 ;
50

. .

http://mechanika.org.ru

N3-4 = F 1 + F 1 + F 2 = 4F = 4 450 = 1800 ;


N3-5 = F 1,155 F 1,155 F 1,155 = 3,465F =
= 3,465 450 = 1559 .

.

2.4
6. p p (pc 2.12, ),
:
1
q = 40 H/ , .
d = 5 .
2 yc cp 25, 33, 34, 34 p p.
3 yc 33 p
p.
4 yc cp
33 cp c py, y . 2.
. p pcpy
pyy cc c p p y (pc
2.12, ). c py y p y
pc y py
F = q d = 405 = 200 ,
p y
qd 40 5
=
= 100 .
2
2
c p ( p) y
p , pc 2.13.
yc cp p p

VA = VB =

py,

8F 8 200
=
= 800 .
2
2

, 45.

sin( ) = sin(45) = 0,707 ,

51

cos( ) = cos(45) = 0,707 .

. .

http://mechanika.org.ru

2d

1'

3'

5'

7'

q
2'

4'

6'

8'

l=8d

2d

5
3'

1'

0,5F

d
8

5'

7'

0,5F

A
VA

2'

FI

4'

6'

F F

8'

l=8d
)

3'

II

)
)

4'

II

N3-3

'

N3-4

'

P=1
0,5P

II

2
11,43

c 2.12
52

II

VB

. .

http://mechanika.org.ru

c cp p p p
c.

2d

F
A
3

VA

2F I

2F

2F

VB

2d

l=8d
2.13

p yc cp 25 p,
p , .
, p c II. Cc yp
pc c c p 3
( 2.14)

k 3

= 0,

VA 2d + F 2d N2 5 2d = 0 ,
y

N25 = F VA =

N3
5

2d

= 200 800 = 600 .


c pcc 33,
p ,
p cyy y
yc, p

c p, py
(
):
N3 3 = N35 + N3 3 .

N2-5

N3-5
F

3
VA

2d

2F

N3-4
2d

2.14

, y:

Yk

= 0,

N3 5 sin( ) F 2F + VA = 0 ;
N35 =

3F VA
= 3 200 800 = 283 .
0,707
sin( )
53

. .

http://mechanika.org.ru

N3 3


. 334,
IIII ( 2.15, )
( 2.15, ):

Yk

N3 3 sin( ) + 0,5F = 0 ;

= 0,

N3 3 =

0,5F
0,5 200
=
= 141 .
sin( )
0,707

c pcc 33

N3 3 = N3 5 + N3 3 = 283 141 = 424 .


34 34
34
N3 4 = N3 4 + N3 4 .
y

)
)
) y
3'

II

N3-3

N4 -3

'

'

'

II

3
4'

II

N3-4

III III

'

'

x
II

N4-4

N4-3

'

0,5F
2.15

III

4'

III
F

34 5 (. 2.14).

Mk5

= 0,

N3 4 2d + F 4d + 2F 2d VA 4d = 0 ,

N3 4 = 2VA 4F = 2 800 4 200 = 800 .

N3 4 -

(. 2.15, ).

Xk

= 0,

N3 3 cos( ) + N3 4 = 0 ;

N3 4 = N3 3 cos( ) = ( 141) 0,707 = 100 .

N3 4 = N3 4 + N3 4 = 800 + 100 = 900 .


54

. .

http://mechanika.org.ru

34 .
4 ( 2.15, )
:

Yk

N3 4 F = 0 ;

= 0,

N3 4 = F = 200 .

. P = 1 . 33. , ,
,
35 33 .
35 II
.
. 2.4. 3 4

( 2.12, ). N3
5.
2.4

= 1 II
I

N5-2

= 1 II

y
5

N2-5

N3-5

N5-3
B
N4-3

3
VA

VB

Y = 0;

N3-4

Y = 0;
N35 sin() + VA = 0;
N53 sin() + VB = 0;
VA
N 3-5 =
=
VB
VB
sin(
)
N5 3 =
=
= 1,414VB
sin( ) 0,707
VA
=
= 1,414VA
( )
0,707
( )

N3
5 ,
4 P = 1. II II
55

. .

http://mechanika.org.ru

( 2.12, ) 3 ( 2.12, )

P
Y = 0; N3 3 sin( ) + = 0 ;
2
P
1
=
= 0,707 .
N3 3 =
2 sin( )
2 0,707
3 4 33
. 33 2.12, .
N33

. . N33 = . . N35 + . . N33 .


35 4 0,707.
0,884 , 0,353 (
3) 0,707 ( 4),
33 ( 2.12, ).
. 33 q = 40 H/ (. 2.12, ).

5-x
x
( 2.16)

0,353 0,884
=
; 0,353(5 x ) = 0,884x ;
x
5x

x = 1,43 .

2.16


0,353 (10 + 1,43)
0,884 (30 1,43)
1 =
= 2,02 , 2 =
= 12,61 ,
2
2
= 1 2 = 2,02 12,61 = 10,59 .
2 , .

N3 3 = q = 40 ( 10,59) = 424 .

N33, ,
, .
56

. . http://mechanika.org.ru


1 , . . : .
/ . . , . . , . . .
.: . , 1983. 255 .
2 p, . . . /
. . p, . . . 5- ., . .:
, 1956.
492 .
3 p, . . : . . .
/ . . p, . . . 8- ., . .
.: . ., 1986. 607 .
4 , . . : .
/ . . , . . . .: . .,
1986. 310 .
5 , . . / . . ,
. . . : , 2002. 58 .
6 , . .
: . .-. / . . . 2- .,
. .: , 1956. 454 .
7 , . . .
: / . . [ .]; . . . .
2- ., . . .: . , 2000. 416 .
8 , . . : . /
. . [ .]; . . . . .: ,
1984. 208 .
9 p, . . . : .
/ . . p. .: , 1981. 512 .
10 , . . : .
/ . . . : ,
2004. 376 .

57