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23

. .



2003

517.91/.93
22.161
95

,

, 10- . ( )
, .
: , , .


.

ISBN 5-94057-075-5

. . , 2003.
, 2003.

.

.
(: < ,, >).
.: , 2003. 40 .: .
. . .

. . . .

01335 24/III 2000 . 6/II 2003 .


6088 1/16 . 1. . . . . 2,50.
. . . 2,44. .-. . 2,31. 5000 . 471.
.
119002, , -2, . ., 11. . 241 05 00.

<- >.
140010, . ., -, 403. . 554 21 86.


XVII
.
, . , .
.
, , . .
, , . . . < > (., 1960)*). -
.
, ,
10- .
, , ,
, . , ,
. , , : < >**).

, 1846 . . .
. , , , .
,

, 10- .
< . - > (- -, 1989,
. 124177).
*) . . .
. . < > (., 1982).
**) . : . . . .
., 1984.
3

.

.

. ,
. ,
, ,
.

:
1- ;
2-
, ;
3- (
, ).

. , , ,
.
.

. ,
.
( , ,
).
,
. , ( ),
( ,
). .
.
- , , (
4

).
, , , , . , , -,
, ,
-, ,
, , , .
10% ( , )
, .
, .
1. .

- ( ) (, ). z(t)
t. .
[t, t+t]
v (t, t+t)=

z(t+t)z(t)
z
= .
t
t

t . t
0 t,
t, z t z (t) z , t , t . ,
z =z (t)=

z(t+t)z(t)
dz
z
= lim
= lim
dt t0
t
t0 t

t ( , , ).
z (t)<0, t
z.
-
z(t) ,
( , , , , , , , t).

5

, , .
1. :
z(t)=z0 +vt.
z (t)=v

2. :
z=z0 +v0 t+

at2
,
2

v0 , a .
z (t)=v0 +at . , f(t), g(t) a,
 
f
f gfg
(f+g) =f +g , (af) =af , (fg) =f g+fg ,   =
(
g
g2
, g(t)= 0 t).
, (t2 ) =2t.
n (,
n), (tn ) =ntn1 . , t>0
n ( ).
:
z=z(t), z (t)=tg , , (t, z(t)), t (. 1).
: F(z) z(t), g(t)=
=F(z(t))
g (t)=(F(z(t))) =F (z(t)) z (t),
,
g (t)= lim

t0

 F z 
g
F(z(t))
 =F (z(t)) z (t)
= lim
= lim 
t
t
t0
t0 z t

( , t0, z0).
. z=f(t) [t1 , t2 ]
. , f z
( t <t , f(t )<f(t )),
( t <t , f(t )>f(t )).

f
. t

f [t1 , t2 ] t
[z1 , z2 ], z1 =f(t1 ), z2 =f(t2 ) (. 2).
. 1
z[z1 , z2 ] 6

z
t, ,
z2
z=f(t). g(z).
t=g(z) z+z
f. z
ggggg((((((z((zz(zzzzz)z)))))))))
=
=
=
gggg
=
t=
=g
tttttttt=
=
=
, t=
(t)
z1
z=f
=g(z) <> t
z=f(t) f(g(z))=z,
t1
t t+t t2
g(f(t))=t. [t1 , t2 ] . 2
(t1 , t2 ),
[t1 , t2 ), (t1 , t2 ], [t1 , +), (, t1 ] . .
t t z f, . . z=f(t+t)
f(t). , , g , z , t (. . 2).
t0 z0, ( f (t)= 0)

g =g (z)= lim

z0

t
1
1
1
1
1
= lim
= lim z =
= =  .
z
z z0 z
f
f (t)
t0
lim
t
t
t0 t

, :
g (z)=

1
,
f (t)

z=f(t) t=g(z).

. f(g(z))=z
, f (g(z)) g (z)=1, g (z)=

1
, f (g(z))

. z=f(t)=t2 , t=g(z)= z (, t0, [0, ) ). :


g (z)=

1
1
1
1
= =
= .
f (t)
2t
2g(z)
2 z

1
, ( z) = .
2 z

(tn ) =ntn1 ( (zn ) =nzn1 ), t>0


( z>0) n.
1
q

n= ,
q>0, q . , n=1/2. (fg) =f g+fg , n=n1 n=n2 , n=n1 +n2 .
p
q

n= , p, q ,
7

p, q>0.
n>0. n=0 . n<
<0, tn =

1
tn


  .
1
2
,  2  = 3 .
x

1. ,

40 /, 60 /.
. 3
?
y
2. y=
=ax2 +bx+c (. 3)
.
3. y=f(x) (. 4)
f (x).
4. ,
y=3xx2
x
x0 =2.
5. . 4
y=x3 +6x2 +9x+1 [3, 1].
6. : ) y=(x2 +1)2003 ; ) y=sin x2 ;
p
p
10
2
x
) y= x2 +1; ) y=ex ; ) y=ee ; ) y=sin cos x; ) y= x5 +1.
7.
1 , . ?
8. , , , .
. ? , ?
9. . ,
, , ,
, , . , v1 v2 ?*)
2.
z(t)=at , a>0,
a . t
*) .
(*).
8

, , x. ax , .
a>1 ax ,
a<1 (. 5). ax . :
(ax ) = lim

x0

y=ax
(a>1)

ax+x ax
ax 1
= lim ax
=
x
x
x0

=ax lim

x0

ax 1
=bax ,
x

b=(ax ) |x=0 , . . b
x=0. , a=e=2,718281828459045..., b=1, : (ex ) =ex .
e, ,

(ex ) |x=0 =1,

. .

lim

x0

y
y=ax
(a<1)

ex 1
=1.
x

1
x= , n1 (. . n n

), ex 1+x,
,
x ( 
n n). n


1
1/n
n
e=(e ) 1+  , , , e=
n



1 n
= lim 1+  .
n
n
y=loga x a>0, a= 1, x.
ax , . . y=ax
x=loga y. loga y . y=loga x . 6.
ln x=loge x, . . a=e.
y=ln x.



1
1
1
1
(ln x) = y 
= y
=
= .
(e ) y=ln x
e y=ln x eln x
x

. 5

y
y= loga x
(a>1)
x

y
y= loga x
(a<1)
x

. 6
9

ax . : ax =
=(eln a )x =ex ln a , ,
,
(ax ) =ln aex ln a =ln aax.
b, , , b=ln a.
, log10 e0,4343 ln 10=

1
2,3, . . (10x )
log10 e

2,310x .
y=loga x. ,

1
1
1


(loga x) =
=
=
.
ln aay y=loga x ln aaloga x
ln ax
1
1
1
=log10 e 0,4343 .
x ln 10
x
x
log x
ln x
(loga x) loga x=
= b ,
ln a
logb a

, (log10 x) =

b>0, b= 1 (. 11).


10. , :
) log2 256;
) log4 (22002 );
) log3 (2715 );
) log27 (399 ); ) ln(e2003 ); ) 2log2 5 ; ) 9log3 10 ; ) eln 2003; ) aloga x .
11. loga x=

logb x
, x>0, a>0, a= 1,
logb a

b>0, b= 1.
12. , loga x=

1
a>0, a= 1, x>0, x= 1.
logx a

13. ln 102,3, log10 e


0,4343, log10 20,30, ( 10%): ) ln 100; ) ln 0,1;
) log10 40; ) log10 5; ) log10 32; ) ln 2; ) ln 25; ) ln 20;
) ln 0,5; ) ln 0,01; )* e10 .
14*. : ) log2 3
log3 4; ) log5 7 log7 8?
15*. loga x
x a .
log2 3 0,1.
16*. log10 2 0,1.
17*. log10 e 0,1.
18. ) y=ln x2 ; ) y=
) y=ln ln x; ) y=log2 x; ) y=2x ; ) y=log10 (x3 +1).
10

ln x
;
x2 +1




1 n
19*. , 1+  n

n+1


1
n, 1+ 
n.
n

n

n+1


1
1
, 1+  <e< 1+ 
.
n

20*. , 2<e<3.
3. .
,
, ,
, ,
, ,
. , z (t)
t[t1 , t2 ] z(t). z (t)=v(t).
z(t)
v(t), v(t).
z(t)? , z(t) z(t)+C, C ,
v(t)=z (t) . , . z(t1 )=
=z0 , z(t) . : z1 (t), z2 (t) , z1 (t)=v(t),
z2 (t)=v(t), , z3 (t)=z1 (t)z2 (t), z3 (t)=0, . .
z3 (t) , , . . z3 (t)=C, z1 (t)=z2 (t)+C.
. v(t) a, b[t1 , t2 ], [t1 , t2 ] ,
. t=a
t=b v(t) [a, b] (
)
bR

v(t) dt

( ). z(t) v(t), , z(b)z(a),


b
bR

v(t) dt=z(b)z(a)=z(t)
a
a
( z(b)z(a)).
.
z(t) .
11

t
( ,
b a, t). , (t , ), , , a b.
bR

v() d=z(b)z(a).

b=t

Rt

v() d=z(t)z(a)

Rt
z(t)=z(a)+ v() d.
a

. ,



 Rt

 v() d  =z (t)=v(t),


a
. .
.
. (
) .

R
v(t)
v(t)
dt. z(t)
R
- v(t), v(t) dt=z(t)+C, C . ,
. :
(tn ) =ntn1

(ln t) =

1
( t>0)
t

1
n

tn1 dt= tn +C ( n= 0),

tn dt=

1 n+1
t
+C ( n= 1),
n+1

1
dt=ln t+C ( t>0),
t

R
(et ) =et et dt=et +C,
R
(sin t) =cos t cos t dt=sin t+C,
R
(cos t) = sin t sin t dt= cos t+C.

v(t)=v1 (t)v2 (t), z(t) z(t)=z1 (t)z2 (t), z1 (t), z2 (t)


v1 (t), v2 (t).
12

. v(t)=v0 +at ( ),

R
R
R
at2
at2
z(t)= (v0 +at) dt= v0 dt+ at dt=v0 t+
+C=z0 +v0 t+
,
2

z0 =z(0) z 0.
21. , , ) v(t)=t3 ; ) v(t)=t2 ; ) v(t)=t1 . 1t2?
/2
8
10
7
R
R
R 1
R
22. : )
cos t dt; ) t4 dt; )
dt; ) x3 dx;
0

1
R

x dx; )

2
R

2
2R

ex

4R

2x

x dx; )
dx; )
dx.
1
2
R
R
R
R
23. : ) x5 dx; ) sin 2x dx; )
3x dx; ) e4x dx.
24. , f(x)=ax2 +bx+c,




xR2
 x +x2 

1 
 +f(x ) (x x ).
f(t) dt= f(x1 )+4f  1

2 
2
1
0

x1

4.



v(t) ,
z(t). v(t)=v0 =
=const. t1 t2 z(t2 )z(t1 )=v0 (t2 t1 ).
v,
t=t1 t=
=t2 (. 7), v0 t2 t1 .
, , . . z(b)z(a)=
bR
= v(t) dt v(t)

v0

t1

. 7
v

t=a t=
=b (. 8).
R (
S).
[a, b] t1 , t2 , ..., tn1 : a<t1 <t2 <...<tn1 <b.

t2

bbRRbb
RbR
bRb
bRbb
bbb
S=
v(t)
dt
S=
S=
v(t)
v(t)
dt
dt
S=RRRv(t)
v(t)dt
dt
S=
v(t)
dt
S=
v(t)
dt
S=
S=
v(t)
dt
S=
v(t)
dt
S=
v(t)
dt
aaaaa
aa
aaa
aa

. 8
13

t0 =a, tn =b.
S, ,
[t0 , t1 ], [t1 , t2 ], ..., [tn1 , tn ] v(t0 ), v(t1 ), ..., v(tn1 ) (. 9), . .

Sv(t0 )(t1 t0 )+v(t1 )(t2 t1 )+...+v(tn1 )


a t1 t2

tn1 b

(tn tn1 )=

. 9
y

n1
P
k=0

v(tk )(tk+1 tk )=

n1
P
k=0

v(tk )tk

( ).
:
n1
n1
P
P
S= lim
v(tk )(tk+1 tk )= lim
v(tk )tk ,
y=
x2

tk 0 k=0
n

tk 0 k=0
n

tk =tk+1 tk . , ,
[a, b] n ,
ba

1 x
. 10
y
y= 1
x

tk =

n
, n.
, , , a b, [tk , tk+1 ] . ,
bR
S= v(t) dt= lim

S= ln x

n1
P

tk 0 k=0
n

v(tk ) tk .

:
,
,
. 11
tk >0, v(tk )<0.
1. S y=x2
x=0 x=1 (. 10). :

1
R
x3 1 1
S= x2 dx= = .
3 0 3
0
1

2. y=1/x x=1 x
x
R

x t1 dt=ln t =ln x (. 11). 1

.
14

.
,
, yz
x x, S(x). V
bR
V = S(x) dx,

n1
P

xk 0 k=0
n

. 12

a, b ,
x [a, b] (. 12).

x=xk (. 13).
a=x0 <x1 <...<xn1 <xn =b.
, [xk ,
xk+1 ], S(xk )(xk+1 xk )
( ,
xk =xk+1 xk ),
V = lim

y
x
a=x
a=x
a=x000000 x1 x2 ... b=x
a=x
n

bR
S(xk ) xk = S(x) dx.

. 13

3. R: . , yz x

x, R2 x2
(. 14), S(x)=(R2 x2 ).



R
R
 2
x3  R
2
2

(R x ) dx= R x  =
V=
3 R
R




 3 R3 
 2
(R)3 
= R  R (R)
=
3

R
R

2
3

. 14
y
1

4
3

= R3 + R3 = R3 .
25.
y=sin x, 0x (. 15).
26.
(. 16)
2
R

sin x dx?

x
x
x

2
3

x
. 15
y
1

2
x

. 16
15

y=
x2

x
2
y=

27.
y=x2 y=2x2 x=0 (. 17).
28. f(x) - (. 18, ).
29. :
,
, .
30. , .
31*. 24, ,
29, 30,
:

x
. 17
y

V=

H
(S +4S +S2 ),
6 1

H , S1 , S2 , S .
32.

)
y

lim

1k +2k +...+nk
,
nk+1

xk
.
5. .
y =ky

)
y

)
. 18
16

,
, , (
). ,

, , .

, .
, , t,
t.

t y(t). t y(t)y(t+t) .
:
y(t)y(t+t)
kt,
y(t)

, t. k :
, ,
( , , ). , t y(t),

y(t+t)y(t)
ky(t).
t

t0,
,
y (t)=ky(t),
(1)
.

y(0)=y0 ,
(2)
(1).
, (1) (2) , , .
(1) y(0)=y0 >0.
[0, t0 ] y(t)>0. (1) y(t),
y (t)
=k.
y(t)

(ln x) =1/x (ln y(t)) =


=(kt) . , ln y(t)=kt+C1 , y(t)=ekt+C1 =
=eC1 ekt =Cekt , C>0. , t, ,
y(t)>0. t=0, C=y0
y(t)=y0 ekt .
(3)
, (1) (2) (3), y0 >0. y0 <0,
y(t) y(t),
17

(y0 ).
(3).
y0 =0.
y(t)0 ( , ). (1)
(2), y0 =0,
y(t) 0. , . , , .
y(t) y(t)=z(t)ekt . ,
, z(t)=const. , z(t)=y(t)ekt . y=
=zekt (1). , , z ekt +(k)zekt =kzekt . z ekt =0 z =0, . . z=C=const, , y(t)=
=Cekt . , y(0)=y0 =0, y(t)0. (1) (2), y0 = 0 .
k, .
T, , , . y0 ekT =
ekT =2, T=

y0
,
2

ln 2
ln 2
, k=
.
k
T


y=y0 ekt =y0 e



 t 
ln 2
t
ln 2 

t
T =y e
T =y (eln 2 ) T
0
0

=y0 2

t
T.

, y(t)=y0 2t/T , T .
, ln 2 , ,
log10 20,3010, log10 e0,4343, ln 2=

log10 2
0,69.
log10 e

: TU =4,5
109 238 U; TRa =1600 .
14 C T14 C =5700 .
,
, 14 C ,
. 14 C , .
18

33. 30 50%
. 1%
?
34. 0,44 (1 =103 =106 ). ?
35. 100 14
. ,
4,5109 238 206 . .
,
,
(
).
36*. 51011 14 C ( 5700 ), 12 C. 1 , , 10 100 14 C. , ( ), (, 12 61023 ).
6. .
y =f(y)
,

v=0,6 2gh, g=
=9,8 /2 , h (. 19). , v=v(h)
h, ,
. v
, v=
= 2gh. 0,6 .

h
. S(h)
h , h=h(t) v
, .
t t+t h=h(t+t)h(t) ( . 19
!), V
19

S(h) h. ,
s , , , V v(h) s t,
t
, s
v t. V
t. V, S(h) hv(h) s t.
t t0,

S(h) h =sv(h) h =

s
v(h).
S(h)

, , : 2 1 1 (. 20)?
S(h)=(0,5)2 =const ( ) ( ) S(h)=R2 , R , R=0,5 ;
s=r2 , r , r=0,005 ,

r2
V =R2 hr2 0,6 2ght, h =0,6 2 2gh.
. 20


h (t)
. 2gh.
=

2gh(t)
r2
=0,6 2 , , R
  

 2 h  
r2 
,   = 0,6 2 t ,
R
2g

2 h
r2
=0,6 2 t+C.
R
2g

C.

2 H
. 2g

h(0)=H, H=2 . C=

2 h
r2
2 H
=0,6 2 t+ .
R
2g
2g

, h=0,

T

0,6

r2
2 H
2 HR2
2 2(0,5)2
=

T= , T=
104 3 .
2
R2
2g
0,6r 2g
0,6(0,5102 )2 29,8

, 20

.
, .

h =a h, a
. y =f(y) :
, f(y)= 0. ,

y
=1. G(y) f(y)

1
1
, . . (G(y)) =
, G(y)=

f(y)
f(y)

dy
, f(y)

(G(y(t))) =(t) ,
G(y(t))=t+C. G(y)=t+C y t.
37. . 5 .
?
38. , , R=6 H=10 . 0,5 ,
?
39. 1 1
,
(. 21). 1 . ? ?

.
40. . 21
, 1 ,
1 (. 22).
41. : y=
=ax2 , 0xb.

d.
a=1 1 , b=1 , d=1 .
42. 10 100 C
60 C.
. 22
21

25 C, 20 C? (
.)
43. 100 , 10 .
(5 ), . . ?
44. 20 (80% 20% ). 0,1 , , .
99% ?
45*. A
A2 : A+AA2 ( , , ,
). , . . . 5
A.
1% ?
7.
h . ,
(. . ). ,
( ) p0 =
=105 =105 /2 =10 /2 =1 (. . 1 ), ( ) 0 =0,0012 /3 .
( 0 C). pV =

m
RT, p M

, V , m , M
, T , R . T=const pV =Cm,
p=c

m
m
, p=C, =
. , V
V

p=C C
( ),
. C ,
p0
, p
0

p
p=p0
=0 .
0
p0

, p=p0 , =0 , C=

22


, . . p=p(h).
P1
h h+h. - h+h
S mg
h h+h (. 23).
h
:
. P2
S
S
: P1 , S
S
P2 mg.
. 23
( h, . . ).
P2 =p(h)S, P1 =p(h+h)S, P=
=mg. , h h+h Sh.
, m(h) S h (
, (h) h h+h,
h).
Sp(h)Sp(h+h)(h)gSh. Sh h0, p =g, p (h)=(h)g.
. p , : (h)=0 p(h)/p0 . p(h)
p (h)=

0 g
p(h)
p0

p (h)=kp(h), k=0 g/p0 . , :


p(h)=p0 ekh =p0 e0 gh/p0 .
k p
. :
k=

0 g
1,2103 /3 10 /2
1,2103 /
=
=
=
2
2
p0
10 /c
103

=1,2106 1 =1,2106 105 1 =0,12 1 .


, p(h)=p0 e0,12h , h
.
p(h)
,
.
: e0,125 =e0,6 30,5 =
=( 3)1 0,6 . .

h,

p(h),

5
8,9 ()
20

0,6
0,3
0,1
23

, 20 , , 10 , .
, ( ). .
46. <> ,
, , ,
p=
=C4/3 , p=p0 =10 /2 =1
=0 =0,0012 /3 (. . ). .
8.

,
, .
, .
k (, k=1/3), (, 3 ). 100 .
?
, ,
,
, ,
+ .
T() T(+), N
(. 24), T(+)
N, ( !),
T(
)
F , F
+

F =kN.
0.
,
, (. 25),
, 0 . 24
B
, ,
N

0=N+ BA=NT(+) sin

NT() ,
A

T(+)

F
. 25
24

T()

0=T(+) cos T()F


T(+)T()F

sin xx cos x
( , x ,
sin x

1, (sin x) |x=0 =1, (cos x) |x=0 =0, . . lim


=1,
x
x0


cos x1
=0. T(+)T()F =kN
lim
x
x0
k T() , ,
0,
T ()=kT() T()=T0 ek ,
T0 =0. , ,
=0 , ,
T0 =100 . 3 , ,
, =6, . .
T()=T(6)=T0e2 =100e2 50 000 .
, 100 , 10 , 5104 , 5000 =5 .
, , , .
9. .


,
, . . .
t v(t),
a(t)=v (t)= lim

t0

v(t+t)v(t)
,
t

v(t). ,
,
ma(t)=F mv (t)=F,
F , .
, .
, F=f(v),
mv (t)=f(v(t)),

v (t)=

1
f(v(t)),
m

, 6. , .
25

, ( , ).
F=mgF , F=
=mgav2 , a ( ). mv =mgav2
v =gkv2 , k=a/m. . ,
v=0 gkv2 >0. gkv2 >0 ,
, , gkv2 >0.
v
=1. F(v)
gkv2
1
1

, . . F (v)=
. , gkv2
gkv2

gkv2 ,

, (F(v(t))) =
Z
1

=(t) F(v(t))=t+C. F(v): F(v)=
dv. gkv2



1
1
1 
1
1
.


=
=
+
2



2
2
gkv

( g) ( kv)

,
Z

1
1
dv= ln( g+ kv),

g+ kv

2 g

g+ kv

g kv

1
1
dv= ln( g kv).
g kv
k

1
1 
 = 1 ln g+ kv


dv=
ln(
g+
kv)ln(
g
kv)
gkv2
2 gk
2 gk
g kv

( C ). ,

g+ kv
1
=t+C.

ln
2 gk
g kv

t=0 v=0,
. t=0 v=0 ,
0=0+C, . . C=0. ,

g+ kv
1
=t.

ln
2 gk
g kv

v:
s
v=
26

g e2 gkt 1

.
k e2 gkt +1


th z=

e2z 1
ez ez
= z
,
e +ez
e2z +1

( ch z=

ez +ez
ez ez 
=
sh z=
.
2
2
,
s
p
g
v(t)=
th( gk t).
k

, th z=

2z

1e
1+e2z


e2z 1

 th z= 2z
e +1

e2z ). lim th z=1.


z+
s
g
lim v(t)=
. , v(t) k
t+
s
g
, t+ v =
. k k

g
g
g v . : k= 2 gk=
,
v

v(t)
v(t)=v th

gt
.
v

:
1. t, . .
?
2. ,
, 90% ?
. , th z
z. , th zz z, e2z 1+2z
z (: th 0=0, (th z) |z=0 =1). th z=
=

e2z 1
2z

z z. t
e2z +1 2z+2

v(t)v

gt
=gt,
v

. . (
).
. th z=0,9
th z=

1e2z
, e2z 0,05, . . 2z=ln 203,0,
1+e2z
27

z1,5. th z>0,9 z=1,6.


1,6v
v
gt
>0,9
>1,6, . . t>
.
v
v
g

.
, ( t) ?
ez (1+z) z. , ez (1+z)

z2
z3
+ . , th zzz3 /3. 2
6

0,1,
|th zz|/z=z2/3<0,1, . . z<0,5 .
,

v
gt
<0,5, . . t<0,5 .
v
g

, (
) v =50 /. v=gt t<2,5 ,
8 .
47.
, .
1,5 /, 4 1 /.
1 /?
?
48. , . ) ,
v .
) 5 ,
v =30 /, 2 5 /. ) , 5 . ) 90% ?
49. . ) ,
. ) 5 /, ,
4,5 /. )
, 4 .
50. ) y=ch x, y=sh x, y=
=th x. ) , (ch x) =sh x, (sh x) =ch x, (th x) =

1
.
ch2 x

) , ch2 xsh2 x=1. ) :


ch(x+y)=ch x ch y+sh x sh y,
sh(x+y)=sh x ch y+ch x sh y,
th(x+y)=
28

th x+th y
.
1+th x th y

51*. 0,4 20 /.
0,005 1 /.
. , ?
52*. 0,4 20 (
).
0,005 1 /.
.
, ?
10. .
(. 26).
, .
, , : u0 , ,
2 /
4 / ; M0
; M .
, , . z(t) (
) t; v(t)=z (t)
t; m(t) t (
).
( ). ,
(,
, t).

( ) t . t+t
. ,


m=m(t)m(t+t). (
v=v(t+t)v(t)
v,
. 26
29

u0 ( ). t+t
m(u0 )+mv , t (
, m=m(t)
, , u0 t,
).
, 0m(u0 )+mv.
t t0,
0=m (t) u0 +m(t) v (t), v (t)=u0

m (t)
,
m(t)

v (t)=(u0 ln m(t)) .
v(t)=u0 ln m(t)+C.
C t=0 , v(0)=
=0, . . .
m(0)=M0 , t=0 0=u0 ln M0 +C,
. . C=u0 ln M0 . v
v(t)=u0 ln m(t)+u0 ln M0 =u0 ln

M0
.
m(t)

, , m(t)=M ,
v=u0 ln

M0
.
M

.
: , ,
,
M0 M
. M0 /M
.
, . ,
,
mv (t)=u0 m (t).
=(t)=m (t), . , u0 =F ,
:
mv (t)=F ,
F ,
, .
30

. , , , .
.
mv (t)=F mg=u0 m (t)mg=u0 mg
( ). ,
u0 0 M0 g>0,
0 =(0) . ,
, : M0 <

u0 0
. ,
g

m(t),
v =u0

m
g,
m

(v(t)) =(u0 ln m) +(gt) =(u0 ln mgt) ,


v(t)=u0 ln m(t)gt+C.
t=0 v=0 m=M0 , C=u0 ln M0 ,
v(t)=u0 ln

M0
gt.
m(t)

T
M , :
v=u0 ln

M0
gT.
M


.
.
53*. , M=10 ,
v=3 / ,
, T=10 , .
m=5 , u0 =4 /. ? .
31

11. .
( m)
x x
F=F(x), . .
. x(t)
t; v(t)=x (t) t; a(t)=v (t)
t. a(t) x(t) , x (t), . , mx =F(x), , , mx (t)=
=F(x(t)). m f(x)=

F(x)
, x =f(x(t)), , ,
m

x =f(x).

x =a(t)

(1)

x(t) t

d2 x(t)
.
dt2

,
(, , ), . , (. . ).
.
(
, ): , , . , (. . ). (1),
- x(t)

x(t) (
 x)),
f f(


. ( x); . .
1. . m, . x (. 27)
. x
, x F(x)=kx,
k>0 .
32

x>0, F(x)
, , x<0, ,
(. . 27, , ). F(x)=kx.
(1)

x =

x
0
F(x)

k
x, x =2 x, (2)
m

s
=

k
.
m

(1) . v (t)=f(x(t)) v(t)=x (t).


v(t) v (t)=f(x(t)) x (t).

x
F(x)

(3)


:


1

v(t) v (t)=  v2 (t) .
2

x
0
x
. 27

.

R
g(x) f(x), . . g(x)= f(x) dx, g (x)=
=f(x); U(x)=g(x).
f(x(t)) x (t)=(g(x(t))) =(U(x(t)))
. (3)
 2 
 v (t) 

 =(U(x(t))
2

, ,
v2 (t)
=U(x(t))+E,
2

E . :
v2 (t)
+U(x(t))=E.
2
33

U(x) .
, ,
U(x)=

x
R

f(x) dx.

x0

, m=1 ( ), U(x) , x x0 . x0 , x0
U(x) .

.
U(x)=
s
=

k x2
2 x2
=
,
m 2
2

k
,
m
(x (t))2
2 x2 (t)
+
=E.
2
2

E ,
. E=0, x(t)=0, , . E>0. ,
x (t),
q
x (t)= 2E2x2 (t).
, ( t),
p

x (t)

2E2 x2 (t)

=1.

(4)

,
6,
h(x)=

.
2E2 x2

h(x)=

34

1
2E2 x2

1
1
1
1
s
= t

 .
 x 2
2E
2E
2 2

1
x
1 
2E
2E 

2 x2 (t)
E, |x(t)|
2

2E
2E

. A=
. , |x(t)|

A. A . :

1
1
=
,
A
2E


h(x)=

1
1
s
 2 .
A
x
1  
A

y=arcsin x,
x=sin y y[/2, /2].

1
1
1


(arcsin x) =
=
=
,
(sin y) y=arcsin x cos arcsin x
cos
=arcsin x , sin =x /2/2.
cos 0 cos = 1x2 . ,
(arcsin x) =

1
1x2

:




arcsin x  = 1 s 1   ,
A
A
 x 2
1  
A
h(x)

1
x
arcsin .

(4)

1
x
arcsin =tt0 , t0

. ,
sin A,
x=A sin((tt0 ))=A sin(t+),
, . , =1 +, sin(t+)= sin(t+1 ), A. ,
35

, , :
x

x(t)=A sin(t+).

(5)

,
x(t)
(2) t.
.
T=

2
.

2.
(. 28).
. 28
l , m ( l),
, x=x(t)
. , , ,
mlx =mg sin x

x =

g
sin x.
l

(6)


(x )2
g
+ (1cos x)=E.
2
l

, x .
x (6)
g
l

x = x,
s
(2), =

g
. l

( ), (6) (5).
s
2
l
T= =2
.

3. ,
36

x(t)

.

F =bx ,
: mx =kxbx ,
x +x +2 x=0,
=

b
, =
m

(7)

k
. m

(7).
. 29
y(t)=et x(t).
, x(t)=et y(t)
(7). , :
x (t)=et y (t)et y(t),
x (t)=et y (t)2et y (t)+2 et y(t).
(7), :
et (y (t)+(2)y (t)+(2 +2 )y(t))=0.

y (t), = . et
t
y (t)+21 y(t)=0,

1 =

2
.
4

, , 2 >2 /4.
y(t) (2), 1 .
y(t)=A1 sin(1 t+),
x(t)=A1 et/2 sin(1 t+),

(8)

A1
x(0)=x0 , x (0)=v0 .
(8) . x(t)
, A1 et/2
(. 29). , 1 <.
=0, (8) (5),
.
54. , -
( ) .
? ?
37

? , , d , ,
(
), ,
, d ( , , ,
,
, , ). , . 6400 . .
55*. , .
.
, ,
. , ?
56*. y k2 y=0 , . . 2 <2 /4 3. x(t) ?

1.
1. 48 /. 2. a<0, b>0, c>0. 3. . . 30. 4. y=4x. 5. 17; 3.
x
2
x
6. ) 4006x(x2 +1)2002 ; ) 2x cos x2 ; ) p
; ) 2xex ; ) ex ee ; ) sin x cos cos x;
x2 +1
1
) x4 (x5 +1)9/10 . 7. 1/4. 8.
2
x , t=
=0, x=R cos t, y=R sin t, R ,
(>0, , <0,
). (R sin t, R cos t) - (R cos t, R sin t), , . 9. (
), 1 , 2 sin 1
sin 2
(. 31),
=
.
v1
v2
2.
10. ) 8; ) 1001; ) 45; ) 33; ) 2003; ) 5; ) 100; ) 2003; ) x. 11. : b aloga x =x.
12. : 11 x=b. 13. ) 4,6;
) 2,3; ) 1,6; ) 0,7; ) 1,5; ) 0,69; ) 3,2; ) 3,0; ) 0,69; ) 4,6; ) 22 000.
38




1 n
1 n+1 
> 1+  . 
n
n+1


 


n+1 





1
1 n 
1 n 
1+ 1 
: 1+
= 1 2  1+  =

n
n1
n
n
 






 1 

1 
1  1
1  
2 1
1



=
1 + 1  2  1  1  3

(
n 2!
n n
n
n n
3!








 

1 
2 
3  1 
1 
1+ 1 
1 1 1  4  ...


)
n
n
n n
n
4!




1
1
1
1  
1
1
1 + 2 3  1+  =1 2 4 <1,
n 2n
n
2n
2n
2n





1 n+1 
1 n
1+ 
< 1+
. 20. : n
n1 
19.
3.
21. ) 3,75; ) 0,5; ) ln 2. 22. ) 1; ) 6547,2;
4
12
) ln 2; ) 444; ) 2/3; ) 0,8(2 21); ) e2 e; )
.
ln 2
x6
1
2
1 4x
+C; ) cos 2x+C; ) x 3x+C; ) e +
23. )
6
2
3
4
+C. 24. :
2
f(x)=1, f(x)=x, f(x)=x .
4.
25. 2. 26. ; 4,
0. 27. 4/3. 28. . . 32. 29. (ba)

 2 a2 +ab+b2 
R
, R , a, b 3
(b>a).

f(x)
y=



, 1+

 (x)
y=f

: log10 e10 =10 log10 e4,34, e10


104 100,3 100,04 104 10log10 2 100,04 = 2104 e0,04 ln 10
2104 e0,1 2104 (1+0,1)=22 000.
14. ) log2 3>
>log3 4. : 2 log2 3=log2 9>3, 2 log3 4=
=log3 16<3; ) log5 7>log7 8. : , 5 log5 7>6>5 log7 8. 15. log2 31,6. : loga b 0,1
n, n10 loga b<
<n+1, . . an b10 <an+1 . 16. . 15. 17. : e 2,7=
2
=0,133 15. 18. ) ;
x
1
1
2x ln x
1
)

; )
; ) 2x ln 2;
; )
x ln x
x ln 2
x(x2 +1) (x2 +1)2
2
3x
)
. 19. :
(x3 +1) ln 10
, ,
n













1+ 1  =1+1+ 1 1 1  + 1 1 1 1 2  +...
n
n
n
n
2!
3!






1 
1 
2
n1 
...+
1 1  ... 1
,
n
n
n 
n! 

. 30

v1
2

v2

. 31
y

R
y= f(x) dx

y=f(x)
x

y=f(x)
x

R
y= f(x) dx
R
y= f(x)dx

x
y=f(x)
. 32
39

y= ch x

y= sh x

1
30. V = Sh, S
3
, h ;
p
1
V = (S1 + S1 S2 +S2 )h,
3
h , S1 , S2 .
1
32.
. :
k+1
 
 
 k 
n 
1  1 k  2 k
1k +2k +...+nk
=   +   +...+   
k+1
n n
n
n
n
, n
1
R
xk dx.
0

5.
33. 200 . 34. 1600 . 35. 109 . 36.
7000 .
6.

y
1

y= th x

x
1

. 33

37. 5(2+ 2)17 . 38. 27 . 39.


, ; 2,7 ; 4,5 1 40 . 40. 4 .
41. 2 50 . 42. 40 . 43. 0,5 . 44. 10 .
45. 8 15 .
7.
46.

4p0
34 .
0 g

9.
47. 50 ; 15 . 48. ) 11 /; ) 8,2 ; ) 25 . 49. ) 1,15 ;
) 17,5 . 50. ) . . 33. 51. 1,7 , 16 ; 2 ,
20 . 52. 2,1 , 17,5 /; 2 , 20 /.
10.
53. v0 +gtu0 ln

M
330 /.
m

11.
54. s

s
g

R
x(t)=R cos t, =
.
21 ,
R
2
g
t
s
2
R
2gR 2R g
42 . 55. v=v0
1 2 +
, v

g
v0
rv20
, v0 , r , R ; ,
v0 2gR11,2 /. 56.
y(t)=C1 ekt +C2 ekt , y(t)=A1 ch kt+A2 sh kt. C1 C2 A1 A2 : Aekt , Aekt , A ch (kt+r0 ), A sh (kt+r0 ),
A r0 , , , . , .
40