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15 09. 04. 2002.

2002

681.3
2002 .

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1.1 . 7
2. , , ....... 11
3. .. 16
4. . 17
5. , , ... 27
6. ... 29
7. 34
8. .. 39
9. . 47
10. ... 51
10.1. ..... 55
10.2. ...... 59
10.3. ...... 64
10.4. , .. 67
10.5. 77
11. ..... 83
12. . 91
13. ... 115
14. 117
118

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a, ,
R .
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aRb.
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x A.
x A, x A.
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. A = B, A B , A B .
, .. A B
, A B.
A B, B A. A
B A B, A B,
A B.
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.
(, ) A B

A B = {x / x A x B}.
() A B

A B = {x / x A x B}.
A B
A |\ B = {x / x A x B}.
A B
A B = (A \ B) (B \ A).
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A .
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a A, b B (a, b) R, R(a, b) aRb. R =
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R A B. Dom R
a A, b B
, aRb. , , Im R R
b B,
a A , aRb. R
, Dom R = A, , Im R = B.
a A bB , aRb,
R im R a. b B
R a A , aRb;
coim R b. ,
Im R = a A im R a, Dom R = b B coim R b.
a () im R a,
A B. ,
f A B
R(f): aR(f)b , b f(a).
,
.
A B
. A = {a1, a2, ..., an}, B = {b1, b2, ...,
bm} R A B. R n m,
A, B ,
ai bj 1, ai R bj , 0 .
,
A = {a, b, c}, B = {x, y},
R = {(a, x), (a, y), (b, y), (c, x)}.
R


A B.

A B
.
, .
a b a
b, aRb. , R = {(a, x),
(a, y), (b, y), (c, x)}
:
. ..

10

R A B
A
B. , X A, (X) a
-1
X im R a; , Y B (Y)= b Y coim R b.
X* = -1 ( (X)), Y* = ( -1(Y)),

X X*, Y Y*;
X1 X2
(X1) (X2);
-1
Y1 Y2
(Y1) -1(Y2); X** = X*; Y** = Y*.
X A (Y B) , X = X* (Y = Y*).

A B.
: {, , , , , }
B: {, , , , ,
, }
AxB (,
) ..
R ( AxB): (, ); (,
); (, ); (, ); (, ); (, );
(, ); (, ); (, ); (, ); (,
); (, ).
. :
: {, }.
im R : {, }, im R :
{, , }.
, im R :
() = im R im R : {}
:
* = -1(()) = -1({}) = coim R : {,
, }.
A B
A B, ,
. , A B
, B A.
,
: R A B, R# (b, a),
(a, b) R. R# R-1. , R## = R.
-
. R A B, S B C, RS
(a, c), b B , (a, b) R,
. ..

11

(b, c) S.
: R1 R2, R1S R2S; (RS)# = R#S#. ,
, , A,
(a, a), a A, . ,
R A B, AR = R = R B.
R R RR#R.

. R A B ,
RR# A R#R B.
A B. R R = F#G, F, G
.
R A A. C R : a) , R
A; b) , R = R#; c) , R R# A; d)
, R R# = ; e) , R2 R.
R : a) , ;
b) , , ;
c) ,

;
d) , , .
R , A
,
.

A R.
R A B
, .
A B
,
, R
A B.
, , ..
2.,
( , ,
) ,

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.
S S / , S
Fk (x1, x2, ...), k=1, 2, ..., n, S /
F /k (x /1, x /2, ...), k=1, 2, ..., n. S S /
,
. ..

12

x /= (x), x = (x /),
x S, x / S
/
, Fk (x1, x2, ...) F /k (x /1, x /2, ...), .

S S /,
S /, S. S S /
: S S /.
XIX .;
1918
() (Noether Amalie Emmy,
23.3.1882 . , 14.4.1935 . -, ).
,
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.
XVII
(Descartes Ren,
31.3.1596 ., , , 11.2.1650 ., , ,
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S
. Aut S.
,
V . Aut V
(.. )
V.
.
G ,
(x)=g-1xg , g G. ,
, .
G Aut G.

. ..

13

(). Aut S
S.
( , )
( . . )
, ( , ).
(
,
, ; , ,
).
, G H ,
g G
h= (g)H ( g, g
h), g1 g2 G
: (g1*g2)=(g1)* (g2).
(.., ,
: 1 0 ), ,
,
.
XIX .
() (Frobenius Ferdinand
Georg), 1929 .
.

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.
( )
() ()
,
.
Ob C.
Mor C C.
: St ( Ens).
( , , , ) ,
, () A
B f , A B, .. f(A)=B. f
f A
B. , : ,
, , , , :
, , ,
. ..

14

. ,
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B A.
, .

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( . . ) .


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B.
A B .
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A ] (, ) B

A ] (, ) A

A B (-)

. ..

15

A A(-)
()
A ] () B
(, )
A ] (, ) B (-)
() = +
A

96001

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96004

---

75

96007

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88

96010

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96013

---

44

96016

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12

96019

---

90

96022

---

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96025

---

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96031

---

87

96034

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21

96037

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96043

---

66

96046

64

96049

---

65

96052

---

14

96061

59

96064

---

: A Z B; A Z F; { } Z {
}.
: A ] F; F ] A; B ] { }.
: A ] F; F ] A; B ] { }.
: G] H
G. ( congruentia ,
. ..

16

) A
A, .
, n- , A,
ai ai' , i = 1, ... , n, ai,ai' A,
(a1, ... , an) (ai', ... , an').
,
, (
A). A/ , A
. A ] A/ ,
a A A/ ,
. , : A ] B
,
B.
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3.
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A A A, (x, y) , , x y,
. A A A
(x, y) , x, y A (. .,
A). A
.

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.
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, .
, A = card (A) = n,
n n, x y A
x y.
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17

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4.
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a, b .
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18


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ac = bc, ca = cb a = b;
, , ,
.
FX
() X
. ..

19

(x1, . . . , xm) (y1, . . . , yn) = (x1, . . . , xm, y1, . . . , yn),

FX ;
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20

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(, , a b) G.
: 1) (ab) = a (bc) a, b c G; 2) G
e ( , - ), a e =
ea = a a G; 3) a G a-1
1
1
( a ), a a = a a = e, G
.
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:
G, . ,
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(.1,)
(, ), ,
. 1, .

. ..

21

Z , Z
, Z . e 0, z
1
z . H Z, ,
. , H
Z. Z H
: 4) a + b = b + a a b .
, 4)
.
3) n
, .
n = 3 . ( )
n!.

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: G , K , F , C ,
A .

, , ( )
, .
(A, ()),
a, b A a () b = b() a.

.
- ,

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, .
. ..

22

G A B,
g G g = a b, a A
b B, a A b B a b = b a, G
A B : G= A B. G.
. A G, |G|
|A|.
,
.
, .
(p-) ,
p.
,
, , .
, p-.
. N G
G, x G
N x = {nx | n N} x N = {xn |n N}.
N > G.
. c G
, G, ..
c x = x c, x G.
. G
Z(G), .
. ,
, .
. a b G
, g, a g = g b, ..,
g-1 a g = b. , a
b g. g-1a g = a, a
g.
. A B G
g G, A g = g B, .. g-1A g = B, B
A G. , B
A g. g-1A g = A, A
g.

,
.
,
. ( P
. ..

23

, t , X ,
)
. X
t, P
t X
P, P t.
.
P . , 2 = 1, .. = -1.
, t , ,
2 = 1, -1 = .
:
= -1 . ,
P, t , , P
t, t
P. : = -1 .
X

, , P
t = . ,
, -1 = P
P, -1 = t
t.
,

. :
P : ( x, y )
P :
P t : y mx b,
P t :
t : [m, b]
t:
. pr
p, pr.
. G = pk s s p,
pk G p-.

. ..

24

1. p,
p.
2. p-
p.
.
,
; ,
,
.
: G p1y1 p2y 2 Kpky s , A1, A2, . . ., Ak p1y1 , p2y 2 , K, pky s ,
, G A1 A 2 K A k . ,

.
H = {1, 2, . . . , n}
. x H
:
x = { x = x}.
x
x = {x }. x ,
x.
H ,
x H x = 1.

.
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) .
,

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. .

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25

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), .

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.
XIX-XX .
,
. 1771 .
. .
. . (1799 ),
5- ,

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.
. (1824)
. (1830). .
:
,
. ..

26

n 5 .;
(le groupe), .
. (1870)
.
,
XIX .

.
,
.

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. . .
(1854 ), ,
, ,
.
. (1872),

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. . (1761),
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(1801),
, . ,
, . , ,
,
.
XIX ,
,
(. , . .). , 1895 . .
, ,
1), 2), 3).


. . (1916).

. ..

27

5. , ,
.

, ,
.

.
R,
( +
; ),
(a, b, c R):
I. : a + b = b + a.
II. : a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c.
III. ( ): a + x = b
x = b R.
IV. : a (b + c) =
a b + a c (b + c) a = b a + c a.
(Z, +, ) ,
ab= ba ab = 0
,
a 0 b 0.
I III ,
: . 0
,
.. a 0 = 0 a = 0 a . , ,
, ..
a b, 0.
1 R, a 1 = 1 a = a a R.
, , .
:
1) ;
2) ,
m;
3) ;
4) ;
5) ;
6) , .. a + bi
a b;

. ..

28

7)
,

;
8) ,
;
9) n (
) ;
10) ;
11) ;
12) n
a
b = (ab + ba),
;
13)
.

. , a(bc) = (ab)c,
( 1 10);
(aa)b = a(ab), (ab)b = a(bb), (, 11);
ab = ba (ab)(aa)=((aa)b)a,
(, 12);
a2=0, a(bc) + b(ca) + c(ab) = 0, (
13); ab=ba, ( 1 8, 12).
-
( 1 7). ,
a <> 0 ax = b xa = b,
( 3 5, 10); .
.
(A, + , ), (A, +)
, (A, ), A A
(.. ),
+ . (A, )
, (
).
. ,
ax = b xa = b,
a, b A, a 0.
(Q, + , ) ,
.
. .

. ..

29

(A, + , ), (A, +)
, (A, ) (..
), , ..
a, b, c A a (b + c) = (a b) + (a c).
,
.
, .
,
:
Q
a (a x) = x , a 0 aa = 1;
D
(x a )a = x , a 0 a a = 1.
. - G
.
A

.
T
: G , Q ,
D , A K
, T , K .
6.

,
7 9.
. ,
.
. A (
)
,
A, A, , ,
a, bA
(? + ?)a = ?a + ?a, ?(a + b) = ?a + ?b,
?(?a) = (??)a, 1a = a, ?(ab) = (?a)b.
,
:
? (ab) = (?a)b = a(?b)
,
na ( n ), n
a: a + a + . . . + .
A ( ), ,
, A ,
. ..

30

. ,
.
,
.
. , C 2
R , 4
R, n
n2 .

.
, .. .
A A ',
a, b A
(a + b)? = a? + b?, (ab)? = (a?)(b?),
. . . (
) , (?a)? = ?(a?) ?? .
(..
A'), , () A A' .
M () A
(), M ()
, A; M ( )
, , , m M a A
am (, ma am, ma) M.
a, b A M, b a M. A
.
, A
,
, (
) M
.

(),

() A/M. :
A ,
A A/M; , A
A', M A,
() A', A A/M A'.
.

. ,
(

. ..

31

) .
,
. .
,
,
, ,
, .. a, b, c :
a + b = b + a , ab = ba ,
(a + b) + c = a + (b + c), (ab) c= a (bc),
(a + b) c = ac + bc.
, 0 (),
0 + a = a , a
a, , a + (a) = 0,
e (), ae = a,
a a-1, .. , aa-1 = e.
, ,
. ,
( ),
( ).
(
) : Q,
R, C,
a + b?2, a b ,
,
(
).
. .
.
, na -
a. p,
p- . ,
p ( p).
na 0 n a,
. .
, .. , .
, -
. , ,
.. ,
. F G, G
F.
. ..

32

. 0
, p
p.
- ,
,
.

, . ,
F ,
. : )
, , G
F,
) , , F
F f(x) ,
F.
G
F. , ,
, .
, ..
,
F. :
(
, ), .
,
(
). , , C (
). .

Q, .
, , ,
, , .
, , ,
(sup),
(inf) .
.
:
1) ,
;
2) ; a ? b,
sup{a,b} = b, inf{a,b} = a;

. ..

3)

33

,
, inf , sup
;
4) ,
: a ? b, b = ac c. sup
, inf
;
5) , [0, 1],
f g, f(t) g(t) t [0, 1].

sup{f,g} = u, u(t) = max{f(t), g(t)}.


( + , ),

(1) a + a = a, (1P) a a = a {};
(2) a + b = b + a, (2P) a b = b a {};
(3) (a + b) = c = a + (b + c), (3P) (a b) c = a (b c) {};
(4) a (a + b) = a, (4P) a + a b = a {}.

:
a + b = sup {a, b},
a b = inf {a, b},
. a b
: () a ? b; () a b = a; () a b = b.
.
R RP
.
XIX .
. 1894 1897 .. lattice,
, . 1933 .
(- )
.
, ,
,
.
30- .
, , - ,
.

. ..

34

7.,
R ,
:
: (a M) ((a,a)R);
: (a,b M) (((a,b)R) (b,a)R)Z a=b);
: (a,b,c M) (((a,b)R) (b,c)R)() (a,c)R)
: .
R , :
: (a M) ((a,a) R);
: (a,b M) (((a,b)R) (b,a)R)Z a=b);
: (a,b,c M) (((a,b)R) (b,c)R)() (a,c)R)

: <.
R ,
:
: (a M) ((a,a)R);
: (a,b,c M) (((a,b)R) (b,c)R)() (a,c)R)
.

1=(, , )

(, )

()

(, )

()

(, )

()

.
.
. .
A () A ()
()()
. ..

(),

35

a a=a, a a = a;
a b = b a, a b = b a;
a (b c) = (a b) c, a (b c) = (a b) c;
a (b c) = a b a c; a b c = (a b) (a c);
a = a;
- a b = (a b), a b = (a b);
a b a b = a, (a b) (a b) = a;
a a b = a, a (a b) = a;
() a 0 = a, a 0 = 0, a a = 0;
() a 1 = 1, a 1 = a, a a = 1.

0 0 1 f0(x1, x2) = 0
0 0 0 ( , false, )
1 0 0 0000
0 1 f1(x1, x2) = x1&x2 = x1x2 = x1*x2 = x1x2 = x1 x2
0 0 0 (, and, )
1 0 1 0001

|] 0 1 f2(x1, x2) = x1 x2 = x1|] x2


0 0 0 ( )
1 1 0 (. conversus = ) 0010

x1 0 1 f3(x1, x2) = x1
0 0 0 ( )
1 1 1 0011
[| 0 1 f4(x1, x2) = x1 x2 = x1[| x2
0 0 1 ( )
1 0 0 (. conversus = ) 0100

. ..

36

x2 0 1 f5(x1, x2) = x2
0 0 1 ( )
1 0 1 0101
0 1 f6(x1, x2) = x1 x2x1x2 = x1 x2
0 0 1 (,
1 1 0 , xor, 2) 0110

0 1 f7(x1, x2) = x1@x2 = x1 + x2 = x1x2


0 0 1 (, or, )
1 1 1 (. vel = ) 0111
0 1 f8(x1, x2) = x1x2 = x1 x2
0 1 0 ( )
1 0 0 1000
0 1 f9(x1, x2) = x1 x2x1 x2 = x1 x2 = x1 x2
0 1 0 ()
1 0 1 1001
x20 1 fA(x1, x2) = f10 (x1, x2) = x2
0 1 0 ( )
1 1 0 1010
[ 0 1 fB(x1, x2) = f11(x1, x2) = x2 x1 = x1x2 = x1[ x2
0 1 0 ( )
1 1 1 1011
x10 1 fC(x1, x2) = f12(x1, x2) = x1
0 1 1 ( )
1 0 0 1100

. ..

37

] 0 1 fD(x1, x2) = f13(x1, x2) = x1 x2 = x1x2 = x1] x2


0 1 1 (, )
1 0 1 1101

0 1 fE(x1, x2) = f14(x1, x2) = x1 x2 = x1 x2


0 1 1 (, )
1 1 0 1110

1 0 1 fF(x1, x2) = f15(x1, x2)=1


0 1 1 ( , true, )
1 1 1 1111

: f8
: 12.

= 0; = 1.
1=0 0=1.
, ( ,
) (, , )

, , . ,
( ):
x

(, , , )
:
0 = 0 0, ;
1() = {0, 1} ,
;
2() = ;
3()=1 1, .

. ..

38

,

. ,
:
x

f0

f1

f2

f3

f4

f5

f6

f7

f8

f9

fA

fB

fC

fD

fE

fF

, , ,
, ,
, ,
,

( , , ).
f1, ..., fm f,

, ,
.
( )
= {f1, ..., fm}. 1, ..., n, ... 0 1
0. k+1,
fi(F1, ..., Fnl), ft S, ni fi, F1, ..., Fnl ,
k.
()
( ).

. ,
( ) ,
.
, .
:
1) and(x, or(y, z));
2) x(y z) x and (y or z);
3) xy z .

. ..

39

8.

.
() T ,
:
1) , .. ,

1, 2, ... T.
T.
2) T,
T (
). , ,
;
3) ,
T;
4) R1, R2, ..., Rn
, . Ri
j , , j ,
F , j
Ri F , F
j Ri.
T F1, F2, ..., Fm
, i Fi T,
- .
F T T,
T, F;
F.
,
, T.
, ,
, .
,
,
(), .
T,
.
1. T , , (,) mi
: m1, m2, ... . , , ,
mi .
2. ) ;
) A B , (A B) (A) ;
. ..

40

) ,
. ) ).
,
,
.
3. A, B C T,
T:
A A A, A B B A,
A A B, (B C) (A B A C),
.
4. :
(
,
);
( ,
) modus ponens.
: (, )/.
, A A (q A) , qA
.
:
A = ,;
A = ,;
A = ,,0;
A = ,,1;
A = ,,,1.
.
f x1 , x2 ,..., xn ,

n-
k-
1 , 2 ,..., n , i 0,1,..., k 1, i 1,2,..., n , {0, 1, ..., k 1},
k- . k-
f x1 , x2 ,..., xn (- ),
kn, ,
k2.
,
:

. ..

xa

xa

xb

41

xb
0

y xa xb max xa xb 1mod k
. ,

AB M , o , M 0,1,2,..., k 1
k- .
k- ,
:

A M ,, ~ , M 0,1,2,..., k 1,
x x max x , x ; ~
x x 1mod k ;
a

;
APT M ,,&, ji , i , M 0,1,2,..., k 1,0 i k 1,
xa & xb max xa , xb ,
. ..

42

k 1, x i
, i 0,1,..., k 1.
ji x
0 , x i
() S A, O, R ,
A , O , R
A. A ;
O R .
= O R S.
S ,
R
, O .
,
. ,

.
, ,
.
, F,
F .
.
, M ,, ~ M ,, .

.
xai , 1 x = i 0

, x i. xai i- x, x = {0, 1, ..., k-1}:


1, xa i
.
xai
0
,
x

i
a

i-
k 1
i
xa

xaj .
j 0, j i
, xa0 x1a K xak 1 1.

, xa0 x1a xa2 K xak 1 xa0 xa0 1 .

(
.
raedicatum

, M, ..
n- P,
a1 , K , an M ,

. ..

43

Pa1 , K , an ; P n- M.
0- .

1 () 0 ().
, : n-
M n- ,
M 0 1.
a1 , K , an
P 1,
Pa1 , K , an 1 , ,
P, P a1 , K , an .
,
, ,
. ,
.
,
, . P
n- M,
n- M. , n-
M n- M.
.

. ,
,
.
xi P x1 , K , xn ,
1 i n (n 1) xi P x1 , K , xn ,
a1 , K , ai 1 , ai 1 , K , an ,
, a xi
Pa1 , K , ai 1 , a, ai 1 , K , an .
xi P x1 , K , xn
1 i n (n1) xi P x1 , K , xn ,
a1 , K , ai 1 , ai 1 , K , an ,
, a xi
Pa1 , K , ai 1 , a, ai 1 , K , an .
,
, .
,
.

. ..

44

,
,
(
),
- , (
) ( ).

, , , , ,
, , -
.

, ,
, ,
,
:
1) Pnm , m n
;
2) x1 , x2 , x3 K ;
3) & ( ), (),
(), ~ (), (), ( ),
( );
4) (,) () , ().
Pnm m- ; 0
.

, P y1 , K , ym , P - m (m > 0), y1 , K , ym
.
:
1) ;
2) , ( & ), ( ), ( ),
( ~), ;
3) , x , x x
.
, P10 , P01 x1 , x1P12 x1 , x3 ,

P x & x P x , x .
1
0

2
1 1

, ,
.
. ..

45

y y
, y y .
y ,
y y,
.
y, ,
. , x1P01 x1 & P11 x1
x1 , .
y ,
.
,
M,
M, m-
m- M.
.
P y1 , K , ym , ,
P,
y1 , K , ym . , = ,
= . ,
(),
(), (), () . ,
, , = = .
y , =
, y.
y , = ,
y. = ,
, .
M,
M. ,
x1P01 x1 x2 P01 x2
, ,
M, M .
, ,
. ,
, : .

.
, ,
.

. ..

46

,
.

:
,
,
-
,
. , A B A

x2 P01 x2 P30 x2 P01 x2 .
:
xx y y xx ,
(x) , x
y y, (y)
(x) x y.

:
, ()
( x ), ,
x;
,
, x ()
(x) .
( ,
) , A ( )
A B ( ) B.

1, . . ., m , i
,
, m .
, ,
. ,

.
,
, -
(, ,
)

. ..

47

9.

,
.

.
,
. ,
.

. ,
, .
,
.
, .
, ,
{0, 1}. .
. ,
,
{0, 1}.
.
, ,
, .

, .
(m, n) :
E: {0, 1}m {0, 1}n D: {0, 1} n {0, 1}m , m n {0, 1} n
n. E
, D .
:

T ; E D ,
D T E ,
. (m, n) 2m .
: ,

. ..

48

, ,
.

m d(a, b)
a b , :
a = 01101 b = 00111 2.

. :
1) d(a, b) 0 d(a, b) = 0 , a = b;
2) d(a, b) = d(b, a);
3) d(a, b) + d(b, c) d(a, c) ( ).
w(a) a .
a b a b: d(a, b) = w(a b),
2.
,
, .
.
, k (
) , ,
k + 1.

.
, k (
) , ,
2k + 1.

. a = a1a2 ...am
b = b1b2...bn.
e = e1e2...en, c = c1c2...cn,
ci = bi + ei. , , c1c2...cn
b1b2 ...bn. , ,
, .
, .

(m, n) 2m
, .

.

. ..

49

G g ij m n gij, 0 1.
+ 2.

m

b j a1 g1 j a2 g 2 j ... am g mj ai g ij ,

j 1,...., n,

i 1

b = aG, a = a1a2...am ,
; b = b1b2...bn ,
; G .
.
- .
, , m G
.
2m m ,
G.

(m, n) ,
.
, m
2,
a a = 0. , a m .
G m n.
b = aG , b1 = a1G, b2 = a2G, b1 + b2 =
a1G+ a2G = (a1+ a2)G, .. .

,
d(bi, bj) = w(bi + bj).
G
b = aG.
,
c1c2...cn, c= b + e e = e1e2 ...en () .
, ,
D(aG) a, .
C , .
n. .
B C.
C B, .. - C/B.
, .
, , c C
. ..

50

c = e + b e b.
c b
a, b = E(a).
,
, ..
0 + B, 0, b1 , ..., b 2 1 ,
B,
.
, :
1) , ;
2) , ,
.
:
1) b , e , c = b + e
c, ,
b, .. .
2) c , , bi.
c = bi + e, e . d(c, bi) = w(e).
bj , c = bj + eP , bi bj B, e = bi bj + e
, e. , d(c, bj) = w(e) w(e).
m


,
,
3. (m, n)-, m = 2r 1, n = (2r 1 r)
r = m-n.
:
1. 2r 1 r, r 2;
2r 1.
2. b = b1.. b2 r 1 . ,
, .. b2 0 , b21 , K , b2 r 1 ,
, . , r = 4 b1,
b2 , b4 , b8 - , b3, b5 , b6 , b7 , b9, b10 , b11 , b12 , b13 , b14 , b15
.
3. M r (2r - 1) , i-
i. M
r = 2, 3, 4

. ..

51

0 0 0 0 0 0 01 1 1 1 1 1 11
0 0 01 1 11
011
0 0 01 1 1 1 0 0 0 01 1 11
M2,3
; M3,7 0 1 1 0 1 1 1; M4,15
1 01
01 1 0 01 1 0 01 1 0 011
1 01 0 0 01
1 01 01 01 01 01 01 01
T
4. bM 0 .
M
b2i , .
5.
b2 0 , b21 , K , b2 r 1 ( 4).
.
c = b + e, b , e .
T
bM 0 , , , b e M T bM T eM T eM T .
eM T 0 , , .
e = 0.
, .. e
i- , eM T 0 ,
i- M,
i. c = b + e i-
.
.
,
. , e ,
b e M T 0 , ,
.

10.
( ) V E
;
G(V, E).
,
.
, , ; ,
( ).
(,
, ), ( )
.
( )
, ( ) .
. ..

52

, , .
, , .
( ) .
, (u, v) u v, (u, v)
u v.
,
, , (
)
.
, 3-
, , ()
. 2- ,
, . 2-
, .
. v1, v2, ... vn
G(V, E), e1, e2, ... em ().
G A=||aij||, i=1,...,n; j =
1, ..., n, aij ( ),
vi vj (, vi vj).
G B=||bij||, i=1, ..,
n; j = 1, ..., m, bij 1, vi
() ej 0, .
, . ,
1: , ( );
2:
. 0-

1) A ; 2) A B; 3) A B C;
4) A B; 5) A B C D C D E;

(!)
A
2)
A B
A

. ..

53

(!)
1)
AA
2)
AA AB BA BB
A

.
()
1) 2) .
( )
1) A ( ) 2) A ( ), B ( ) .
1-
( , , , ..)

1)

2) )

4) )
.

5)


1)

2) )

A 1

2) )

A B

A 2) )

A 0

B 0


AA
A 1

2)

A 1

1)

AA AB BA BB
A 1

B 0

. ..

54


1) (A? A) 2) a) (A? A) 2) ,) (A? D) b nfr lfktt.

1) A (A) 2) ) A (A) 2) ) A (B) 2) ) B (B) .
G(V, E) H(W, I) ,
- V, W
E, I, .
G(V, E) G(V, E)
VV () E E, ,
() E () V.
(v0, v1), (v1, v2), ..., (vi-1, vi), (vi, vi+1), ..., (vr-1, vr)
, v0 vr. ,
v0 = vr.
, ,
, .
() () .
,
.
( ,
) G .
, , .
( )
.
k (k ),
k () .
,
, .
(, )
. , vi
vj G, d (vi, vj) vi vj.
.
,
, ..
:
, (
), (.. (u, v) (u,
w), (w, v), w ) .
: , ,
.
.

. ..

55

10.1.
,
, .. v1, ..., vm+1,
e E v1, ..., vm+1
e = {vi, vi+1} i.
v1 = vm+1, .
1736
,
.
. ,
.
.
,
. , v,
v1 vm+1, k ,
, 2k. ,
, ,
. ,
. , v
d(v),
d v 2m ,
vV

{u, v} : d(u)
d(v). , .
,
, ,
, .
, u v
G =V, E, G*
t {u, t} {v, t} ( {u, v}, {u, v}E ). G*
, G
G*.
.

: G = V, E
, [v], v V.
: ,
.

. ..

56

begin
CTEK := ; := ;
v:= ;
CTEK v;
while CTEK do
begin v:= top (CTEK); {v = }
if [v] then
begin u:= [v];
CTEK u;
{ {v, u} }
[v] := [v] \ {u};
[u] := [u] \ {v};
v := u
end
else { [v] = }
begin v CTEK ; v;
end
end
end

: v0 , .
v0, CTEK,
.
,
, , .. [v] =.
, v =v0,
, v .
, ,
CTEK.
, , ,
.
v = v0 CTEK CE,
v CTEK.
, ( [v] ),

CTEK , v.
, CTEK .
, , CE,
, v CE , [v]
=, .. , , (

. ..

57

) . ,
CE .
.
,
CTEK , CTEK
CE. , (m).
. ,
[v], v V,
,
, u [v]
v [u].
{u, v} , .
,
(m). , ,
(m) .

, :
( ),
;
,
.
I .
,
.
XIX ., ,
.
, .
, ,
,
.
. ,
, ,
, .
. , ,
, , , , , ..,
, , , ,
, .
.
.
, , , , , ,
.
. ..

58

,
.
, ,
,
.
() , , ,
, ,
.


( v , v):
0 d1 d2 ... dn, ,
,
r, 1 r n 1,
r
n
i 1 di r r 1 i r 1 minr , di

() .
n
n .

, .
: ,
,
,
.

. , , 4-
.

: ,
, 5
.
, ,
. ,
,
. , ,

, . ,
, ,

. ..

59

,
, .

k .

, ,
(), , ,
()
( ). ,
, ,
, / ,

+ 1 .

.
( , ) ,
. ,
,
.
(..
). ,
() .
: ,
; ,
; ,
.

. , ,
vi vj pij (
qij = 1 pij ).
, .. pij = 1/2.
10.2.
, , ,
,
( ) .
.
(
).
, , . (), ()
.
. ..

60
)



, -
.
,
, ,
n ( ).
,
, ,
, ,
.

NP- . ,
, , ,
,
(.. ,
),

.
NP- , ,
,
,
, .
.
, ,
: n!
, .
n! n , n
, , ,
an, a > 1,
n / 2
n!nn / 2
a n / 2 log a n / 2 .
,
.
. ..

61

,
x1, ..., xn .
,
, ( 0). ,
x1, ..., xi,
xi+1,
, x1, ..., xi, xi+1 (
x1, ..., xi, xi+1 ).
, xi+1
,
x1, ..., xi, xi+1. ,
x1, ..., xi1
, , xi
(.: backtracking).
, , k > 0
Ak, k-
.
, Ak ,
x1, ..., xn
k n Ak xk (
, Ak
, k-
). , ,
x1, ..., xi
P(x1, ..., xi) ( ) , P(x1, ..., xi) =
, x1, ..., xi
. P(x1, ..., xi) = , , xi
( x1, . . ., xi-1), , x1, . . .,
xi-1 .
:
begin
k:= 1;
while k > 0 do
if y Ak
, P(X[1], ..., X[k - 1], y) then
begin X[k] := y; { y }
if X[1], . . ., X[k] then
write(X[1], . . ., X[k]);
k:= k +1;
end
. ..

62

else { ;
Ak }
k:= k - 1
end
, Ak
n, P(x1, . . ., xn) = x1 A1, ...,
xn An ( , n).
:
s > 0, x1, ..., xs 1 ,
. ,
k = s, X[i] = xi, 1 i s. ,
, x1, ...,
xs -1 , k = s - 1.
, s = 1
.

s. s = n,
x1, ..., xs1
( else), .. k
s 1.
s > 1.
s 1. x1, ..., xs2
, ;
, k = s 1, X[i] = xi, 1 i s 1.
y, x1, ..., xs2 ,
x1, ..., xs 2, y k s.
,
x1, ..., xs2, y , ,
k = s 1, y, x1, ..., xs2 ,
( ).
k 1 s 2.
,
, x1, ..., xs 2,
.

: procedure
AP(k)
{ ,
. ..

63

X[1], ..., X[k 1]: X }


begin
for y Ak , P(X[1], ..., X[k - 1], y) do
begin X[k] := y;
if X[1], ..., X[k] then write(X[1], ..., X[k]);
AP(k +1);
end
end

AP(1).
,
,
.

G = V, E .
x1, x2, ..., xn+1, x1 = xn+1 = v0, v0
, xi xi+1 1 i n xi xj 1 i < j n.
:
Ak = V,
P x1, ..., xk 1, y y [xk 1] y {x1, ..., xk 1}.

: G = V, E,
[v], v V.
: G
procedure (k)
{ ,
X[1], ..., X[k 1]: X }
begin
for y [X[k 1]] do
if (k = n +1) and (y = v0) then write(X[1], ..., X[n], v0)
else if DOP[y] then
begin X[k] := y; DOP[y] := ;
(k +1);
DOP[y] :=
end
end; { }
begin { }
for v V do DOP[v] := ; {}
X[1] := v0; {v0 = }
DOP[v0] := ;
. ..

64

(2);
end
,
, .

x1, ..., xk, ,
x1, ..., xk, y
( ).
D, x1, ..., xk,
0 k n xi Ai 1 i k, , y
Ak x1, ..., xk 1, k n,
x1, ..., xk 1, k > n; , P(x1, ...,
xk 1, xk) , k n, P(x1, ..., xk 1, xk) = , k n (xi Ai
1 i k). , AP(1)
D ( ).
P, ,

, .. ,
x1, ..., xk, P(x1, ..., xk) ). , ,

.
,
, ,

. , ,
(
; , ,
).
10.3.

G = V, E,
. , u, v E
a (u, v),
.
, , a (u, v) = , u -a v.
v0, v1,..., vp G,

p

avi 1, vi .
i 1

. ..

65

(,
,
; 0 p = 0).

s, t V.
d (s, t) s t (,
, ).
s t, d (s, t) = .
, ,
.. v1,..., vp .
, ,
,
, ,
,
. ,
, , ,
, , ,
.

. , ,
, .
.
( ) .
( )
. , u, v
p(u, v) .
, ,

.
, p(u, v) a (u, v) = log
p(u, v).

, . , ,
.
, s, t V (s t)
v, d (s, t) = d (s, v) + a (v, t).
,
s t.
u, d (s, v) = d (s, u) + a (u, v),
..

. ..

66

,
t, v, u, ...
s.
, ( )
s t.
, :

: D[v] s
v V, t, , A[u,
v], u, v V.
:

,
s t.
begin
CTEK := ; CTEK t; v:= t;
while v s do
begin
u := , D[v] = D[u] + A[u, v];
CTEK u;
v:= u
end
end.
V, E , V = n, E = m.
u ,
O(n2). [v],
u, uv,
O(m).
,

.
{u, v} u, v v, u, , {u, v}.

.
, G = V, E
, V = n, E = m.

, .
, A[u, v],
u, v V (A[u, v] a (u, v)).

. ..

67



s t ,
:
A[u, v], u, v V, D[v] s v V. , ,
D[u] + A[u, v] < D[v],
D[v] : D[v] = D[u] + A[u, v].
,
.
, D[v]
d (s, v) s v.
, s t,
s .

,
,
.
,
, u v
. , ,
. , , s, .
10.4.
,
.
.. .. .


: V, E n
s V, A[u, v], u, v V (
).
: : D[v]=d(s,
v), v V.
1 begin
2 for v V do D [v] := A[s, v]; D [s]:= 0;
3 for k := 1 to n - 2 do
4 for v V \ {s} do
. ..

68

5 for u V do D [v] := min(D[v], D[u] + A [u, v])


6 end
.
d (v) s v, m (d(m)(v) =
, ).
d(m+1)(v) = min{d(m)(u) + a[u, v]: u V}, v V
(1)
(m+1)
(m)
, u V d
(v) d (u) +
a[u, v], , u
s v.
, 3
d (s, v) D[v] d(m)(v) v V,
(2)

d (s, v) D[v] d(m+1)(v) v V.
(3)
, (2)
5, , 3

d (s, v) D[v] min{d(m)(u) + a[u, v]: u V},


, (1) (3).
, 3 D[v] = d 1 (v), v V, , n 2
d (s, v) D[v] d(n-1)(v), v V.
, d(n-1)(v) = d (s, v). ,
n 1 ,
(
).
.
, O(n3). ,
, , 4
D[v], v V. k < n
2,
. (m << n2)
[v], v V. 5
for u [v] do D [v] :=min(D[v], D[u] + A [u, v]),
O(nm).
-
(V = {1, ..., 5}, , 4 5
).
(m)

. ..

69

D[1] D[2] D[3] D[4] D[5]


0


,
: .
.


: V, E s V,
A [u, v], u, v V ( ).
: D[v] = d(s,
v), v V.
1 begin
2 for v V do D [v] := A[s, v]; D [s]:= 0;
3 T := V \ {s};
4 while T do
5 begin
6 u := r T, D[r] = min(D[p]: p T};
7 T := T \ {u};
8 for v T do D [v] := min(D[v], D[u] + A [u, v])
9 end
10 end.
, ,
4: v V \ T D[v] = d(s, v),
v T D[v] = s v,
V \ T. (4).
. ..

70

, 6 u T ,
D[u] ( ) D[t], t T.
, D[u] = d(s, u). ,
s u D[u], (4)
T.
t , T.
s t s t,
T.
(4) D[t] = d(s, t). ,

D[t] = d(s, t) d(s, u) < D[u]


, u.
, D[u] = d(s, u) 7 u
T, (4).
,
s v T, u,
D [v], v T. 8.
, (4) 4.
T = , , (4), D[v] = d(s, v),
v V.
. 4 n 1 ,
O(n) : O(n)
u 6 (, T )
O(n) 8. ,
O(n2).
,
O(m log n). T
O(log n) ,
u v:
u v, D[u] D[v].
u, D[u] ,
. O(log n) ,
D[j] .
s ( ) D[j],
s
D[j] .. [u], u V,
8
for v [u] do
if D[u] + A [u, v] < D[v] then
begin
D[v] := D[u] + A [u, v];
. ..

71

,
u v, D[u] D[v]
end.

, v,
, O(log n) .
v , .
, ,
, O(log n)
,
T. O(m log n) .
O(n log n) ,
n 1 . O(m log n).
, O(m) . , C,
k > 0 Ck(m + n1+1/k).
(V = {1,..., 6},
, D[v], v T, (*),
.
D [1] D[2] D[3] D[4] D[5] D[6]

1*

6*

3*

8*

4**

7*

8*

7*

5**

6**

** = min

,
O(n2) ,
( ).
.
.
, vi, vj, i < j.
.

. ..

72

,
.

: V, E,
[v], v V.
: v V NR[v], ,
u, v E NR[u] < NR[v].
begin
for v V do [v] := 0;
{ [v] = , v }
for u V do
for v [u] do [v] := [v] + 1;
:= ;
for v V do
if [v]= 0 then v;
num := 0;
while do
begin u ;
num := num + 1; NR[u] := num;
for v [u] do
begin [v]:= [v] -1;
if [v]= 0 then v;
end
end
end.
:
() ,
. , w1 ,
w2, w2 w1, w3,
w3 w2, ..
wi, ,
w1, w2, w3 , ... .
. ..

73

, ,
. 10 u (
),
. ,
, , ,
. u
. ,
v, u v;
[v]. - v , v
.

, (.
9), , .
,
4 12. , O(m)
( m = (n),
O(m + n)).
:
f(n) g(n) (c
) , ,
:
f(n) = O(g(n)) , N > 0, f(n) g(n)
n N
f(n) = (g(n)) , N > 0, f(n) g(n)
n N.
. ., , f(n) = (g(n)) , g(n) = O(f(n)).

,
.


: V, E , V = {v1, ..., vn},
vi, vj E i < j.
[v], v V.
: v1 :
D[vi] = d(v1, vi), i = 1, ..., n.
begin
D[v1] := 0;
for j := 2 to n do D[vj] := ;
for j := 2 to n do
. ..

74

for vi [vj] do D[vj] := min(D[vj]), D[vi] + A[vi, vj])


end
j, 4
j D[vi] = d(v1, vi), i = 1, ..., j.
,
v1 vi j.
O(m), vi, vj
5 .
, ,
.
,
, , ,
.
, , u,
v v, t , u, v,
, v, t.
, .
s,
, t,
. .
, . ,
a (u,
v), u v, .
,

,
, n ( )

. , O(n4) (
) O(n3)
. , n-
.
.
G = V, E , V = {v1, ...,
vn}, , A = [aij] (aij = a(vi, vj)).
dij(m) vi vj, m ,
:
0, i j ,
(1)
dij( 0)

,
i

(m+1)
dij
= min{dik(m) + akj : 1<k<n}
(2)
. ..

75

,
. min
, + ,
[dij(m+1)] [dij(m)] A = [aij].
A B A*B ,

0

0
L

M
M
M
M

L
0
(1) (2) , [dij(0) = U]
dij(m) = ((...((A*A)*A)...)*A) (m 1).
(3)
:
(1) dij(n-1) = dij(n) dij(m) = dij(n-1) m n.
dij(n-1) = d(vi, vj).
(2) dij(n-1) dij(n). ,
.
A*B n n
O(n3) (n n 1 n2
A*B). , [dij(n-1)]
O(n4).
, n-
. ,
, * (.. (A * B) * C = A * (B * C)).
(3), A
(n 1)
(log n) . ,
O(n3 log n),
.

. . dij(m)
vi vj {v1,
..., vm}.
:
dij(0) = aij,
(4)
(m+1)
(m)
(m)
(m)
dij
= min(dij ,dim +dmj ).
(5)
.
vi vj {v1, ...,
vm, vm+1}. vm+1, dij(m+1) = dij(m)
. ..

76

vm+1, vi vm+1
vm+1 vj, dij(m+1) = dim(m) +dmj(m).
(4) (5) d(vi,
vj) = dij(n),
1 i, j n.


: A[i, j], 1 i, j n,
.
: D[i, j] = d(vi, vj).
1 begin
2 for i := 1 to n do
3 for j := 1 to n do D[i, j] := A[i, j];
4 for i := 1 to n do D[i, i] := 0;
5 for m := 1 to n do
6 for i := 1 to n do
7 for j := 1 to n do
8 D[i, j] := min(D[i, j], D[i, m] + D[m, j];
9 end
, O(n3). ,

. ,
(..
)
,
.

. ,
V
E V V. ,
x, y E y, z E, x, z E x, y, z E. ,
E V V G = V, E .
E* = { x, y: V, E x y}.
, E* V E
E*. , E* ,
E, .. F E
E* F. E*
E.
E V, E,
1, E*
O(n3);
. ..

77

vi, vj E* D[i, j] < .



0, vi , v j E ,
(6)
Ai, j
1
,
v
,
v

i
j
8
D[i, j]:= D[i, j] (D[i, m] D[m, j] ),
.
,
( ), ,
0, vi , v j E ,
Di, j
1, vi , v j E
,
, .
, , A,
(6),

cij aik b jg
n

k 1

O(nlog 7),
, O(nlog 7 log n).
,
O(nlog 7) ,
,
n.
,
.
E
( ) V, E.
, E ; ,

, ,
E, O(m + n).
10.5. ,
,
,
.
.
. ..

78

( )
D = (V, A)
D
u1, a1, u2, a2,..., ut, at,
ut+1, t 0,
ui V, ai A,
ai - (ui, ui+1).

u1, u2,
..., ut, ut+1

G = (V, E)
G
u1, e1, u2, e2,..., ut, et, ut+1, t
0, ui V, ei E, ei (ui, ui+1). u1, u2,
..., ut, ut+1. =

D

u1, a1, u2, a2,..., ut, at,
(. )
ut+1, t 0,

ui V, ai A,
ai (ui,
ui+1), (ui+1, ui).
u1, u2, ..., ut,
ut+1
G
D , ,
D
G
G
D

G
D u1, u1, u2, ..., ut, ut+1, ut+1=u1
a1, u2, a2,..., ut, at, ut+1,
ut+1=u1
G
D ,
,

D G
u1, u2, ..., ut, u1, u1, e1, u2, e2,..., ut, et, u1 ,


. ..

79

D

, u1, a1, u2, a2,...,
(. )
ut, at, u1, u1,
u2, ..., ut a1, a2,..., at


ui, - ui,
uj, ui uj uj,
ui uj , ui uj ,
ui
uj uj
ui
, , ,
, ,

,

,
d(ui, uj) ui
uj D
ui uj
, ui uj



( )

d(ui, uj) ui
uj G
ui uj
,

,
( )
D=(V, A)

G=(V, E)

G ,

(,
ui uj G
3),
ui uj Dui uj
ui ui
D
(, 1),
ui uj D
()

. ..

80

D
(, 2),
ui uj D ui uj, uj ui

D G (W, F),
(W, B), W V, B A
W V, F E
D
(W, B),
B A,
W

G
(W, F), F
E,
W

D
()

G

()
()
, (),
.
, (),
.
, , , , ,
.. ,
+1, -1. , , ..
, , , ,
.
(Heider
F. Attitudes and Cognitive Organization.- J. of Phych.., 21, 1946. P. 107-112).
-
/
.

. ..

81


(Cartwright D.
and Harary F. Structural Balance: A Generalization of Heider's Theory. Psych.
Rev., 63, 1956. P. 277-293) :
,
.
,
.
( )
G=(V,E) :
a.
G .
b.
G .
c.
ui uj
.
d.
V A B
,

.
.
d
, -
( ,

).

.
.
u v , u
v. , ,
, (
u v u
v), , (
u v
u v).
,
,
, , ,
.
,

.
. ..

82

,
()
(). ,
!
, , , ,
, , -
,
, , , ...
, , ,
, ,
, , ,
, .

.
,
, .
,

.

V(t),
. ..

83

() P(t), ,
, .

,

, .
11.

, .
.
,

, ,
.
a A;
b
B, b s S a;
s'
s a . ,

b = ( a, s), s' = ( a, s).

; A,

.
A, S, B.

, (A, S, B, , ),
.
.

. ,
,
,
,
.
( )
,
,
.
. ..

84

20
,
.

,
.

,
. (A, S, B, , )
.
, A (), S () B
() ,
. ,

. , ,
.
. , ,
. ,
.
, , .
,

. ,
, , , ;
,
.
,
,
.
(
, , ..),
(, , ..).
.

. ,
, ,
. ,

.
.
, M' M
. ..

85

, .. M ,

M'.
,
( ) ,

(
, .
,
.
, ,
, , .)
,
, . ,
,

.
,
.

.
.
(..

). ,

. ,

,
, .

, .

.
.

, . ,

.

( ,
. ..

86


.)
,

.
1. M =
[A, S, B, , ]. A = {0, 1}; B = {0, 1};
S = {s0, s1, s2};

: (s0, 0) a s1 : (s0, 0) a 0
(s0, 1) a s0 (s0, 1) a 1
(s1, 0) a s2 (s1, 0) a 1
(s1, 1) a s1 (s1, 1) a 0
(s2, 0) a s0 (s2, 0) a 1
(s2, 1) a s2 (s2, 1) a 0
0, 1, 0, 1.
s0, , 0, s1
0. 1, s1 0.
0, s2 1. ,
1, s2,
0, 0, 1, 0. ,
0, 1, 0, 1 (, , 0101) 0, 0, 1, 0 ( 0010).

. ,
,
.

. ..

87

,
. a, b, a
, ,
; b , .
,
.

s0

s1

s1
s2

s0

s2

s1

s0

s2


.
, . ,
, .
, s1
, s0 s2.

. ..

88


2. ,
.
,
, , s0,
, s1,
. .

,
3. , ,
EVEN () ODD () ,
Q.
Q, EVEN,
, ODD . ,
0110Q1110Q 0110 EVEN1110 ODD.

,
1936 . .
, S
. ..

89

, ,
.
A.
,
. (
.)

, :
1) ;
2) ( )
.
,
. ,
.
. .
. [A, S, ,
, ] . A ,
: A = {a0,
a1, . . ., an}. S S = {s0, s1, . . ., sr};
S A S; S A A; S A {, ,
}, .
. ,
s0.
, ,
, ,
(), (),
() .

- .

. ..

90

, :
, ,
, ( , ),
.
, (, , )
.
. , ,
, ,
, , .
, #.
. , ,

A = {#, 0, 1, , }.
: S = {s0, s1, s2}; s0 .
.
: (s0, 0) a s1 : (s0, 0) a 0 : (s0, 0) a
(s0, 1) a s2 (s0, 1) a 1 (s0, 1) a
(s1, 0) a s1 (s1, 0) a 0 (s1, 0) a
(s1, 1) a s2 (s1, 1) a 1 (s1, 1) a
(s2, 0) a s2 (s2, 0) a 0 (s2, 0) a
(s2, 1) a s1 (s2, 1) a 1 (s2, 1) a
(s0,#) a s0 (s0, #) a # (s0, #) a
(s1,#) a s1 (s1, #) a (s1, #) a
(s2,#) a s2 (s2, #) a (s2, #) a .
, , , .
[si, aj,
sr, zl, tn].
si ;
aj , ;
sr , sr = (si, aj);
zl , , zl = (si, aj);
tn , , .

. ..

91

:
s0 # s0 #

s0 0

s1

s0 1

s2

s1 0

s1

s1 1

s2

s2 0

s2

s2 1

s1

s1 #

s1

s2 # s2

. M = [A, S, Z, , ] .

A A Z
( )
si , ak si , ak si si
si , ak si , ak si ,
si , ak si ,

si , ak S A . T A , S , , ,
, M.
12.
,
,
.
,

.
,

.

(
) .

(),
(),
,
. ..

92


.
: = (V, W,
J, R), V W ,
( );
( )
( ) ; J
, ; R
, , ,
.
,
,
(.. , ).
.
, ,
( ,
).

,
- .
. ,
, ,
- , .
. {a, b, c},
{a, b}, a {a aab, a bc,
b b} a, aab, abcb, abcb, abcb;
abcb .

.
( , ),
a , a , ,
.
(- ), a.
(
) aab aa, a
, a b . ,

-
( ) - (, ).

,
. ..

93

. .
, ,
, .
, ,
.. ,
, .

.

, ,
.

, ,

.
,
.
, ,
( ),
(
)
.
. ,
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) ;
5) ;
6) ;
7) .

,
.
, , .
,
,
.
.
,
.
. ..

94

, ,
,
,

.

, ( )
.

. , , 20
. (1912) . (1921).
1936 ,
.
, , . .
(
, ),
,
.
. , . , .. , .. .
, ..
.
.. :
,
.
.
, , ..
.
,
1) f,
f, x
f(x);
2) A X,
x X, x X A ,
x X \ A - ;
3) B,
, B.
,
. X,
X .
, ,
.
. ..

95

,
I)
. ,
II)
,
, .
:
III) f ,
, .. x, f(x).
IV) A X
X, A X \ A .
V) A B , A B A B .
VI) X
( (IV)
X).
VII) X
,
, X.
(VI) (II)
.
(
) ,
.
,
, ..
.
()
().

; , , ,
, .
,
, ..
. ,
,
.
.
,
.
.

. ..

96


(
);
1936
,
. ,
. .
:
( , , ;

1947 . .. . ,
1952 .
.. );
( ,
1958 . .. );
( ,
1970 .. );
.
:
1) ,

- ( , ,

);
2) ,

( , ,

); 1965 . ..
;
3) ,
;
4)
.


1.
. ..

97

_______________________________________________________________
(1)
:
A (B C) = (A B) (A C)
_______________________________________________________________
(2)
:
(A B) (C D) = (A C) (B C) (A D) (B D)
________________________________________________________________
(3)
:
A \ (B C) = (A \ B) (A \ C)
_______________________________________________________________
(4)
:
A \ (B C) = (A \ B) (A \ C)
_______________________________________________________________
(5)
:
A (B \C) = (A B) \ (A C) = (A B) \ C
_______________________________________________________________
(6)
:
(A \ B) \ C)= (A \ C) \ (B \ C)
_______________________________________________________________
(7)
:
(A B) [ A (B)] = (A B) [ A (B)] = A
_______________________________________________________________
(8)
:
A \ (B \ C) = (A \ B) (A C)
_______________________________________________________________
(9)
:
A \ (B C) = (A \ B) \ C
_______________________________________________________________
(10)
:

. ..

98

A B = A B (A B)
_______________________________________________________________
(11)
:
A B = (A B) (A B)
_______________________________________________________________
(12)
:
(A B) \ C = (A \ C) (B C)
_______________________________________________________________
(13)
:
(A B) \ C = (A \ C) (B \ C)
_______________________________________________________________
(14)
:
(A B) C = (A C) (B C)
2.
, ,
, :
1. - (
)
2.
.
3. 5- .
4. (
)
5. (QN, +) (Q2N, +): n 2n.
(QN , Q2N
)
6. (QN, +) (QN, +): n n.
(QN )
7. (QN, *) (QN, *): n n.
(QN )
8. (QN, *) (Q2N, *): n 2n.
(QN , Q2N
)

. ..

99

9. (N; +, *) (N7; , ): n n
mod 7. ( 7, 7,
N , N7 {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}).
10. .
11. (({1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9}),,,)
(({a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i}),,,), () (
)
I.
1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4.
?
5. ,
?
6. ?
7.
5 ?
8.
?
9.
?
II.
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. .
8. .
III. N n.
M,
N.

3. . .
1

. ..

100

1. ,
.
2. ,
n- .
3. n 4.
_____________________________________________________________
2
1. ,
.
2. , a b 5 , a,
b , ,
.
3. n 4.
_____________________________________________________________
3
1. ,
.
2. , n .
3. n 4.
____________________________________________________________
4
1. , ,
k, .
2. , a b 5 , a,
b , ,
.
3. n 4.
_____________________________________________________________
5
1. , a b 5 , a,
b

.
2. ,
.
3. n 4.
_____________________________________________________________
6

. ..

101

1. , a b 5 , a,
b

.
2. ,
n-
.
3. n 4.
____________________________________________________________
7
1. ,
.
2. , n .
3. n 4.
_____________________________________________________________
8
1. ,
.
2. , a b 5 , a,
b , ,
.
3. n 4.
_____________________________________________________________
9
1. ,
.
2. ,
n- .
3. n 4.
_____________________________________________________________
10
1. ,
.
2. ,
n-
.
3. n 4.

4. . ,
. ..

102

1
1)

:
((P Q) (P (Q P)))
2) :
((P Q) (Q P))
3) :
((A B) ((A B) (A B))) (A B)
4) , , ,
.
_________________________________________________________
2
1) :
( (P (Q P)) (P R))
2) :
((P Q) (P Q))
3) :
((A B) (A B)) A
4) , , ,
.
__________________________________________________________
3
1) :
((P (Q P)) P )
2) :
(P (Q (P Q)))
3) :
(A (A B)) (A B)
4) , , ,
.
__________________________________________________________
4
1) :
(((P Q) Q) (P Q))
2) :
((P Q) ((Q R) (P R)))
3) :
(A (B B)) A
4) , , ,
.
_________________________________________________________
5

. ..

1)

103

:
((P (Q R)) ((P Q) (P R)))
2) :
((P Q) (Q P))
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. ..

119

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. ..

120

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