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Mathematica.
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: .
17 2013 .


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. : , , , -

" "

, , , . , -, .
1

, y = f (x) 0, Ox, x = a
x = b (. 1).
y
...

y=

...

f (x
)

a c1

x 1 c2

x 2 c3

x3

c4 x 4

xn1 cn

x
b

. 1. .

, [a, b] ( ) x1 , . . . , xn1 x0 = a, xn = b.
[xi1 , xi ] ci y = f (x).
,
[xi1 , xi ] Ox.
, . 1. ,
[xi1 , xi ], f (ci ) xi , xi = xi xi1 , :
Sn =

n
X

f (ci ) xi .

(1)

i=1

. , n max1in xi , .
. 1 .

" "

n , maxi xi . ,
n
X
lim
f (ci ) xi
n
maxi xi 0 i=1

(2)

, [a, b]
ci , . (1) (2) ,
.
2

y = f (x) ( ) , [a, b]. (1), , .


(2), , ,
Z

f (x) dx =

lim

n
X

n
maxi xi 0 i=1

f (ci ) xi .

(3)

a , b . , , ,
.
, :
Z b
S=
f (x) dx, f (x) 0.
a

(3) , x
ci . , , ,
. :
Z b
Z b
Z b
Z b
f (x) dx =
f (t) dt =
f (s) ds =
f (u) du = . . . .
a

, [a, b] , . . a < b.
, ,
Z a
Z b
Z a
4
4
f (x) dx = 0,
f (x) dx =
f (x) dx, a > b.
a

" "

[a, b], , f (x) .


1. ,
.
2.
, .
3. , .
I .
,
,
. , .
1.
Z

ex dx.

. , [a, b].
: x0 = a, x1 = a + h, x2 = a + 2h, . . .,
xn = b = a + nh. [xi1 , xi ] ci
xi . :
Sn =

n
X

ci

e h=h

i=1

n
X

a+ih

= he

i=1

n
X

eih .

i=1

, eh ,
. ,
a

Sn = he
= eh
,

n
X

a
a+nh
1 enh
he e
=
he
=
h
h
1

e
1

e
i=1
 h

h
ea eb
= ea eb h
eb ea .
h
1e
e 1 h0

ehi = hea eh

ex dx = eb ea .

" "

1. (
f (x) [a, b]):
Z b
Z b
Af (x) dx = A
f (x) dx, A const .
a

2. f (x) g (x) [a, b],


:
Z b
Z b
Z b
[f (x) + g (x)] dx =
f (x) dx +
g (x) dx.
a

3. f (x) [a, c] [c, b]. f (x) [a, b]


Z b
Z c
Z b
f (x) dx =
f (x) dx +
f (x) dx.
a

4. f (x) [, ] a, b, c [, ].

Z
Z
Z
b

f (x) dx =

f (x) dx +

f (x) dx.

5. f (x) g (x) [a, b]


f (x) g (x),
Z b
Z b
f (x) dx
g (x) dx.
a

6. f (x) [a, b] m f (x) M ,


Z b
m (b a)
f (x) dx M (b a) .
a

. 2, ).

2. ex
2

[0; 1].
2

. ex [0; 1],
2
e1 ex e0 = 1.
6 , ,
1

0,37 e

ex dx 1.

" "
y
M

6
y

)
R

S
f (c)

Q
m

)
A

Q
T

Rb
. 2. ) SaP T b = m(b a) SaQT b = a f (x) dx SaRSb = M (b a),
Rb
) SaRT b = SaABb a f (x) dx = f (c)(b a).

7. . f (x) [a, b] m f (x) M ,


[m, M ],
Z b
f (x) dx = (b a) .
(4)
a

a = b, (4), , . b < a,
. , (4) a b.
f (x) [a, b]
Z b
1
f (x) dx.
=
ba a

8. . f (x) [a, b], c ,


Z b
f (x) dx = f (c) (b a) .
a

: f (c) [a, b] f (x) , , ,


f (c) [a, b] (. 2, )).
9. a b,

Z b
Z b


f (x) dx
|f (x)| dx.


a

" "

a < b,

Z b
Z b



f (x) dx |f (x)| dx .



a

. 1) .


Z x
(x) =
f (t) dt.
a

f (x) [a, b] x [a, b],


x (x) ,
.
y

Rx

(x)

SaABb = (x) = f (t) dt


a

y=

f(
x)

. 3. .

4 (-). f (x) [a, b], :


Z x
0
0
(x) =
f (t) dt = f (x) .
a

" "

. x, x + x [a, b].
Z x+x
Z x
(x) = (x + x) (x) =
f (t) dt
f (t) dt =
Z a
Z x+x a
Z x+x a
=
f (t) dt +
f (t) dt =
f (t) dt.
x

8 , ,

(x) = f (c) x, c x, x + x.
,
f (c) x
(x)
= lim
= lim f (c) = f (x) ,
x0
x0
x0
x
x
c x x 0.
0 (x) = lim

1. f (x) [a, b], (x)


f (x).
2. [a, b]
.
Rx 2
2
, ex 0 et dt, , 2
, ex
Z
Z x
2
x2
e dx =
et dx + C.
0

, :
Z
Z x
f (x) dx =
f (t) dt + C.
0

3. (x) , .
5 -

, , .

" "

5. F (x) [a, b]
f (x), -:
Z

b
f (x) dx = F (b) F (a) = F (x) a .

. F (x) f (x), (x) =


= F (x) + C, , -,
Z x
f (x) dx = F (x) + C.
(5)
a

x = a , 0 = F (a) + C, C = F (a).
C (5) x = b
Z b
f (x) dx = F (b) F (a) .
a

,

R b x
x b
1 -: a e = e |a = eb ea .
3. , ,
[0; ] Ox.
. , -,
:
Z

sin x dx = cos x 0 = cos + cos 0 = 1 + 1 = 2.
0

,
, , .
4.
Z

(x) dx,

(x) =

4, x < 0;
1, x 0.

" "

10

. (x) [1; 2], [1; 0) [0; 2].


3 :
Z 2
Z 0
Z 2
2
0
(1) dx = 4x 1 x 0 = 4 2 = 2.
4 dx +
(x) dx =
1

, 2) ,
-.
6

(t) 0 (t) [, ], f (x)


[a, b] = ([, ]), , () = a, () = b.

Z

f (x) dx =

f ( (t)) 0 (t) dt.

R
, F (x) f (x). f (x) dx =
= F (x) + C. x = (t).
, dx = 0 (t) dt,
Z
f ( (t)) 0 (t) dt = F ( (t)) + C.
(6)
-
Z b
f (x) dx = F (b) F (a) .
a

, - (6)
Z
f ( (t)) 0 (t) dt = F ( ()) F ( ()) = F (b) F (a) .


.
5.
Z

1/2

arcsin x

dx.
1 x2

" "

11

. t = arcsin x, dt =
Z

1/2

arcsin x

dx =
1 x2

dx :
1x2

/6

/6
2
t2
t dt = = .
2 0
72

6. E , R1
R2 , b ,
Z R2
l
E=k
dl, k const .
2
2 3/2
R1 (l + b )
. , x = l2 + b2 , dx = 2l dl:
!
R2 +b2
Z 2 2
1
1
k R2 +b dx
k 2
=k p 2

.
E=
=
2 R12 +b2 x3/2
x R2 +b2
R2 + b2
R 1 + b2
1

u (x) v (x)
[a, b].
Z b
Z b
b
u dv = uv a
v du.
a

:
d (uv) = u dv + v du,

a b.
7.

ln x dx.

1/e

. :


Z e
dx
ln x dx = u = ln x, dv = dx, du =
,v=x =
x
1/e
Z e
e
e
1
1
1
2

= x ln x 1/e
dx = e + x 1/e = e + e + = .
e
e
e
e
1/e

3) Mathematica.

" "

12

1)

, , f (x) 1,
Z b
dx = b a.

(1)

, n
Sn =

n
X

xi = b xn1 + xn1 xn2 + . . . + x1 a = b a.

i=1

n , , b a.
1. ( f (x)
[a, b]):
Z b
Z b
f (x) dx, A const .
Af (x) dx = A
a

, :
n
X

Af (ci ) xi = A

i=1

n
X

f (ci ) xi .

i=1

2. f (x) g (x) [a, b],


:
Z b
Z b
Z b
g (x) dx.
f (x) dx +
[f (x) + g (x)] dx =
a


:
n
n
n
X
X
X
[f (ci ) + g (ci )] xi =
f (ci ) xi +
g (ci ) xi .
i=1

i=1

i=1

3. f (x) [a, c] [c, b]. f (x)


[a, b]
Z b
Z b
Z c
f (x) dx =
f (x) dx +
f (x) dx.
a

c ,
xm = c. :
n
X

f (ci ) xi =

i=1

m
X

f (ci ) xi +

i=1

n
X

f (ci ) xi .

i=m+1

n maxi xi 0, .
4. f (x) [, ] a, b, c [, ].
Z b
Z c
Z b
f (x) dx =
f (x) dx +
f (x) dx.
a

" "

13

a = b, a = c, b = c, . a < c < b
3 . , , c < b < a.

Z a
Z b
Z a
Z b
Z b
f (x) dx =
f (x) dx +
f (x) dx =
f (x) dx
f (x) dx,
c

. a, b
c [, ] .
5. f (x) g (x) [a, b]
f (x) g (x),
Z b
Z b
g (x) dx.
f (x) dx
a

a < b, xi > 0, , , f (x) g (x),


:
n
n
X
X
f (ci ) xi
g (ci ) xi ,
i=1

i=1

6. f (x) [a, b] m f (x) M ,


Z b
f (x) dx M (b a) .
(2)
m (b a)
a

5
Z b
Z b
Z b
m dx
f (x) dx
M dx,
a

(1) 1
.
7. . f (x) [a, b]
m f (x) M , [m, M ],
Z b
f (x) dx = (b a) .
a

,
1
=
ba

f (x) dx.

(3)

, (4) , , [m, M ].
, , m f (x) M , 6
(2). b a, .
8. . f (x) [a, b],
c ,
Z b
f (x) dx = f (c) (b a) .
a

" "

14

m = min[a,b] f (x), M = max[a,b] f (x). f (x)


[a, b], a b, ,
(3). , c [a, b], f (c) = ,
Z b
1
f (c) =
f (x) dx,
ba a
.
9. a b,

Z b
Z b



f (x) dx
|f (x)| dx.

a

(4)

a < b,

Z b
Z b



.



|f
(x)|
dx
f
(x)
dx

(5)

a = b, .

|f (x)| f (x) |f (x)| .


5 a < b ,
Z b
Z b
Z b

|f (x)| dx
f (x) dx
|f (x)| dx,
a

(4).
a > b. , ,
Z a
Z b

Z b
Z a
Z a







|f (x)| dx =
|f (x)| dx =
|f (x)| dx .
f (x) dx =
f (x) dx

a

(5) .
2)

f (x), [a, b], [a, b] F (x), , ,


F 0 (x) = f (x) .
1. [a, b] f (x)
, , ,
,
Z x
F (x) =
f (t) dt + C,
a

-.
1. (x) 4.
. F 0 (x) = (x), F (x)
(x), x = 0, (x) . x < 0 x 0. x < 0

Z x
Z x
x
(t) dt =
4 dt = 4t 1 = 4x + 4.
F (x) =
1

" "

15

x 0
F (x) =

(t) dt =

4 dt +


F (x) =

x
0
(1) dt = 4t 1 t 0 = 4 x.

4x + 4, x < 0;
4 x, x 0;

. . 4.
(x):
Z 2


(x) dx = F (2) F (1) = (4 x) x=2 (4x + 4) x=1 = 2 0 = 2.
1

(x)
4

O
1

F (x)

. 4. (x) F (x).
3)

Mathematica

Integrate[f,{x,xmin ,xmax }]
f , x , xmin ,xmax
.
R1
, 1 x2 dx :

Integrate[x2 ,{x,1,1}]
2
3
, , :
Z 1
x2 dx
1

2
3
:
Z b
ex dx
a

eb ea

Mathematica , I
:

" "

16

x2
x<0
f[x_]:=
2
1x x0
Z 1
f(x) dx
1

, :
Z 1/2
ArcSin[x]

dx
1 x2
0
2
72
Z e

1/e

Log[x] dx

2
e
Mathematica, , :
Z 1
2
ex dx
0

1
Erf[1]
2
Rx 2
Mathematica erf (x) = 2 0 et dt,
. ,
:

%//N
0.746824
2

ex , , ,
,
:
Z x
2
[x_] :=
et dt
0

, :
x [x]
2
ex
:

N[[1]
0.746824
:

Plot[Evaluate[[x]],{x,0,2}]

" "

17

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

, NIntegrate, ,
Integrate, , :
h ArcSin[x]
i

NIntegrate
, {x, 0, 1/2}
1 x2
0.137078
2. ,
R t, I(t) = sin tet .
, ,
Z t
I 2 ( )R d.
Q=
0

. Mathematica :
Z t
(Sin[ ]e )2 R d
0


1 
2t
R 1 + e (2 + Cos[2t] Sin[2t])
8
Mathematica,
.

[1] .., .. . . .: , 1984, . 222-249.


[2] .. . .: , 2000.
. 1. . 221233.