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540200 (050200)
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2007
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72
. : /
. . , . . , . . . : - . . . . . . , 2007. 107 .

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22.373

. . , . . , . . ,
2007
. . . ,
2007


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4
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6
1. ...........................................................
7
2. ........................................................................ 11
3. ................................ 13
4. ..................................................................... 17
5. ........................................ 21
6. ().............. 26
7. .................................... 31
8. ................................... 35
9. . ............................. 38
10. ............................................. 42
11. . .............. 47
12. ........................................................... 53
13 ..................................................................... 58
14. ..................................................................... 61
15. ........................................................................... 65
16. . ........................................................... 68
17. . ......................................... 72
18. ()................ 77
19. .......... 81
20 . ............................................ 84
21. ............................ 88
22. ................................................................. 92
23. ........................................................... 97
24. ....................................................... 99
25. ................................................. 101
............................................................................................. 104
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, ,

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,
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20 25 )
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2002
: .
1. ,
-
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. 2004
.
WEB-
, .

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,
7


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)
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,
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,

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,
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,
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, , ,
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,

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-.

, 2007


1.
:

2.
,
.
3. -
, ,
,
. ,

, , , - .
(
). , , ..
.
, .
, .
.
.

. ,

, .

c=299792458 /3,00108 /.

1

1.
: ,
,
.
,
: (+ ).
,
, .
.
2.
()

3.
: ,
.
. -
. .
.
, , , .
F1 F2
=
q1 q 2
F1
q
= const = 1
F2
q2
10

, , ,
, .
4.
: 1 , ,
1
1 .
5.

,
.
.
,
,

.
: .
n

q
i =1

= const.

6.

.
q = 6 105 .
7.

.
, .. . ,
. ,
,
.
8.


q = N e , N = 0, 1, 2, ...
|e| = 1,6021892(46)10-19 -

11

, , ..
,
.
9.
, ,
.

V << dV << V ; V = 10 27 10 30 3 ; e << dq << Q ;


=
Q=

dq
= ( x, y , z )
dV

( x, y, z )dV

=
Q=

dq
dS

dS

dq
dl
Q = dl

10.
:
, .


;
(r ) = q (r r0 ).

r0 -, ; ( r r0 )
- .
11. .

:
0, x 0
( x) =
, ( x)dx = 1
, x = 0
,
12

f ( x) ( x)dx = f (0);

f ( x) ( x

x)dx = f ( x 0 )

, - :

0, r 0
(r ) =
; ( r )dv = 0;
, r = 0
- :

f (r )(r )dv = f (0) f (r )(r 0 r )dv = f (r 0 )


12. .

G + FA + FC0 = 0;

F + FA = FC + G;

q1 E = k (1 0 ) ;

q E + m0 g = k + mg ;

q2 E = k (2 0 ) ;

G = FA + FC0 ;
mg = m0 g + k0 ;

( m m0 ) q = k0 .

q E = ( m m0 ) q + k ;
q E = k ( + 0 ) .

q1 1 0
.
=
q2 2 0

13

2

1.

1771 .
1785.
2.
:

.
.

:
qq r
q1 q 2
F12 = k 1 2 2 12
F12 = k
r12 r12
r2
12

3.

1
;
r2
F ~ q1q2 .
F~

4.
F~

1
r

2 +

dF = F1 F2 = k
k q

q dS1
q dS
k 2 + 2 =
2 +
r1
r2

dS1
dS
2 2 ;

r r1
r2 r2
2
1

dS cos
;
r2
1
1
dF = k q d .
r1 r2
d =

14

= 0, dF = 0;
0, dF 0.
K : < 0, 02;
M : < 0, 00005;
1971 : < 1016.

5.

. ,
, ,
;
, ~
1
d
r
;
~ exp( ),
F~
dr
r
r0
.. .
. 10-48 .
,
.
.
6.
.
2
c2
1
9
: k = 7 9, 0 10
;k =
; 0 8,85 1012 .
2
10

4 0

0
7. .

F0
= const = 1
F


F12 = k

q1q2
r
r123 12

1
1,000594
2
1200

.
8.

.
. ,
, , ,
, .
.
N

F = Fi
i =1


.
, .
15

3

1.

, ,
.
N

F = Fi 0 = k
i =1

i =1

qi q0
ri 0

ri 0 ;

N
q
F
= k i 3 ri 0 = E .
q0
i =1 ri 0


, , ,
.
E .
:
, ,
.
E=

F
q

, ..
,
, .. .
.
:
,
.
N
q
E = k 3i ri
i =1 ri


, .

16

2.

E = 1
=1 .

: 1 /
,
, ,
1
1 .
3.


, .. , ,
.
N

E = Ei .
i =1

4.


, ,
.
,
,
,

E (r ) = k
i =1

E (r ) = k

dqi
dq
r = k 3 ri ;
3 i
ri
r
V' i
dq
r r '

( r r ')

dq
( r ') dV '
; E (r ) = k
( r r ').
3
dV
V' r r '

17

5.
qq0
r;
r3
F
q
E = = k 3 r.
q0
r
F =k

E=k

q
r a

E (r ) = k

( r a );

q ( r ' a ) dV '
r r '

V'

( r r ') = k

q
r a

( r a );

a = 0;

E (r ) = k
E (r ) = k

q
r

r;

|q|
.
r2

, ..
, ,
, .
6.

:
?
, , ..
.
,
, .
, ,
, , , ,
, .

18

7.

2 :
1. .

2. , ..

.
, , .
. ,
.
:

.
7. :
E = Ei ;

dS = R sin d Rd ;
Ex = Eix = Ei cos i ; E = k R 2 sin d d cos ;
k
R 2 S'
qi
Ex = k 2 cos i ;
q
R
=
;
2 R 2
k
Ex = 2 dq cos ;
E = k ;
R
q
dq = dS ;
E=k
.
2R2

19

4


, ..
. ,

. ,
.
1.

(
, ),
.
,
, .. .
.
. ,
,
.
. .

- .
.
.
2.

- ( E ) (S).
dS,
( n ) .
: ( ) E
S

:
= ( E , n )dS ,
S

20

= EdS ,

dS = n dS .

,
,
= EdS ,
S

v .

.
M .
S
.
. ,
, ,
,
.
:
.
G G
G
v (E, dS )
div E = lim S
,
div .
S M
V
V 0

, div>0, ;
div<0, ; div=0, , .
div, .
,
.
3. .

a) (x, y, z).
div E =

Ex E y Ez
+
+
.
x
y
z

b) (; ; z), .
div E =

1 ( E ) 1 E Ez
+
+
.


z

c) (r, , ).
div E =

1 (r 2 Er )
1 (sin E )
1 E
.
+
+
2
r
r
r sin
r sin

21

4.

.
( E, n)dS = div E dV .
S

5.
Q
E = k 3 r; =
r

Q
r
dS
E , n dS = k 3 ( r , n ) dS = kQ 3 dS = kQ 2 = kQ d = 4 kQ.
r
r
r
0
S
Q
= E , n dS = 4 kQ =

.
,
.

:
.
1
div E dV = dV .

0 V

:
1
div E = .

6.

,
.
=

( E, n )dS = EdS = E dS = E 2S =

2 S ; E =

,
, .. . 0
x,
Ex = sign ( x)

1, x > 0;

sign( x) =
0
1, x < 0.

22

.
0

7.

x < 0;
0,

0 , 0 < x < d ;
0,
x > d.

8.

( E , n )dS = E dS = E dS = E
r

divE =

4 r 2 =

1 ( r 2 Er )

.
= 2
r
0 r

2
r3
2
d (r Er ) = r dr. r Er =
+ const.
0
0 3
r 1 Q r
.
Er =
=
0 3 0 4 3 R3 3
2

Er = k

Q
Q
r , r < R. Er = k 2 , r > R.
3
R
r

, ,
.

23

5

1.


A = Fdl
,
1 2.

F = qE ;

A12 = q Edl

A = qEdl ;

, . ,

, .
2.
2

r2

Q
dr
( r , dr )
1
AQ = q k 3 (r , dl ) = kqQ
kqQ
kqQ
=
=
;
3
2

r
r
r
r r1
1
1
1
1
(r , dr ) = d (r 2 ) = d (r 2 ) = rdr ;
2
2
1 1
A12 = kqQ
r1 r2
,
, .
,
, . ,

( E , dl ) = 0
3.

.
.
24

N
N
E , dl = Ei , dl = (Ei , dl ) = 0 =0.
i =1
i =1
E , dl = 0

4.
A .
: A
L
:

= ( A, )dl
L

- ,
,
.
,
( ) , , ,
.
, ,
. , A ,
,
( A, ) , ,
l , ( A, )l ;
; ,
l - .
, ,
. ,
.
:
, ,
.

25

.
5.

.
. ,
- ( ).
, ,
, .
.
( A, )dl .
lim
S 0
S
LM

. , 3
, , ,
, .

(n , rot A) = lim

S 0
L M

( A, )dl
L


.
6.

,
, .
( A, )dl = (rot A, n )dS
L

7. (x, y, z).
i

rot A =
x
Ax

26

y
Ay

k
A
A Ay
A

A A
+ j x z + k y x .
= i z
z
z
x
y
z
x
y
Az

8.

,
.
rot E = 0

- .
,
. , .
.

9.

,
, ,
, .
, ,
.
.
A12 = W p1 W p 2
10.

.
A12 W p1 W p 2
=

= ( E , dl ).
q
q
q

. ,
. .
:

,

.
A
1 2 = 12
q

.
27

1 2 = ( E , dl )
A12 = q (1 2 );

1 1

r
1 r2

1 2 = kQ

.
: ()
, ,
.
:
. ,
.
: ,
, .
11.
: 1 ,

1 1
.
A12
;
q

1
=1
= 1 = 1.
[ ] =

1 2 =

12. .
1
r1

1 2 = kQ
2 r = 0;
2

q
r

=k .

28

1
;
r2

6
().
13.

, , .
N
q
= i = k i
ri
i =1
14. .

(r ) = k
V'

dq
r r '

15. .

.
16. .


, , u ( x, y, z ).
,
u(x,y,z)=const, .
, ,
, .
, .. , ,
. .
,
- .
,
, .. .
.
: ,
,
.
29

grad U =

U
dl .
l

,
.
17. .

U
U
U
i+
j+
k.
x
y
z
U
1 U
U
grad U =
e +
e +
ez .

z

U
1 U
1 U
grad U =
er +
e +
e .
r
r
r sin
grad U =

18. .

1 2 = Edl ; d = Edl ; d = grad , dl .


E = grad

,
.
. .
19.

,
( ) .
() . ,
, .
: , , .


.
30

20.
E = grad

1:

Ex = sign( x)

i;
x
d = Ex dx;
E=

;
0

x2

x
1 2 = sign( x)dx = sign( x) =
0

0
x
1

1 2 =

x2

;
x1

x2 x1 ) ; x =0 = 0; 1 =
x.
(
0
0

2:
.
const , x < 0

1 2 = E ( x2 x1 ), 0 < x < d
const , x > d

Ed , x < 0

= E (d x), 0 < x < d


0, x > d

3: .
Q
k , r R
Er = r 2
0, r < R
E=

;
er ; Er =
r
dr

d = Er dr ;
r

2
1 1
Q
dr
1
1 2 = k 2 dr = kQ 2 = kQ = kQ ; ( )
r
r
r r1
r1 r2
Q
2 r = 0; = k ;
2
r

= const ( ).

31

Q
k r , r > R,
=
k Q , r < R.
R
4: .
Q

EdS =
ES =

E 2 rh =

; E dS =

Q
;
l

E=

1
h

.
=
=
2 rh 0 2 r 0 2 0 r

32

1
=
k
2
, r > R,
2 r
r

0
=
1 r = 2k r , r < R.
2 0 R 2
R2

V r 2 h
E 2 rh =
=
;
0
0

E=
r;
2 o
Q = h = R 2 h;

; S = 2 rh;

E=

2 0 R 2

r;


dr
;
r
= 2k ln r + const ;

: d = 2k

r = R = 0;
0 = 2k ln R + const ;
const = 2k ln R;

= 2k ln r + 2k ln R = 2k ( ln R ln r ) = 2k ln
: d = 2k rdr ;
R2
2k
= 2 R 2 + const ;
R
2k
0 = 2 + const ; const = 2k ;
R

r2
2k
= 2k 2 r 2 = 2k 1 2 .
R
R

R
.
r

33

7

1.

,

. (, , )
,
. .
. ,
. .
. ,
. =1,7510-8 , 1018 1019
. ,
.
, .

2.


+
+

-
-

,
.
3.

- div E = / 0 ; = 0 ,
.
34

1 R2
1
= ; ~ .
2 R1
R

, ,
, , .
,
.

4.

- ,
.
Q.
En
dS
=
;

( )

(E n

2 2

+ E1n1 dS =

dS
;
0

( E n E n ) = ;
2

E2 n E1n =

.
0

,
.

35

E dL = 0;

( E , ) dl + ( E , ) dl = 0;
( E , ) ( E , ) = 0;
2

E2 E1 = 0.
..
. .
, , .
E1n = 0 E1 = 0

, E = n.
E2 = 0 E2 n =
0

, .
,
, ..
,
.
5.

( E dS ) =

Q = 0.

1:
, .
2: .
, ,
.
6.

:
-
,
,
,
.
36

7.
=

q
; E= ;
S
0

E3 = 130 .

8.

1 ;
2 ;
3 ;
4 ;
5 ;
6 - ;
7 ;
8 .
9. .

.

,
,

. , ,
. 1836


,
.

. ,
,
. ,
. .
: ,
,
.
37

8

1.

,
,

.

, ,
.
.
,
. .
2. .


,
,
.
P = qL

.
: ( )
.
n

P=

p
i =1

P = PV = PSl;
i =1

P = qL = Sl ;
i

P l ; P = ( . .) .
Pn = . ,

38


.
[P]=/2
,
.
3.

,
. ,
, .
,
:
div P = . .
4. .

div E =

1 .
= (
+ . ) ;
0 0

div 0 E = . div P;

div 0 E + P = . .
D = 0 E + P ().
D = / 2 .

,
. .
P = 0 E .
:

D = 0 E + 0 E = 0 (1 + ) E.
,

1+ =

D = 0 E .

5. .

div D = .

( D, dS ) = Q

39

:

.
6.

) E2 E1 = 0 (,
, ).
.
) D2 n D1n =
(
).

7.

tg 2 D2 D1n 0 2 E2 2
=

=
=
tg 1 D2 n D1 0 1 E1 1

- , ,
,
.
,
.

40

9
.
1.
:
.
q
C = ; r 0.

, .
(, ),
( ), .
.
2.
: 1 ,
, 1
1 .

= 1 = 1.
[C ] = 1

3.
: ,
.

,
. ,
. , .

Q
,
C=

Q ;
.
,
, ,
, . ,
,
C = C0 ,
41

C0 .
.
3. .

E=

; E = grad ;
0
d

Ex =

dx

d;
0
S 0
Q
S
1 S
C=
.
=
= 0 =
d 4 k d

d
= E d =

C = 0

, C ~ S ; C ~

S
1 S
=
d 4 k d

1
.
d

4.

Q
k r , r > R
=
k Q , r < R
R
+Q
Q
+k
= 0;
2 = 21 + 12 = k
R2
R2

1 = 11 + 12 = k

1 1
+Q
Q
+k
= kQ ;
R1
R2
R1 R2

RR
Q
Q
1
= =
= 4 0 1 2 .
1
R2 R1
1 1
k
R1 R2
RR
1
= 4 0 1 2
C=
R2 R1
1 1
k
R1 R2

C=

42

,
.
R2 ; C = 4 0 R =

R
;
k

[ 0 ] = [

]= .
4 R


R = 6370 6, 4 106 ;
C =

6, 4 106
0, 7 103 700 .
9
9 10

.
R2 = R1 + d ; d
C = 4 0

R1 ;

R1 ( R1 + d )
4 R12
S
0
= 0 .
d
d
d

5.
Er =

1
;
2 0 r

E = grad ;
d = Er dr ;

;
Er =

ln r + const ;
r =
2 0

R
ln 2 ;
2 0 R1
2 0
l
1 l
Q
;
=
=
C=
l=
R2
R2
R2

1 2
2
k
ln
ln
ln
2 0 R1
R1
R1

1 2 =

C=

2 0
1 l
l=
R
2k ln R2
ln 2
R1
R1


R2 = R1 + d ;

ln

R2
R +d
d d
= ln 1
= ln 1 + ;
R1
R1
R1 R1

C=

2 0 R1l
S
= 0 .
d
d

43

6.

Q = Qi

q-

U =

U = U i

i =1

i =1

n
1
1
=
C i =1 Ci

C = Ci
i =1

7.



, .
R, ,
R>>d. (, .8 . 38).
C=

44

0R 2
d

16R
+ 0 R ln
1
d

10
.
1.
Wp

r1

= 0;

1 1
A12 = kq1q2 ;
r1 r2
qq
A 2 = k 1 2 ; A12 = W p1 W p 2 = W p 2 ;
r2
Wp 2 = k

q1q2
.
r12

, ,
r12 . ,
. , .
q1 q2 q3.
, ,

Wp3 = k

q1q3
qq
+k 2 3.
r13
r23

,

qq
qq
qq
Wp = k 1 2 + k 1 3 + k 2 3 .
r12
r13
r23
, ,
. ,
. ,
- . ,
. ,
, .

, , .. ,
, . ,
. .
45

, , ,
,
.
, ,

1 N N qi q j
; i j
W p = k
N >1
2 j =1 i =1 rij
N q
1 N
1
W p = qi j = qii
2 j =1 j =1 rj 2

N >1

( *)

A12 = q (1 2 ) ;
A12 = Wp1 Wp 2 .
W p = q

2.

,
(*)
1
W p = dq
2
, dq = dV ,
1
Wp =
dV
2 V

(*), .. .
3.
Q
k r , r > R
=
k Q , r < R
R

46

= A ( r R ) ; A =

Q
=;
4 R 2

Q = dV = A ( r R ) 4 r 2 dr = A4 R 2 ;

1
Q
Q
Q2 k
2

=
r R ) rdr;
Wp =
r
R
k
r
dr
(
)
2 (
2 0 4 R 2
2
r
R
dV

Q2
Wp = k
R.
2R2

Q2
Wp = k
2R
4.

,
.

Wp =

1
1
1
q11 = ( Q11 + Q2 2 ) = Q (1 2 ) .

2
2
2

, .
.
1
W p = QU ; Q = CU .
2

Wp =

CU 2 Q 2
=
2
2C

5.

C =

R
,
k

:
47

Q2
Q2
.
Wp =
=k
2C
2R
6.

, :
,
.
, .. .
,
, .

1
1
S
1
1
1
2
W p = CU 2 = 0 ( Ed ) = 0 E E Sd = EDV = E , D V .
2
2
2 D
2
2
d
V

,

:

Wp =

( E, D ) dV

w=

( E, D )
2

w .
7.

Wp =

1
1
E , D dV = 0 E 2 dV =

2
2

0 k 2 4 2 dr
Q
2
4
k
r
dr
Q 2 =
=
=

2 R r 2
2 2
r
R

Q2 1
Q2
.
=k
= k
2 r R
2 R
Q2
Wp = k
2 R
8.

.

48

Q2
Wp = k
21 R

2 0 k 2 4 R 4
kQ 2 r 5
r dr =
=

2 22 R 6 0
2 2 R 6 5

kQ 2
.
=
10 2 R

,
Q2 1
1
Wp = k
+

R 21 10 2

,
1
1
+
< 0, 6
21 10 2

1 = 1; 2 ? 0,5 <

1
1
2
+

1; W p = mc ;
21 10 2
Q2
Q2
mc 2 = k
; R = k 2 2,8 1015 .
R
mc

49

11
. .
1.
: ()
.

,
. ,
, .
,
.
2.

:
.
: ,
, dS dt
.
dQ = ( j , n ) dSdt.

q ,
.
dQ = dN = qndV = qn ( dSn , dt ) = ( qn , n ) dSdt ,

n ;
n ;
j

.
j = qn

q > 0,

q < 0,

: .
dQ
I = ( j , n ) dS
.
I=
dt
S

50

,
t.
.
3.
: 1 ,
,

210-7 1 .

/2.
4.

Q ~ I2

,
.



.
.

5.

,
. , .

dQ = ( j , n ) dSdt.
dQ
+ ( j , n ) dS = 0
dt


. .
.
.
51


-
Q = dV ; ( j , n ) dS = divjdV

+ div j = 0
t
.

= 0 div j = 0 , ,
,
t
.
6.

, ,
, , ,
, ,
,
.
.
,

,
,
. .
7.


. , , .. .
j =E

.
.
,
.

.
,
, , ,
(
).
52

8. .

,
.
1
=

j = E;
I = ES ;
dl

jdSn = EndS ;
dl
I

= Edl ;

dl

= E , dl ; I

= E , dl .
S
S
I .
1
2.
2
dl
R12 =
S
1
I

U12 = E , dl
1

.
1
I=
U12 .
R12
9.

,
.

.

R12 =

l
S

C = 0

; R=

d
S

S
;
d

RC = 0 = const.

, .
.
53

S
[ ] = 1
l
,
1 ,
.

=R ;

1
;

.
=1
[ ] =

[ ] =

1,7210-8
1,610-8
2,610-8
2,010-6
310-5
0,6
10+9

10.

,
.

.
1 d
1
=
]=
[
dT
K
d = dT .
, =const.
0 = 0 T ;

= 0 (1 + (T T0 ) )

0 0.
,

R = R0 (1 + T ) .

54

0,0043
0,0040
(-0,005)
(-0,1)

()
.
, , ..
.
.
11.

, .
A = qU = IUt

q .
,
:
Q = A = IU t
( )
Q .
:
U2
2
Q = IU t = I Rdt =
dt
R
.
,
dt.
2 dl
Q = I 2 Rdt = ( jdS )
dt = jdSdldt.
dS
Q
= j 2 = E 2 = jE = ( jE )
dtdV
.

55

12
.
1. . .

j=

E.

, E .
.
. , ..
.
, , . ,
, , , --,
, () ..
, , , :
1 .
j=
E + E . .

, :
2

U12 = IR12 = E

dl + E .dl .

1 2

12

( )
(1) (2)
:
A.
1 2 = 12 ;
q

A12.
12 =
;
q

A12.
U12 =
.

q
. ,

, .. "-" "+".
2. (
)
IR . = 1 2 + 12

.
, - .
56


"-" "+",
.

3. .

I=

.
.

I=

r+R

4. .

RV (
.

RV

; UV = IRV = .
I=

R+r

RA ( ) .
IA =

U = IR =


r R;

U const

r=

I ( )

R
( ).
R+r

r
I

R;

const
57

5.

a = 2 r;

= E

F
ma
m
m 2 R 2
2 dr
dl = dl =
dl = r
=
.
e
e
e
dl
2e

6. .

I = Ii

i =1

U = U i

R = Ri

i =1
n

i =1

U
n
1
1
=
R i =1 Ri

= e

7. . .


,
.
- ,
. , ,
, .
:
,
.
:
.
Ii = 0
58

:
.
n

I R =
i =1

i =1

8. .

1.
.
2. N (N-1)
, , ,
.
3. M (M-1)
.
. ,
. "" "+", .
4. .
. , .
1.
5. .
6. , , ,
. ,
.

59

13

,
.
.
1. (1911)

.
(, ,
) .
Q = 3,5 .
I 0,1A.

0,03 .
m < 0, 03 .
,
, .
2. (1912 1913)


: ,
, .

,
. , .
,
.
3. (1915 1916).

60

F = ma ; qE = ma;
E=

m d
;
q dt

m d
m d
dl
L;
=

q dt
q dt
mL d

I = =
;
R
qR dt

= Edl =

mL
mL
Q = Idt =
d

0 ;
qR 0
qR
q L0
=
.
m RQ

,
.
1897 . . ,
:
q 1, 60 1019

=
1, 7 1011
.
31
m 9,110

, .
4.


.

, .
,

, .
,

.
, ..
.
.
.
= m0 n;

9 103
= ( Cu ) =
0, 08 1030 8 1028 3 .
n=
27
64 1, 7 10
m0
,
, , , (. ).

61

5.

,
-.
m2 3
3kT
3 1,38 1023 3 102
= kT ; =
=
= 1, 2 105 ( )
31
m
2
2
9,110

j
107
1

=
=
= 102 7 104 ; << .
19
28
n e 8 10 1, 6 10
14

.
, .. .
, ,

. ,

e
max e
=
E
;
=
=
E;

max
max = a ;
m
2
2m
F l E
a= =
;
m
m

e2 n
j=
E.
2m

j = e n ;

, .
2
mmax
me 2 2 2
e 2 2 n 2
W1 =
= 2 E ; = W1n =
E ;
2
m 2
2m
e 2 n 2 Q
Q e 2 n 2
=
E =
;
=
E .

2m
dVdt
dVdt 2m

.
e 2 n 1
=
=
2m

.
6.
,
.
3
3kT
q = qEl << kT ;
E=
.
2
2ql
3 1,38 1023 102 3
6

10
.
: E. =

2 1, 6 1019 108
62

,
.
3 1,38 1023 3 102
B
108
: E. =
19
10

2 1, 6 10 10
, ..
, , ,
.
,
.
t .
(, ..),
-
-. , ..
.
7.

= T .

, ..
().
,
.
8.

3
R .
2
3R, ,
4,5R. , 3R.
.
1
~ ~ ~ T ; ~ T.


, ..
.
,
-,
.
,
.
63

14

1.

, ..
- .

P
1011
1 10 3
11
=
=
10 ,
p = 10 . n =
kT 1,38 1023 3 102 4
.. .
, ,
, .. .
, - .
2.

, ,
.
,
.

, .. ,

, ,
, .
,
,
.
.
, .
, ,
.
: ,
,
Ek.

64


Pt
W
Na
Cs
Mo

,
5,3
4,3
2,3
1,81
4,3

3. .

.
,
1887 . 4
:
1. (), ().
2. (), .
3. (),
.
4. (), .
4.


.
1
1
= kQ
;
R R

1
Q
;
E=k 2 =
1
1 r2
r

R R

E ( r = R , R << R )

;
R

= 103 ; R = 1; E = 106 .

, .
.
, , , ,
.
.
65

5. ()

, .
6. ()

().

.
.
7. .

,
.

.

.
,

.

, .
(),
().

, ..
. , .

3/2
3

I = CU 2 .

66

A
kT

j = BT e
.
const=B
. ,
.
2

8.

9. ().
10. .


,
,
.
.
:
,
.

67

15

1.
:
.
,
, . ,
,
.
.
2.

, ,
, , .

. ,

. , , .. .
,
, , ..
, .
,
, ,
.

13,59
15,43
24,58
13,614
12,06

, ..
.
, .
.
,
. ,
, .
68

3. .

.

,
. , .

.
,
,
().

. ,

().

, , , ().

. ,
. (F).
, .
4.

,

.

.
69

5. .


.
1 ( ).
1 2 ( ).
2 3 ( ).
3 4 ( ).
4 5 ( )
5 6 ( ).
6 7 ( ).
7 ( ).
,

,
5.

,

.
.
6. .

7.

( ).
8.

, , T 4000 K .

70

16

1.



+
+

XX

("+"

)

, , .
, .
.
2.
:
,
, .

,
.
2 SO4 + 2 H 2O = 2 H 2 SO4 + O2

, H2SO4
.
,
.
-
.
3.

1833 .
: ,
, .
m = k Q = kI t
k .
71

k 107

0,1045
0,6293
3,24
11,18

:
.
:
.
1
k=
F z
F .
,
.
1
m=
Idt
F z
.
.
m = m0 N ; Q = q0 N ;

m m0
=
=k
Q q0

( 1 )

m0 1
;
=
q0 F z

1 1 NA
;
=
q0 F z

q0 N A
.
z
F .
F = 9, 6 104

F
q0 =
z; q0 ~ z.
NA
- .

, .

, 1881 .
, , .
F=

72

4.
,
.
, ..

,
. ,
,
.


.
.
, ,
. ,
.
( = 81 ) .
( = 4,5 ) .
.

,
n
= , 0 < <1
n0
*
n -
;
n0 .
5.

,
.
, .
F + F = 0;
d
m
= F + F ;
qE k = 0.
dt
q
= const ;
= E;
k
b

b .

73

2
b,107

+ 3,263
+ 0,609
1,802
0,667

H
K+
OH
Cl
6. .

: n n = n n = n (1 ) .
, ,
.

( n )

.
. ,
n (1 ) = A 2 n 2 ;

2
11
=
.
1 A n

n 0 ,
.
.
7.
N

j = qi nii = q+ n++ + q n ;
i =1

q+ = q ; n+ = n = n0 ;
j = q+ n0 (+ ) ;
j = q+ n0 ( b+ b ) E;

j = q+ n0 ( b+ + b ) E;

= q+ n0 (b+ + b );
j = E.
, ,
, , ..
.
8. .
().
74

17

1.

, ,
.
.
.
2. (1820)



.
3. (1823)

.
,
, .

.
F ~ I1 I 2 .
4.
, , ,
.
B
.
.
dl = dl ;

dF = I dl , B .
;
.

75

,
.
. ,
.
FA = I dlB ,

( )

.
.

( )

FA = IBl sin dl , B ;

dl , dF = I dl dl , B ;

( )

a bc = b ( ac ) c ab ;

{ ( ) (

dldF = I dl dlB = dl dlB B dldl

)} I ;

dF

= B B.
Idl

( )

dF
B = B +
Idl
1 ,
.
2 .
,
. ,
.

F
E= .
q

( )

5. .

[ F ] = 1 = 1 = 1.
B =
[ I ][l ]
1 ,
, ,
1 2, 1 .
[M ] = 1 .
B =
[ Pm ] 1 2
76


,
,

1 = 10

1 = 0, 0126

1 = 104
1 = 79,5775

B 0, 4 ( ); B 0, 7 ( ).
6.

,
.
:

.
n

B = Bi
i =1

7.

, ,
,
. , ..
.


( ).

.
.
, , ..
.
. ,
. , ,
.

77

8. --

,
.
I dlr
I dlr
dB = km 3
B = km 3
r
r
-- .


j , r r '
B = km
dV '
3
|
'
|
r
r

V'
,
q [ , r r ']
B = km
| r r ' |3

, +
.

:
E=k

q
( r r ');
| r r ' |3

r r '
E
;
=
| r r ' |3 kq
k
B = m E ,
k

78

c.

9.
dF2 ~ I1 I 2 ;
dF2 r12 , dl1 dl2 ;
dF2 r12 , dl1 dl2 ;

dF2 = I 2 dl2 dB1 ;


dB1 = km

dF2 = km

{ (

I1 dl1r12

I1 I 2
= km I1 I 2 dl1 dl2 r12 r12 dl1dl2

dl
dl
r
2
1
12

r123
r123

r122

)} = k

;
m

I1 I 2
dl1dl2 r12 .
r123

10. .

.

km =

0
7
, 0 , 0 = 4 10
4

7
, km = 10 .
km 0 4 0
1
=
= 0 0 = 2 ;
k . 4 1
c

B=

1
, E

c2

0 I dlr
B=
.
4 r 3
11.

, ,
.
B
H=
( H ).

1
H=
4

I dl , r
r3

-.

H = 1 .

,
. .

79

18
()
12.


.
B
F
= 0 ( = 0 ).
B
F
,
.
B = 0 H

.
B=

0 I dlr
4 r 3

H=

1
4

I dl , r
r3

13.

R,
I.
.
dl = dl ; [ , n ] = b ;
r = Rn;
1
H=
4

dlR [ n ]
R3

1
=
b
4 R 2

2 R

dl =

1 I
b;
2R

1 I
b
B=
2R
14.
l
I bdlr sin IR 1 dl
H=
b
=
=
4
r3
4 l2 r 3
H=

l1

IR
x
b
=
4 R 2 R 2 + x 2 1 2
(
)
=
80

2 R

b.

IR
dx
b
=
3
2
2
2
4
(R + x )

l1
l2

b
=

=
1
1
2
2
2
4 R R 2 + l 2 2
( R + l2 )
1 )
(
I

l2

0 I

1 I
b {sin 1 sin 2 } .
4 R

1 I
b ( sin 1 sin 2 ) .
4 R
l1 l2, 1 2 .
,
H=

l1 , 1

l1 > 0, 1 > 0;
l2 < 0, 2 < 0.

l2 , 2


1 I
H=
b.
2 R
, ()
, .
- .
15.
F = I 2 B1 L2 = I 2
F=

0 I1 I 2
L2 ;
2 R

0 I1
L2 ;
2 R

F = 2 107

I1 I 2
L2
R


.
16.

, .
.

.
.
2 r
1
b
I 1
Hdl = 2 I r dl = 2 r 0 dl = I .
.
.
.
:
, .
Hdl = I .
81

rot H = j .
:

Hdl

= + I1 I 2 + 2 I 3 + 0 I 4 .

,
. .
17.

Hdl = HL = H 2 r = I ;
H=

1 I
;
2 r

: H =

1
2
H =
1
2

j=

I
.
R2

1
jr
2

I
, rR
r
I
r, r R
R2

18.

.. ,
,
.

, ..
. ,
,
.
IN
Hdl
=
Hl
=
IN
;
H
=
= In.

82

19.

,
, , ..
, .
,
.

.
:
.

=0

BdS = 0 .
div B = 0 .

20.

A = dFdx = IdlBdx = IBdS = Id .


A12 = I = I ( 2 1 )

.

.

83

19
.
1.

dFA = I dlB = jdS dlB = qn dS dlB = q n dSdl B .


dV

, N
. ,
F = q B .

.
,
,

F = q E + B

2.
d
d q
E + B .
= F;
=
dt
dt m
, .. E B
. ,
.
,
.
E = 0; B ( 0, 0, Bz ) , Bz = const ;
m

i
j
d q
q
= B = x y
dt m m
0 0

z
Bz

d x q
x
dt = m Bz x

d y = q B
z x
y
dt
m
d z
= 0; z = const = n .
dz
84

, .
d
d
x x + y y = 0;
dt
dt
2
2
d x + y

= 0;
dt 2
x2 + y2 = const = 2 .
, . ,
. ,
, , .
, ..
, .
. ,
, .. ,
, .
d y
d 2 x q
q 2 Bz2
= Bz
= 2 x ;
dt 2
m
dt
m
qB
x + H2 x = 0; H = z ; x + H2 x = 0.
m

x = A cos (H t + 0 ) ;
dx
A
= x ; x =
sin (H t + 0 ) .
H
dt


A
y=
cos (H t + 0 ) .

, XOY

qB
H = z ,
m
.
T = 2 R.
2 2 m
T=
=
H qBz
,
.. .

85


R=

T 2 m m
=
=
2 2 qBz
qBz

.
,


h = T

= cos ;

= sin ;

3. -.

,
.
q

=
.
m Bz R
.
4.
.
eE = e B; j = e n ;

U
j
1
=
B; R =
.
d en
en
U=

1
jdB
en

R .
,
.
.
- .
5. .


. .

.
86

20

, .
, .
1.

, ,
. ,
, ,
.

2.

, ..
.
: ,
, .
3.

A I
q
= ; I = ; | |=
.
t
t
q q


. ,
:
A12 = I .

87

d
dt
:
, ,
.

4.

S Bldx
=B
=
= Bl .
t
t
t
= Bl sin , B

FA .

.
qE = q B ;

E = B;

= Edl = Bl.
5.

1
q = Idt = dt = d = 0
;
R
R
R

BS
R
= 0; q = 0 =
; B = q.
R
R
S

q=

.
R

6.
: 1 , ,
1
1 .
88

7. .
1833 1835 .
.
, , ,
.
. ~ d ~ dB ~ dI ;
dI
L,
dt
L .

. =

d
( LI )
dt

,

. =

8.
: 1 ,
, 1
, 1 .
9.

IN
; B = 0 N ;
l
IN
SN ;
= BSN = 0
l
= LI ;

N2
L = 0
S.
l
.
.

89

[ 0 ] =

Ll
.
=
S

10.

, , ,
.
, .
,
.
dI
A = Idt = L Idt = LIdI .
dt
LI 2
A=
2
, I.
11.

,
.
LI 2
N 2S 2 1
IN IN
1
W=
I = 0
Sl = BHV .
= 0
2
l
2
l l V 2

Wm =
w =

( H , B ) dV ;

( H , B)
2

-

W =

90

( ED ) dV ;
2

ED
w =
.
2

21

1.


. ,
.
2.
().

,
, .. .
, .

,
.
() (E) . ..
,
, .. const. .

91

3.

IR = U c + . ;
qc LdI

;
C
dt
dq
dq
I=
= c;
dt
dt
dqc q
d 2 qi
R
= +L 2 ;
dt
t
dt
IR =

R
=;
2L

1
= 02 .
LC

d 2 qc R dqc
1
+
+
qc = 0
dt 2
L dt LC

qc + 2 qc + 02 qc = 0


.
4.

R = 0; = 0; q + 02 q = 0;

q = A cos (0t + 0 ) ;

dqc
= A0 sin (0t + 0 ) ;
dt
qc t =0 = q0 ; q0 = A cos 0 ,
q0 = A

0 = 0
I t =0 = 0;
0 = A sin 0 ;
q = q0 cos 0t
I =

I = q00 sin 0t
Uc =

qc q0
= cos 0t
C C

T = 2 LC

, I U
2 .

,

qc2
q02
=
cos 2 0t ;
W =
2C 2C
LI 2 q0 L02 sin 2 0t
=
;
W =
2
2
q02
W + W =
= const
2C
92

5.

.. ,
. , ,
.
5.1 .

0 > ; = 02 2 ;
q = Ae t cos ( t + 0 ) .

.
, .
A (t )
2
e T
= ln (t +T ) = ln e T = T ; T =
= ln
;

A (t + T )
e

. ,
(Q ).
2
2
1 02

1 0
Q= =
=
=
=
1;
2 2
T 2 2

Q=

1
L
4 2 1
2
CR

93

5.2 .
L
0 = ; R = 2 ; Q = 0;
C
q = Ae t ( t + B ) .

0 <

5.3 ( ).

= 2 02 ;
q = Ae

( + ) t

+ Be

( ) t


, .. ,

, , .
6. ( )
7.

, ,
, ..
, .
.

.
8. (. )

94

22

1.


. ,
.

d
;
dt
= BS cos ;

= t + 0 ;
d
cos (t + 0 ) = BS sin (t + 0 ) ;
dt
= NBS sin (t + 0 ) .

= BS
0

,
, NBS.
,
, , sin
cos, ..
.
2.

I = I 0 sin t ;
U = IR = I 0 R sin t ;
U 0 = I 0 R.

. .

. :
.

P = I 2 R = I 02 R sin 2 t.

, .
95

T
T

1
< P >= Pdt = I 02 R
T 0

sin

tdt

T
1

; < P >=

1 2
1
I 0 R = I 0U 0 = I .U . ,
2
2

I0
U
; U . = 0 .
2
2
, 0,7
().

I . =

.
, ,
.

, ,
.
3.

IR = U L
0

dI
;
dt

dI
= LI 0 cos t ;
dt
U 0 = I 0 L ;
U =L

xL = L

xL

xL .
, ..
2 . ,

.

I0 =

96

U0
xL

U = U 0 sin t +

).

z .

z = R + ixL ;
I0 =

U0
;
z

z = R 2 + xL2 ;
tg =

xL
;
R

P = IU = I 0 sin t ( I 0 R sin t + I 0 xL cos t ) =


= I 02 R sin 2 t + I 02 xL

sin 2t
2

I 02 R
< P >=
+ 0.
2
,
.
4.

q = Idt = I 0

cos t ;

1
q
cos t ;
= I0
C
C
1
1
; xc =
U 0 = I0
C
C
xc .
U=

I0 =

U0

; U = U 0 sin t .
2
xc

97

z = R ixc ; tg =
z = R 2 + xc2 ;

xc
1
=
;
R
RC
U
I0 = 0 .
z

.
5.

1
;
C
z = R + i ( xL xc ) ;
xL = L ;

xc =

tg =

xL xc
;
R

z = R 2 + ( xL xc ) ;
2

I0 =

U0
; U = U 0 sin (t + ) ;
z
P = IU = I 0 sin t U 0 sin (t + ) =
= I 0U 0 sin t ( sin t cos + cos t sin ) =
= I 0U 0 sin 2 t cos + I 0U 0
< P >=

sin 2t sin
;
2

I 0U 0
cos + 0.
2

cos .
, . ,
. cos
.
6.
xc = xL ,

1
= L .
C
1
; z = R;
LC
U 0 = I 0 R; tg = 0, = 0;

U L = U c = I 0 L ;
L R;
U L = Uc U .
,
.
98

7.

8.

d
d
U1 I1r1 = N1
;
dt
dt
d
d
U 2 I 2 r2 = N 2
;
I 2 r2 = U 2 N 2
dt
dt
U1 I1r1 N1
=
=k
U 2 I 2 r2 N 2
.
U1
I
k; k = 2 .
U2
I1
I1r1 = U1 N1

99

23

1.

,
. ,
- , .. , ..
, .
j = E ,
,
,
, ..

. ,
.
, .

.

Edl

d
; = E dl .
dt

.
t


, ..

,
, .
, ,

.

t
.
rot E =

100

2. ( )

,
..

,
,

3. -

, ,
. -.

d=

; d

4.

, .
,
, ,

.

101

d
dD
dq d
= S = S
=S n;
dt dt
dt
dt
I dDn
D2 n D1n = ; j = =
.
S
dt
D
j=
.
t
, , .
.
I =

5.

Hdl

= I = I + I ;

I = jdS =

DdS .
t
2 n

Hdl = I +
rot H = j +


.
t

D
.
t

6.

:
,

102

24

1.

( )
1873 .
. .

.
E - , B
. , ..
, (F) .
D -
H - . j - .

( ),
().
.
2.
I .

Hdl = I + t ;

I = jdS ; = DdS .
:

, .
II .

Edl
;
=

)
= ( B, dS ).



, ,
.
103

III : .
D, dS = Q;

Q = dV .
:

.

IV : .
B, dS = 0.

:
.
3.

-
D
rot H = j +
.
I .
t
B
rot E = .
II .
t
div D = .
III .
div B = 0.

IV

4.

16
. 8.
, .
Di = 0 ij E E j ;

( )

( )

B j = 0 ij H H j ;
j

i, j = x, y, z.

( )

ji = ij E E j ;
j

, ,
.
104

25

1.

.
D
1. rot H =
3. div D = 0
t
B
2. rot E =
4. div B = 0
t
: D = 0 E; B = 0 H .
.
D
rot rot H = rot
;
0 div H = 0;
t

grad div H H = rot D;


t
B

H = rot 0 E = 0
;
t
t

H = 0 0

2 H
;
t 2

2
=

0 0

c2

1 2H
H 2
=0
t 2
, , , ..
.
H = H 0 sin t kr + 0 ;

=
k=

k ;
.

105

2.

3.

E H .

4.
ED
HB
ED + HB
; w =
;
w =
w =
2
2
2

W = w dV .

5.
D2
B2
W =
+
dV ;
2 0 20

D D
B B
W
=
+
dV ;
t

t
t
0
0

W
= Erot H Hrot E dV ;
t
W
W
= div HE dV ;
= div EH dV ;
t
t

W
= P, dS .
t

,
.
P = E , H -

106

,
.
-,
.
, .
-, , ,
,
, , .

,
. ,
,

.
,
, ,
. , ,
, .
, , ,

.
, .

107

1. , . . / . . . .: .
., 1983. 463 .
2. , . . . . 3. /
. . . .: H, 1983. 688 .
3. , . . . . 2. /
. . . .: H, 1982. 496 .
4. p, . . p . . 2. /
. . , . . . .: p, 1990. 319 .
5. . ., . ., . .,
: . . 1. / . . , . . ,
. . . : - . . . - . . . , 2001. 124 .

1. , . . / . . . .: . .,
1990. 512 .
2. . , . / . //
. . 2. .: , 1983. 416 .
3. , . / . , . ,
. // . .: , 1977. 300 .
4. , . . / . . , . . . .: .
., 1999. 718 .
5. , . : 2 . / . . .: , 1989. . 1 653 .;
. 2 667 .
6. , . : 2 . / . . .: , 1981. . 1 336 .;
. 2 337 .; . 2 622 .
7. , . . / . . . .: , 1985.
576 .
8. p, . . / . . . .:
. ., 1991. 288 .
9. , . . / . . . .: ,
1989. 504 .
10. p, . . / . . . .: . .,
1974. 552 .
11. , . . / . . . .: . .. -, 1933. 782 .
12. , . . / . . . . .-. -
. 1943. 511 .

108


1. , . . / . . , . . , . . , . . , . . ;
. . . . .: , 1972. 640 .
2. , . . . .
. p / . . , . . . .:
, 1989. 235 .
3. . / . . . . .: . ., 1991. 151 .
4. .
/ . . . , . . . :
- . . . - . . . , 2006. 22 .

1. . .: . ., 19881997.
2. . .: . ., 1983. 928 .
3. , . . / . . , . . .
.: , 1990. 624 .
4. , . . : . . / . . . .: ,
1983. 400 .
5. , . . / . . . .: , 1988. 432 .
6. , . . / . . . .: ,
1990.
7. , . . / . . . .:
, 1990. 384 .

1. / . . . . . 2:
. .: , 1985. 480 .
2. . .: , 1984. 352 .
3. , . . / . . . .:
, 1982. 448 .
4. , . . / . . . .: . ., 1984. 271 .
5. , . . / . . . .: ,
1991. 496 .
6. p, . / . . . 3:
. .: , 1973. 664 .
7. , . . / . . , . . . .:
, 1983. 414 .
8. , . . / . . . .: .
., 1984. 271 .
109

9. , . . / . . . .:
p, 1991. 159 .
10. Maxwell, J. C. Treatise an Electricity and Magnetism. Oxford University, press
1891, v. 1, ch. VII.

1. , . . /
. . . .: , 1990. 400 .
2. , . . / . . . .:
, 1978. 208 .
3. / . . . . .:
, 1989. 271 .
4. , . . / . . . .: , 1988. 288 .
5. , . . / . . . .: , 1988.
416 .
6. , . . / . . . .:
, 1967. 287 .
7. , . . / . . .
.: . ., 1991. 303 .
8. , . .
/ . . , . . , . . , . . . .,
, 1990. 400 .
9. : / . . . ,
. . . : - . . . - . . . , 2004.
64 .

110


,
,


- .
12.11.2007. 6090/16.
. .
. . . 6,7. 100 . 07/140. 908.

. . . . 300026, , . , 125.

. . . . 300026, , . , 125.
111

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