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.. // / . .. . ., 2006.

B.M. . M., 1980.


.. //
. ., 1990.
.. .. (
, , ,
, ): . . . . . ,
1995.
Bossmann R. Erich Kstner. Werk und Sprache. Curitiba, 1955.
Sandig B. Stilistische Funktionen von Phrasemen // Phraseologie. Ein
internationales Handbuch der zeitgenssischen Forschung. 1. Hlb. Hrsg. von
Harald Burger, Dmitrij Dobrovolskij, Peter Kuhn & Neal R. Norrick. Berlin;
N.Y., 2007.
: ,
. - .. . E-mail:
pritvorova.maria@gmail.com

. . 9. . 2012. 6

..
THEORY OF GROUNDING


,
. , . , . . .,
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, (P. Hopper, S. Thomson, C. Chvany,
P. Jensen) (Theory of Grounding,
Saliency Hierarchy), (.. , .. )
.
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The article contributes to the investigation of linguistic means of foregrounding /
backgrounding the information in a literary translation. The Theory of Grounding
and the Saliency Hierarchy corresponding to the ideas of Russian linguists (V.V. Vinogradov, G. A. Zolotova) can be applied to the comparative analysis of numerous
translations from English into Russian (the prose by E.A. Poe, A. Burgess, V. Nabokov,
etc.). Semantic effects of choosing different aspectual forms, nite or non-nite forms,
active or passive constructions, etc. are in the focus of the study.
Key words: syntax, style, foregrounding, backgrounding, literary translation,
comparative analysis.

Theory of Grounding
70- XX .,
. ,
, , [Chvany, 1990:
213235; , 2006: 140; Nagar, 2008]. ,
grounding foregrounding
backgrounding,
()
,
-
( ).
196

197

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2004: 1].

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[Lamme, 1995: 1606]. ,
( .) [URL: http://www.rusmedserver.
ru/med/obschaya/140.html].

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Theory of
Grounding
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[Hopper, Thomson, 1980: 280].
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( [Labov,
Waletzky, 1967]). :
This was just a few days after my
father had died, and we were sitting in the
garden He sort of ran out in the yard
this way out on Convey Island and he
started to talk about it. And my mother had
just sat down to have a cup of coffee. And I
told him to cut it out.
Course kids, you know he dont
hafta listen to me. So thats when I grabbed
him by the arm and twisted it up behind him.
When I let go his arm, there was a knife on
the table, he just picked it up and let me have
it. And I started to bleed like a pig

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199

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, grounding
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1

Participants

( )

Foreground

Background

,

76%

18%

Kinesis

88%

49%

Aspect

, ( )

88%

27%

Punctuality

55%

10%

Volitionality

76%

36%

Afrmation

100%

92%

Mode

()

100%

66%

Agency

3.33

1.98

O-affectedness

(
)

39%

12%

O-individuation (,

2>1>0)

1.5

1.2

200

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Grounding [Chvany, 1990: 213235]. :
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1
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, . ,
, , . [Selected Essays, 1997].

201

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2
Individuation features
/ /
Main participant (regardless of case)
/ ( )/
Referential //

3210

Anthropocentric //

43210

Second participant (in direct case)


/ ( )/

same
criteria

Iconic properties
/ /
Main clause Subordinate Participle
/ /

43210

Dialogue (ego-hic-ninc) narrative


/ (--) /

(1) 1 0

Transitive S Impersonal S
/ /
Volitionality-Agentivity
/ /
Related to Gestalt principles
/, /
202

210
3210

Accomplishment Achievement Activity Iteration State (subsumes 4 3 2 1 0


telicity, punctuality)
/ 1
( , .
-)/
Realis Hypothetical Irrealis
/ (
) . /

210

Effect on most affected participant (regardless of case)


/ , ( )/

3210

Afrmative- Negative
/ /

10

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( be ubila poeta),
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killed, killed).
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[, 1947: 557568]. . 3.
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205

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[ ., 1998: 422]. :
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206

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[, 2009]).

207

And when many weeks


had passed, and but
little remained to do,
save one brush upon
the mouth and one tint
upon the eye, the spirit
of the lady again ickered up as the ame
within the socket of
the lamp. And then
the brush was given,
and then the tint was
placed.

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ickered up Past Simple.
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( Life in
Death) [, 2009: 120].
Past Simple,
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(1912), .. (1914), ..
(1970) (1976 ., . ).
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, . . . (1909).

208

(
. , . [, , 2011: 206212]).
II.

. .
Anthony Burgess
A Clockwork Orange

Whats it going to be then,


eh?
There was me, that is Alex,
and my three droogs, that
is Pete, Georgie, and Dim.
Dim being^p really dim,
and we sat in the Korova
Milkbar making up our
rassoodocks what to do
with the evening, a flip
dark chill winter bastard
though dry.
Our pockets were full of
deng, so there was no real
need from the point of view
of crasting any more pretty
polly to tolchock some old
veck in an alley
There were three devotchkas
sitting at the counter all
together, but there were
four of us malchicks and it
was usually like one for all
and all for one.

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;
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228]. ,
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209

, . ,
,
[Bjorling, 2007:
415420].
.
III. . The Vane
Sisters, ,
:
, ,
, . /
.
.

So clear-cut were their


pointed shadows on the
white boards behind them
that I was sure the shadows
of the falling drops should
be visible too. But they
were not.




, ,

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.

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1998: 122] , .
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210

, ;
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[, 2007: 125128].

linguistic foregrounding poetic foregrounding.

. Twilight ().

:
,
, , ( , ), , ,
, [, , 2011: 206212].

, , ,
.
,
,
Theory of Grounding
,
.

. . (
). ., 1990.
. . // .
., 1982.
. . . . .; .,
1947.
.. // . .; ., 1936.
.., .., ..
. ., 1998.
. . . ., 2006.
. . . ., 2009.
. .
- //
. 2007. . . . . ., 2007.
211

.., ..
. Twilight //
. . I. .,
2011.
Bjorling F. Contemporary Narrative under the Impact of Visual Culture // . ., 2007.
Chvany Catherine V. Verbal Aspect, Discourse Saliency, and the So-called Perfect
of Result in Modern Russian // Nils Thelin (ed.). Verbal Aspect in Discourse.
Amsterdam, 1990.
Hopper P., Thomson S. A. Transitivity in grammar and discourse. Language.
1980.Vol. 56. N 2.
Jensen P.A. Narrative Description or Descriptive Narration: Problems of
Aspectuality in Chechov // Nils B. Thelin (ed.) Verbal Aspect in Discourse.
Amsterdam, 1990.
Koyama Nobuko. Grounding and Deixis: a comprehensive approach to the
grounding phenomenon in Japanese narrative // Taiwan Journal of Linguistics.
Vol. 2.1. 2004.
Labov W., Waletzky J. Narrative analysis: Oral versions of personal experience //
Essays on the verbal and visual arts / d. by June Helm, 1244. Seattle,
1967.
Lamme V.A. The neurophysiology of gure-ground segregation in primary visual
cortex // The Journal of Neuroscience. 1995. Feb 15(2).
Rishi K. N. Foregrounding // http://rishinagar.blogspot.com/2008/04/
foregrounding.html
Selected Essays of Catherine V. Chvany // d. by O.T. Yokoyama and E. Klenin,
Columbus, 1997.
: , . . , . - . . . E-mail:
English2@yandex.ru

. . 9. . 2012. 6

II

II
, 2124 2012 . .. ,

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.. ). , : 1)
, ,
; 2) - (-,
-) ,
.
22
.
, .

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The article introduces the notion of "dispositionsl verbs": a semantic-grammatical
class of verbs describing a subject's atttitude to his/her own action designated by a
subordinate innitive which (the verbs) have a number of relevant common properties, including aspectual ones. The aspectual semantics of one verb from this class
sobirat'sja 'to be going <to do something>' is analyzed in greater detail.
Key words: the Russian language, dispositional verbs, a subordinate innitive,
aspectual semantics, the semantic type of an aspectual couple.

212

213

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