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forum.xakep.ru!

01(62)


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90

, -,

: PGP Disk vs. EFS


IT-

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e-book'

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96

104

NoNaMe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
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01(62) 2006

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www.price.ru (, ) .
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zip
l
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ex



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NT
WINDOWS
CPU

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LIVE CD WINDOWS XP

: WINDOWS XP

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: WinFS, Avalon

Web-: , ,

XXI
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C#
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36 |


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)



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:


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| 37

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,
5,25 20 .
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10 20 -

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.
.
, . 100%
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| 39


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40 |


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| 41

www.backup.ru



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,

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CD-R,
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42 |

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44 |

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. // ( , ,
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GNUTELLA www.gnutella.com/connect). ,
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.
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! ? , Windows ?!

ftp-
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10% . ? , .
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ftp- ( upload download), . , , , .
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, , ,
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: -
ftp-? , , .
ftp- //.
? , (
). stuff , , , . ? -,
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, -


,
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, N/174 .
100 ( 209 715 200 ), 1 205 259
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| 45

-
- ,
, GF(2), --. -
. R
R , ,
R/2 .
-
CD, ftp://nezumi.org.ru.
/,
RAID-.

. ( )
, . , ftp- ?

RAID-
RAID-, ,
( ) , ,
.
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.
, RAID-,
, SCSI/IDE-
. RAID-,
. ,
RAID- .
.
? , ,

-, .
, .
!
, , .
,
.
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/ -

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. , , , , .

, . . , :). ,
( ). , -
. , p , . ,
,

46 |



:


( -
,
)



|

1 SEBACKUPPRIVILEGE SERESTOREPRIVILEGE , MICROSOFT


.

, .
2 SEBACKUPPRIVILEGE
,
. .

, ( WINDOWS),
, ,
- . API ,
-.

1 (CMD.EXE)
2>>D:\XCOPY.LOG
STDERR ( 2) D:\XCOPY.LOG. , (*.BAT *.CMD) .
XCOPY .
XCOPY CMD (CMD.EXE
/C XCOPY ).
2 , .

,
.
, ( FAT). , ,

,
.

| 47

,
,
, ( ). : .
,
, , (offsite). , ,
(, ..).
. , , .
. .
,
() .
,
, . , , , . .

. ,
.

( DVD, CD, ZIP ).
,
, .
, . , , ,
.. .
, , .
.
-
POSIX- (Linux Unix) root
, root. Windows
NT (Windows 2000, XP, 2003) -.
, , Windows SeBackupPrivilege ( ) SeRestorePrivilege (
),
. , SeBackupPrivilege, , SeRestorePrivilege , . -

(BACKUP, B4KUP, , , ) , ,
(),
. (RECOVERY). ,
.
- , , .
, BackupOperators.


, , copy Windows cp rcp *nix.
, :
, , , . Windows
xcopy, .
xcopy: Xcopy d:\datafiles\*.* \\backupsrv\databackup /M /E /C /Q /G /H /R /K /X /Y 2>>d:\xcopy.log. d:\datafiles \\backupsrv\databackup. , , () ( ), , . ,
.
robocopy (Robust Copy) Resource Kit Windows ( rsync
*nix) , , ( , , , , ,
..). Robocopy /MIR. , Robocopy /? (
robocopy.doc). Robocopy .
Windows (File Replication
Service, FRS) .
, , ,
FRS .

DFS, FRS . File Replication Service
. ,
, , . : .
*nix,
. , Veritas (Symantec).
, , Tar,
PKZIP RAR, .
! - PKZIP

DFS

48 |

1
WINDOWS. -,
, -
, .
-, UNICODE- , , WINDOWS 2000 (
) . .

.
, ,
. ,
, .

,
.
. ,

.

, ,
,
, .

. , , .

2 TAR
,
( Z -GZIP, -Z --COMPRESS, -J --BZIP2).
GZIP ,
BZIP2
, .
--USE-COMPRESS-PROGRAM,
.

1 ,
, .
2
, .
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,
BACKUP .

(
PKZip Server FTP ),
RAR
. Tar
. ,

.

. RAR, , backup- ( ,
, , ,
, ). NTFS-
,
( , ).

,
Tar *nix NTBackup Windows. , TAR
Tape ARchiver tar .
Tar rmt
.
NTBackup Veritas Backup Exec . , / .
,
. , Windows XP Windows 2003 NTBackup

,

(

, ).

backup-

. .
.

. Windows, , , -
, Microsoft (CIFS) NFS,
, . -

:

ArcServe

50 |

,
. , PDM
NTBackup,
. ,
( DPM, )
Windows 2003 SP1.
- Windows XP Windows 2000 SP4. .

Brightstor ArcServe (
Computer Associates) Veritas BackupExec, NetBackup ( Symantec).

, .
: , . ,
, ,
, .
,

-
Windows Server Microsoft System
Center Data Protection Manager 2006,
. , -, :). . DPM
(Volume Shadow Copy).
, , .
( ).
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, ; .
. ,
. ,
DPM 2006
.

:
;
;
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, : , ,
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, .

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- SCSI-
RAID- , . .
, ...
. .

2 , ,
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, .

:
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. .

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, .

| 51


, , .

.

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.

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, . , , .

p.s. , ,
NTBackup, ,
, , .

52 |


:
? ?
: :
. 30%, 60%. , .
, Millipede
IBM, MODS Imperial College, InPhase Technologies
.. , . ,
, .
:
, .
. , - ,
. , , , - DVD ,
. , - . ...
: , flash. ,
, , .
: -, -. , . ,
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-. ,

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- . - ,
. (, .). ,
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,
.
. ,
. .
: , . , , , , , , .
DVD/HVD-. , : , . 2000 SUN
. , .
: ,
( ,
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| 53

CISCO SECURITY
. -


. . CD-

IT 98 . 2001
WEB- CYBIKO INC.
(www.besthosting.ru), . : ,
, , ,

, . (HVD Holographic versatile disc), DVD . . (flash


), .
: . ,
, ,
, flash' , . . , .
: , , ,
, , , , , . , 1995 SCSI-3 SPI
Fast&Wide SE, 20 /, ULTRA 320 SCSI 320 / FibreChannel 400 /. 1998 20
, 400 ... , , , .
. , Microsoft Word 40 (
1,44 ), CD 640 , DVD, ,
. , DVD-. DVD.
: FLASH-
. - FLASH ?
: . flash' 200 , .
: , , - .. . , Cisco IPS 4200 HDD ( flash'),
.
: Flash . , , (!) ,
. Flash . , flash- , . , flash ( ), , . , flash' .
: . -, .
, flash
.
: flash' . . - , , , . , flash' , , , .

54 |

: flash- ,
. . .
: , flash
. HDD , , ,
, , PC.
: flash
,
. flash'
. (, , ) .
: . , , flash , -
. flash-,
,

. ZIP' , , .
: , flash . flash- . ,
, flash', , .
- . ,
On-The-Go,
flash' .
. : , flash'.
flash' . .
: , , . -
, - ,
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: . , , ZIP .
, , , ZIP 100 . ,

( ) . flash'
, CD .
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: , , : !
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. ,
. ,
- , , .
: , , . , . -, :). ... 50
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: , , , -. ,
.
: , .
. - , -
, , -
. , .
( ). CD/DVD flash. :
25- ( ).
: . - -

WORMS

ZEUS

- ,
WEB-,
www.best-hosting.ru.
: CISCO

www.security.nnov.ru,
.
.

, .

| 55

DRAGOMIR

,
. , , ( ).
, ,
,

.

.

1992 . ,
ISCO,
FREEBSD, SUN SOLARIS, WINDOWS. CCNA. ( GOOGLE),
( )

. - , .
: , . DVD. . , , ,
. .
0010 , - - . , 386DLC VHS- . .
: :
, ?
: , . , .
. , ;(.
: , ?
:).
. , , ,
. , ... , ,
. <Alt>+<F7>,
<Ctrl>+<F>, !
: . ,
:). , ,
. :
. , .
: ? , 100100
. , ...
: . . .
: , - . , . . , .
: . ,
, , , .
: , , .

*NIX

.
, ,
, |ALEXANDER S. SALIEFF (SALIEFF@MAIL.RU)

| 57

inotify
,
, ? . , , . ,
. , ,

. user-space ,
.
,

. , ,
. kernel-space-,
user-space.
, .

Robert Love
Inotify

LINUX FAM

GAMIN. , API

dnotify Dirnotify, dnotify ,


Linux 2.4.
(open, read, write, close, etc),
, , .
user-space
fcntl:
fd = open("mydir", O_RDONLY)
fcntl(fd, F_NOTIFY, myflags)

IN_ACCESS
IN_MODIFY
IN_ATTRIB
IN_CLOSE_WRITE
IN_CLOSE_NOWRITE
IN_OPEN
IN_MOVED_FROM
IN_MOVED_TO
IN_DELETE_SUBDIR
IN_DELETE_FILE
IN_CREATE_SUBDIR
IN_CREATE_FILE
IN_DELETE_SELF
IN_UNMOUNT
IN_Q_OVERFLOW
IN_IGNORED
IN_ALL_EVENTS
IN_CLOSE , IN_CLOSE_WRITE | IN_CLOSE_NOWRITE
myflags, , or.
:
DN_ACCESS ( )
DN_MODIFY
DN_CREATE
DN_DELETE
DN_RENAME
DN_ATTRIB (chmod,chown)
, ,
, , .
,
. ,
, DN_MULTISHOT,
, :
fcntl(fd, F_NOTIFY, DN_MODIFY|DN_CREATE|DN_MULTISHOT)

,
myflags, mydir. UNIX/Linux-. SIGIO,
:

, SIGIO realtime-:
, realtime- :

fcntl(fd, F_SETSIG, SIGUSR1)


,

( ):
static void handler(int sig, siginfo_t *si, void *data) {...
struct sigaction act
int fd;
act.sa_sigaction = handler
sigemptyset(&act.sa_mask)
act.sa_flags = SA_SIGINFO
sigaction(SIGUSR1, &act, NULL)
,
, si->si_fd.

fcntl(fd, F_SETSIG, SIGRTMIN + 1)


...
sigaction(SIGRTMIN + 1, &act, NULL)

inotify , dnotify . user-space . ,


. - Linux 2.6.13
, inotify.
inotify
/dev/inotify 10 63.
ioctl,
inoti FAMREQUfy_watch_request,
EST_GET :
REQNUM(FR)
,

FR->REQNUM

58 |

FAM
int fd = open("/dev/inotify", O_RDONLY)
struct inotify_watch_request iwr
iwr.dirname = strdup (dirname)
iwr.mask = mask
int wd = ioctl(fd, INOTIFY_WATCH, &iwr)
Inotify , dnotify ( , .
). wd . , , /dev/inotify. , inotify_event.
ioctl- ( wd) , , cookie ,
, , :
struct inotify_event {
__s32 wd
__u32 mask
__u32 cookie
size_t len
char *filename
}
, .
, :
struct inotify_event event
read(fd, &event, 16)
event.filename = calloc(1, event.len+1)
read(fd, event.filename, event.len)

poll select.
, dnotify. inotify
, dnotify, . , ioctl:
ioctl(fd, INOTIFY_IGNORE, &wd);

queue Dnotify inotify linux' .


BSD- , , freeBSD
kqueue . :
int kq = kqueue()

kevent
struct kevent {
uintptr_t ident
short filter
u_short flags
u_int fflags
intptr_t data
void *udata
( EV_SET)
}

FAMChanged
FAMDeleted
FAMStartExecuting ,
FAMStopExecuting ,
FAMCreated
FAMMoved
FAMAcknowledge FAMCANCELMONITOR
FAMExists
FAMEndExist
. . , , .
kevent
.
kevent kevent , C
C++ :
int fd = open("myfile", O_RDONLY)
struct kevent ke
EV_SET(&ke, fd, EVFILT_VNODE, EV_ADD, NOTE_DELETE | NOTE_RENAME, 0, NULL)
kevent(kq, &ke, 1, NULL, 0, NULL)
,
, . .
, .
. kevent,
:
if (kevent(kq, NULL, 0, &ke, 1, NULL)==-1) error_and_exit()
. ,
:
if (ke.filter==EVFILT_VNODE && (ke.fflags&NOTE_DELETE)) MyNotify("File was deleted!")
else if (ke.filter==EVFILT_VNODE && (ke.fflags&NOTE_RENAME)) MyNotify("File
was renamed!")\
kqueue . BSD-.

, ,
, . dnotify, inotify
Linux. , freebsd kqueue, - , , .
,
.
FAM (File Alteration Monitor), SGI IRIX,
UNIX-, Linux, freebsd sunos/solaris. libfam, ,
, , . - ,
,
. FAM-:

FAMConnection fc
if (FAMOpen(&fc)!=0) exit(1)
. FAM -, , :
FAMRequest fr
FAMMonitorDirectory(&fc, "/home/usr/mydir", &fr, NULL)
FAMMonitorFile(&fc, "/home/usr/mydir", &fr, NULL)
,
, :
if (FAMPending(&fc)<=0) break
FAMEvent fe
if (FAMNextEvent(&fc, &fe)<=0) break
MyEventHandle(fe)
FAMEvent , , (
) , , :
struct FAMEvent {
FAMConnection* fc
FAMRequest fr
char *hostname
char filename[PATH_MAX]
void *userdata
FAMCodes code
}
FAMPending
, - , :
int fam_fd = FAMCONNECTION_GETFD(&fc)
fd_set readfds
FD_ZERO(&readfds)
FD_SET(fam_fd, &readfds)
while(!break_flag) {
if (select(fam_fd+1, &readfds, NULL, NULL, NULL)<0) exit(1)
if (!FD_ISSET(fam_fd, &readfds)) continue
if (FAMNextEvent(&fc, &fe) < 0) ...
, ,
:
FAMSuspendMonitor(&fc, &fr)
FAMResumeMonitor(&fc, &fr)
FAMCancelMonitor(&fc, &fr)
, , FAM- . FAM- ,
UNIX-. ,
, - , ,
KDE

60 |


, :

,
.

. 2005
, :).
, |
(WWW.FORCETEAM.RU)

45 ,
CD DVD
.: , 2005 / /
368
: 161

: (Nero, CDRWIN,
WinOnCD, Roxio Easy CD And DVD Creator,
CloneCD, Clony XXL, CloneDVD, Alcohol), (EAC,
WinAmp, dBPowerAm, EncSpot, WinLAME, FairStars
Audio Converter, Tag&Rename),

(WinDVD, PowerDVD, Gspot, CyberLink Power
Director, Ulead DVD MovieFactory, DVD Decrypter,
SmartRipper, SubRip, DVD2AVI, VirtualDubMod,
FlaskMPEG, Gordian Knot, DVDShrink).
-
,
, . , -
:
, CD-RW, CD-R/RW
.

Nero Burning ROM.


CD DVD
.: , 2005 / .. /
192
: 61
, . , : ,
,
(overburn) ..

(CD-RW DVD-RW) . ,
Nero, ,
: Nero InfoTool (
), Nero CD-DVD Speed
( ), Nero Dvrive Speed (
), Nero Cover Designer ( ), Nero Wave Editor (
)
. ,
.

10 DVD-
. DVD-

, ( ),
, - os-
(www.osbook.ru). .

.: , 2005 / / 496
: 292
DVD , , .
, DVD ( ).
, DVD
.
, , . ,
, , , . , .
DVD, . DVD- DVD-, DVD. // DVD. : iTunes, DVD Player,
Windows Media Player, CyberLink PowerDVD, InterVideo WinDVD, InterActual Player,
CyberLink PowerDirector, InterVideo WinProducer, Sonic MyDVD, Apple iDVD, Sonic
DVDit!, Apple DVD Studio Pro, Sonic ReelDVD, Sonic Scenarist.
.

| 61

. ,
.: -
, 2003 / . / 384
: 119
,
WinZIP, WinRAR ?
, , , .
: , , - , . : , , LZ77, LZW, PPM, BWT, LPC...
ZIP, HA, CABARC, RAR,
BZIP2. RK.
( PCX, TGA, GIF, TIFF,
CCITT G-3, JPEG, JPEG2000),
( MPEG, MPEG-2, MPEG-4,
H.261, H.263). , ,
,
, (
)
, pkzip arj.

CD DVD
.: , 2004 / / 304
: 186
, :).
, . -
, ( ,
, Retail), ,
. : //,
.
, , .
, :
Roxio Easy Media Creator, Ahead Nero, CDBurnerXP Pro, Clone CD, Clone
DVD, Alcohol, Paragon CD-Rom Emulator, DVD Info Pro, DVD identifier, CDR Label, CD
Box Labeler Pro .. ,
, : , , ,
. ,
,
:).

.
.: -
, 2002 / . / 528
: 177
(Data Warehouse) , , - . OLAP- (OnLine Analytical Processing), , , .
, .
,
. Oracle
Warehouse Builder, Oracle Express, Oracle Discoverer, Express Analyzer Express Objects.

-

.: -
, 2004 / . / 464
: 210
, , .
, . , . , , ,
. , , , . ( , , , , ).
(, ; Lead-Out;
), ( , ) , ( , , , ).


.: , 2005 / .. / 330
: 118
,
, .
.
,
,
, , .

. : -
.
, , ,
, , , ,
. : Active
Backup Expert, PowerQuest DataKeeper, Smart
Data Backuper, Drive Rescue, EasyRecovery Pro,
CD Data Rescue, PC Inspector Smart Recovery.

(BIOS,
, )

62 |

-, ,
(
:)) .
, ,

|GPCH (ADMIN@DOTFIX.NET)

| 63

www
WWW.COMPRESSION.RU . .
. . . ,
, :).
WWW.7-Z
ZIP.ORG 7ZIP. , LZMA
. , .
WWW.BITSUM.COM/JCALG1.HTM JCALG1. .
: THIS LIBRARY MAY BE USED FREELY IN ANY AND FOR
ANY APPLICATION.

,

,
, ,
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. , Ascii- (0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9). 00112233011223322113. , 4,5,6,7,8,9 . : 00 - 0, 11 - 1, 22 - 2, 33 - 3, 01 - 4, 12 - 5, 23 - 6, 32 - 7, 21 - 8, 13 - 9.
: 0123456789.
.
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, , ,
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. , , ("00" 0,"11" 1
..). GHF Protector, ,
aplib, .
exe-
.

WWW.IBSENSOFTWARE.COM APLIB.
.
APLIB , , $29.
HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG ,

, , ,
.
, :
HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/CATEGORY:LOSSLESS_COMPRESSION_ALGORITHMS.
:
WWW.POWERARCHIVER.COM . 7ZIP. $20.
WWW.IZARC.ORG -! ,
.
, 7-ZIP, A, ACE, ARC,
ARJ, B64, BH, BIN, BZ2, BZA, C2D, CAB, CDI, CPIO, DEB, ENC, GCA, GZ,
GZA, HA, IMG, ISO, JAR, LHA, LIB, LZH, MDF, MBF, MIM, NRG, PAK, PDI,
PK3, RAR, RPM, TAR, TAZ, TBZ, TGZ, TZ, UUE, WAR, XXE, YZ1, Z, ZIP,
ZOO. ?

64 |


VVS SOFT GROUP CD
procedure PakOneByte;
{ --- --- }
Var Mask : word;
Tail : boolean;
begin
CRC:=CRC XOR InBuf[InCounter];
Mask:=CodeTable[InBuf[InCounter]]^.BiteChain SHR CounterBite;
OutWord:=OutWord OR Mask;
CounterBite:=CounterBite+CodeTable[InBuf[InCounter]]^.LengthBiteChain;
If CounterBite>15 then Tail:=True else Tail:=False;
While CounterBite>7 do
begin
OutBuf[OutCounter]:=Hi(OutWord);
Inc(OutCounter);
If OutCounter=(SizeOf(OutBuf)-4) then
begin
BlockWrite(OutputF,OutBuf,OutCounter,NumWritten);
OutCounter:=0;
end;
CounterBite:=CounterBite-8;
If CounterBite<>0 then OutWord:=OutWord SHL 8 else OutWord:=0;
end;
If Tail then
begin
Mask:=CodeTable[InBuf[InCounter]]^.BiteChain SHL
(CodeTable[InBuf[InCounter]]^.LengthBiteChain-CounterBite);
,
. ,
, . ( ). , . , .
.
, .
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. , , ,
. :
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:

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, )
,

ASCII-, EXE', OBJ' ..

OutWord:=OutWord OR Mask;
end;
Inc(InCounter);
If (InCounter=(SizeOf(InBuf))) or (InCounter=NumRead) then
begin
InCounter:=0;
BlockRead(InputF,InBuf,SizeOf(InBuf),NumRead);
end;
end;
procedure PakFile; { --- --- }
begin
ResetFile;
SearchNameInArchiv;
If NormalWork then
begin
BlockRead(InputF,InBuf,SizeOf(InBuf),NumRead);
OutWord:=0;
CounterBite:=0;
OutCounter:=0;
InCounter:=0;
CRC:=0;
CreateCodeArchiv;
While (NumRead<>0) do PakOneByte;
OutBuf[OutCounter]:=Hi(OutWord);
Inc(OutCounter);
OutBuf[OutCounter]:=CRC;
Inc(OutCounter);
BlockWrite(OutputF,OutBuf,OutCounter,NumWritten);
DisposeCodeTable;
ClosePakFile;
end;
end;
:

.
.

-
, ,
.
, ,
.
, .

. , ,
. 2
:). . -
:). , , , LZW, - . . ,
. LZW ( GIF LZW).
, , LZ (Jakob Ziv Abraham Lempel).
W? ,
, Unix. ,
, compress. ,
LZW-, .
. , , ,
, . :).

| 65

rle Run Length Encoding PCX ( ?


- ) . , , .
-,
. : , .
, .
, ? , :(.
, , . - .

jpeg
Joint Photographic Expert Group. . 8*8 .
. , ,
. ISO,
. :).
,
,
, . ,
, , .
, . , :). ? ? , e'? ,
, :). . : aplib, jcalg -

APLIB
unsigned int aP_depack(unsigned char
*source, unsigned char *destination)
{
unsigned int offs, len, R0, LWM;
int done; int i; aP_d_input = source;
aP_d_output = destination; LWM = 0;
aP_d_tagpos = 0; *aP_d_output =
*aP_d_input;
aP_d_output++; aP_d_input++; done = 0;
while (!done)
{ if (aP_d_getbit()) { if (aP_d_getbit()) {
if (aP_d_getbit())
{
offs = 0;
for (i = 4; i; i--) offs = (offs << 1) +

aP_d_getbit();
if (offs)
{
*aP_d_output = *(aP_d_output - offs);
aP_d_output++;
} else {
*aP_d_output = 0x00;
aP_d_output++;
}
LWM = 0;
} else {
offs = *aP_d_input;
aP_d_input++;
len = 2 + (offs & 0x0001);
offs >>= 1;
if (offs)
{
for (; len; len--)
{
*aP_d_output = *(aP_d_output - offs);

lzma.
aplib, lzma. ,
.

lzma
2001
LZ77 ( LZW). : Lempel-Ziv-Markov chain-Algorithm.
7zip exe-. LZ77 : 4 , .

Patricia-. Patricia :), Practical Algorithm to
Retrieve Information Coded in Alphanumeric, 1968 . lzma BCJ/BCJ2-, 32-
call' jmp' ,
x86-. , , , , : 1 M Pentium II 10 , HT Pentium-. , ,
, Windows. ,
,
. aplib $20 ,
. lzma
aP_d_output++;
}
} else done = 1;
R0 = offs;
LWM = 1;
}
} else {
offs = aP_d_getgamma();
if ((LWM == 0) && (offs == 2))
{
offs = R0;
len = aP_d_getgamma();
for (; len; len--)
{
*aP_d_output = *(aP_d_output - offs);
aP_d_output++;
}
} else {
if (LWM == 0) offs -= 3; else offs -= 2;
offs <<= 8;

offs += *aP_d_input;
aP_d_input++;
len = aP_d_getgamma();
if (offs >= 32000) len++;
if (offs >= 1280) len++;
if (offs < 128) len += 2;
for (; len; len--)
{
*aP_d_output = *(aP_d_output - offs);
aP_d_output++;
}
R0 = offs;
}
LWM = 1;
}
} else { *aP_d_output = *aP_d_input;
aP_d_output++; aP_d_input++;
LWM = 0; } }
return (aP_d_output - destination);
}

66 |

LINUX

.
. , | ALEXANDER S. SALIEFF (SALIEFF@MAIL.RU)

, , , ,
, .
, ,
Linux' . , , unixway. , .

, :
$> cp -fpR srcdir dstdir
. -, dstdir
, ,
, . -, , Linux'
, , dstdir
, , NFS
.
( ), , . .
:
$> cp -fpR srcdir dstdir && tar -zc -f archive.tar.gz && rm -Rf dstdir
dstdir. , . , , , .
date, , :
$> tar -zc -f "bkpdir/backup_`date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H:%M:%S'`.tar.gz" srcdir

bkpdir backup_2005-10-25_04:00:12.tar.gz, backup_2005-10-26_04:00:11.tar.gz .. , . , , . find:


$> find bkpdir/ -name 'backup_*.tar.gz' -mtime +7 -exec rm -f \{\} \;
, exec:
, shell -. -,
'shedull' ,
:
$> crontab -e
0 4 * * * /home/user/backup.sh &> mail 'user@home.ru'
stdout stderr , ,
, .

,
, .
? , . . 25 .
? , , - , :
$> cp /dev/hdb /dev/hdc
, ,
, , . - , . cp dd,
:

| 67

68 |

$> dd if=/dev/hdb of=/dev/hdc ibs=4096 obs=4096


,
, -:
$> dd if=/dev/cdrom of=/home/user/mycd.iso bs=2048
: ? ,
, :
$> cdrecord dev=1,0,0 mycd.iso
, Linux'
, loopback-:
$> mount -t iso9660 /home/user/mycd.iso /mnt/cdrom -o loop,ro
, , .

,
. , , , NFS SMBFS
. SSH-. , . . scp,
OpenSSH:
$> tar -zc -f mybackup.tar.gz srcdir && scp mybackup.tar.gz dstuser@dsthost.ru:/home/dstuser/ && rm -f mybackup.tar.gz
: mybackup.tar.gz . , ,
, SSH-. stdout (
-f -), pipe- stdin SSH-,
SSH-:
$> tar -zc -f - srcdir | ssh -C dstuser@dsthost.ru "cat > /home/dstuser/mybackup.tar.gz"
- SSH-,
( cat dd, stdin):
dsthost$> ssh -C srcuser@srchost "tar -zc -f - srcdir" | dd of=/home/dstuser/mybackup.tar.gz
,
srcuser' (
), dstuser . ,
SSH- , . , dd
stdout. :
$> dd if=/dev/cdrom bs=2048 | ssh -C dstuser@dsthost.ru "dd of=/home/dstuser/mycd.iso"
, . -

, :
? , :
$> ssh-keygen -t rsa
passphrase , ( , , ). :
$> cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub | ssh dstuser@dsthost "mkdir -p ~/.ssh && cat >>
~/.ssh/authorized_keys && chmod 700 ~/.ssh && chmod 600 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys"
, . , . sshd ,
-, , .
. , ,
SSH-.

, , :
. , . ,
. ,
( ) , .
, , rsync (
). rsync . ,
, ( , , ).
,
, .
,
, , .
,
, .
, , , . , (, : , )
, .
,
. - , , .
Rsync ( ):
$> rsync -azv srcdir/* dstdir
a , -rlptgoD (
, , , , , ); z gzip ; v
. .
rsync remote shell', (

| 69

rsync),
. ssh:
$> rsync -avz srcdir/* dstuser@dsthost.ru:~/dstdir

, rdiff-backup ,
python librsync. , , librsync , . , .
, ssh-:
$> rdiff-backup srcdir dstdir
$> rdiff-backup srcdir dstuser@dsthost.ru::dstdir
. . , , .
, .
:
$> rdiff-backup -r now dstdir srcdir
$> rdiff-backup -r now dstuser@dsthost.ru::dstdir srcdir
, 10- :
$> rdiff-backup -r 10D dstdir srcdir
$> rdiff-backup -r 10D dstuser@dsthost.ru::dstdir srcdir
rdiff-backup-data/increments
,
<filename><timestamp>.diff.gz. :

) , .
MySQL, mysqlhotcopy. Mysqlhotcopy ,
. , ,
, , MySQL:
$root> mysqlhotcopy mydbname /bkpdir/mysqlbackup/
, , , , , (, MySQL)?
mysqldump, SQL99. ,
SQL99:
$> mysqldump --add-drop-table --add-locks --all --quick --lock-tables mydbname > result.sql
(. ), result.sql
,
SQL :
-- Table structure for table `mytable`
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS mytable;
CREATE TABLE mytable (
id int(11) NOT NULL default '0',
name char(40) default NULL,
age int(11) default NULL
) TYPE=MyISAM;
-- Dumping data for table `mytable`
LOCK TABLES mytable WRITE;
INSERT INTO mytable VALUES (1,'Masha',16);
INSERT INTO mytable VALUES (2,'Vasya',25);
UNLOCK TABLES;
:

$> rdiff-backup dstuser@dsthost.ru::dstdir/file.2005-10-30T02:13:56+04:00.diff.gz srcdir/file

$> mysql -u user -p password mydbname < result.sql


. ,
:

PostgreSQL
MySQL'. /var/lib/pgsql,
, . ( ) :
PostgreSQL, ( 7.3 7.4),
. , MySQL, SQL99, pg_dump:

$> rdiff-backup --remove-older-than 2W dstuser@dsthost.ru::dstdir


,
, .
, , , man' .

. : MySQL PostgreSQL.
.
MySQL ,
, . , . ( /var/lib/mysql)
( /etc/my.cnf) datadir [mysqld]. ( -

$> pg_dump --inserts --attribute-inserts -f result.sql mydbname


$> pg_dumpall --inserts --attribute-inserts -f result-all.sql
--format=t --format=c, sql- .
pg_restore:
$> psql -d mydbname -U user -f result.sql
$> pg_dumpall --blobs --format=t -f result-all.bin.tar
$> pg_restore -d mydbname result-all.bin.tar

70 |


WEB-

, .
, , , , . , .
| AKA HORRIFIC


, . , ?
, . , , , , RAID . ,
FreeBSD, . , ,
. .

:) , . ,
-. .
, , .
.
MySQL.
, , .
, .
, MySQLDump,
. :
mysqldump _ > .sql
.sql SQL-.
, .
p.
MySQLDump , .

root,
( , ), p MySQLDump .
, mysite,
:
mysqldump -p mysite > dump.sql
. , dump.sql
mysite. ,
,
.

web-
mysqldump ( ,
, ), web- MySQL-. ,
, .
MySQL, , ,
RST MySQL CyD MySQL Admin Centre.
(RST MySQL)
void.ru,
http://rst.void.ru -. , . 81
, , .

72 |

(CyD MySQL Admin Centre) ,


, , -
. ? , . , :
( ), . , .
CyD MySQL Admin Centre , , web-.
. -
. , RST. void.ru,
. !
.
, ,
PHP, .

. ,
,
. , .
.
shell, void.ru . ,
, . . ,
, , , ?
, ,
, -
, .
.
. ( ) , , . , .
, . . , , . : JavaScript-,
.
system. , .
, .
: , . , .

MySQL RST MySQL



MySQLDump


FTP- CuteFTP (www.globalscape.com). ,
Tools/Folder tools/Synchronize
Folders. , ,
, .
, ,
Include subfolders.
, Please select the direction
of synchronization (, )
Mirror local (Make the remote side just like the local ( , ). Advanced, . When one way
mirroring, delete destination file if in does not exists in source folder ( , ). , , - , , , , .
, ,
. , ,
. , Download Files,
. , : ,
. zip-,
php- , .
, CuteFTP . , , . CuteFTP , , .
, , , ,
. , , .

, , CuteFTP.
Tools/Folder tools/Backup
remote folders. !
( ) .

MySQL
CyD MySQL
Admin Centre

| 73

.
, .
, ,
web-. : , .
CyD FTP Client XP
(www.cydsoft.com). , htm, php, dat .. -
, . Edit/File find on remote server.
.
Project, , ,
. . Project/Upload project, . , / . ,

.
CyD FTP Client XP . . ,
(
, ), .


MySQL , .
,
MysQLDump ,
. , ,
gzip, , . , :
tar cf backup.tar /home/dump.sql
gzip -9 backup.tar

PHP
$db=' ';
//
@mysql_select_db($db);
//
$res = mysql_query("SHOW TABLES FROM $db");
if (mysql_num_rows($res)==0)
{ // ,
,
print(" . ");

, :
tar xfz /home/backup.tar.gz
, , .
. , ,
. , ,
, : , SQL-Injection.
,
, . .
.
,
- ,
.
, . ( , ), backup.tar.gz OpenSSH
:
/usr/bin/openssl des in /home/backup.tar.gz
out /home/backup.sec
backup.sec. (
backup.tar.gz backup.sec).
:
/usr/bin/openssl des d in /home/backup.sec \
out /home/backup.tar.gz
.

backup complete! , ,
, .
. (
) . . , .
,

}
else
{
while ($row = mysql_fetch_row($res))
{
$tabs[] .= $row[0];
}
// ,
print("# : $db<BR><BR>");
foreach($tabs as $tab)
{
// SQL-
print("# Drop table ".$tab." <BR> DROP TABLE
IF EXISTS '".$tab."';<BR><BR>");
// SQL-
$res = mysql_query("SHOW CREATE TABLE
`".$tab."`") or die(mysql_error());
$row = mysql_fetch_row($res);
// SQL-
print("# Create table ".$tab." <BR>

".$row[1].";<BR><BR># Data:<BR>");
//
$res = mysql_query("SELECT * FROM `$tab`");
if (mysql_num_rows($res) > 0)
{
while ($row = mysql_fetch_assoc($res))
{
// SQL-
$keys = implode("`, `", array_keys($row));
$values = array_values($row);
foreach($values as $k=>$v) {$values[$k] =
addslashes($v);}
$values = implode("', '", $values);
print("INSERT INTO `$tab`(`".$keys."`) VALUES
('".$values."');<BR>");
}
}
print("# =================<BR><BR>");
}
}

74 |

,
, .
? , ,
, . :

. ,
,
-, | AKA XBIT (STREAM@OSKOLNET.RU)


? , ,
,
. ,
-.

.
, ,
.
, .
, .
.


. : . ,
. , , , . , -.
. , . -

.
Windows TimeCounter,
:
, .
Linux,
:
<?
function gettime()
{
$part_time = explode(' ',microtime());
$real_time = $part_time[1].substr($part_time[0],1);
return $real_time;
}
$start_time = gettime();
//------------- --------------systems(tar topic.txt);
//------------- ------------------$stop_time = gettime();
$diff_time = bcsub($stop_time, $start_time,6);
echo "$diff_time";
?>
php.ini 30- , .
,
,
.


Athlon 1800+(1533MHz) 512 ,
Soltek, nforce2 Ultra 400.
. ( MP3), ,
. : , .. (Winace ace, 7-zip 7z, WinZIP zip, WinRAR rar),
.

| 75

Turbo ZIP

WinRAR

.mp3
.avi
jpeg

29,1
38,5
687
21

12,5
38
685
19,8

37%
98%
99%
99%

7
5
39
3

.mp3
.avi
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29,1
38,5
687
21

10,7
38
680
19,8

37%
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1 33
72
35
22

, ,
, . Turbo ZIP . , .
, , .
, , , .
,
,
.
, , .
jpg, MP3, mpg, mpeg. , ,
20-
:
, (, ,
). WinRAR,
.

-.
: .
, , . , Turbo ZIP ,
trial-. 17 ,
:).


.


WinZIP. ,
. WinRAR . ,
30 .. : WinRAR ,
.
,
, .
.
.
. , ( , ,
), , . ,
, . , .
,
WinRAR' .
:
. , WinRAR .
, . ,
rar zip. , web-
.
. WinRAR,
.
, , , .
, . WinRAR
,
.
, WinRAR . , .
, WinRAR .
, , , , , . rar- : . WinRAR . (
.)

76 |

WinZIP

7-zzip

.mp3
.avi
jpeg

29,1
38,5
687
21

12,5
38
685
19,9

41%
98%
99%
99%

6,55
5
28,05
3

.mp3
.avi
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29,1
38,5
687
21

7,25
38
665
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28%
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91%
99%

10
5
33
41

,
WinZIP. :
download.com,
. , , , , , WinZIP
. .
, rar.

RAR', ,
rar-. , . ,
. WinZIP
. ,
. , , , ,
: (
).
( ).
exe- .
WinRAR. WinZIP
,
, .
WinZIP ,
. ,
.
, , (!),
. ,
, .
, .
: WinZIP ,
rar-.
, zip WinRAR', , , WinZIP, .

, WinRAR. , . , , . ,
: 7-zip, WinRAR, , . , . . .
. :
7z, gzip, bzip2, zip, tar. 7zip , ,
, rar- ( , ).
,
, . , , , . . : 7-zip . MP3-, . .

. - MP3- 103 5 ( ),
.
: 7-zip .

WinAce

.mp3
.avi
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29,1
38,5
687
21

8,33
38,1
677
19,8

31%
99%
95%
99%

1 10
72
26
36

, ,
WinZIP. WinAce , . , . , . , , WinAce.
, .
WinAce :
,
, ( ). , , , .
, . WinAce 30 8 . .
: WinAce
,
WinRAR

1989 . ( Chaos Computer Club)


. -.
,
.
, IT-
( !),

78 |



,
, . , , . |

:
,
.
: ?
ACE Lab ,
.
(
, ,
) SEAGATE, SAMSUNG, HITACHIIBM (HGST), FUJITSU (2.5") , , TOSHIBA (2.5"),
, -
, , ...
MAXTOR' , -
.
,
, , ,
.
MAXTOR .
WDC
.
,
,
. QUANTUM ,
, .
, .
, -10 ,
30 . .
, ( )
(, ,
). - QUANTUM AS,
. MAXTOR WDC ...
, , ,
, .

| 79

80 |

? ,
. , . - . ! , .
, , ,
.
, . ,
, ( ).
.
(, ),
( , ).

CD/DVD-.
. ,
. , . PC-Active .
,
.
, . ,
20 . ,
,
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( - ),
,

.

( NERO quality test) () , -

. , . .
, , ?
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| 81

flash
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! , , . -,
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( , ) . , !
, :). ?
, , , , , . ,
, .
, .
, 1-2. , . , - - .
, . ~15 , , 11 . ,
~17 . ,

FLASH-
,
PHOTO RESCUE (www.photorescue.net)

IDA PRO.


,

.
,
$30 $40 (EXPERT
EDITION), EVALUATION-
.

82 |

,
, . :
?
? . ( , ).
. , /
BAD-,
, .
, ,
, . ,
. . , ,
, , ...
. . , 1-10
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. - , - .
( ) . , ,
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LOGIC .
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.
. . SCSI IDE , . /. ,
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FUJIFILM), ! , . , , . ZIP'
,
. , . , , , .
? .

, . , , - - . scandisk/chldsk, Windows, . Norton Disk Doctor (
Disk Destroyer) . ,
ZIP-, SpinRate ( ). 90% , .
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| 101

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112 |


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MICROLAB SOLO2
OZAKI DT555
ALTEC LANSING MX-5020
GENIUS SP-HF2.0 1250
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CREATIVE.

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: Creative Audigy2 ZS Platinum
: Windows XP Professional EN Corp Edition build 2600.xpsp_sp2_gdr.050301-1519 SP2

Microlab Solo2
($65)

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1250 ($65)
: 2.0
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MiniJack ( )
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116 |

JetBalance JB-381
($100)

: 2.0
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, : 20000
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, : 165x330x240
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3220 ($70)
: 2.1
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: 2.0
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118 |

-
!
SPEC@REAL.XAKEP.RU
SKYWRITER

Romahaker@yandex.ru

[andrey.melnik@mail.ru]
Mov Niro,

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?
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,
, -,

?
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CHIP Special


?
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?

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?
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?
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