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2005

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, 2005. 281 .

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: Windows (Microsoft), OS/2 (IBM), QNX
(QNX Software Systems Limited), Unix, Linux .
010502 (351400)
( ).

..,
2005

, 2005

...........................................................................................7
1.
............................................10
1.
.................................................10
1.1 .....................10
1.2 . ......................................16
1.3 () .....................................................................26
1.4 ...........................................................................32
1.5 ...............................39
.......................................................43
2. .............................................................44
2.1 .........................44
2.2 ..........46
2.2.1 ....................................46
2.2.2 ......................................57
2.2.3 ..........................................60
.......................................................63
3. ..............................................................64
3.1 ................................................................64
3.1.1 -
............................................................................64
3.1.2 , , , ...................................65
3.1.3 , ..............................67
3.1.4 ............69
3.1.5 ....................69
3.1.6 ................................................................................70
3.2 ...................................71
3.2.1 MS DOS ........71
3.2.2 Microsoft
Windows.........................................................................85
3.3 ..............................................95
3.3.1 ...........95
3.3.2 ...............96

3.3.3
.........................................................................100
3.3.4 ..................................................102
.....................................................106
4. ........107
4.1 ...................107
4.1.1 ...........107
4.1.2
..........................................................................108
4.1.3
.......................................................112
4.2 .............................................117
4.2.1 ................................................117
4.2.2 .................................................118
4.3 .............................................................124
4.3.1 ...............................124
4.3.2 FAT ..............................................127
4.3.3 NTFS ............................................133
4.3.4 HPFS ............................................142
4.3.5 UNIX......................................151
4.3.6 CD-ROM .............................157
.....................................................158
5.
.......................................159
5.1 ..159
5.2 ...........................170
5.3 ...............................173
5.4
........................................................174
5.4.1 ...........177
5.4.2 API ....179
5.4.3 - POSIX .....186
.....................................................188
2. .....190
6. Microsoft..........................190
6.1 MS DOS.......................................190
6.1.1 MS DOS .................................................190

6.1.2
6.1.3
6.1.4
6.1.5
6.1.6
6.1.7

MS DOS...........................................191
MS DOS....................193
MSDOS CONFIG.SYS.............194
COMMAND.COM .195
AUTOEXEC.BAT....196
MS DOS
....................................................................198
6.2 Windows 95 .................................202
6.3 Windows 98 .................................207
6.4 Windows Millennium Edition..............................................209
6.5 Windows NT....................................................212
6.5.1 ..........................................................212
6.5.2 Windows NT Server 4.0 ...............................................212
6.5.3 Windows NT Workstation 4.0.....................................214
6.6 Windows 2000 .................................................215
6.6.1 Windows 2000 Server ..................................................215
6.6.2 Windows 2000 Professional .........................................217
6.7 Windows XP ................................219
6.8 Windows 2003 Server ..........................................................222
.....................................................226
7. OS/2 Warp ..................228
7.1 OS/2 Warp .....................................228
7.2 OS/2 Warp..............................231
7.3 OS/2 Warp................................233
7.4 OS/2 Warp 4.5...............235
.....................................................237
8. UNIX.........................238
8.1 UNIX.....................238
8.2 UNIX ..........................239
8.3 UNIX .................................244
8.4 UNIX .........................247
8.5 Linux ............................................251
.....................................................253
9. .
QNX ...............................................255
9.1 QNX.......255
9.2 QNX........................257

9.3 QNX...............................................262
.....................................................265
...................................................................266
...................................................................................271
.................................................................273

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49

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67

3.1

0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
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A
B
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2
3
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7
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68

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69

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70

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71

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72

10FFEFh, 20-

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73

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PC,
, [12, 14] (.
3.1).
00000h-9FFFFh () (Conventional (Base) Memory) 640 DOS
. MDA AFFFFh (704
). 128 (
80000h-9FFFFh) Extended Conventional Memory.
A0000h-FFFFFh UMA (Upper Memory
Area) 384 ,
.
(, ) (BIOS ). , ,
-

74

() , .
100000h ()
Extended Memory,
( ) 286 .
100000h-10FFEFh
, 286+ Gate A20.
16 M
16 M
15 M
15 M

1 M
1 M

FFFFFF
FFFFFF

( B IO S )
(B IO S )
XMS - EMS

HM A

100000 - 10FFEF
100000 - 10FFEF

B IO S

F0000 - FFFFF
F0000 - FFFFF

UM A
A0000
A0000

640 K
640 K

9FFFF
9FFFF
C o n v e n tio n a l M e m o r y

00000
00000
0

. 3.1

-. Extended Memory

Extended
Memory
Specification.
Expanded Memory Specification (
Extended, Expanded ).
, ,
,
1 ,

75

.
Extended Memory xxxxx Kbyte ,
POST, CMOS Setup.

MS DOS. ( Windows 9x/NT/2000)
, - EMS XMS, . UMA, ,
.
-286 24-
FDFFFFh ( 15,9 ). FE0000h-FFFFFFh
BIOS (ROM BIOS Area), ROM BIOS 0E0000h-0FFFFFh.
386+ 32-
4 , 6 64 (36-
). 32-
BIOS FFFE0000hFFFFFFFFh, 6 . BIOS FE0000hFFFFFFh, 16 ,
. 32- BIOS 16 ,
CMOS Setup. ISA, 16-
, Memory Hole At
1516 M+.
16 .
5122048 ,
. ,
( ), PCI, 32 .

76

,
SMM (System Management Mode),
,
SMRAM.
SMI5. SMRAM
DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory), ,
32 ( SMM) 4 . SMRAM , SMIBASE ( 30000h), SMIBASE :
- FE00h-FFFFh (3FE00h3FFFFh) . SMI
, FPU ;
- (SMI Handler) 8000h (38000h);
- 0-7FFFh (30000h-37FFFh).
SMRAM
. SMIACT# SMI, .
SMRAM ,
( )
SMI#.
3.2.1.1 Conventional
memory
MS DOS
PC. 5

SMI# (System Management Interrupt). SMM


SMI#. SMI# .

77

( 640 )
BIOS, , .
[12]:
00000h-003FFh Interrupt Vectors
(256 );
00400h-004FFh BIOS Data Area BIOS;
00500h-00xxxh DOS Area DOS;
00xxxh-9FFFFh User RAM ,
( 638 ); PS/2 Mouse
9FC00h-9FFFFh BIOS
Data Area, User RAM .
:
list of list ( 3.2) memory
control block ( 3.3). .
3.2

2
. . 1 MCB memory control block
2
0
4
. 1 DPB disk parametr blokout
+4
4
.
+8
4
. DOS (CLOCK$)

3.3

+0
1
'M'(4dH)
'Z'(5aH)
+1
2
; (
FreeMem); 0 =
+3
2
,

+5
0Bh

+10h
?

(*10H)

78

:
-
( );
- M-: (
+ ):0000;
- Z-: ( + ):0000 =
(a000H=640K).
MCB
PSP . PSP
, .
, ( PSP )
.
MCB
.
, DS:0000 ES:0000 PSP . PSP , , ..
.
32K . 2cH PSP
.
''
ASCIIZ ( ASCIIZ,
DOS C, ASCII, 00H),
( ), . '' , .
,
COMMAND.COM. ''
COMSPEC ''
DOS , DOS 4bH .

79

,
SET.
. , '' DICTIONARY ''
.

TECH Help!
3.2.1.2 UMA
, , .
- .
( 386 )
,
UMB (Upper Memory
Block). DOS EMM386, .
[12]:
A0000h-BFFFFh Video RAM (128 )
( );
C0000h-DFFFFh Adapter ROM, Adapter RAM (128 )
, ROM
BIOS / , ;
E0000h-EFFFFh (64 ), System BIOS;
F0000h-FFFFFh System BIOS (64 ) BIOS;
FD000h-FDFFFh ESCD (Extended System Configuration
Data) ,
Plug and Play.

80

PnP BIOS,
.
UMA .
:
- MDA RAM B0000h-B0FFFh;
- CGA RAM B8000h-BBFFFh;
- EGA ROM C0000h-C3FFFh/C7FFFh;
- VGA ROM C0000h-C7FFFh;
- EGA, VGA RAM A0000h-BFFFFh,
:
- Graphics A0000h-AFFFFh;
- Color Text B8000h-BFFFFh;
- Mono Text B0000h-B7FFFh.
UMA ROM BIOS, , (Boot ROM) . C8000h
CBFFFh/C9FFFh/C8FFFh ( ), .
, ROM BIOS, 8 PC/XT 128 , 64 .
ROM - 1 (128*8),
UMA .

F0000h-FFFFFh (64 ), .
, ROM BIOS
.
UMB
BIOS, .
, , ( ).
( ) ,

81

128 ,
, , , . , , . ,
. UMA (Unified Memory Architecture).

, , , . UMA .
,
UMA, . AGP
(Accelerated Graphic Port, )
, UMA.
3 . 2 . 1 . 3
EMS XMS
EMS (Expanded Memory Specification) DOS- . LIM EMS Lotus, Intel,
Microsoft EMS. , UMA. 4 16 , , D0000h (
UMA). EMS -

82

,
Int 67h. , ,
,
16- . , ,
EMS (EMS handler),

.
, UMA.
, ,
, , .
. EMS 4.0,
386+,
UMA,
.
EMS
. 386 EMS, MS DOS 5+ EMM386.EXE.
EMS .
,
16 . EMS
Lotus . , , .
XMS (Extended Memory Specification)
DOS-,

83

Lotus, Intel, Microsoft AST


286 .

, .
HIMEM.SYS. (65520 ,
100000h), 20. XMS :
- ;
- ;
- ,
,
;
- ( ) ;
- .

(16- XMS handler),
.
64 . XMS
, ,
. XMS Int 2Fh.
. HIMEM.SYS 32 ,
, /NUMHANDLES=xx
HIMEM.SYS. , XMS
UMB
( )
.
, EMS XMS
[12]: EMS
( -

84

), XMS . 386+ HIMEM.SYS,


EMM386.EXE, XMS EMS-. ,
EMS XMS,
. NOEMS EMM386
EMS.
3.2.1.4 Shadow ROM
Shadow RAM
UMA
[12]: BIOS (System
ROM BIOS); BIOS (Video
ROM BIOS), (Adapter
ROM); (Boot ROM);
(Video Memory Buffer). , , 8- 16-
.
.
(Shadow
Memory), . -286,
. 386+ , . .
(Shadow ROM) , ,
.
(Shadow RAM)

, .

, .

85

, , . ,
, : . , ().
,
,
ISA, .
CMOS Setup 16 ,
(Shadow ROM
Shadow RAM). (, EMM386).
BIOS , .
BIOS (Video BIOS Shadowing) Windows
.
3.2.2 Microsoft
Windows
3.2.2.1 Microsoft Windows 9x
Windows 9 32-,
. .
MS DOS 7.,
MSDOS.SYS [Options] BootGUI = 0,
.
MS DOS 7.X ,
DOS. GUI-
Windows 95/98

86

.
,
, , , , , , ,
.
(, i) , , , .
,

. small () . 32- ,
, .
, , ,
4 . (,
, ,
) ,
.
. , 16 Windows. , , , ( , , ) ,
.
Windows 95/98 32- -

87

, 32 . . ,

, . 32-
. 16-
Windows , ,
Windows 3.X.
Windows 95 2
. 2 3 DLL (Dynamic Link Library
), . , 32-
i80x86 ,
0 3. 0
, . Windows 95, 0,
3
4 .
Windows, , (VxD).
2 4 32- 32- .
API ,
. , , ,
DLL, .
2 3 16- Windows.

, , Windows 3.x.

88

4
,
, ,
. 64
32-
, , 16- , , ,
, .

. 3.2.
4
3

,


DLL.
Win16
(,
16- ).
DLL
Win32
(,
32- )

4
64

2 4 ,
Win16

4 2
.

64 4 ,

0
. 3.2 Windows 9x


Windows 95 4 , , . -

89

, ,
Windows .
, .
(. 3.3)
,
,
(.. ).
:
; SYSTEM.INI
[386Enh] , :
PagingDrive=C:
PagingFi1e=C:\PageFi1e.sys
MinPagingFi1eSize=65536
MaxPagingFileSize=262144

,
( ).

SysMon (
) ,
, , ,
.
3.2.2.2 Microsoft Windows NT
Windows NT
. , Windows NT 4,0 Server
Windows NT 4.0 Workstation;
, .

90

Windows NT
Windows 95/98. ,
Windows 95/98 Win NT ,
,
.
-,
,
.
.
-, ,
(), , .

. 3.3.
4


(
0)
DLL Win32

Win32 (

)

Win16


DLL,



64
0
. 3.3 Windows NT

91

2
() ()
64 2 ( 64
).
,
(clipboard) : DDE (Dynamic Data Exchange);
- OLE (Object Linking and Embedding).
2-
DLL 3,
, , - (server process),
, . -
, . 2 4 Windows NT 0,
, . ,
.
, .
16- Windows-
Windows NT Windows on Windows (WOW).
Windows 95/98 Windows NT
16- Windows
. 16- 32 Windows
, OLE, , . WOW -

92

, . 16-
Windows W0W . Windows
NT
DOS. Windows NT 32 , GDI
(Graphics Device Interface) USER.
. . ()
(),
. ,
. () ,

.

;
.
, .
, ,
Windows NT VMM (Virtual Memory Manager).

,

.
, ,
(page frame).
,

93

( VMM) , . , 2,
.
,
.
,
,
. ,
, . ,
, .

(page fault).
, (paging),
. , Windows NT, ,
FIFO , LRU LFU.
, ,
Pagefile.sys .
,
. Pagefile.sys , , ,
. ,
, ;
. , . 12
,
.

. Windows NT 4.0 , -

94

, (memory pools).
, . ,
, ,
. (paged pool) ,
.
(nonpaged pool) , .
, , , ,
. , Windows NT.


.
Windows NT
: (reserved), (committed)
(available).
,
(VMM) ,
, . , . , , .
, VMM
Pagefile.sys ,
. .
.
(commit limit) , -

95

. ,
.
, , , . , ( ), ,
(standby list), ,
.
3.3
3.3.1
(,
), ( -
). ,
( ) .
: ,
.

,
. , () .
,
. 86, , , (386) , (
), .
, -

96

. , ,
. ( -),
, . , ,
, , , - .
, 86 23- [12].
3.3.2
( ), .
,
.

-, , . . .
, . ,
.

- , .
, ,
(
).
,
.

97

,
, . ,
. , , . ,
. , ( )
.

, . i80x86 64 , - 1 . , .
(Virtual Memory) -
,
[12, 13].
. 80286,
32-
(80386 ). -, 64-
4 . ,
(paging). ( ) ,
,
(
).
, -

98

.
, ,
().
.
- : , , . ( )
, ,
,
, .
, . ,
, ,
,
, . : .
.
,
, .
, .
[12]:
- , , , , .

, (
),
;
- , ,
;
- , ,
, .

99


.
.
. ,
. , ,
, .
.
.
:

. ,
,

, . ,
.
( ).
,
, , , .
,
, ,
.
, .

[12]:

100

- , .
,
;
-
.
,
, ;
-
,
. , , .
3.3.3

86 -.
(Memory Space)
, (24 ).
. (Paging) 4
, . 5- ,
4 .
. .

. -

101

.
.
: , .
32- ,

(. 3.4) [12, 13].
31

INDEX
BASE

DISPLACEMENT

SCALE
1,2,4,8
32-

+
2 1 0

15

R
P
L

32-

14-
14-

()
32-
32-

. 3.4 32-

, , Seg (
) ,
(Offset).
Seg:Offset. 14
(CS, DS, ES, SS, FS GS), . , , . base, index, displacement

102

scale.
16 (214), , , 4 ,
64 .

.
32- .
. 16 ( 8086).
, , ,
.
32- .
.
. 4 ( 2 4 ).

36 .
.


. 32/36 4/64 , 1 , .
3.3.4
32-
:
(L1 Cache L2 Cache); -

103

(TLB)
. ( ,
) 486, Pentium 6. 80386
(Intel) TLB, -, , .

. . ,
, (cache
thrashing). , 6
CPUID(2). , .
-

.
.
(Snoop Cycle
Inquire Cycle), .
, , .
, :
;
, () , , . 6
,

104

.
, .
, Pentium,
MESI, (Modified),
E (Exclusive), S (Shared), I (Invalid).
SI, . [13]:
-
, ; ;
-
, (
); -,
;
S- ( );
, ;
I- ,
;
.

. [13]:
U (Uncacheable).
,
,
. . -,
.
;

105

WC (Write Combining).
,
. , , ( CPUID , .). ,
, ( );
WT (Write-through). , , . , - .
.
, , ,
, ,
;
WB (Write-back).
, -. , . . ,

, ;
WP (Write protected). , , .
().

. (
) ,
MTRR (Memory Type
Range Registers ,

106

) PAT (Page Attribute Table ), .



1. - .
2. LH- ?
3. , .
4. , - ?
5. ?
6. MS DOS.
7. Windows 9x.
8. Windows NT.
9. Conventional memory?
10. UMA.
11. HMA?
12. EMS XMS ?
13. Shadow ROM Shadow RAM?
14. .
15. Windows
?
16.
?
17. ?
18. .

107

4.

4.1
4.1.1
, ( ).
, ,
.
:
- ;
- ;
- - -;
- () .

(, )
( )
. , , , , . ,
2. ,
(). ,

().
( ) [12]. (direct
access)
. ,

108

, (disk device), . , ,
- ,
.
(tape device), . ,
(),
. ,
, ( ) . ,
.

.
4.1.2


(capaci-ty), (),
(), () (), KB, MB, GB, . ,
, -, -, -, -
103, 106, 109 1012 . , ,
, 210, 220, 230 240 , 1 1024 , 1 1024
, 1 1024 , 1 1024 [12].

109

, . -, -, -, - , , ,
. ,
528 () 504 ().
. (remo-vable media)
, ,
. , (JukeBox).
-. CD-ROM (CD-changer), .

, ,
, .
(access time)

.
.
,
, . (seek time )
(latency
). ,
.
,

110

.
, . ( ), - .
-
(linear transfer rate read/write) .
-
(random transfer rate read/write)
, .

,
.
(Transfer Speed, Transfer Rate)

.
, 6
. ( )
.
,
( ). ,
,
. ,
,
, .

,
, .

111



.
, , .
. 4.1 .
4.1

,
FDD 3,5"
1,44
HDD IDE

HDD SCSI

CD-ROM Ix
650
CD-ROM 48x
650 (700)

CD-RW 4/4/32 (IDE) 650 (700)

,
100*
7,510
7,510
240500
75

,
/
0,055
220+
240+
0,15
7,2 (.)

150

: 4,8
(.)
: 0,6
: 4,8
(.)
: 1,2
130 (.)
: 1,22
: 0,62
: 3,67,
: 1,2
: 4,5,
: 1,5
0,10,5
1,4
2,4
7,5
7,5
1,4

CD-RW 8/8/32
(SCSI)

650 (700)

150

DVD-ROM 12x
MOD 3,5"

4,717,08
230

200
50

MOD 3,5"

540/640

28

MOD 3,5"

1,

28

LS-120
Iomega Zip 100
Iomega Zip 250
Iomega Jaz
Iomega Jaz
SyQuest EZ135

120
100
250
1
2
135

70
29
29
16
16
21

112

. 4.1

SyQuest EZFlyer
SyQuest SparQ
SyQuest Syjet
Compact Flash

,
230
1
1,5
32

,
13,5
12
12
0,001

,
/
2,4
3,76,9
3,76,9
: 20

4.1.3

(),
HDD (Hard Disk Drive), .
( ),
HDD [12].
. ( ),
( ),
( ), ,
. : 10- XT , . , .
[12].
(formatted capacity), (), ( ). (unf formatted
capacity) ,
, ( , ).

113

( ),

, , (512 ). ,
103 106 .
.
(spindle speed),
RPM (Revolutions Per Minute),
( ).
3600
/ ;
4500 5400 /, 7200 . , ,
10000 15000 /.
(interface) . , IDE SCSI,
USB, FireWire Fibre
Channel, LPT-.

:
(disks) (data surfaces), .

(12) .
;
- (read/write
heads), , . ,
. ,
,
;

114

(cylinders),
, , ;
(Bytes Per Sector),
512 .
(Sectors Per Track) ;
(servo head),
(dedicated servo), (embe-ded servo) (hybrid
servo);
- (recording
method data encoding sheme): MFM (FM ); RLL (ARLL); PRML,
.
:
(track-to-track seek),
,
.
0,52 , , (
);
(average seek time),
.
810 , 45 . , :
; , ;
(maximum
seek time, full seek time), .
.
(average latency)
( 3600 / 8 ,
7200 4 , 15000 2 );

115

(internal transfer
rate) , . : (Mb/s), , ,
. 15000 /
500 /.
(MB/s) ,

8 ( ) . 5400 /
815 /, 7200 / 1535 /c.

, ;
(external transfer rate),
() , ,
,
;
(sustained throughput),
(,
).
: , , , . 5400 /
825 /, 7200 /
1030 / 15000 / 3545 /.

:
MTBF (Mean Time Before
Failure), , .
(100000 10 ) , , . ,
- ;

116

(limited warranty), ( ) . , MTBF,


800000 (91 ), 35
;
(nonrecoverable read errors per bits read).
1014 . , , .

,
1 /,
.
, 115 ,
( !) .
,
;
(recoverable read errors
per bits read) 10 .

( ,
);
(seek errors per seek), . 108
. ,

.
.
, (sound powr), .
5400 / 30 , ,
34 . -

117

(7200 /) , 35 ; , , 25 .
4.2
4.2.1

. . , , , ,
() .
, . (sec-tor), . (track)
/. ()
(
).
.
() ,
,
(cylinder).
, ( ), , .

, . ( )
. DOS
512 [1]. BIOS

118

128, 256, 512 1024 . ,


(,
DOS), .
512 .

, [c-h-s],
( , cylinder), h
( , head), a s
. [] 0, , -1, . [h] 0, , h-1, h
. [s] 1, , s, s . , [1-0-2] 2
0 ( ) 1.

. .
4.2.2

(partition), ,
. ,
. - , , . primary ( ) extended (). primary- .
, , primary. primary- ,
. ,
, -

119

. primary ,
(hidden).

extended-, , , (logical).
primary;
, .

extended.
primary- ,

, ,
-

. ,

[c-h-s].
(),
. ,
,
, [12]:
: ;
D: ;
: .
(
, :
: ( );
D: ();
: (, D:);
F:
(, :).

120

,
(G:, :, ...).
, , .
(:) , (
SCSI, ).
[0-0-1]
MBR (Master Boot Record,), NSB (Non-System Bootstrap)
PT (Partition Table) [2].
,
0:7C00h, ,
. , ()
boot record, , a master boot record.
MBR
, BIOS. MBR
:
1) ( ). BIOS
MBR. 512 ,
, ,
,
;
2) ,
MBR OxlBE 64 ;
3) MBR. MBR AA55h. BIOS , .
. , ,
.
MBR . 4.3.

121

4.3 MBR

(Offset)
0

(Sise),

446

+ 1BEh
+ 1CEh
+ 1DEh
+1EEh
+1FEh

16
16
16
16
2

(Contents)
Partition Table
System Bootstrap
Partition 1 entry ( )
Partition 2 entry
Partition 3 entry
Partition 4 entry
(AA55h)

partition table . ,

. ,
( , ),
, , .
. 4.3 ,

.
partition table MBR, 16 .

boot indicator (0 , 128 (80) ).
,

.
.
, . ,

, . System ID , -

122

.

, .
(. 4.4).
4.4
Partition Table





1
1
2
1
1
2

. 4.5 .
MBR . MBR, partition table, BIOS.

, .
MS DOS
, . .

123

() . .
4.5
System
ID, 00
01
02
03
04
05
06

Empty ( )
FAT 12
XENIX root
XENIX usr
FAT16 (<32 )
Extended
FAT 16

07
08
09
0
0B
0
0
0F
10
11
12
14
16
17
18
1B
1
1E
24
3
40

HPFS/NTFS
AIX
AIX bootable
OS/2 Boot Manager
Win95 FAT32
Win95 FAT32 LBA
Win95 FAT16 LBA
Win95 Extended
OPUS
Hidden FAT12
Compaq diagnost
Hidden FAT16 (<32 )
Hidden FAT 16
Hidden HPFS/NTFS
AST Windows swap
Hidden Win95 Fat
Hidden Win95 Fat
Hidden Win95 Fat
NEC DOS
Partition Magic
Venix 80286

System
ID,
41
42
4D
4E
4F
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
5C
61
64
65
75
80
82
83
84
85
86
A5
A6
A7
EB


PPC PreP Boot
SFS
QNX 4.x
QNX 4.x 2nd part
QNX 4.x 3nd part
OnTrack DM
OnTrack DM6
Aux
CP/M
OnTrack DM6
OnTrack DM6
EZ Drive
Golden Bou
Priam Edisk
Speed Stor
Novell Netware
Novell Netware
PC/IX
Old Minix
Linux swap
Linux native
OS/2 hidden C:
Linux Extended
NTFS volume set
BSD/386
Open BSD
Next Step
Be OS

124

DOS -
.
DOS
SMBR (Secondary MBR), partition table
LDT (Logical Disk Table),
. LDT , ,
SMBR. , DOS , SMBR,
. ( )
.
MS DOS, Windows
9x fdisk.exe, Windows NT
Control Panel, Administrative Tools,
Computer Management. ,
, Partition
Magic ( Power Quest), . , ,
, , , ..
4.3
4.3.1
, .

.
, , .
,
, , , , , ,
,

125

, [2]. -
.
FAT (File Allocation Table),
,
.
,
.
, . -,
. , . -,
:
- , , ( )
( ) ,
;
-
;
- , ,
( );
- ;
- .

, . , , , ,
API (Application Program Interface). ,

126

API .
,
, ;

. , , , , . ,
. , .. ,

.
,
. ,
FAT . , ,
, FAT ( FAT12). , .

,
FAT-16.
MS DOS. OS/2, FAT, superFAT, .
FAT Windows
9x, Windows NT .. , ,
, -

127

, , ; ,
, .
4.3.2 FAT
4.3.2.1 FAT16
FAT16 MS DOS Microsoft .
(File Allocation
Table)
,
(
), 4095 .
MS DOS 4-
(
2040 ),
[15].
FAT 12- 16- .
384 12 .
(512 ).
FAT12
.
, FAT16, .
512 64 .
. 4.6 . ,
, ,
. 4.6 [15].

128

4.6
FAT16
,

032
3364
65128
129255
256511
5121023
10242047
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1
2
4
8
16
32
64
128

0,5 (512 )
1
2
4
8
16
32
64

FAT16
511 ,
: 1 64 . FAT16
4 .
. 4.1 , FAT16.

FAT 1

FAT 2

. 4.1 FAT16

.
FAT1 FAT2. FAT
FAT. ,
. FAT2 FAT1.
FAT16 FAT .

129

,
. . ,
512
100 ,
412 (512100).

,
. 4.7.
4.7
,
11
1
1
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
4




FAT

, .
FAT, , .
FAT16 :
(0)000h
,
(F)FF0h (F)FF6h ,
(F)FF7h
,
(F)FF8h (F)FFFh ,
(0)002h (F)FEFh .

130

: , , 16- . , FF7h 12- FAT FFF7h 16 FAT.


. 4.2:
; File1
( , 2, 3 4 ); File2 5, 6 8; File3 . (2, 5 7 ).
(4, 8 7)
FFFF,
, .
File1(0002)
0

File2(0005)

0003

0004

4
FFF

File3(0007)

0006

0008

7
FFF

8
FFF

. 4.2 FAT16

, .
, , .
, : (archive), (system), (hidden),
(read-only).
FAT16
[15]:
- MS DOS, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT,
Windows 2000,
UNIX;

131

- ,
;
- -;
-
256 .
FAT16
[15]:
- 512 . ;
- FAT16 65536 ,
,
65524.
.
32
4-
Windows 2000.
MS DOS, Windows 95 Windows 98 FAT16
2 ;
- ;
- FAT16
;
-
, .
, .
4.3.2.2 FAT32
Microsoft Windows 95 OEM Service Release 2
(OSR2) Windows 32- FAT.
Windows NT
Microsoft Windows 2000. FAT16
4 , FAT32 4 . FAT32
1 (512 ) 64 (32 ).

132

FAT32 4 (32
, 16, FAT16). , , , FAT16, FAT32.
FAT32 FAT16
. FAT16 2-
32 , FAT32 4
512 8 (.
4.8) [15]. ,
, ,
.
4.8
FAT32
,

8
8 16
16 32
32

4
8
16
32

FAT32
4 2 .
FAT16 512, FAT32
65 535.
FAT32
65527 .
, FAT 16
64 /4 4 . .
, FAT16 FAT32, .
Windows -

133

8.3 ( 13 ).
Unicode. , , .
, MS
DOS, 8.3 ( , ).
FAT32
[15]:
-
, ;
- FAT32
.
-
(4 8 ) 1015 % , FAT16;
- FAT32 .
, FAT. ,
.
FAT32 [15]:
- FAT32 Windows
2000 32 ;
- FAT32 , FAT;
- ;
- FAT32
.
4.3.3 NTFS
NTFS (New Technology File
System) . ,
NTFS -

134

, . ,
Windows. NTFS,
FAT,
:
; , ; /
.
NTFS
:
.
()
, NTFS. ,
;
. NTFS
.
:
; ; ; ; , ;
- POSIX (Portable
Operating System Interface for Computer Environments). ,
POSIX, NTFS.
POSIX
,

( , );

135

.
NTFS . 512 64 ;
,
. NTFS , Unicode
8.3 FAT.
FAT,
NTFS . . 4.9 [15].
4.9
NTFS
,

512
5131024
(1)
10252048
(2)
2049



1
2

0,5 (512 )
1

NTFS
232,
. .
232 .
, 512 . , 2 ( 2 32 512 = 2 41 ).
, 2 NTFS.
. NTFS
. , -

136


. , , , , , ,
. NTFS
, . ( , , )
. FAT16
FAT32 ,
. NTFS, Windows 2000, .
. Windows 2000 , NTFS.
Windows-.
.
, Double-Space (MS DOS 6.0)
DriveSpace (MS DOS 6.22),
MS DOS ,
NTFS .
NTFS
4 .
4 , NTFS .
NTFS. NTFS

. NTFS , NTFS, . (commit), (rollback). NTFS- , . , , NTFS -

137

, , .
, . , NTFS .
. NTFS ,
. cluster remapping.
NTFS
MFT (Master File Table)
.
NTFS . 16
MFT NTFS.
$Mft SMftMirr
. MFT , NTFS
. . , MFT, . 4.10 [15].
4.10 MFT

Master file table

$Mft

MFT
0

Master file table2

$MftMirr

Log file

$LogFile

Volume

$Volume

Attribute definitions

$AttrDef

MFT



NTFS

MFT. MFT ,

,
NTFS

138

. 4.10

Root file name


index
Cluster bitmap

MFT
5

$Bitmap

$Boot

$BadClus

Security file

$Secure

Upcase table

$Upcase

10

NTFS extension
file

$Extend

11

Boot sector
Bad cluster file

12-15

MFT



Unicode-

:
,


MFT
, .
MFT,

,
.
, , . ( 1500 )
.
NTFS-
.
. NTFS ( )
. , ,

139

, . .
,
. . , ,
MFT-, .

. NTFS Attribute
List.
NTFS
.
NTFS
. ,
, .
, , ,
, . , ,
.
NTFS ,
/ : Read (), Write (),
eXecute (), Delete (), Change Permissions ( ) Take Ow-nership ( ).
, , , . , ,
,
, ,
- (

140

) . ,
.
, , ,
,
Everyone (). , ,

, , ..
. ,
, ,
: .
,
,
. , ,
,
, . , , ,
, .
, NTFS.

NTFS,
. ,
NTFS , ( ) .
,
NTFS:
1) NTFS ;
2) ( ,
NTFS) ;

141

3) NTFS FAT
NTFS .
FAT NTFS

, , FAT NTFS .
FAT , , 1 .
FAT . NTFS ,
FAT. , 2 .
,
1500 .
NTFS -. 50100 .
, 25 %
.
.
FAT 2 , FAT32 4 .
- FAT
200 .
NTFS - 2 .
FAT
. , NTFS Windows NT,
NTFS. ,
, () NTFSDOS NTFS , MS DOS. NTFS
Windows NT .

142

FAT ,
NTFS , . FAT , .
. NTFS . NTFS
,
. , ,
.
, Windows NT CONVERT.EXE, FAT NTFS,
NTFS FAT .
, FAT, NTFS . ,
NTFS FAT
NTFS. , FAT
.
, , 8,4
, FAT. ,
3 .
Windows-
FAT32, NTFS. , , ,
Windows 98
Windows Millennium
Edition.
4.3.4 HPFS
HPFS (High Performance File System) OS/2 1.2

143

LAN Manager [2]. HPFS IBM Microsoft


IBM MVS, VM/CMS
. HPFS ,
.
HPFS ,
. HPFS, FAT
, ,
,
. HPFS ,
FAT, file-associated,
, . . FAT
HPFS
.
, HPFS, , . :
;

;
, ,
. , HPFS
, , , , , ()
. /
(rotational latency), ..

144

/
. ,
HPFS FAT :
- ;
- ;
- ,
;
-
.
HPFS.
.
HPFS :
, , band).
8
, , , .
. 1, , 0 .
,
, : , , , ,
, ..
16

.
HPFS ,
FAT, .
,
. , . ,
256 . ,
, . , FAT

145

512 1024 16 . ,
8 (8192 ) ,
HPFS 256 . ,
8 .

HPFS .
(boot block),
(super block) () (spare block). (boot block) 0 15;
, ,
BIOS .
OS2LDR, , ,
, OS/2 OS2KRNL,
OS2KRNL CONFIG.SYS .
(super block) (bitmap block list). , , .
(bad block list), (directory
band), (F-node) ,
CHKDSK.

() . , . , super
block .
HPFS 8 . super
block 16 ,
HPFS.
(spare block)
(hotfix map hotfix-areas),
c (directory emergency free

146

block list),
, . 17 . HPFS .
HPFS
, F-Node [2].
HPFS FAT .
F-Node. F-Node (
). F-Node 15 , , ,
( ), ..
F-node
. HPFS .
;
. , .
HPFS ,
. , -Tree , : ; ; , , ,
; ; .
HPFS (). , , FAT. (-

147

, F-node), , .
.
, , , 4096
, FAT
64 ,
HPFS 24
( ) . HPFS FAT. , , 40 1640 , 65640 .
, 65640 .
FAT, 4000 .
,
HPFS, 2 .
, , .
13 ( 8.3),
2 40 .
, , .
. ,
. , - ,
.
HPFS ,
. .
SpareBlock.
. HPFS ,

148

,
.

,
. HPFS ,
,
. FAT, ,

. HPFS , , ,
.
/ .
, HPFS
4 . ,
. HPFS ,
. , HPFS 4

/ .
,
, .
. , - ,
HPFS, , , ,
. , , , . -

149

() ,
, -
. , HPFSOPT Gamma-Tech , , ,
, - 2
3 .
,
8 . ,
2 , . , , 3 %.
. HPFS. , . HPFS
(hotfix) [2].
HPFS
, . HPFS , ,
,
. HPFS.
HPFS
.
. , 32- .
,
,
.
, ,
. , , -

150

. , ,

, .
CHKDSK HPFS. ()
, , .
,
. CHKDSK , HPFS, .
.
HPFS, , , 32- . , ,
.
HPFS
CHKDSK , , . , CHKDSK ,
. CHKDSK . , ,

. HPFS . , , .

151

4.3.5 UNIX
UNIX
, . ,
.
, ;
. ,
, .

UNIX, .
:
1) ( 0), ;
2) ( 1), ,
i- ;
3) i- ,
. I- .
i- ;
4) , ( ), ( ).
:
- ,
( );
- , i-;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- (back up);
- ;
- i-.
UNIX . 4.3.

152

i-

i-

. 4.3 UNIX


i-, , .
i-
, .
i- UNIX
. 4.4. i- 13 .
10
. 512 ,
5120 (512 10).
5120 , 11- i-, 128
. 70656 (512
(10 + 128)).
, 12-
i-, ,
128 .

8459264

(512(10+1282). , 13- 128


1082201088 (512(10+128+1282+1283).
UNIX i-,
.

153

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-----
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:
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. 4.4 i- UNIX

154

, , . (/dev,/etc, /bin ..).


.
mkfs . /etc :
/etc/mkfs <> <>

, .


, i-.
-:
/etc/mkfs /dev/flo 2000
isize = 230
,
i-.
UNIX -
mount.
. /etc :
/etc/mount <> <>
,
. ,
.
,
, mount :
mount
/dev/fl0 on /floppy0
(
).
, /etc/mnttab.

, ,
.

155


, umount, /etc :
umount <>
,
:
umount /dev/fl0
, .
, , (umount :
device busy), .
,
i-, , ,
. .
:
- , .. ,
;
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;
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;
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.
,
( ),
. :
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i-; - i-, -

156

, i- ,
;
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i-
, , ;
- , , , ; .

, fsck (file
system check). : icheck, dcheck,
ncheck. fsck.
fsck ,
:
- i- ( ,
i-);
- , i-, ;
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; ,
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; .
: ,
/etc/checklist.
fsck,
,
***** BOOT UNIX (NO SYNC!) *****,

sync.
,
,
.

157


sync.
fsck
/lost+found .
fsck , ,
/lost+found .
4.3.6 CD-ROM
4.3.6.1 CDFS
Windows 2000 CDFS (Compact Disk File System),
ISO'9660, CDROM.
ISO'9660 Level 2 [15].
CD-ROM Windows 2000
:
-
32 ;
-
;
- 8
;
- .
4.3.6.2 UDF
UDF (Universal Disk Format)
Windows 2000. UDF , ISO'13346
CD-ROM DVD. UDF 1.02
1.50 [15].

158


1.
?
2. .
3. .
4. (
). ?
?
5.
, ?
6.
?
7. FAT16?
? ?
8. FAT32.
9. NTFS.
10. HPFS. HPFS ?
11. UNIX?
12. CDFS UDF?

159

5.

5.1

. [2].
5.1.1.1
, .

.
,

.
(
).
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. ,
,
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7

(, ; ) () .

160

, ,
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5.1.1.2
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161


.
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Linux. UNIX- -
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. ( , -

162

),
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()
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163

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164

. ,
.
, . VDM- (Virtual DOS Machine) , MS DOS
MS DOS-.
VDM. VDM- Microsoft
Windows, OS/2.
5.1.1.6

. , /. ,

UNIX.
. , ,
, . , , .

. , , , ,
. , , - , .

165

5.1.1.7

,
,
.

.
, .
,
,
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(, IBM PC
Macintosh Apple), , . 680x0 ( PowerPC)
, i80x86. 80x86 , .
680x0 80x86, , , ,
, , 680x0. 680x0
, - , 80x86,
.
, 680x0, , -

166

, 80x86.
. ,
, ,
,
,
, .


POSIX,
UNIX,
.
5.1.1.8

, , . (, ) , ,
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(). ,
. . , , UNIX , , Linux.

167

5.1.1.9 ()

,
( ),
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POSIX
.

168

5.1.1.10


.
,
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. , 2 .
. , NCSC (National
Computer Security Center) 1983 ,
.
,

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, , , , .
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D ,
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,

169

, 2. 2
:
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170

. , Solaris
( UNIX) , - .
5.2

[2]. ,
.

: , ,
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. , ,
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. ,
.
, .

, , . ,
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.

171


,
, .

,
. Mach .
, .
,
.
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) IPC (InterProcess Communication);
4) / ;
5) 8 .
, , ,
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8

172

: . , , .


,
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.


. ,
.
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173

QNX (Queue Nicks


, ). QNX ,
,
.
,

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8 46 .
QNX,
,
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QNX , . , .
5.3

. , , - .
.
, - , [2].
-
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174

.
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Windows NT, , .
5.4


.
,
:

175

, :
- , ;
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);
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(Remote Procedure Call);
:
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);
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, , ,

176

, ,
API. , GUI (Graphical
User Interface), .
() - , ,
/ .. ,
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,
GUI API.
, . ,
-, ,
.

API
,
. API
.
, , MS DOS,
( i8086 ), .
API int 21h.
, API. , . (, -

177

RTL9 (Run Time Lubrary) API,


,
. , , ,
.
5.4.1
5.4.1.1

,
API
(Application Program Interface) :
- API ,
RTL;
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,
,
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,

.
, ,
9

RTL , .
RTL , .

178

, ,
, .
API ,
,
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, .

. API
,
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- ;
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.


API .
API
.
API
[2]:
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API, ,


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179


API ,
.
API
API.
,
.

, .
5.4.2 API
5.4.2.1 API

API . ,
, (
), , .
[2].

. API
API.
API

, .
,
,
, . ,
API, ,
.

180

,
.

API . .

() API, . API
, Microsoft Windows WinAPI (Windows API). , API ,
Windows. API MS DOS, .
5.4.2.2 API

API , .
RTL.
, [2].
, API ,
. , API RTL .

181

RTL .

,
.
.


.

.

. RTL.
RTL .
RTL
.
,
Pascal. malloc,
realloc free ( new delete C++), Pascal
new dispose.
,
. , .
,
,
. ,
(, malloc new
Pascal )
. -

182


.
, , , .

API. , . , . , , ,
, ,

. API.
, malloc, realloc free
.
, - , . . , ,
, Pascal .
5.4.2.3 API

API

, [2].
.
-

183

. , .. .
API , , RTL .
RTL.
,


, . . , -
,
.
, , POSIX
(. . 5.5.3), , , .
XLib,
X Window.

. ,
. MFC (Microsoft Foundation
Classes) Microsoft VCL (Visual Controls Library)
Borland, Windows.
- ,

.
, : , -

184

CLX (Component Library for Cross-platform, )


Borland,
Linux Windows.
API API, . ,
,
. API .


.
,
,
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: ,
. ,
,
Basic, . API ,
.
API. ,
256
unsigned char * ptr = malloc (256).
.
malloc, RTL .

185

malloc
API Alloc
LPVOID 11(
HANDLE hHeap,
//
DWORD dwFlags, //
DWORD dwBytes
//
,
. ,
, API
.
unsigned char * ptr = (LPVOID) HeapAlloc(
GetProcessHeap(). 0. 256).
, , ,
, , . , API
. API
. API,
.
, API . API , ,
.
,

.
, ,
POSIX. ,
. , POSIX, API,
, , ( ).


.

186

API
Microsoft, WinAPI. : Win16, Win32s, Win32, WinCE. WinAPI,
, . , WinAPI
.
,
POSIX.
5.4.3 - POSIX
- POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface
for Computer Environments) IEEE10,
, ,
[16]. , POSIX,
, , , .
UNIX-, . POSIX
IEEE UNIX-
, - .
POSIX UNIX-; ,
, IEEE
Standard 1003.1-1990 (POSIX.1). , QNX ,
, UNIX , .

VMS (Virtual Memory System,),
10

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)


.

187

(MultiProcess Executing)
CTOS (An Operating System produced Convergent
Technology ). , POSIX , POSIX.I
POSIX.12. . 5.1 , . ,
POSIX. 1
API.
5.1 POSIX

ISO

POSIX.0

.
,

POSIX.1
POSIX.2

API ( )
, IEEE

POSIX.3
POSIX.4

POSIX.5

POSIX.6
POSIX.7
POSIX.8

POSIX.9

ADA
POSIX.1


RPC (Remote Procedure
Calls)

FORTRAN
POSIX.1

POSIX.10

Super-computing Application Environment Profile


(AEP)

POSIX.11

POSIX.12

GUI

188

, ,
,
POSIX- .
. , .
POSIX, . POSIX-
. , ,
, ,
POSIX.
POSIX API
. UNIX- IEEE Standard
1003.1-1990, WinAPI POSIX-. MS
Windows NT POSIX API,
.

,
Win API. , WinAPI, POSIX / (stdin, stdout).

1.
.
2. .
?
3.
.

189

4.
(API)?
5. API?
?
6. ?
7. POSIX?
,
, POSIX?

190

2.
6. MICROSOFT
6.1 MS DOS
6.1.1 MS DOS
MS DOS (Microsoft Disk Operation
System) , , 16- IBM C. MS
DOS
, Seattle Computer Products 1980 .
1980 . , QDOS, 86-DOS. 86-DOS
Microsoft, IBM
JC ,
. IBM PC (1981 .),
86DOS, PC DOS, 1.0.
IBM PC
, . , Microsoft
, , PC DOS MS DOS 1.0.
,
MS DOS. , . , ,
.

191

PC DOS MS
DOS .
1982 1.1.
( 1.0
),
. 1983
2.0. ,
,
. MS DOS 3.0,
1984 .,
. , 3.3,
1987 ., . MS
DOS 5.0 , 1M. MS DOS 6.0 ,
1M, Memmaker
DoubleSpace. ScanDisk Defrag.
6.1.2 MS DOS
MS DOS [1]:
BIOS (Base Input Output System Data Area) -, , ( ). BIOS . ,
, . BIOS, , MS DOS,
, MS DOS .
BIOS,
-

192

() . OS/2, UNIX, Windows NT;


(BootRecord)
,
MS DOS11. IO.SYS MSDOS.SYS, MS DOS. ()
(),

:

, ;
DOS ;
:
IO.SYS / ,
BIOS;
MSDOS.SYS , MS DOS;
( ) , , . .
,
.

.
COMMAND.COM;
( MS DOS)
,
, 11

2- 4-
.

193

, .;
CONFIG.SYS, AUTOEXEC.BAT, ,
. CONFIG.SYS .
6.1.3 MS DOS
MS DOS
[1]:
- ;
- Reset
( );
- Ctrl-Alt-Del .
MS DOS
OST, . . .
BootRecord.
. ,
, -, BootRecord ( MS DOS IO.SYS
MSDOS.SYS) .
CONFIG.SYS , , . CONFIG.SYS , . ,
, (
COMMAND.) .
AUTO-EXEC.BAT,

194

, . AUTOEXEC.BAT
, . , , .
AUTOEXEC.BAT , , MS DOS
.
AUTOEXEC.BAT MS DOS .
6.1.4 MSDOS CONFIG.SYS
BIOS . BIOS ,
. BIOS MS DOS, ,
. BIOS ,
.
,
CONFIG.SYS.
:
1) , MS DOS (DEVICE=HIMEM.SYS);
2) Ctrl-Break (CtrlC) (BREAK=ON);
3) , (FILES=200);
4) (BUFFERS=5);
5) ,

COMMAND.COM
(SHELL=4DOS.COM).

195

6.1.5 COMMAND.COM


. :
- ,
;
- MS DOS,
COMMAND.COM;
- MS DOS
;
- AUTOEXEC.BAT.
MS DOS
,
, ,
. COM EXE
, BAT .
MS DOS ,
, , .
,
,
.

.
MS DOS . -
, MS DOS,
, . MS DOS:
1 N /1 /N
. 1
N , ,
. -

196

() 1
N. , : , ,
, . .
6.1.6 AUTOEXEC.BAT
AUTOEXEC.BAT
,
. ,
AUTOEXEC.BAT.
1
@ECHO OFF
ATH C:\;C:\ARC;\C:\WORK
ROMT $$G
VER
DATE /T
ECHO OFF
BAT-. @
ECHO OFF .
, ,
.
ATH
.
ROMT MS DOS.
, . ( $), .
:
$ ;
$T ;
$D ;

197

$G - >.
$$G
ROMT :
C:\WORK>.
$T$D$B$$G,
:
8:50:01.01 Mon 01-01-02 | :\WORK>.
VER
.
DATE /T .

.
,
. . AUTOEXEC.BAT
,
, ,
.
2
AUTOEXEC.BAT ,
, , ,
:
@ECHO OFF
ATH C:\;C:\ARC;\C:\WORK
ROMT $$G
VER
IF EXIST MAIL TYE MAIL
:BEGIN
ECHO
ECHO 1 2 3 4
CHOICE /C:1234
IF ERRORLEVEL 4 GOTO WORK
IF ERRORLEVEL 3 GOTO IVAN

198

IF ERRORLEVEL 2 GOTO ETER


IF ERRORLEVEL 1 GOTO ALEX
GOTO BEGIN
:IVAN
CD IVAN
START
:ETER
CD ETER
START
:ALEX
CD ALEX
START
:WORK
CD WORK
IF EXIST MAIL TYE
MAIL, MAIL,
.
, ,
:BEGIN, :IVAN, :ETER, :ALEX, :WORK, , GOTO.
ECHO .
CHOICE /C:1234
, , IF ERRORLEVEL
.
CD .
6.1.7 MS DOS


MS DOS , .
MS DOS, , .
MS DOS Teach Help, -

199

, , /? .
( ) ASCII, MS
DOS.
.
. (BATch).
.
, .. , Enter.

. ,
,
AEND.
, .
( ).
MS DOS , , ,
, .
MS DOS : <> /?,
fasthelp, help. : <_>. : (). a: b: .
MS DOS.
(+) () () () :
ATTRIB <+/-()> <> < ()>
:
r (read only);
a (archive);
h (hidden);
s (system).
BACKUP -
.
CALIBRATE <:> <> .

200

CD (cd\
; cd kat KAT ; cd ..
).
CHECKDISK .
CLS .
COPY <> <> <> <> () .
:
CON ( ;
);
LPT ;
COM AUX ;
PRN .
:
/a ;
/b ;
/v .
COPY :
COPY __1 __n __.
DATE < > .
DEFRAG < > <> , : /f ; /u
.
DEL < > .
DIR<> <>
, :
/p ;
/w ;
/a: ,
: :
r ;
h ;
s ;

201

a :
d :
/o: , :
:
n ;
e ;
s ;
d ;
g ,
;
a ;
/s ;
/b ;
/l ;
/v ;
/4 ( /V).
DISKCOPY < > < >
<>
, .
EDIT .
ERASE < > .
FDISK <> .
FC <> < () ()> < () ()> .
FORMAT <:> <> .
HELP <-> .
LABEL <:> < ( 11 )>
.
MD < >
.
MEM (mem
/c /p ).

202

MOVE <> <> <>


() .
PROMPT <> MS DOS.
RAMDRIVE
.
REM < > < > () ().
RD < > .
SCANDISK CHECKDISK
, .
SMARTDRV
CD-ROM ( ).
SPEEDDISK <:> <> .
TIME < > .
TYPE < > .
VER DOS WINDOWS. Windows, ver "Windows < >".
VERIFY (on/off) .
VOL <:> .
6.2 Windows 95
Windows
90- XX .
1985 , . 1990 . Windows 3.0.
Windows 3.0 ,

Windows,
. ,
Windows
,
.

203

Windows 3.1 ,
, Windows 3.0.
Windows 95 ,
[17]. Windows 95 , , .
Windows 95 Windows
3.1 32-
. MS DOS. Windows 95
MS DOS ,

IBM PC. Windows 95
.
, ,
. BIOS, , ,
MS
DOS.
Plug and Play, Microsoft, Intel, Phoenix Technologies, Compaq
. [17]. , . Plug and Play ,
.
32- [17]:
- 32- Windows API (Application Programming Interface),
API, Microsoft Windows

204

NT, , ;
- , Windows. .
, 32- , :
- (preemption). Win32 . ,
,
.
, , ,
, , -

;
- . Win32
, ,

;
- (Thread support). , ,


, . Windows
3.1
, , .
Windows 95 .
WIN.INI SYSTEM.INI. ,
Windows,

WIN.INI. WIN.INI SYSTEM.INI
:

205

- ?
- ?
- , , ?
- - ,
?
,
, Windows 95 ,
Windows NT. ,
Windows NT ,
registry', ,
,
. registry
.
API.

, . Windows 95 ,
Windows NT, Windows 95,
.
Windows 95
[17]:
-
OLE 2 (Object Linking and Embedding),
-
. Windows 95 OLE
2 Drag and Drop ( Windows 95 );
- ;
- ;

206

- ,

,
;
- MS DOS,
. Windows 95
, -
MS DOS Windows 95 . MS DOS, ,
MS DOS True Type;
- , - NetWare . Windows 95 , ,
, ,
.
Windows 95
- :
- Novell, Banyan, Microsoft ;
-,
, Novell WAN (Wide Area Network), TCP/IP;

, ;
, MAPI
(Message Applica-tion Programming Interface), , ;

207

,
. Windows

.

Windows 95 : 486
25 ; 8
(); 4045 ; VGA ; Microsoft Mouse .

6.3 Windows 98
Microsoft Windows 98 Windows, . Internet, ,
.
Windows 98 ,
Windows 95.
USB (Universal Serial Bus)
, .
Microsoft Windows 98
Windows 98, Internet,
, . Windows 98 Internet [17]:
- Internet Explorer 5. , Microsoft, , Internet;

208

- Windows NetMeeting 3. NetMeeting


, ,
Internet;
- Internet ICS (Internet
Connection Sharing). ICS ,

Internet ;
- . , USB,
DVD, IEEE 1394,

ACPI (Advanced
Configuration and Power Interface), Digital
Imaging Microsoft WebTV Windows, . ;
- Internet. Web- 15 - . Web Windows 98
, ,
Web;
- .
,
. , Windows 98 ;
- Windows 98, , 2000;
- , Windows.
Windows 98
: 486DX/66
; 24 , -

209

; 260
,
FAT16 ( ,
210 400 ); VGA ; Microsoft Mouse
.
6.4 Windows Millennium Edition
Windows Millennium Edition (Windows Me) ,
:
1) [17]:
. Windows Movie Maker , Internet;
. , , .

,
Web- ;
. Windows
Media Internet
-, , , -.
,
Internet;
.
Di-rectX 7,

210

;
2)

I n t e r n e t , , :
. Web-
Internet Explorer 5.5 Web- , ;
Internet,
ADSL ;
Outlook Express;
MSN
Messenger, ,
, ;
.

, NetMeeting 3.1;
(, , , );
3) :
.

Internet ,
Windows;
.
;
, ;

211

. ,
,
;
4)
:
. System Restore ,
;
. ;
Web- Windows
Update. ( ) Web- Windows Update, ;
;
5) :
.
,
;

UPnP (Universal Plug and Play),
;
, Internet, , ;
. ,
(
, );
.
,
, Web-, USB.

212

6.5 Windows NT
6.5.1
Windows 95,
Windows 98, Windows Me ,
( ) Windows 9.
Microsoft Windows 9 Windows NT,
Microsoft, Intel,
. , Microsoft
Windows NT MIPS R4000, DEC Alpha, Power PC . Intel,

Windows MS DOS
Windows NT Intel. , Windows NT
MS DOS, Windows NT 16- .
6.5.2 Windows NT Server 4.0
Windows NT Server 4.0,
Option Pack, Windows NT 4.0,
[17]. . Windows NT Server 4.0

-. Option Pack Windows
NT Server 4.0 Web-, , ,
. Windows NT Server 4.0
Option Pack Web-, , .

213

Web- , Web, Windows NT Server 4.0


Internet.
Windows NT :
- Microsoft Windows 95 Windows NT Server 4.0. Windows 95 Windows
NT Workstation 4.0;
- . , Windows NT Server 4.0
, ,
..;
- , ,
;
-

;
- Windows NT. ,
, ;
- Microsoft Index Server
,
HTML. Internet, Intranet ;
- ,
Web-, Microsoft FrontPage
Web-.
- PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) , Internet,
.

214

TCP/IP .
Windows NT Server 4.0
:
Intel
486/33 M , Pentium Pentium PRO; 125
;

RISC- RISC-,
Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0; 160
;
Intel- RISC-: 32
; ; VGA, Super VGA , Windows NT Server 4.0.
6.5.3 Windows NT Workstation 4.0
Windows NT Workstation 4.0 . Windows NT
Workstation 4.0 , Windows 95: , . Windows NT
Workstation 4.0 [17]:
-
16- , , ;
- , .
-
;
-
,
.
Windows NT Workstation 4.0 :
- Intel Pentium ;

215

- RISC-
Alpha AXP, MIPS R4X00 PowerPC; 32 ;
- 110 M ;
VGA ;
- Microsoft Mouse .
6.6 Windows 2000
6.6.1 Windows 2000 Server
Windows 2000


, NT
Internet. Windows 2000 Server Windows NT Server 4.0,
,
. Windows 2000 Server
, Web, , ,
,
Internet.
[17]:
- .
. ;
- , ;
- , , ,

216

RAID 5 ;
- ,
, ;
, ;
- FRS

. FRS
;
- , (
);
- ,
;
- ,
, Windows 2000 Professional;
- XML.
, -
XML12 Microsoft Internet Explorer,
, XML;
- FTP,

, ;
- .
IPSec

12

XML (Extensible Markup Language) , , XML. .

217

. Active Directory

, ;
- ,

, ;
- Active
Directory,
. , ;
- Windows,
;
- , ;
- ,
,
;
- ,
,
,
, ,
.
6.6.2 Windows 2000 Professional
Windows 2000
Professional
Notebook, . Microsoft

218


Windows 98 ( Plug and Play,
, ). , ,
, Windows NT.
Windows 2000 Professional ,
.
Windows 2000 Professional ,
[17]:
- . Windows File Protection . Windows 2000
, Windows;
-
;
- ;
- , Windows NT 4.0
Windows 9x. ;
- 25%
Windows 9x 64 ;
- 32- , , Windows 95
Windows 98;
- 4 (RAM)
;
-
Windows , , , ;

219

- Microsoft Windows 2000


UNIX-;
- .
.
- ,
. IPSec, Internet,
VPN
(Virtual Private Network);
- -
Internet Explorer 5.01 Internet.
:
pentium- 133
64 RAM ( , ); 2 ,
650 . Windows 2000 Professional .
6.7 Windows XP
Microsoft Windows XP:
1) Windows XP Professional , ;
2) Windows XP Home Edition
,
;
3) Windows XP 64-Bit Edition 64-
, , .
Windows XP [17]:

220

- Windows XP Windows NT
Windows 2000, 32- ;
-


Windows XP, Windows 2000 ;
-
,
. ;
- , Windows;
- IP-;
-
Windows 2000,
; , ;
Windows 2000
;
-
Windows XP,
.
Windows XP Home Edition :
- ;
- ;
- , , ,
;
- ;
-
;

221

- , ,
;
-
.
Windows XP Professional ,
Windows XP Home Edition.

:
- ,

;
-
;
- ;
- Microsoft Windows
Server ;
-
.
:
- 300
; 233 (
); Intel Penti-um/Celeron, AMD K6/Athlon/Duron
;
- 128 (
64 , );
- 1,5 ;
- Super VGA 800600 . -
DVD;
- Microsoft Mouse
.

222

Windows XP 64-Bit Edition :


- ,
,
;
- Intel Itanium, ,
-, ;
-
;
- ;
- .
6.8 Windows 2003 Server
Windows 2003 Server,
Windows 2000 Server,
-
-, .
Windows 2003 Server [17]:

:
- - XML
, SOAP13, WSDL14 UDDI15,

13

SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) SOAP, ,


, .
14
WSDL (Web Services Description Language)
-.

223


;
- ,
, ,
;
-
;
- Microsoft 2003
Enterprise Server.

:
- ;
- - XML (SOAP,
WSDL, UDDI);
- Microsoft Visual Studio 2003, ;
- Visual Studio 2003;
- ;
- .
Microsoft Windows 2003 Server
:
1) Windows 2003 Web Server ,
-,
.

,
15

UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery and Integration) , web-


. - UDDI
,
.

224

. Microsoft ASP2003 2003


Framework Windows 2003 Web-Server
- XML -;
2) Windows 2003 Standard Server , ,
.
,
. Windows 2003
Standard Server ,
,
, .
Windows 2003 Standard Server 4
;
3) Windows 2003 Enterprise Server ,


.
,
, -
. Windows 2003 Enterprise
Server ,
,
, ,
, ,
32 .
64- ;
4) Windows 2003 Datacenter Server , ,
.
,
, ERP (En-terprise Resource Planning),

225

.
, - Microsoft.

32 . , . Windows 2003
Datacenter Server 64- .
Windows 2003 Server , Microsoft Windows NT.
Windows 2003
Server

, Windows 2000. , Windows 2000 Server,


Windows 2003
Server, , , , , - XML.
Windows
2003 Server .

Windows Windows
2003
2003
Web- Standard
Server
133
133

550

550

Windows 2003
Enterprise
Server

Windows 2003
Datacenter
Server

133


x86

400


x86

733


Itanium
733

733


Itanium
733

226

Windows Windows
2003
2003
Web- Standard
Server
128
128

Windows 2003
Enterprise
Server

Windows 2003
Datacenter
Server

128

512

256

256

256

1 2

1 2

32


x86
64


Itanium
8

64


x86
128


Itanium
8
32

1,5

1,5

1,5


x86

1,5


x86

2,0


Itanium

2,0


Itanium


1. MS DOS.
2. MS DOS.
3. BIOS?
4. BootRecord?
5. MS DOS.
6. MS DOS.
7. MS DOS CONFIG.SYS
. -

227


AUTOEXEC.BAT.
8. .
MS DOS.
9. Windows Plug and Play?
10. Windows API ?
11. , ?
12. Windows?
13. Windows?
14. Windows
?
15. OLE2 Drag and Drop?
16. C Windows USB?
17. Windows
Universal Plug and Play?
18. Windows 9x
Windows NT?
19. Windows NT Server Windows NT
Workstation?
20. Windows RAID 5?
21.

Windows XP.
22. Microsoft
Windows 2003 Server?

228

7. OS/2
WARP
7.1 OS/2 Warp
OS/2 Warp,
IBM,
.
,
.
,
[2].
-, IBM , ,
.
,
,
IBM , , .
-, IBM
, . IBM [2]. , , . ,
OS/2. , ,
, Windows N, .
32- I- OS/2

229

2.0 1992 . , ,
.
Warp,
. OS/2 Warp 4.0 OS/2
Warp 3.0, 1994 , DS-
- . OS/2 Warp 4.0 :
- (preemptive multitasking)
DOS- Windows-;
- ;
- OpenDoc;
- OpenGL;
- Java;
- rue (TTF);
-
( Voice );
- , CompuServe (
);
-
IBM LAN Server, Windows, Lantastic, Novell Netware
4.1, ;
-
;
- Mobile File System ;
- Plugand-Play;
- ( ,
, , , , / , );
- MultiMedia-, , WGuid.

230

,
, ,
.
OS/2 Warp (API), , .
OS/2 LAN Server, OS/2 Warp
OS/2 Warp Server 4.5, ,
,
.
,
IBM (FixPak). , .
irsft
,
,
, .
, ,
Windows icrsft
6 (ServicePak),
OS/2 Warp 3.0, 1994 , IBM
FixPak. OS/2 Warp 4.0
15 FixPax.
,
Rexx,
. ,
, ,
(batch) DOS, . . , OS/2

231

. Rexx
Visual Rexx. - Rexx .
,
OS/2, - ,

DOS-.
7.2 OS/2 Warp
OS/2
. 32- 16 OS/2

DDE16 OS/2. DOS Win16
. DDE
OLE 2.0 DDE 32- OS/2. , Win16 Win16,
,
Windows 3.x.
API OS/2,
SOM (System Object Model),
DLL, . OS/2 API,
,
. DOS16

DDE (Dynamic Data Exchange) . .

232

(VDM-) DOS 8086, VDM. .



.

OS/2 , , , . , . .

- . ,

,
. , .
,
, ,
, . ,
. , , .
,
. . , .
,

233


.

. ,
, , . ,
. .
,
.

. . , , .
.
- ,
.
.
. , ,
. ,
, ,
.
, , .
7.3 OS/2 Warp
OS/2 Warp WPS (Workplace Shell), , Windows-

234

. Workplace Shell
- SOM IBM-, ,
.
Workplace Shell SOM, , , Rexx.
GUI Windows, , WPS , (shadow WPS),

.
shadow- shadow- . shadow-
, .
GUI Windows. WPS
, shadow- , GUI Windows ,
.
SOM ,
-
, . . OS/2
, SOM
. , , OS/2 90-
, Windows
Whistler. - ()
,

, , .

235


, -
. SOM
. SOM CORBA
(Common Object Request Broker Architecture) ,
.
, OS/2, FileBar, , 4
, Object Desktop,
OS/2
.
, OS/2,
, . ,
, Xfree86 OS/2 X
Window, X- UNIX-, ,
UNIX OS/2. ,
, UNIX- , , , Xfree86/OS2.
7.4 OS/2 Warp 4.5
IBM, 1999 , OS/2 WarpServer for e-Business,
,
(Aurora), .
, OS/2
512
32- .
. , ,
, . -

236

512 .
, 3 (, Windows NT 4.0

2 ).
16- , , 32-
, .
, 32- (IFS),
32bit>l6bit>32bit.
32- 16 API.

JFS (Journaling File
System). JFS
OS/2 Warp. JFS
, .
.
, , .

. ,

. , JFS , ,
.
LVM (Logical Volume Manager).
LVM. LVM , .

.

237

. LVM JFS
.

1. 32-
IBM? ? .
2. VDM- DMA OS/2 Warp?
3.
OS/2 Warp ?
4. OS/2 Warp
4.5 ?

238

8. UNIX
8.1 UNIX
UNIX17 . . UNIX ,

. ,
, . C ,

. UNIX :
1) . ;
2) , , , .;
3) ,
, 17

1965 . AT&T Bell Telephone


Laboratories (Bell Labs) General Electric Company
, Multis (Multi-user Timesharing
Interactive Computing System). ,
. Multis , 1969 . Bell Labs .
Bell Labs, ,
. , Multis, 1969
, Unix, Multis
, .

PDP-7. 1971 Bell Labs Unix
PDP-11.

239

. UNIX ( pipe).
UNIX-
, , , (, ++, , Perl,
Fortran .), , , .
8.2 UNIX
.
,
: , , ,
. , [2]:
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .

. UNIX
, - ( , ).
:
1) , ;
2) ,
;
3) , .
. ,
(account name) (password).
.
.
, .

240


, .
, .
,
, .
. UNIX 18. . .
UNIX
shell (),
. 19, ,
.
,
,
(shell scripts).
Shell , :
- ;
- ( if);
- ( );
- ;
- .
.
UNIX (kernel).
UID (User
Identifier), , . , 18


UNIX XWindows.
19
, $, .

241

, GID (Group Identifier).


20 , ,
. ,
,
,
..

, :
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- , ;
- ;
- .
:
mary:KmHu1hE:201:10::/users/mary:/bin/csh

.

, :
- ;
- ;
- ;
- , .
:
sect2115::10:mary,sas,temp,ges
20

:
/etc/passwd ;
/etc/group .

242

UID.
UID (superuser) root.
.
. , . , ,
, ..
. , .

:
1) ;
2) , ;
3) , .
3 :
1) (r) read
() ( -l ls);
2) (w) write
(
);
3) (x) execute UNIX .

(9 )
: rwx rwx rwx 777.
,
, , .
, : r--r--r-
444
$ ls -l /bin
-r-xr-xr-x 1bin 1986 Nov.26 12:00 ar

243

...
.
, . , chmod (change mode).
4000, 2000 1000 :
4000 ; , ()
, ,
;
2000 ; ,
()
, ;
1000 ; , () , .

,
(, mail /usr/spool/mail). , ,
.
. UNIX ,
. , .
, , .
. :
Standard Input (S.I.) ;
Standard Output (S.O.) ;
Diagnostic Output (D.O.) .

244

, .. .
D.O. S.O.
,
: < ; > .
, | ( ).
,
, .
. : ls
lpr .
. (foreground), ..
.
, ()
(background).

, &. UNIX ,
. 2042
(PID).
, .
8.3 UNIX
UNIX, , ,
. , , .
, , , main. ,

245

,
( main) ..
I [2]:
1) fork()
2) (__).
fork ,
,
.
.
fork ()
.
, ( ) , fk : 0
( )
.
, ,
, , , , ,
,
main . ,
,
main. , , fork, , .
. , . ,
,
.
, shell,
shell ls -

246

.
main()
{if(fork()==0) wait(0); /*
*/
ls ("ls", "ls",0); /*
*/
}
,
UNIX ,
fork(). ,
(),
fork(). , . ()
,
. 1
. 1, init,
. fork() .

.
.
.
, .
.
. ,
, . , ,
,
. .

247

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254

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255

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266


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267

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268

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269

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270

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271

1. . .
. 3- ., . .: , 1990. 272 .
2. .. / ..
, .. . .: , 2002. 736 .
3. . . . .: , 1985. 295 .
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.: ; : BHV, 2004. 800 .
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7. IA-32 Intel Architecture Software. Developer's Manual, Volume 14.
8. . .
http://www.webmachine.ru/delphi.
9. ..
: / .. ,
.. . .: , 1988. 76 .
10. .. UNIX.
.: BHV-, 1997. 528c.
11. .. / ..
, .. . .: , 2001.
12. .. IBM PC: .
2- . .: , 2002. 928 .
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. .: , 2000. 480.
14. . . IBM PC : .
.: -, 2003. 480 .
15. . Microsoft Windows //
. 2000. 7. . 5460.
16. http://standards.ieee.org/regauth/posix/index.html
17. http://www.microsoft.ru/rus/

272

18. QNX: .
http://www.lgg.ru/~nigl/QNX/doc
19. . QNX: / PC Week Re. 1998. 7.
20. http://support.qnx.com
21. . QNX:
. .: -, 2004. 192 c.
22. . QNX/Neutrino 2. .: , 2002. 512 c.

273


1
1. Windows .
,
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274

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276

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277

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279

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280

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281

8
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