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- -

-~

~c2:!. 1 ( l~J
(! -StfJ

2008

.....

..

- -

..


3- ,

Qiii-r-

2008

- -

621.184.64 (075)
31.1 7

904

..: .- 3- -, . .

/ . ., 2008.- 120 .: . 74.- ISBN 5-230-14398-3

,
, , , ,

.,

, , , ,

140100

140105

, ,

-
,

. ,
, .

: . , - .,

: .. , .. , ..

.. ;

, ', , .. , .., .. ,

..,

. , .. , .., .. , ..

, .. .

-.

blX .

I '

ISBN 5-230-14398-3

31.31

.., 2008
-

,2008

- -

5
4

gradt

1.

Q=

,
.

- dF -

; , ,

z-

't -

, (1.1),
, .

, , dt/d't

(1.1)

(1.2)

= f (x,y,z); t

JJq dF dr, [].

dF ( .

< , -

dQr= q.dF f .. .

(1.7)

(1.7) ,

= ,

(.

hr = .

(1.6)

OF

Q,

QT =

(1.1)

(1.5)

, :

t=f(x,y,z,'t),
t-

[],

Jq.dF,
F

1.2).

(1.2)

, ,

- ,

. ,

/ = tl =
t = f(x) , . t /
/z
'

tl = .

(1.3)

lr

1.2.

.:

1.7

) :

, .

) ,

) , ,

, .

, .

, [/(

2.)]

gradt =

no -

: '

0.4)

4"

1.1).

~~__t:..-~1t
1

, . 1.1.
,

q = (t-te),
(1.8)
- ; t t c -


(.


-:

Q,

[/] [].

, : q = Q/F, [/2] .
q .


.
:

k, [/(

2.)]

q=k(t2-t)
,
(1.9)
- ; t2 -tt= dt -

, ,
.

- -

2.

.
.

.
.

[! (.)].

, , .

2.1.2.

, .

q=-grdt=-).,.

w " -

= 0,006 - 0,6

at
n,

(2.1)

= ( 4l3) /

fJ -

,I/J,

(2.5)

, .
,

- . .
0,7. [5].

2.1.3.

, ,

Jl = const,
=0,07 -

, ,

. , [!(.)]

, ,

"_" (2.1)
Topagrad t.

. .

, 1

2.1.

=l
[!(,)] .
!grad tl '

(2.2)

(2.2)

grad t = 1.

.
. ,
:

= [1 + (! - tcJJ,
(2.3)
- (,' - .

2.1.1.

- 142.
1 [6].

2.1.4.

- 396,


. ,

, .
.

- 1; - 0,35; ' - 0,6.


, . < 0,25,

= 0,023 - 2,9.
.

2.2.

,
1

, ,

w-

w1" / 3 ,

(2.4)

cv -

const;

1-

- .

, 1- .
pl - const. . -



(.

dv

2.1):
- ;
;

dT
dy .

- -

- ,

q
dQJ =_(a x +

, ;

: qv =

(; ;

) -

z;

Q,.i/

dQ2

, - J

dQg+Ii;z

2.1.

dQJ+dQ2 = dU + dL = dQ ,
dQJ- [] - ,

~Q,

; dU - dL - ,

dU = -dr dv = cvp-d' dv
'

, [I( )]; -
[/'].

di, dv,

dr.

d't dQ, = , . dy. dz dT, -


dydz - .

, dQx+dx; dQy+dy; dQz+dz'


:

dQr+<b. = q,+d> . - dz . dT.

d' -

(2.7) -
.
,

, .
.
&
&

, dl=Cp-dr.dV=-drdv=-d'dv,

- , [l,]; -
, [/.].

dQJ, dQ2 di

dT ,

ai (a q

qy qz) +qv

=- ;+--;+;

dQx, = dQ, - dQr+d> = q,dy. - dr - qr+d>dy - dr = (q, - q/ ';iy, dz -.

qx+

dx :

2qx

_
aqx dx a
2
QHdx -qx+a;
+ 2 2!+ .....

(2.8)

=(Qx

-qx -

:; dx)dydzdT.

Z.

dQJ,
, :

(2.6).
d' -

(2.8)

=- lVq+qv'

-.

-lgradt,

Cv =

(2.7)

t = - I- d'/vq+-=q,.
1 d'lV(,'grd)
1 +qv
-

, :

(2.7)

=- lVq +q,

dT ; y:'z dQx; dQy; dQz.

dz

(2.6):

, P~dT'dv={qx
+ aqy + aq')dx.dy.dz.dr+ q dv.dT

z
'

. dQ dU

, dy

= dU

- [/( 3 , ]; -

- dL =

, .

, dT dv

qv.dv dT.

(2.6)

, : dQ

(2.6)

dT; dQ2 -

/.~,

)-

dT -

[/ ] .
(2.6) :

. -

dQ,

qy + qZ)dx dydz.

'

(2.9) - .
:

'

~=_1[~(A
aIJ+~(A~I+~(A
tJ]+~.

)
z
-

const ,

(2.9)

(2.9)

- -

10

~=~[~+~+ a2t)+~

' 2

Z2

!!

(2.10)

= ~ ,[ 2/] - .
-

2,

2,

__ :;- + - ,
:
(),-

+.=
az
2

~=a.V2t

)
, :

q.=O,

tI~1 = AzI~1 2 .

(2.12)

);

q=-(;~). =a(t~ -).

(2.11)

Z,

'. ()"J:I<:II (2.10):


,

f(x, ,

) -

V 2t - .

!
2
,
-='V
,+~

( = f(x, , Z, );
) -

2 !


.
, , . ,

n]

2.3.1.

(2.11) :

V 2t + q. =

- .

2.3.1.i.

(2.13)

~ .,, (. 2.2),
. ' ( / ( 2 ,
t
,1,.

q. =

(2.11) :

t "; - .

2.3.

(2.14)

,-,2

(+--


t.

dq = -

(2.15)
(2.16)

(2.15) (2.16)

(
I

= ---+ t = ( !

dt -

, .,

- - ,
,
;

~peMeHHe ()

---+ t = ( 2

dt = / * ,

- ]

+ 2

(() = /*

:
;

(2.17):

. ,

(2.17)

te,

d 2t
-=
0
2

:
-=

2.2

(2.18) -

(2.18) , = const

] 2 .

= ---+

= ( /

= ---+
_ ( 2

(2

-t
1 - - -cl

= / + ( /

(2.19)

- -

13
]2

, (2.18),
( \

- ( 2

(2.20)

() :(\ ----

,
()

Bt

" :

(2.21)
(2.2 j) ..::!-:, ,
, '!,

(6)

- -

.
.

(2.21)

_ ():

:
i=(cl-

q(t/] + ]/]+/)=t t4 '

tc2

(2.20)

q=-

(2.22)
I

(2.22)

Q"

Q, :q.F . =-(tl-t2 )F ..

(2.23)

. 2.3 . -

If

n ,

__t-'...I_-...,:t4! . -_

0\ 02 8
-+-+-

(2.24)

~~

: '.
1=1

,
.

t.

,
n

. -

~8i' -

0;;,
, . 2.3.
. (2.22):

. ~ .

, , -

- -

]5

\4

,1.

q 0= " (11 -1"+1) .

L";
;=\

(2.25)

(.)

q, , :

q(l-+ ~+~} = 1.l -12


l

az

(2.25) , .,

(' :'::~!H ,

(2.26)
2.3.1.2. .

...st

. ,

"']

(.2.4).

2,

, ,

2.4.

R 0= -] 0 =] - +" - +I


. -

- :

q = l (t.l - ( ')

,
,

(2.21):

21 (twtw;} .

,1.

= ,

- :

(tc2 -

(JI(;)'

(2.28)

, , ,

Ro=~+i"i +~
\

;=1 -;

---]---

1 I-!+-""
1
-+
,

(2.27)

[ ~J - .

(1l(1 t 2
, 2

- ,

+"- +.

q = (tl - t;)

(2.26)

;=1,1.1

(2.29)

Q []

F :

= - =

k.L1t.F .

(2.30)

- -

~
I

16

17

Ic)

=1.1 -q~;
al

=II-q(~+~J;
l

Ic2

..:,.

Ic2

(.)

=l 2 +~
2

(2.34)

1
n ]
Ic{i+I) =I,! - [ -+
'
.
)
i=1 I

lnC J
(2.35)
1
(2.35), : r = ), = ) - . ,

(2.31 )

r.1 \ !

(.2.5) -

dJ = 2

d2 = 2 2.

t == ] . : 1 = ) 1 + 2

r = ] ~ (= (] = CJlnrJ

2 = (] - CJ.lnrJ (2

- 2 =0.
z

2.5.

1nrl

l,]

lnr
(
)
(
{lnr
1=(1,-12) ;<+1,-1,-12
;<=1\+1,-12
;<-;<
ln'\
ln "
l "
l '\

'2

'2

'2'2

ln r l
ln d/
/,
(
) /d,
=1\ - (1,-12 )---:.:-;=1, - '\ -1,
1nr1r
l 2 d

(2.37)

dX'

(2.32)

(2.36):

l,

!'

~=o

'1

(2.37) ,

2 1 1 !
-+
--=0
2
r

(2.33)

= (1

= 2

= l .

21

r 2 =;

1 l

--:=:-

(2.33) U +U ~ == . :

(1 - 1

Q==-.1-'-F=-.1'

-+

dl
dr

2 = 1 , - 1 1 - 12
.
.
. ln r)
~

- , .
, qJ, qJ -
:
'

l.'

, ,

-+

(J- (2 = C 1(lnrJ -lnrz) -

/~

21

+ 2

] ,

1)=--l!+ 2

r = ]

ln r \

1] -/2

. -

l
-=0

r = 2 ~ ( = (2 = CJ1nr2

= CJ.1nr2 + (] - CJ.1nrl.

'2

,
,

== /1 12 .

(2.32)

Z2

+ 2

r r

(2.36) -

\ 2 (2.36) , :

'/ (]. .
:
OZ .

(2.36)

V'2t=~+~ l +~2 1 +~=o

2.3.2.
2.3.2.1.

lnU + lnr

(2.34) :

).2. 1r ' r ./

',/(

l]

'2

'

21r' k/ (
)
==----;:-,,; /1-12
ln 1r
f

(2.38)

Q= -.1-F;

[] .

(.):
(2.38)

"

..

. .

7- = J = ~(1] ~12~
-ln '2/
2

/d l

,;

[/]

(2.39)

- -

18
, ,
.

(2.38), qt

d/d r = const

"

19

.'

(t 1 -t 2)

= 1

q{

2.

aJd J

2.3.2.2. .
26)

(.

rl f.!. } 0.1

(2.40)

a2d2

ajdJ

,.

d)

(2.42)

a2d2

, - .

; ,.',1. ,

2).

(2.41)
[~]
,

1--,---_
1
1 d
1 '
- - + - l n -2+ - - -

(=

.
.

q, =,.(t.l- t2)

..

:..... .

dJ

[ / ]

'

(2.40)

:.. .: . .

2
--+--ln--+--

1 .

, ,

2.6.

1
1
1 d
1
= - = - - + - l n 2- + - - ,

aldJ

22

d1

(2.43)

a2d2

- (
). ,

d/d1 < 2,
Q = .1r' d . f(t.' - t 2) ,

(2.44)

(2.26).
,

:
t.J

.
q/
1
-t c1 =~--;
1r aldl

( ! - tc2 = ~ (2~ 1nd~J:


( 2 -t.2

q,

(.):

t J-t'2 = q{ (_I_+~lnd2
.

"a,d j

22

d1

+-I_J.
a2d2

, :

.}

0.2

--+

2.

0.2

0.1

--+

3.

0.(::::'0.1

--+

dx =d'
; =d1;
dx = 0.5 (, + dJJ

(.)

=---.
a2d2

(2.43)

1,

- -

-----
21

20
~

2.3.2.3.

(2.43):

Rf

~_ + J.... 1n d 2 + -1-

a1d,

aj; d,;

2),

dl

a2dZ

dz
.

; 2- .


. dKp , > d2 ,

Rf = f(d-;}.

1
1 d
- = . R f c = ----;-In --.1. - R f R f l =a1d l
2
d1
1
d2 . Rf2 = - - - d2 .
a2 d 2

, Rf = /(R;c; R(2)'
1

d(d;(2)..d

dz (2.47)


9,

Rf

d; =0.
2

d2 = -

: d.u < d 2

2.7

tj

t2,

np .2.9.

2.7.

d2

ar 2

(2.49)

, '

l'
-> t = t,: , = 1'2 -> t =
(2.49), :

~=~.
r

, =_I_+_1_ 1ndz +_1_1nd H +_1_


ajd, , d J 2u d 2 a2dH

d u = 2~

. ,

== --}--} ,

=2 - ~
,

(2.50)

_l- "

2.9. l-l

" '2

(2.50):

(2.48).

2 -,

" '2

(2.48)

t= t

,2'

t2.


t , 7t2 .
t -t 1
,
-t __1_2_-

= f(duJ.

, qf

f2+3-~=VZt.

Rf

t t,

=',

V t=.
-

2.3.2.4.

1'2,

. .

, .

, '

1'1

';'

2.3.3.
2.3.3.1.

d2 > dKpC d2 R, -

2.8.

=f(dz).

, ,

(2.47)

. ,
2

,.~

1.

d2 < dp d2 Rf

R f dz .

d(R,)

. 2.8,
, d = dKp

_ t1 -t,2
1 __
1
_
1'\

(!_~1
l'1

(2:51)

1')

1'2

(2.51) ,

. , , F = 47

.1'2

- -

23

(t1 - ( 2)

Q=

(2.52)

n2

(2.56)

dn

JF(n)

"I

q,

2.3.3.2.

. /

2.

(/

(2.56) (2.21)

n} d

j_n_ - . :

'" F(n)
(2. ,

= ; , = ; n2 = ; F(n) = F = const;
= r/; = 2; F(n) = F(r) = 27C_r_l;

r,;

) : n

t, t2

) :

/ 2.

) :

n
r;

r;

, =

r2; F(n)

= F()=47-

. :

2.3.5.
,

Q=a,1rdi(t"" -t,t
2'7

(2.53)

Q=-l-'-l-' (, -t 2 )>
Q = 2 7 .

(2.53)

d; (r 2 -

t ,}

1 ( 1

~. -

1)

d 2 + a2di

1r'

(2.54)

1 + - 1 ( - 1 - - 1 + - -12 - =--z
k
ajdj
2 d j
dz
a2dZ

=~.+

az

(2.57) ,
- , - ,. ,- , - 2. ,

1
1
--;--2 .
ad ad

, :

, ,
.

( = !,();

tc

f2 ();

(.

f (r).

(),

=n).

, ,

dt

Q = --F(n) .
dn

(2.55)

Q = const ,

l.!:
(2> :

2.1 ),

(2.55)

= , = tcl

--

a,F,

- - .
a ZF2

, ,

.2.

, , , ,

(2.57)

. 2

az

Q- at / n

] . 2

1 =l+a, =1+a2=a,+a.2

<5

2.3.4.

. t =

-+-+-

- , [BTh<].
R

Q,

'ajd? + 2ii

=-1

1r(t j -t:><'2)

Q=

, : =

d,

2.1

=2 F2 .

. .
.

2.10.

- -

25

24

2.4.

= const = const ; . = const


.

(2.59):
.9 : Cj" + C 2
(2.60)
(2.60) -
nU

. ! 2

(.

2.11). - f, - .
t .

""

, -

..r

. = .

.
'.11<'-"

, ., .

2.11.

8. 8

.9

(.

2.12)

dQ = Qx - Qx+dx ,
dQ -

(2.58)

~---

Qp =fmfA .th(ml)=~~fth(ml)

th(7:J~)

(2.61 )

Qp=aAFp (l/\~
_
- \?dt.;2a p j'

. :

Q = fmfA : ~~.Uf ,

= tj- t .
dx

. (! ,

, -

t - t,

; t - ,

(2.60),

- ; th -

t-

t . ,

.: \1,1', . .

-:
13

.-

(2.61)

/. =

Bi

- .

Qx - ,
Qx+dx -

%
1/ .

Q+dx=-

d(.9 +

Q" Qx+dx

dQ =

.9 ]

Qx

: - f

2.9
d
f-dx=.9dx

= const

r;:;;;:

/d v 2B/

. 1

= 2.

o:)~:~, [11].
.

hl1:z J2jjj )

d.9 .
dx

.9.U.dx,

(2.61)

Qp = a p.9J'Fp.E , = f.I

d 2 .9
(2.57): dQ : ' f - d x .
2

~X. f=-,f~-'f:~dx.

10:

2.12.

d 2.9 :
-=-~.9
2

Bi - , - 00.
Qp + Qc = anp.9jFp.c,

Qc = .9 j . Fc -
; Fp. c = Fp + Fc; n = ( FjFpJ + IXC (F/FpJ -
, ,

~~ = 2 .9 .

= const ; .

(2.59)

= const

Q=

t ,-t 2

'

Fc

anpFp .c

(2.62)

----- + - - + - - alFc

(2.62) : ~ : (t 1 -t 2 ) ,
F p .c

- -

27

26

=] _

f
_

-, + ' F?,,- +

Fc

Fc

Fp/Fc -

d t + ~ =
2

"

(2.63)

, -

. -,

. ,

!,-".q' . , .

.,

'!;.;<

",i",,'

,.,.1'.1\'

Q, -

j;"l,,,IlU.:l1

=(I : 'If/~+~Ja
F. F
"

rp

\.

..

= 0;-..1.1 ~]

.~

" =8

Bi;

f.1; - , ;

.
, , .

,,;\

2.5.

(2.64):

A.~vo =(t-t ) ; t=t+ q: _ .

qv o

t. +~=-

(=-

:i'

(2.67)

= q.x.
(t-t;) = qv8.

Q = q.F =qv 82F / .

(2.68)

(2.67) , ~ 00, t.=t. (2.67) :


-:;;

. -

. -

to,

~~x2 ++t + q:o + ~~ 02 =t + q:o + q;~2 [1-(~Y]

= q = . = 8 q

qv.

2 =t + qv o +~02.

2.13).

2'

(2.67)

2 ;

++

.
: q


(.

qv 02

2..1

8:

] 2 (2.66):

=n;

(2.66)

. .

(2.66)

2 . = (2.65)
/

~ (2 .65) .. dt=8 -- -~

, / = . = u
..1

, .

(2.65)

2.5.1.

-t )

(=_~x2+C]X+C2'

2,

a(t c

dt =_qv x+C 1"


dx

If/'

, , ,

F,,/Fc

(2.64)

(2.63):

'

'

- JCJj(;~Ic. ,

.,

x=o{:Jx=o =0;

t c , - . 2.13.

, .

t = t

+ ~(02 _ 2 ) .
2..1.

to=t c+

qv 0 2

u '

:
qv 0 2
to-t c ='

- -

....
29

28


~.

/;-7;+1/0 +iY -~:' ,

4 = 40 (1 + () .
3.

2.5.2.


. = const, -

, ,

,1

_,: .:

t;

+q;~O +:~ ~o2 _,2) ,

(2.69)

. .

i /10 :

, ..

qy,o .
".
2
:
q ;af/

_/

);

(2.70)

, ;

- F --2- qy'O 21("0 f;qyJr'of


2 .
Q -q.

, 4

j(t),

().

{==-+

{+

2.

(2.71)

, :

, , ,

, 4 == const
:
, , '., + ';;;'

~ J} ';1

,:

:;)'".:,-[:, n

~::~: ::;;[~~~"

( ):

(~)

(2.72)

\n n~o

(2 73)

,
, '" ' +

+';1 [2;; {;]'-[:,]'] .

,;~. [[ :; J' -

(2

74)

;-~({n=-{.)'

(=

z; ; ; ; (; (.; 1];...I,J,

3.1.
.

:_:~:qj[(;,];~::;~"-', "q;1[[:;]' "<: -1] ,

.....;
10, 1], 12 ... ln;

r = -;( = ( = , , z).
- ,

; ;

~;a(~+~+~]
81"
&2 8);2 &2

j :

1 ( 1)2_ qy, 2

2 ,

(.

3.1).

3.1.

(. (

<

(.

- -

....
30

31

= const.
: t = , ).
l( )
-&:= , ((, )

. (

,'

"" : .9 = (- t::.

9
9
-=:
2
'

IIIC'l('l1

'1"

.....

(3.1)

= -+

.9(, )

D-

: = ~ (9)

) =(- . si(:)+ D cos(x)]-'.


( .9
x~O

(3.7)

, x~O: 'F ;
D=O. , .9 = Ce~oK r cos(x).

(3.8)

C.K.sin(x) , -

. (3.1)
, () - , - ) _
:

.9(, ) = () {().

(3.2)

(3.1 ):

k = kn ,

. -

) = =_1!....9
2 =
( .9

_ = - .

.
.

(3.7) (3.8):

. (8 ) ="2'
-'
'- ' s

cos( u"') ..

ctg(K8) = ~ .

1')]l'() = a2fl'(x)) /(1') .


:

'.

l'2= .-.

Kcos(x)'F :

.9(, )
.

1'

(3.6)
,

9
.

_1!... :r=o;

(3.5)

9 = [ 2 s(:)+ si()~\-

,
.

= .90;

: = -+ (9)

9 = [Ccos(x)+ Dsi()]-'r.

" :

I.PeHble :

"

(3.4)

qJ()=2s(kx)+Sin(kx) .
(3.5) (3.6) (3.2)

, - ).

J -

/1'=~e

()

-'

tg(8)=~=-' .

\.

(3.9)

.2

k =

1 a[r(.)) _
] 2 (1'()]
)~- l'(x)~

, - . ,
~
' ,

. ,
.

_1_ d[r(1'

/(1') d1'

)J -? .
'=

(3.3)

'

d2[1'~x)J + ? 'l'() =

(3.4)

dx

(3.3) :

fi.

(3.9)

(3.10)

ctg{fi)=fi/Bi.

( )

d~~))J=_O'K2 .d1'.

: 1n[r(1')] =-. 1'. 2 + ln ,

( )

(3.1 )

I
!h

f1 .

,
ctg(fi)=Yl' fi/B j=Y2'
.
_
l ( . 3.2) ~

11:. 2

l/Bi.

fi

(3.10). 3.2 , :
(3.10)

3.2.

- -

33
32

Jln (n = 1,2,3..... ), (3.1 ) .


(3.10) , Jln,
, Bi. Bi =
Y2=J1Ii , Jl'=O; Jl2=7f:., Jln =(n-l)7f:.
i = 00 Y=Jl/Bi ,
(3.10) , =11/2; Jl2=3n/2 .. .., Jln=(2n-l)7f:/2.

n="80
.9 =

?;

Jln

f ; ="

(3.11)

i- - , . ; f

.
80

F o = 0(, =

= 8(,) = n=
'LCn cos (J
,un .

):

(3.12)

n~l

(3.12)

COS(Jl;" )
80

r0- - - - - -

' X)cos(,unXjU-<
, \-'- = 1I f
f cos(,um

_;;

2(..

-/

n=1

(3.16)

Ifln + s.un cos.un

(3.16)

{(,'!" )-to

-to

COS(Jl~).- , exp(-Jln 2 F J -

.
:

, COS~l 7i )(- 12 Fo)

(3.17)

(3.16) (Fo 2: 0,25)

(3.17)

8=

fJ=f(i,Fo) .
'.
(3.18)

i-F:

3.3

= f (Bi, Fo),

3.4.

~.o

0.0

d~

- - - - n

\-'-

Iflnx,....,..---npum=n

(3.13)

,-

= 11 (3.13)

fcos2~n 7i)i.

/0

. ; <!: 0,25

;;

( ) -/J';F
= /(,r)-/ = ~A
L. n cos n -

f s(,um) = n="
'L Jcos(,u",x )s(,un) .
n='

.9

::;::; :

(3.15)

: = l- = t

2sin,un

n = { . "

=-

.90

8(;,) = 'fcncos~n7ik/J';FO,
n=1
.

n + sin.un cos.u n

() -/Jnf
cos ,un -

(3.15) :

.9 ,

2sin.u

(Sin 2,un +
2,un

~I

l]

C'?1i"4

Q,I

""",,-N--"""'++-j'1'l

u.05

'

IJ,P;

4 1J

0,0;

(3.13)

I---

1)dx

80 co{,un
80 215 sin,un
= ~---- = ----;c.-',u-'n"----_---,-

cos 2l( ,

~)dx

15(1 + sin2,un
2,un

.90

2sin,un
.
,un +s,un cos,un

(3.14)

(3.11),

6,l.LLiu.J

3.3.

- -

35

34

l0

, :

1. Fo = ~
02 ex~ J
u

OX~O - '

2.
3.

'
'
~

: .

Bi ->

; ( = t :

()
:

(3.22)

Q = C.p(to- (J (1- ),

(j _ -

Bi ~ 100.

Fo<': 0,25:

8=-

'" 2(.22Bi .

2F

2)

JJ\ ! + ! + JJl

. 3.5.

(3.19)

Bi ,
,
. Fo 0,25

(3.20)

-'1

~,"-

-'-

00

06

;:

--

16

_8,

--

.'

0,99

8r~r" = \ . IO(;J,R)e-/F ,(3.23)


R = rlr" -

, 96

i+

ai

<R < 1; fo(!lJ)

'

, 97

n= (_1)m(~)p+2m

0,96

I .= ~(+l)(p++l)
:

Ij

56

drzl~$I42fJ121926JQ

. 3.4. :

=0

= A\e-2F .

(3.24)

3.5.

1,,0

,55
16,0 i 10,0

,
. 3.3 3.4.

Bi -> ,
:;

~

.

6,0

i uu

: 8 = { ,Jiii i ]-.

',0

(3.21)

' -

Q = .(90 9),
(3.25)
'9 0,25
-

9=

.(-;! Fo),

(3.26)

- -

36

37

4i

= Jll2~21 + .1 2 ) ' '

35
.

L r1+2
1 ( 3) "="'
) B.exp-;'F
(
)
n

Po~0,25:

=~=2iJJI?-(i-1 silR -J1?F


.9

+ Bi -

JlI

JI,R

ij =- 1+-; 3
:

(3.27)

3.3.

"9 = .(- JI?Fo)


-

6Bi
- JI?f.I!? + Bi 2 -

(3.28)

i)

(3.29)

. . :
-

(3.30)


2 (j

( (

q.

, ,

.
.

q.

_
~

.
,
t, (. 3.6,).

(3.34)

1/

q."

/'4, -10

()

. . 6.

() -

(6)

= ,

/ = ~H,/~H

(3.37)

1-io

k-

= 1- e- kr ,

(3.38)

; >: .

, =

(3.35)

/ln n
= Jl n

; ,1 ,1 -

- .

(3.35)

- , ()

A"CoSJl"Se-J1nF,

q.

CIgp

(3.33)

(3.32)

d.9(O;r)
~=O.

J'

..6, ~t"= t n - t u =,f('t)


(3.31 )

: = 8; . d + (.9 _ .9)= .

. :

= ~
= ( -1 = ~ (1- ~
2 J ~[
.90 I-I 2
6 2 + Bi -=: l+JI;'

. '!

&:2 -
"=(t - t )
= ;;10
o

q.(r).
',

( )

= . -

"( )
;;1;

(n

. :
8.9 = 82.9 + ~
'.

3.6

( , ( -

.9).

3.2.

T~\lll"T~1')Pb~ tp
Q = (.90

(3.36)

.=1 \

qo = k!JJ! -

= qoe- k r

(3.39)

, .

8.9

82.9

qoe- kr

-=-+---

(3.40)

- -

38

39

(.40)

t , -

. : ='(\ )

k.

k. R

F (k,-.u'; J _ l
(] -.un2}.[e

n='"

= _0_ L " cos IJ" -

J ,,

" 82

; "

2sinlJ"

=.

HeHml,",'<P"

IJ 2 ~ - k

"=1

-----

IJ" + s IJn COSIJ"

(3.4] )

. =

', ) .:

. Fo ~ 0,25 !' .
, , .

f.J.n - -

I.nt"

(3.42),

k,Fo2- -1l?F]
je

()

.
:

8t(y.T) = a2 t(y ,r ).

'

2'

, -

, f.!=K.ll.
,

(3.47),

(3.47);
l9=l()-m l9=-r+(,,z). (3.48)
. .7. (3.48) , ~
n- -
,
. . 3.7
; 2 . '
v - .
(3.48),
1 89
(3.49)
m=---=tgrp ,[1/].

98

((,, )
:

(3.43)

t(X,y,T)=t(x,T).t(y,T).

cOS(f.!lxllJ) -

'82

JV",11

(3.42)

(3.47)

Bi' = IJ? ~ - -

Cl11t/dtJ1I

fJtJlD

IJI -kt

F ],

8J(x,r) = a J(x,r) .

9 = . - ,

_ , ,

I
I

3.4.

, ,

; =

Fo '?,25

)
(,)= (!o-t'=
t

9 = ] COS~1 ~k.u~Fo

, I!J. .

,.:

3.5.

(3.49) ,

() , ,;~

:
.

, ,

, , Z -

: (j = ~ (j2 (j

(3.44)

,j"I

)! -

, :

(j

=~ .(j2

(3.45)

-+ !, :
,",

= 1J12 2

=k . ",

(3.50)

k _ ,

) 2 1; 22; 2
1

: = ,)

(3.46)
, , ,

(3.51 )

k = (2,405Iro)2+ (ff/l)2

'

(3.52)

- -

...
40

41

) .

k=_I_.

(3.53)

( / ?

(n+ 1), M,1::.x

1
--<&'-2

(3.57)

tn,k
.6. .

(3.54)

, .

V. - '.) = ~ (', - '.1 )

.
((,1:)

,!'!.

----,+'

. I

. -

'

., ' .

,,\ IIIJOl' 11, 1111


;",


'
',
= '

(3.54)

L1
. [

L1

' _ ' .(.,1)

'
2

_!.J

,- =
2 &

'

'k,(n+l) - ,k,n _ '

1.

' _ '"," -',.I).

-'","

&

,n -

&

'k,(n-I)

&

.7.
( )

J= '

&

k,(n+l) -

2' k,n

+'

',,(.,1) -

('('+1),"
'('+]),.

(3.55)

(3.55)

t(k+{),n:

dQ

d1 -

= &' ~.,(.+]) + ',,("1) + 1- &'

(3.56)

'.,.

(3.56) (3.55).

k (-)

(3.61)

dFm dF.

.; n ;

- ;

2)

(3.60)

n m

] (

-~dFm

d! =-(j'-dF

-,.J= :; ['.,("+,) -- 2'. +'.,(.1)]

k,(n-l)

(3.55)
.

dQ =

&2'

2',_" + {',(n.') ]

, -

= I::.x'

'

(3.54):

'1(+1)" -'.,"
.

L1x.

i.L1x),

i = , j = k. (n
= - L1x t = k .11:.
(3.54) () . -

(3,55) (3.56)
(L1x)
(3.15 )] ,

t;j+ 1 t ij

1: .11:(1: = j .11:).

'(1,1),,, -'.",

(3.59)

+1

(3.54) .

L1x(x; =

! _

., .

_ _

..: ljJ: I ~: ; i:, .

(3.58)

, , " - ,1:

(3.56).

2,

2,

+=
;' ;'

-+-=0

(3.62)
(3.63)


. :

- -

42

43

= L1t!lm, 1 == .,' - grad == L1U/ l .


-, grad t == L1t " - grad t == L1t/(.x)

.
L1to; - L1; -

l l.

= .; /I mo == ; 1 =L " L1t/.1to = (J.


: .; = m I " ==lomYm,' L1t = L1to (J.

. (.

3.9) -

, .

; , ..
01

02

.
) , 11\1<"k~
;1 , :
2)
2
2

,J/dr:,,/, + 11dym

Jl"

~l. /

(d' U/d''

+ 1/d/)

1dxm + 1dm

' J/dx/ + JU/dy/

; (3.64)

. (3.65)

.
10) -

grad 8 = L m,'
- grad = U/L) .
. ,

3.8.

3.9.

L m== LJI
l = l .
(3.66)
1 = , -

: l

IQ

= const

I .

lllm .

...

l == const.

(3.66)

!1t,/L1,

8, = , .1t,/ L1to = L1,/ L1

82 = 2 L1t2 / L1to = L12 / L1

L1t2/L12 =

=~~>~;~ ~~~~;~;~: ..

.....

(3.67)

; ( t/

.

.

l3.67) ,
dQ ==

, .

.
:

4.

T"JdTm .


: dl = ( / .)d - .

, . (. 3.8) _

:

, ,


: , , , , , ,

.
.

4.1.

,
, .

,
' , ,
.

dw = -.
@

- -

45

Bi

44

f.l [. ].

~,[M~J. ,

.
, .

E="!-(BPJ,

[1m]

(4.1)


,
.
,

14

20000

dw;;;n =1=> S = .

v=

, .

.
,

. - Bq. Bq + Bqz . _ .
dIvq = - + - -8 '

~
z

. .

~ , ~~ (~ 4)
-

= '[

[11"k],

(4.2)

qKOHB-

-'Vt

+pWI.

(4.4) q
!
.
,Bt+
i'q __A.Bt+p.w.i.
'1; q=-- p,wy"
,
z
. q =-A.-+pw

z
Q'" Q' Q

i ( ,

2,

(4.3),

2tJ
2
B
(
w Bi +w Bi)_
-"'. - + - + - - wx - + y~.

~2

&2

fJ = _,,!-(),

(4.3)

d'Ivq+qv

-=-

vy

'l{WX + W~y + WzJ+qv.


Bz

~ ( -_ ):. d/'v _- wx + W~y + wz =..

t > 4 't:'

f3 .

f3 .

i = JCp.dt ,

f3 = 1fT

4.2.

'

,

.

4.2.1.

! =ar~+~+~j+~
2
~.2
Bz2
-
~

(4.5)

(4.5) .

- : .
, _ ~ + ' + ' ~ + , z , ~ _ f,
dT - ~

Br
'
'
, .,
Wxax+Wy~+WZ&

(.
, (4.5)

dx, dy , . 4.1.

0;-_-'-_--"-

:r
___

!I

, - .
.

-+wx ax+wv-B +W, 8

.
z

4.1.

, ,
:

! =a'V2t+~.
dT

w, = w

= w,

= (4.5)

. ,
. ,
, .

- -

47

46

4.2.2.

dg

!I

dx,dy

dz

(.

$t 9+ ~ s~:: a~
tp..~

F=m.a.


: ,

fi;r

4.2.

2.

= - gxdv .

dy.dz

" - "

.
3.

df2 = _ dp
dx

. y+dy .

ls

2w,v
2w
2w
[a x + a
+a z
IJ 2
~2
az 2)

Dw

w +w _
w ' +w _
w +W~-
w,

__
.

---;;:; -

d2~x JdV,

dw,

df
dp

--;;; = pgx - dx

= dw x dv
dr

d'w,
+ IJ dy' '

(4.7)

D'W
_
,-,2(4.8)
w.
dr
, = (l- f3 . .9~ f - p-=pg-v+IJV

DW
- f3.9
--;;; = -g' .

-7>1 vP+v.v 'W .

(4.9)

, , -_

I!!.p - , .
.

4.2.3.

, d~

u dz. ,
, OZ
d! (. 4.3).
~

()

, , -

(4.6) :

, , -

df = (pgx - dp + IJ
dx
dy

df

, dfi ,df2' df:

-_

df = ( + -dS dy dxdz - Sdxdz =-dS dv.


dy
dy
2w
S = lJ(dw,),
= IJ d x dv.
dy
dy2

Wx ' Wy ' Wz

, (4.6)

; .9 = 1 -/0; ( -.

-,

S.d.".dz.

(4.6)

(4.6) -.

dx

dx ]dYdZ .

--. + dp dx. , -

, : - ( + :

2w
2wz
a

(a
a
J
+IJ 2 + 7 + 7

2w
2w
2w
x a y a zJ
dw
p_Y_=pg
--+IJ(a
--+-2-+
2
dr
~
2
~

P--;Z; - pgz


gx : df1

dw
d: =pgx-

dwz _

1.

OZ:
2w

4.2).

()

dM = p,w x .dy.dz.dr,

. 4.3 n ' w

()

- ,
dy.dz.

- -

49

48

dM x+d:t.

= -

wx+d:t. ' - - dr ,

, , dMx+d:t. , -

dM,+dx = [pw, + a(:J }iYdzdr.

()

() (). ,

dMx+d:t. - dM

= a(PWJ dvdr .

()

_ (' w,}
dMz+dz -d: --a-z-dv.dr .

()

(), () (), ,

dv

dvdr . Hadv dr:

dr

a(wJ + a~Wy \ a(w,) =

az
divw=

4.3.

Wo .

- 9 = 90 = O;wx = wo; wy = ; 9 = (-{' t -

(=)

2)
9

( = ; O:s :s R; - oo:s Z:5 +00)

= 9

= { - (

= ; W x = wy = W z

= .

- : , ;
- : v, w" w,. -

, ;

Wo ,{0,l0,uC'v,a,g,/3...,

- -

(4.10)

: [, wo,ge.

' p=const:

{.; {. > ('

. ,

1)

a(p.wy )
.
dM y+~ - dM.\. = ":'": dr ,

+ a(PWJ + a(pwy) + a(pw,) =

. :

OZ:

, .

()

(4.1] )

(4.]2)

X=":"'Y=l:..w =wx'Wy=wY;e=~
[ '

]) (=)

,
.

, .

Wo

Wo'

Vw

= = o;wx =I;Wy = ;
=; 0:5 :51); '= = 1;Wx

'=

Wy =

, ',t,{,
,

Bo,ee'W

2) (

['

4.3.2.

. ,

4.3.1.

, ,

. :
l) ;
2) ;

3)

4) .

, ,

'

z, R -

'

z'

['

7'=Y;=7=Z;=C('
.


. ,
.

- -

51

50
:

ot'
,fJt'
'fJt'
,fJt'
'
-+W -+W -+W -='.2t+---.!:......
'

. ;
-

w~

w" = Cw '
w'

- : " = .
'

("

- = , .
('

. w' , w = ide; = ide; , =

idem

' =

= idem

, ,

.
:

,

, , , , ..

" '

: "> ",';

,
, ;

. w~
,w~ _ ' , , 1 ' , 2 '
+Wy--+W - - - g /3.9---+vy W

'

~,! z'

' '

()

'

ar" " fJt


"ar" " ar"
- , +wx-, +Wy-" +Wz - "

w:

"

Dw:

,w:

" . 2't + __
q"
v_.

" w:

c~ .

'"

'

"

-~" +Wx" +W~+Wz-z"=gx'/3 . .9 - - - + V .

x
" " "ar'
=-,,1. -",

" '

2"
W

'

()

, ..

'

. ','
,

c~ ."

a'./)J'= -,,1.' ot' .

.
f

z'

r =C

,w~

+wx

'

. (

y~,

1"

'


, - .

t"lt'= ,"1,'= , OJ"IOJ'= {) !"!/'= C1, a"la'= /3"1/3'= CjJ


"!'= ,
p"lp'=Cp
v"lv'=C.. "l'=1. ..
.

, -ot'+.,
,fJt'
,Ot'.'
- -.,
- ( wx-+w
-+w -Bt')
'

'

" w' ;[ ,w~

:1.,'

z fJz'

,w~

'

1 '

~'" '

------+~V'y

. ! ' '

cl

'w~] =

- - + - Wx--+Wy'-+W_ '

__
, ' 2t'+

=_

~I

q'

v_.
. ' . "

'

'g p'!'.t'.

()

w"

'

, a'/)J'= !2.(- Bt'J.


[

'

.
()
().

- -

52

53

, -

Qr
'" =
2 ;;

() , . . :
,
, ,
_=
_
_
,

=__,

-;-:'

-J

(4.13)

~ = = idem - ,

(4.14)

, = ,! --'-- .

(4.15)

(4.]3) - (4.15) -

'

, _
/
_

',
2
;

'

__ _
=].

cJ'

(4.16)

(4.]7)

---,.,

~2 = = idem - ,

~ = Re =
v

idem -

__1

Cq

=_

~ = = idem - ,

p.w

(4.13) , :
- = - 0 - /

a 'J
-- = ~
= Nu= .

(4.18)

(4.14):

CW'CT =)

(4.19)

Cf

(4.20)

/ Re = / =

/.

<; ,

, -

g-p.t,t-P

(4.20)

Re

g..!oJ.
2

= G,. - -

, , -
.

(4.21)

. ;; ( - ) , :

(4.22)

g. ;~ ( v

(4.15),='!~ ", ] .

(4.16) -

(4.23)

,!

(4.23)

: ~ :

] = ,. - .

f =const

Gr.

, Wx, Wy. , , Nu. , .


. :

Gr...

- - , -
;

- ;

Wx W>, Nu -

- -

ss

54

- Re G .

)'
Nu -fi
. :

Pr, Re, Gr) =

,(, ,

(., , " R, G);.\

, :

- [ (, , Re, Gr) = 2 ( , R G .\ .
W _f
'
, ),

3 (, , . Re, Gr) = F : R
.)
W _
(., , " , G';;
- 14 ; , Pr, Re, Gr) = F4 (.,
. , " R, G,.
')
I

: ,.9 w w

>

'

'
(J. W W

)>

>

'

N
;

}>

~
1.

:~: , , Pr, Re, Gr.

. :: -

'
.

, _ '.

,


.
2.


, KOT~pe . 3.

,
,
h -

.. .


(,
.....);


().
. :

, - ny

' .

: bI,

""

N::: .


,
.

-

. 6
:

[<]= ["1 "2""'j

[rp]_ ;

~.


, ~eMeHHX : ~:;;~:

, , .

;: ~ .

jn

n-:

, n ~ 2 , k ~ 1

( ),
- k .
4.4.

'0'

,
. yr . .
4.4.1.'J

, ,

. ""
.

, ' . ,
, , Jl.

aI'l'

n,-

R _

=n
f

'

; f -

().

> 0,001

fo

. ,
,

.
. (1904 .) II .

- -

57
56
(.

4.4)

. (
) -
, ,

-' ~

rp ;

'"

"-

.<

'"

, ; ~ .

(425) ,

rp ~::~ '

(4.24)

w - ' +w
'

W, + wy

w,

(4.27)

a}w, .

_~v-}-,

(4.28)

=0.

w,
w, _ 1 OS S - (4.27) w,x+w Y - ,
_
4.4.2.
:

, XZ.

4.4.3. r C.J10

.
.

rp (. 4.5)

ta

,
;
,
.
:r rp-

. ,

, .

4.4.

,
,

OZ:

+m

2ro
2
~ v(fJ x + J_..!...

(02

g '

(4.24)

02 '\ I

01

'

+ groo '" const .

..

}1

- .

'
.

(4.29)
.
( 011

oqy

takkakqy"'-\j,

}/

-~a-2

J a ,

/0

~+:_a
.

al!
/ -- 0'1
, -


np

w -+w

x , ,

_ 80r .

(4.25)

4.5.

I : + J y : ~ v : + : j -ga;;

~ "i' ;

n .

, -

~"""-:~77-r.;b:f77?~::-

ily2)'
i:/ I (4.29) -

1 oq ( 4.29)
- -.
;

(4.27) (4.28).

- -

59

58

q = - . Wy . t + .

w/.

(4.31)

: .
,
. - , .

.
:

S= ~T

4.27-4.29.

,
.

. ,
W

(4.31)

(4.32)

(4.33)

(-) (4.33,) -
.

, , :

-.n,dt
qm=-P'p'wy,dy

: (= (' +t.
. ,
.

(4.34)

(4.35)

, qm Sm

dW
- " . (4.34) (4.35) :
dy
dy
dt
Bt
qm=-,:qd=-.m;

(.

.xz. dr -

: - W dr, [/"]. -

(4.37)

- , 11 -

E:q

-
-

(4.36)

Sm=P'E:s~=jJm~,

.
r+dr

(4 .35)

dt
-

, ,
.

(434)
.

-' ' dWx


Sm =P'Wy'~


, - .

(4.32)

(4.33,)

, ,

. 4.6.

.; -, =p.iipW'/';

_1

Sxy.m =Sm =-p.w;wy'.

w ( )
= W+ w', ,

wy '

W x '

()

W
.

Jp,wx,wy.dr=p.wxwy=p.wxWy+p.wXWy;

4.4.4.

(4.31)

T+dT

, '

=~; :, = & - ''

. A-m , l1 m ; : q ; : s
.,

11, , v

Bt
q = -(4 + . ) ;

(4.38)

(4.39)

: P'Wy 'Wx dr pw jdr "' w .(.dr

( p,cp-const). ,
q
:

4.4.5.

HdT

qy =~T
- Jp.c w (dr=pc '
w t

(4.30)

, (4.30)

w. - + w -

2(
= - 2 ,

W
W
a2 w
w"- " + w y - " = v - 2 - "

- -

60

wx

wy

fu + ~ =

p,cp(W
- uw, _
(w, --;::- + w

x :

+w :)= ;[(+m):J
y

e7W,

IJ

(4.41)

:+:=.

= wy

(4.42)

(4.33,) , S
(4

= __,_

; =P'f2(::)2

(4.35) (4.43) :

f2

(4.44) (4.34), :
qm

W y

=-' ,f !:Z:I: .
2

(4.44)

[ w
'"J-.!..
q,

fu. dv = - vl: - fa. .

l J_Xdy
w)dt=toJ_Xdy w
Jt_Xdy=
w
J(to-t)-Xdy.
w

(4.47)

'"

"'

&

&

0&

(4.51)

(4.50)

'

(4.29)

(4.50) y~O y~oo .

(4:50)

(4.51)

(4.51)

00

[2].
(4.51)

),

S = (: (4.27)

(
S-

w/;; +w/; )=: '

(4.52)

(4.52)

(4.52)

(4.52)

(4.53) -

k = k(x).

P'Cp(WX:+Wy:J=_a~ .

(4.50)

).

'

(4.49)
Wz -

' Wo -

():

(4.48)

1' ry :

~jwx(to-t)dy=-~.

~~

w
' wy ;

(..)

(4.47) ,
.

dx

X[(wJ +(w; r+(wJ]

d'"
Jw x-!..dy - f(to _t)_x dy = - f-[wr - r)]dy = - fw..{t o-t)dy

(446)
.

. = =f2i~xl=(~y)21~Xi

: =

=- f_x dy

(4.45)

~. "

Wy

J_Xdy )

. ;

~ = 0,4 - .

(4.50)

(4.43)

= ,

vy

w' 2'= Wx

q,

Yw

y: dwy=__ dy .

(4.28) w

Awx: +Wy:)dY= jWx:dy-j:;;dyf

PWxWy'

.33,) ,

q, =-[(j.J
q, + r", )_XJ'
~
,

y -)

(4.40)

61

S
fwx(wo
-wx)dy
= ---.dx

dO

(4.50),

(4.53)

- -

63

62

4.4.6.

(4.51)

=++ /

+d /

( ). 2

: = ~

W,

(a

= . ,

: =, W

= Wo,

w
-2-"

(w, J

'.

Y~

; = 3~ Wo ; = ;
12

d = _.!. W
2

. (4.27), -

a w J = . (----f
'

(4.54)

(4.59)

, = ,.jRi;VPr

Wo

(4.54)

N,

=- -

,5

( -

= , .,

.9 = (- (; .90 = ( -

(;

(.), ., ~
= 1,5(2:') -0,5(2:' ,
.90
k
k)
d.9J 1,5.90
(
(4.51)

k < 8,

(..)

Re = Wo .

(4.55)

(4.56),

(4.56)
k=

4,64

.jRi;VPi '

,5

4.7). ,
() (4.57),

.90 =

( - (

.
,

(4.61)

.
..

/o-VPr'

= . -

k/ _ 1

4.7. .

(.

(4.61)

dy =

(.
I

( . :

X=i;

. =

Re=--=--i=R.;

. .

(4.55)

vRex

. (4.60)
Wo f

(4.59) N, = 0,- ,5 Re~,5 r .

(4.52)

Wo

: ~=/l'64~= ~.

(4.59)

Wo

N ==i=N,.;

(4.54)

(4.59)

. f

"'4,64~Y'X.

(( - (J.

(4.58)

f -

Wo

~13

( .. ), a=~(.9] =,%~.
.90 ->

(4.58)

k (4.57)

0= (280 ~y.x

n n-l

=-t~t(::)-->'

-A(~)

, :

= . -

qc =

, :
Wx

(~.57)

: (pr~rc) 0,25
4.4.7.

,
.

Re:

ReKp.l

Wo .l

Wo . .2

; ReKp .2 = ----:.---,.z:.:.::..

- -

64

65

(4.41)

Wo .

(4.62) (4.63) (4.40)

ReKp =---=10 +410 .


,

, -

W
fu+w
x

4.8. :

}-
2- ;

[(1 +Pr-E:-s) -9].,

(4.64)

(4.65)

_W -+W
9 _ 9=

Wx =
yay

., V

[( 1

E:sJWxJ
+--;
.

(4.64) (4.65)

, ..,

(,

(4.43),

; 4- n

, ..),

-2

3wo

,
.

Re"p.

.
,

S =p'R. 2(dwx

dy

(i) -

(i)

= }- . = 0- .

I'

4.9.

(4.38)

(4.39)

~-------

-1

;" .

- '(1 +Pr -: ai . , .
(4 62)
Prm
s)

JS~ = , Js~ = W. - x

dwx

dy

(4.66)

Pr -

~ J~,

(4.63)

&./ &q;

Pr,

'" 'q - -

(466)
.

(4.66)

= -00

. ,

~-~

, .

,,77)1'?' ;;"

;...;;;;>.)

. 4..9 . ~-

d'v
W

j dy' =. =, + "
x /

s=s,=f./IW~y=const

; - ; W m = (8,

. (4.66),

8,

(4.66)

s,=pw;;;' =p'W;,

=.

) -

W /,

/W.

(4.66) : = 8,

S=P.V(I+

w. dy -W == -;::;W. 1

=n +.
x
!'<
"

q - -'"

JS;;;

dw
. W. = -,

-------- J
7~

~~

4.4.8.

x )2; rs,:: =R. dwx =x.ydwx;


)2=p(x.y)2[dw
dw
{
dy
dy

R. - .

(4.46):

V}V. / , ;

/w.

Wx

= W ,;

- ; - -

=W -

Jl ,

} - n
II -

W'

ln 8 -=W -~ln VW . (4.66) -

'

W;


. .

4.1

- -

67
66

w. 1
=-=-lg+71
~

W.

W.y

W.

W.

(4.67)

. = - - ; '1 = ~--ln- .
.

4.1

1:

Wx

= w., . = : = ;

(4.68)

2
(. 4.9) :

W.
;:- = 5,11g, + 4,9.

2 %; 80 %.
-

. ,
, .
- (Pr> 1). -

_ ,

'

Pr

=-_

,
.

(4.69)

1 2 . = W . ,

.
-

12.

, "'12~=12Y~P~
W.
/SC
(.

, .

, -

(4.70)

, :

(}=Pr '_,

, .

=.!!-.

Wz/..,.

.l>l>vJ

,. ~:"

22

18

-,

12

1".

10

1/

8
6 ~-_ ..i-.

_
..

_--

I.--/

l1:lI}:

4.10.

~~

~"
~~

[/""

LJ

.-

4 . 8 II!

, .

I
I

I
I

I
i

i
2

-+--t-- 1 - - I

6 8 10l'

qc = .9

=n ;

= ( - (
m

wm

(4.73)

= ; ( - .


.
.

11.
2'

20 %

qc -

l'

!
i

sc = W

-s 3:. .9m ~
'

~. 6 101

(4.72)

S q ; '

: = Pr~m lny. +Cq(Pr) ,

"
11,""

= W.

(4.51) (4.53) .
-

lt}

,W.

/ ' --- - -~-t I


I
i

" '...,.

2,

; '

IP"

16 1 -

'

C = ((Pr) - ,

.~ ~

20

; .

qc

.9.

.9. '

2f

(4.71)

4.9)

(4.34) (4.35)
q. = S

10 -I c

' --

W o -W r

(4.74)

- -

68
69

(4.73) (4 74)
.

,
:

1 0-l

",QC'WO[l+P'Cp wm n _ WmJ
..,

woon

Wo

.
.

(4.75)

5.

(4.70) ,., 12~,

oW:
v

'" - - =

Wm

.r.,t

n /

fi

w.

5.1.

12w. = 12 -'-- .

(4.76)

/ - ~ - -

."

(4.56). (4.76) Kjon

. 4.11.

(4.75) Qc'

4.1 1.

wd
Re: Re = - - ,
v

w -

Re < ReKp

Re.

""

2000 -

Re > 2000

Re,p,

2000

- -

n :

(4.77)

Re
1- ;
2 -
'
.
- ; - ,
-

Re > Re<p2 - 10'.

2'103710'

J -

2S c

. w5

- , S

- /
. . ( )
Wo 10 -1. .

SI=--' . Wo

(4 77)
"

1+12 ! "

3_1

/2

2/

J /2/

[;(

(4.78)

)'

5.1.

R'

(4.79)

Re > 2000

.
, .

=1 (4.78) St= /2.


St= /2 -

(4.80)

. = 0,0592
J
Re O,2 '
(4.81)
J.:<

(//
) . Nu J,:t '" O,0296Reo.8 ,43 ( J
~ JO:2~
,
w
(482)
J,:< J,:t

"

_ t

Re > 5'104 -

Re ,

, (

> lH)'

- -

70

., = l'm[I-(~ J2j, ro-


;

W max -

min,

Re

5.2.

- , -

Re,

7\

~
,
, .,

-
,
, .

-
.

, ,
, .
[.,

, [. -


, , -
. 5.4.
.
, .

, .
-

:
1-; 2-0; 3-

(
) .

[. -

>

1.

(. 5.5)
: 1-
; 2 -
; 3 - .
2.

. -

. -

(. 5.6).

/),1 =

1 -

l-t<,

. ,
/),t

. 53.

qc =const

~ '.

= O,55Ped;

=0,07Ped.

[. = (10+15

)d.

, - .

.'..-:~<" /

.......

: . ,

,.-<J:

- .

[.

i. \\

1-2

,".\

lar

Re, ,

5.5.

./

= __~J al), -

, - i-

aral

(. 5.4).

.
.

5.6.


.) ; )

: ) ;
) .

3.

:
(.5.7). -

(). -

- -

72

73

,
.

(5.1)

1,.. =

0,5(1", + 16=);

. Ii( - .

5.2.

5.7.

, .

5.2.1.

: w = 2wx [] _ (~ ) 2]
x=2(] - R

),

Wx= :

ro

Wx ,

Nu:

-]-='\'
.

NUd

(lwXR'dRJ2

J dJ1='fdJ1[%-R2~'dR]
] + ~ ~~_

Prm

40

50

5.2.2.

(4.77):

sc'Cp(lo-l)

; = wo[]+ :~ t(r - ])] '

R = !-.

W,X

30

20

15

5.5

10

l/d> 50 - [;(= 1. l/d < 50:

1,9 1,7 1,44 1,28 1,18 1,13 1,05 1,02

Sc -

W o = W, (

=1-

NUd=4,36.

=4]8]

, Sc ,

.
,

qc = const. tc = const ~ Nu = 3,66.



,

f = 8 . ,

f -

F -

. :

1 -2

1 -2

AP=t;_PW . 8 =AP-=t;_PW -. : -.-=~.

d2

8 =f p . w 2

d2P

dF4

(5.2)

, ,

- . w~ - 1),

fIa
,

(5.2) (4.77)

81=

(5.3)

]+]2Jf(p} -]~

pCpW

Pr = 1 ~

81 =

f
8

Nu = f RePr .
8

(5.4)

/(Pr)

.. :

NUd

0.33 0.33
01
=0,]5Re x d rd (G'd Prf)

(pr/Pr
I
/

=0,91Pro. 43,

; , ~ = 0,184Redo.2,

NUd = 0,021 Re~~ r~43(r/ Prc )0.25


)0.25

. (5.1)

l/d>

50

(5.4)

~ =1.

l/d < 50

(5.5)

- -

75

74

= O,5(tx +10=)'

. .
.

, -

: d , = 4/.

. ~

5.2.3.

Re = 2 103 + 104
, .

Re =

Re. Re,

. ,
.

. .

o/d Re,p' . .

:
8
047 (
/ _)0."
NU"d,:",=0,022Re"'d Pru
; rn
'6",

(%)nm l.

[
o,85~

6", :=

0,85 (5/)nm ;

. ,

]8500(2~Y28;

(5.5)

+ ].8R

,
., ..
:

( < ).

nm

6.1.

, , . 6.1,

wd

Re = 5 =~ , Wo - -

~~

~'-._.

, d - . Re > 5 ~;.::.;;.=
v

~

. ,
-

5.2.5.

--~---::F--=~"'=

nP~~)

;
.

6.

Re < Re KP ' -

.
(5.5). Re > Re:p -
]

Ii nm

. Re~ < Re < Re~-

5/0]

Ii

(5.5).

Re:p =

nP~>(~)

(5.6)

, (

Re~ '" 2000.

6 :=

). .

(5/0)nm = ] 2-] 4; S - .

5.2.4.

(> ), ,

.
. 6.1.

.
, (.6.2).
Re "" '. ~ ~
Re = ](1 7- 21d ,
/d
5h = -

=0,2 , f -

'

> 90 ").

- -

76

77

, ,
.

\<R<2\05

Nu

Re = 2 1057-2 \06 ~ Nu

=0,25Reo,6 PrO.38 ~
..

)0.25

(6.2)

\0,25

023ReO,8 Pr O,38 r I

'

'

( Pr c

(6.3)

(6.1-6.3)

. : t

- d.
= 0,5(t 6x + (6 :J .

Nu

NUo[J + 0,09(Re.Tu/ 2j , No - (6.2).

(qJ)

'l' = rp=90" (\ -

. 6.2. ()
()

6.2.

0,54 2 rp)

Re

1,6

((. 6.2,);

1.~

qJKp

11I182').

Re,

',

,
.

0,8

((.

6.2,); qJp 11I1140 '). Re



qJ (.

6.3). 1
, 2

~~,o "

--- \

>J

14m
\1 2

'

~Pll-iJ

. 6.3.
-

Re
. 2
. .
.

. . .:
'

Nu

'

= 0,5ReO. 5 Pr 0 .38
:."

]0.25 .
'

Re, : Re Kp "" 1 rY.

Re < '
, - .
, - .

0,6

12()

S2.

: ,

. 1

.
. Re .

5<Re<10 3

Re

,,

40

S,

!' !111"

.
-

a~

(6.1 )

Re

1103..;-

1.1rY .

(.6)
.

.

.

.

() :

6.4.

()

- -

79
78

7.

2,0
~8

6.5).

~E

1,0

48

0,6

< ~

500.

1,.

(.

1,6

1\

;;

[IJ

~.l
"

~b

ID''~

6.5.

z;

1/
\

JO 60 g(J 120

,lJ

() ()

. , ,
.
%
, - 70 %.
60 % , - 90 % .

. ,
.

'" Re"

r,g( r 1,25 :

1\ Prc

(.4)
S

"" ""1
, /,
" \:
,"

, ~,t('

(.7.1). -

~I ?- ~

., -

~;Y!

::'L

+ t .,J,

) +2 +(n-2
n

7.1.

7.2).

."

("".

tj

, 5/d -
5/d - . ; = (5/dy o,15 -
; , = (5/s/,6 5/52 < 2 5/52 . 2: ; = 1,12.
- .

(.

_
-

= 0,41; = 0,6.
= 0,26; = 0,65.
:

: t = O,5(tx

Nu

, -

~(

lJ

..

~~

1\tt1

IJ,f
0,2

l\l

~2

l1,

!IJ 60 90 120

1\

0,8

z.1--' ~~

1,9

~..,.IQ

~O

I/l

0,2

1,8

1\.,:l.,..i~

49

2.0

~/

;
7.2.

pgfJ,I),

, , :

DW
2
--;;;=-.g'/'[}-V+/l.v w .

Gr = / g ';
v

[},

fJ [l/OK] -

- -

81

80
,
.

Nu=C(GrPr)rn

n.

(7.1)

(Gr.pr}m.
(1 )

(GrPr)rn Nu

ad

Nu '" ~.~ = 0.45-). 5. , .


J.i .. l:

"1' "

. ., .
(G,-) > 5102 ,
-'C'j';) > 2107 .
n :
Gr.Pr 1.10' +5.10" I 5.10"+2.101: 2.10 + 1.10 1j

1,18
I 0,54 0,135
~_.
8
I
1/4
r
1/3

1/3, . .

(7.1)
Pr 0,7 .
: 1 = ,5(l + lJ.
- , - ,
- .
30 %, .

(. 7.3) , , -

/U
~.

11

1-

L~~

1I

10 +~~~~i!:::..~-+.,.-L.....L....~---I.---'-,';"""'.l..-~~--'-..l-.L-.J,"""".-I......L-J.:-o.L----'--::,
10'

7.4.

5" -

.1>

8.

- ;
-

( ).

8.1.

).

: ,

(. 7.3):

q=

- (tC1 -t c2 ) , ,,,. -

. ,
, ,

t c/ 1<2 -

, ; , = 5 .,,,,. ,

5" - , :

,,''''' [(GrPr), . 7.4.

7.3.

R dRld:.

. , -

- -

83

82

,
, -

, .
10 '_ , z ,
. ,'
t'IIIIJI ll1 .
'1.

"

",.ll'lI;1

"u i~""

J\(iJ!10 ,
,,,.

RI!L' m.: ,
_. - ul,lJfj,,': 1;" l! ,
.
rlJlj~l
\\ 10' + 107 / 2 . , ,

, ., .

, .

, ,
,
, .
, 8.] q
.

: ,

. q z

, -

' ;:~:~:~;;::;:~::~~:~i ~
(

DE

, ),

- DG

:::~~::~ ~~~~~

q,pl'

KO~OMY

70

----'
. _ .__._k_

1;'

1 -

q ,2

()

~ , ., -

~'!;::~~~~~:: COBep~aT

:1

'

~eT -

,-

, o~a ::~:~~::;;~:~:~:;=~::~~;:r

R~O ,

6.
(" ~

00

"

= At 1 + ( 2 _ 2- -"
L1

L1

(8.])

R rp

''

f(J7

).

.~~~- t--

105

: , ,

1fJII

10.>

([.m/,'1 1

. 8.1. -

, 00 q" , =0,65 + 0,7.



= k . .7 , k - ,
.
D .

.

, -

~B

. -,
,i..l\11

, -


: Nu = C(Gr' Pr)" . CD

102

~) ;

!!

, -

HorpeOlJ,

. -

2
.

5 (
,

8 2)

...

12J4,578

I'rfI!Jl/ll nO&.'~11

. 8. 2.

-,

" ~ ...

n-

- -

84

85

, .

.5{(' ~,p") g , lod; -

fofd; =

, :

, , .
, ro ,
, ,

, "

rr

F -

./

fodo =

' .

35

Ja .

Jr,

-.~ ~ ~J ~~,~2'
' w
. w
r:+ Wy

' ( a;~+wx

, .

dR
=
d-r:

f3 -la, fJ == 5.;.1 -

; l

' '

=------;

\:

'1,

' 1r
58\g~' " )J
I

.1:: :

"

yX+

' w
'

Wr fJzX =Px'g-

w'
w~ + :-w' =
fu + ;f

() ,

(,

, \

f{()) ~6(})

do =O.O2(}~g(p'~P')

,2().

(8.3),

-:--= -=-- .::-

i~~:;:

, Jg(O'~ ") . 8.3.


,

-. dndl =r.p".w"
/

+ .".'
=1

. ('-")

: 10
;

=- - ,
') + 2

1'\ -

'2 -

1 + - - - drvw ,

-.

,.

2 '

\R - ;

~ .r(J~1

R(p'-p")

271 . .

--- -

'

fJ - ;

w,,=-q-; -
"

~;

"

=,+

(-R1+R-1)
2

jl"

. ,
/0'

()- (. 8.3).

, -

D/
dT

-='

, . -

. d 3

divw"=

T\f' - ;g = - do .' (})

Wx

+ oz2

-.

82')1

v Wx

_ ~

(8.2)

< 10.

Wx

Dw' 2 "
d/ =(p'-p")g - 'V, + f'x'V W x

8 +f'xl,J> + 2

: ,

p"dV" ~

fod n

w" )
(;;

(W:.y)?P =

- jl'
-

(w')

;;

(w~,y )

- -

87
,

86

R)

R2-


_

;

.
-
,

-
(2
R

(g(p;p7.) =.!~B; ;. {

r'l'l

%........z )'

. ,

......

. , .

, , ,

. ,

'-"--)

.
~
L: ,L)!Oro

.
.

.

peltl<ll(YIL"\1

,',
,,_"'111-

q~ \..!

/(~!

'18.1/j)~.-----------

- -;I+ I i I I i ~: IL 1 I ! I fl7J
". - tI -J- ---r-~-'- - -L- i -t-l-L - --J.--'-f--- '
'f-J\7-9
i
l'
~ 1:

C'~{,j~_~"!

.','

'-'"l1'\,

."i-

8.4,

=) , .

1: -

);:

5 L\ - n
50-')

-!

~ ~
2

I
-

_1 ~r

- t

r~~

--.

II

J_\

I j
11:
1I1!
I
J __ i -~ ~~- ,---l~_ -1- ~~

+ - ................

-1-.. -

-'-t{

----," -:] -,---,~-,-:- ,--,-,---'---r+--i-~!--'

'17"1'i'

--i , T+t:i: H*~tt,;1f

.\1'..

~ i
, ' :'

(8.4)

rit

!----+-L.
: .,.

"

,;"

".,.1

~ 1
I I

~_-_-_1_1

~ I
I I!

--~

~~~e:!
".;ftJ~ fJ
i

1 i i

,.

=t:=:H"f-l-.,. ,

' 101

+-.'\ ,
i ;

~ __+~:1+=-=-r--1 -'-:.

i+

-4-~i--++i--f- -J-~--!-_ .'


I

1; :

\:

I--l' , if-t-t--t+i -~

lO-J

1"?

:'

2.'

6 8

JJ~

!/:";!

8.4.

Ks = ~ _

-' ,

'1

v-(-~
g -

,
1>laCCOI.",I);- ;

= . qn).

f()

(J'

{!

Cpt"

-=====::" _

.
, , -

.. : Nuucn =[ un . k, 0.63 . k~.s ,

un

_ W;n f
-

---- -

r - "'

(8.5)

g(p'-p")'

N = ' k,0,63 . k~'S ~ 107 ~ = 3,2 .IO-S;n = 0,75;


510 s <N<10 7 ~=2,Sl-2;n=I/3.

8.2.

.
, -

- -

88

89

, '

:
, ,

.. .

w; == V' , V - ;
/

==

7;

V"

f3 = - - == V'+V"

-.(

w~

.. -- ==

Wo+Wo

...

1+_- .

'

GIf= p.w.

w~ w~ p'.w' p"w"
.

p'w

G
Wo = - - == - - , .
'
fp'

G"
i -j'.
= G'+G-;; = -CMr - '

w~ + w~.

g[(I_ )'+' ,,]_

iA.'( dl)

V"

11

- Wo

wc-w =

".i .

- ;
- ;
- ,

'

. '('Ii :

/3, .,

, :

oan:\HCOI: . , , " , ' '.,.,,',

='

. . .

fP

==

dn ,,~o

dl )
-

dn n~o

4 == (1- rp)p'.w' W' + rp' p".~"W" "- (w"-w')~(rp. p".w"},1


d mp

)]a(w~.');

[r _ (t _ (

==Jp

(.)

' ( ) "-cd 2 /oza;


f Cp(/] .-/0) +V'f'Z''I]-/

W -w(

~
dt
==-.-.

(.)

Nu = ((Re; Fr; Pr; Kw; Ks; ;

W? " 1/1; "/') .

(8.6)

Wo

(8.6).


, ,
,

,
.

." .. .
,

, : qJ = ("/ (, (" - ,

8.2.1.

Wo
W" == - ;
rp

(.

- : w'= ~
I-rp ,
_ ():

8.5).

, ,

,
W OM H =

w"-w'.

, .

, ., ()

Nu

((Re; Gr; .

- -

90

91

'. ,
''
, , ,
. '

,
,
'l 11 .
/'1
., : :II, .:"
'~'\"',

1\01<' I'II\OCI 11'"

,''-iJ:, .

.."tKp}

St

.. :

'.,

1"'

%III 2
'1 . . (

)--I/)

=I,25. w n }

' ,

,,3J2

=0.65 J+I,510 -8lwc... r.p

Il

(8.8)

.- (8.5).

~

,

>

-.
.



, -

~;~ -

05

/ .
/

, )--I/J

J( )0,5 '

.
(8 9)

(8.7)

. "1,5 =!!...
(
. K~ = ; -
~
[ "
Cp'P"Wc '
g.p'

;,n = n ( ;:) ( P~:.''') 0,5 = ,. ;'. Jg ~P'

....

. . 8.5.
i - -

1-3 .

O
Nu,
NU., = 6150. N ,7 ,

.. ..

--q-(,%,
,)1.45(_r_._
"

.
r ,pw

N -

'

. N :::;0,4105 ~ Nu un = NU6,K;
.

,
! ,

. ,

(8.5).

.;:

- ) 1, ,
, ,
, . ,
,
. .

.
.

. ,

( 50 /),
.

8.2.2. ~


6(

86)

. . .
,

()
.
v

,,

0-'

'"

00

"

~.

'
'

....

00
00
00
'

'

"

"

.)

/>. 6}

"
- n,

6)

.)

;
,
",
:

:o~

1)

..

.'

..
"

"

00

8.6.

'

<

!)

- ; -

- :, - -

n-

- -

92

93

9.

, , ,

- , .
(6) , .

. .
;

, -

).

!>,~:, (), (),

. ,

. .

1,"

.10:()

'.;Utlll I't',hII\1 ().

,-"'- -.-.---.::;::::=;:::=::::;:=======----'1
'1

.
. .
,

:1

. ,
- .
. > 900

-2
-3
'" 4

1,1
---_.]

,20

,40

160

180

200

. 8.7. ~~~~;

.

8;7

Re

! . ,

20

, ,

(
NIi" =I,165R
. .'

1 6_4)r . 4 ( r,
.';

JO.25 .~

(;

(8.1 )

(,,21
Nu. = g j- ; = 0,8 + 1,0 -

Re > Re Kp Re Kp = 2200r-.

, ,

ILH,j

l~t=.1tI(

':t

f: c.....I:II"IH--:-+.......c2.;.---~--~-_!-'.:1t,.

.
.

. 9.1.

, CJ"tecu

. ,

. ,

, , :

~ , ..

(; -t.
q

R=--=-=R,

-, -.:

- -

95
94

. = .

R
(.

9.1). ,
> 1rf
,

1 -1

R = __ _

=- '" R '

i8

Re = - - ,
v

w-

ll/8

,2 '3
- 9434 ,. .g.
- ,
'

'\;.~ :'jlblICMOM ; 8- ;
. tb

Re < 400,
Re = 0,95 z/,
(9.2)

.
110

, = [ (;{) ;;; J . (9.2) -

R.

z < 2300,

v-

KOjij;;.JI , :.ta.

... ,

(9.3)

z > 2300 , ..
- , -

Re = [89 + 0,024(PrjPrJO. 25.PrHO,5(z- 2300)J4I3,
(9.4)
; , - ,

. ,

. R. :

l .. \{

Re"p

400.

R< = 0,56l(-.---%~).
P'g
v

G = '.; . f

= '.; . 8 . /!<'

/!. - -

R-

4/';,t'R

G = q. F = qx/!z .
,
,

Q = : = q - = aL1tP.

= /';,t." R(g/2)l/ __'- = ' R

/v

'.,

. v'

= Re '., . v .

4
=,
, . p'v'

Re
=-- .
/';,[ . .

(9.1)

Re

, -

Z: z

g -

3
g.~ =;
v

V. '
2)1 3 - - ,

( )1/3 ' - -, - .
= ~
v2

'pv

z < 2300.

=/ -[

z=/';,[Ga

1/3

'

--=/';,[.

,p'v'

[M'~ ]
10 3

[~]

80
34,5

90
42,7

1~110
51,5 60,7

120
70,3

130
82,0

140 ' 150


94,0
107

160
122

170
136

180
150

190
167

12,9

14,02

I
4,88

5,57

6,28

6,9517,65

8,47

9,39

10,15

11,09 12,04

,p'v'

- ; r -

; ' - ; /';,/

.
;

= ( g

; ' -

; .'

'J0.5 {~
p'.g

d <2

Re

, .

. (9.7)

'.,

rp'v'

'.,

Re= w8 =~=a./';,[.x.

(9.7)
:

W.8 =~.

(9.6)

. :

'./!.

(9.5)

(9 .1) = '. R . Re = ,
p'rv'

. , i 8 = ~.

= ..m ;VCOSqJ


.
, .

- -

96
. :::

1.

2. . ::~
,
,

30 %.
.

3.

, .

3 %,

1"l'

. ,

H,~11

1;

!"1 1 % 60 % .


. ~


(), () ,
,

, , lK;/~J.

J,

] = dJ

dF

F,

(10.1)

..'= Id'P
)
.
v

'

J'., =-D-'
n

(10.2)

},=_PD
,

- ,

, [/']; ,

.
= -.-!...

/'

/n

, -

, .

, ,

.
, .

~ , . - ; - ,
D

(10.2); D' = R. - ,

. D pl

D , .
D = Dp ] . R, - = Dp2 . R2 -

Dp !
Dpz

Rz

,
Mz

--:= -:= - ,

R,

.
_"
.

( ). ,
,

.
.

.
.
,

j, = - D'

10.1.

! . , /

" Bhz

(10.2) :

10. -

, [ : ' J; -

!~ .

6.

97

B;"

(10.3)

.
-

; . ;

D -

, ,
, (
) - .

.
,
. ,
, .

I1 -
,
lIp :
JMA; =-(D''Vm, +
'V(+ ~'Vd),
(10.4)

- -

99

98

Dr

= kr .D -

, ;:; D

D -

, .;: - .

(10.4)

- ,

- ;
-

(10.4) ,


r!>,I,.

':,'

J = J.! + jkj

2Vt' -

j.,
(Q
- +Qjy,
- +oj"
- =-d"IVj,. (108)

J; ii , i -

m
jx,i = -. D & ; + - ; . W x.

= -2Vt + - i i + ~>.,; . ii

; -

m + (w
)
=- - D -2-'
; __ + W - '
2

(10.8):

(;

, J-pm.dlvw.
.-

p-=Dv - w -+w --+w


,

Z

= const --+ - mjdivW


m;'

= .

'

-+w -+w -+w -=DV ,

.

z Z
1

DmiT =

1 .9)

v 2 m; - (

).

Wx

= w y = w, =

m, = DV 2 m

, :

ij

(10.6)

w-.

-=-

Ojx
: -'-'

(10.5)

i-ro

jk

i ' .~r\!!'\' . -

,l, CBII.:kIHbJ': .
.<1':1:

, d v d ,

,=-

D
k]' = -Dr - ; k = _
D
D

(10.9)
(10.10)

'

(10.7)

w.i - ;

(10.1 )

= .

j --; . ii - .

10.2.2.

10.2.
10.2.1.

. .

. 0- .

D .

i-ro dM x ; = j x,;dy. dz dT

d,

_ =

dM x+dx,; = jx+dx.idy dz dT.

dM xi -d+dx,i - -fudx.dy.dz.d

Bj,;

= ----;;-dv.d.

10.1.

, dM i

{Q

Oj.

'

= -( ~ + ------!::'- + ~ )dv dT .

(2.8)

J'" -divq .

oq + _
oq '
_ + _

(10.7) q

_ Oj,.i

dy, dz (. 10.2).

dy, dz (. 10.1).

. .

= -2-t:.t+ pwi+ Iji.


.

qx
, at
( w -+1oi .wx ) + I j. i .
-=-IIo-+

,'
2

10.2.

- -

101
100

. z
divw=O, :
' , ,
-d' - =
IVq

JI3yIO -:

II

( ?_.8)
.

(-divq)

ai . 21- (W
a-+W
i
ai
1
-=-\7
-+w
-ai ) --div"'}"",'

(10.11)

L,..,

(1011)

, -

. (10.11) P~: = A.\l21-divLjj i


(10.12)
i i,
j

: i =

L m,i; . , di; = - d = L ; . ,
dm

(10.14)

(10.14) (10.12), :
DI - ,,..,21 d'IV",.
d'"
L,..}; '1; + ",.
L,..lj /};
. dr

(10.15)

. dr

-/I,V

divLj; . i j

: - divL]; . i j = - L i j . di..yj - L]; . gradij .


(10.16) :

p,CP~:=A..\l21-LCPj' ]\71.

(10.16)

] = -D \lm, .

(10.16): - (, - 2 )], .\11

= (, -

I - ,
~

(10.19)

13 - , -

, !,
,

.
(10.18) j;.c =f3 ' ' ,

(10.20)

f3 - , -

: ' = ~.c

~,o ; = pp.R.T .

. .
- .

, .
. ( )
(10.21)
.
1 ( n J
:

}n.

= -' D - .

-1- ,
.

~ , ~TO -

, :

"

- f3(;. - mj,o),

lo4 . ,

P- =P,Cp-d -Lijdivjj'

j jw =

(10.18)

=-divjj, (10.8) (10.13),


Di
al

j;w = f3(;, -bj,o),

, -

di = ' " . Di;


",. Dm; _ ~
Dt
. ,
DI
,
dr PL,..m, d +PL,..'; d -L,..mj-d +PL';--' =pCp-+"'i.--'.(10.13)
r
r
r
dr
dr
L,.., dr
P~

qw = a(lc -(0)'

J W.< ai + wy ai + Wz Zai) - L}.<;I


.. ..
. . \721 _ I-'~
+ }yjlj + az Ljz;i; ) . -

- . -

2)' D \lm, . \11 .

f3=_D_1_ ( / )

(10.22)

. n.-n.

, .
,

!I

DI
2
(
)
. ' dr =A..\I 1+\Cpl-C p2 PD\l ml\l1 .

(10.17)

, , -

, .

10.3. -

.. ~
. -

10.4.


(.l0.3).

~~_ -=---=-~-:...

- -- -. 10.3.
n

;. "

- -

102
.

103

; ~ miO; :

- ' 'F ;

f:Jf!6 6 ,,;

(10.26)

= 0,47 - ; = 0,53 - ;
= 0,82 - ; ~ 0,0 1- 0,56 -

= .

J w ! + w ,)
=_ Jj
1.

Nu ~ ReO,5

_ n. - n
"D - ---="--------"'''

(10.23)

Re ~40+350 N ~ 0,52 ReO,5 (;r~77r;/13.

- dH ;

J,., -

j-ro

Jyj =-(D+f:/):"

(;1 -

, %
10.5.

11.1.


. ,
, - ,

= .r(Re,Pr). : NUD = rp(Re,PrD)' f qJ -

NUD =

f~1 - Nu;

PrD =

/'i>; ~

Le-

- -.

. , ..
0,4 40 . ,

, .

- ,

11.

(10.24)

. ,

). -

, . ,

, ,

{wy.c

7'

, .
(

, , ) ,

W x; -

, - .

(, )
, ,

10.6.-

t-t w

L R = Rk + R + RD =Ilf; Rk -

; RD ~

(10.25)

; R
t o-t
n.

n.

a(tn.o - tnJ+ (n - n.)

. -

t)o

17

QD - :
QA +QR + Qn ~ Qo. QA + QR + Qn = 1,

Qo

QR

-Q -

.' R R k R RD, R - 6.
.

- ), .

( . .11.1), QA , QR -

--;

, .

, (

, [/ 2] .
Qo, -

qc=

.
. ,

Re = 350 - 4800 :

QQA

Qo

Qo

'
'

. ......Q.-

' Qo
k D.

, + R + = 1.

. .:

- -

.."

..

104

105

= 1; R = ; D = - .

R = 1; = ; D = -
.

- .

D = 1; R = ; = -

. ()

, .

: ). = f(;) ,

[/(

mo . ,

: = )'.
- .

= -

5,67.
(] 1.5)

, ,

].

- (.

11.3).

. ,


, , , .

),.-5_
__c-,-l_

. -

2/

"

(11.1)

7' -1

, 13

. 11.2 = const . - .

.
, .

(112)

9'0 == 5,67.108, [/ ]

, -

- .

=q=- [%2}

(11.3)

..

(11.6)

= .
q = .

(11.6)
=

.4 = . [/ ]
-1] = 6,494'I
1
. /2'

'/"0

),.5(/;..{

~,'

. ,

11.2.3. -
, 1 2

AE~ ~. I:.

. ,

r;

=[ d),.= [

> .

(l-) , - .]]..

11.2.2.

k . . == 2,,.
9 [
]

t :d,1,

= 1,

- , ' ! =5 944.1017
'"
[ -2] - ~ ;
; =
I 2 ! " , 5 7 6 _
1,4388.10' ,[."] - ]] 2 3

.
. ..

(11.4)

11.2.4.

: = / = / . = . 5,67()(} .

). = d~),. -
2.)=/ 3

, = coC~0)4 , == 5,67, [BT/~.OK4] -

, :

J J .2.

11.2.1.
.

/ = .

(11.7)

(11.7)

/! = /} = / = ... = ,/ = ; = (.
(11.8)

,

(11.8) ,

- -

107

106

11.3.

(11.8),

, ,

/ ! = 2/2 = = ... = .
(11.9)
(11.9) ,

: :
=l

+ (l -

j}2

= 1 -

= ] -

, 2 " =

; 2 , [/]

. ,

(11.9):

= -; 2 = 2 . ..,

(11.7) -,

= ; .,

(1 1.8) .

/. = 2!. / 2!.

= .., =

11.2.5.

= {(,) .

(11.10)

- ,
. ,

.
.

.
. E~ -

~-t-

__

rp -

()

dE n ,

dQ", =. dQcosrpdF,

(11.12)

dQ~ - dF. (1 1.12)


..
, dF j ,

-:

, =! =.!- c(.I.-J4
=!.. (.!-)4
., 100
100'

E jA 2
!

,
,

()
()

(l-A2J .

} (l-2Jj

(d)

} (l-2J(l-j)

()

! (l-:;}(l-- j)2

} (l-A2J2(1 - A j)

(g)
(h)
.

11.5.

1r

q 1,2,
, 1
, -, , , , -

()4
dQrp =-
dQcosrpdF].
100

(11.13)

, .

..: ! (l + + 2 + ...)(1 -:;} j,


< '1,
2

= (l-2J(l - A j).

(d), (h)
.

: 1+ + + ........ = - - . (d),
I-P
E](I-A 2)A]
I-P
:

(j)

2 ,
A]I+P+P + .... ---
I-P

(k)

7(

1r

2.

. 11.4.

d,Q ..

Tj; E j; A j; 2; 2 ;

11.4).

, -

1r

Ej

.. .

dF} dF2,

1r

(.

11.5).

! (l-Ai(l- Aj)Aj
(11.11)

""

(.

2)_

q1,2

=,

] (1- 2 ) 1 _ 2 . ,
1-

1-

(1)

- -

108

(1)

= / + 2 -

+A/A~

-"'.

, ,

1-

1 - (1 -

/), :
ql2 =

] 2-2]
] + 2 -

109
-cl-(IL)4
100 _(!l-)4]
100

ql,2 ()

=Cn[C~oJ4 -C~oY}

, =] .co(~)4
100 2 =2 . (!L)4
100

" - =n 'co[(~J4
100 _(!LJ4]
100 = [(!LJ4
100 _(!LJ4],
100 [/ 2] ,
= -,--~- 1/ + '
_1
. , / 2

= +
]

q,2 =Cn[C~oJ4 -U;J1

()

- -

8n

1/

. QI,2
1

+F
1

/81

/F2

: q/.= q,2, -

(i--

='8 n

)
1

. .Fp[C~]oJ4 -C;0)4}'J.2 ,

(11.14)

- ; -

C~loJ4 -C~0)4 =C~0)4 -~J

()

q.

() ,

,[/ 2 ].

C~0)4 =~[(1~0)4 +C~oJJ

()
-.!. [(~J4
100 _(!L)4]
100 . ()

() (), ql. -_ q2, - 2 n


() (),
.~

q/,

=1/2ql,2.

. ,

, .
(n+ 1) . ,
, .

82

; /.2 -

- ,
, ,
. ' .

" n

11.6).
/, " 2

(.

12 , :

, ., , ,

(), ,

, . -
, , ,

, -

.
:

11.4.

11.5.

11.6.

, , .

. ,

, ,
,
. -

- -

111

~.

110

& -g ()4J4

.
.

&8

1-(;fJ

- ). ]. ,

, ). = !('

12.

pl).

, ,
. ,
pl, .. ). = !(' pl).

.
,12

'
. ..


.

; = fE A ,d),.
At

, .,

12.1.

- ,
.
1 , , , , -

Et:.).

'" LEu ,

: (), (. 12.2),

o.,~.
ikHlt/>Je
:

: qg.c '" > {( ;;0)4 -AHC~0)4] , (11.15)

XtJI&/<!i/J
Ca~1jX

!~, ..,

[:~":._=::;;=

qg,c - ,

, [/ ] ; E~:= 0,5(& + 1) - ;
= (,,:> + f 2 -, 8) ~ tg, '

; -

, ;

2 -

- ;

fJ - ,
Ag = ) + 20 -

j ;

=f . 2

( \0,65 .
t", ; ,,:> := ":2 ~
02
20

2;

t c - ;

t c - ;

-= g

= Ag

g"'g=.

e~,

: qgc ; 'E~ .co[(!L)4_(!L)4],


[/"]:
100
100
,

12.1,

: 1-; 2-nm;

, ,

:=

12.2.

3-um

'. ,: ~ :~

(. 1 2 . 1 ) . '

- - ,
, -

(11.16)

-r ().

- , .


, ,

- -

112

.

,
,
(
).

.."

113

: dQ

,
.

(12.7) 6,1 k

.
DIJl . k
.
,

1
k:: - - - - - 1
n (j'
1

-+:L
~ +) 1=1/ ; 2

Q = ) . 1 '1]

= 2 2 ,

(12.1)

- i' i ", /; G

, ; 1]n - ~' , -

i; -i;;

; : 1 =
= const di = cpdt, (12.1)
Q=G1 'Cp1~;

-1;'han :: 2 'Cp2~; -1;),

6,! 2 ::

i;., i;.

(12.2)

11 12'

W = G.c p

(12.3)

( 12.2) ,

ot

j -

w r" -t~ &2 ,


_1 = -~--" =W2

(] -1{

(12.4)

(, )

r-

Q = k(/,

- (2)F ,

IIpIIMOOK; ,

- (. 12.3).

t'

(.

12.4).

'~~<~ I'~hj'<"';I
~
,~~
t,:
t
1/;,
{: __ "

1,

'-'

_..----LE

'

'r

.
t1

12.3.

. 12.4.

(12.4) ,

r . /) ,

Ec:n

&1

( )

6,; ::

6,l .

= I(t),

(12.2)

(12.7)

, .

Q-

(12.6)

= k 6,1 . dF .

() ,

, /;

Q= Jk.6,l cp dF .

ra:

12 -

: , ..

12.2.

JJJ10. , (12,5) -

, ,

1[

1,

; F - .
JI
t, t2 ,
, =11 -12'

(12.5)

(. 12.5).

Melfra dF :
dQ .. k(1\ - (2)dF = k dF .

dt/, - dt2' dQ =- W,.dt, = W2.dt


\ .. _ dQ .

'

dl _ dQ
2-

'

- -

]]4

1] 5

d(tr- 12)=dl,-dI2

"I 1)dQ==-mdQ,
=-1-+,W, W

- .

m=(J..-+~).
W, W

JJ

d(l) == -m.k.dF

=.!.(lll61",).

= . ,

(12.13)

- , .

12.6

(12.8)

e=f(P,R);

6I x=M'e- .


d(l]

1; -1;'

&,

'"

.~'.:'

~/f--+-+-\*4--+'''~,.........j+-~

O,11--4-.oj\-JI-C-++-+\+4'++1--+t-~

lt;'

t'

At"

L--rr~

fJ,61-f-#-t!-r+--*-4-it-l

o,s p\:---,,J.,-,IL-~U-IU::-~....J,~-:-:L,-J

!_] .

",

~,~~~E::OO

-12)= < dQ, ==(...!... __


W]

&2

11)

F (. . 12.3).

== -W2 dI 2 ,

,; - (~

",-,--, =-- R'=-"--"==-;&J==IJ-I j &2==12-'2-11 -12 ~Imax


12 -12 &2

(12.8) ,
; .

dQ==-W. dl]

(12.12)

.)

f-=-m.kIdF
AI'

<2

. 12.5.

61
!t;t==-m.k.F.

const.

(,

k .
,

, d(""')

dl =

Jtol: -

dF.

(12.8),

bl~l",

dQ

-/2)= < kblx

, ,

= ,

d(t!

(12.11)

W2

() W) < W2 (> ).

W/ > W2 ( < ) -61 .

""/ = (t) - ),
(12.8). F

F : ==;- .dF .

==- fe-mkFdF=~(-mkF _]).


F

mkF

(12.9)

(12.9) (12.8).

=~(M -!J=61-bl'
In

bl,

'

/'

In 71:11'

(12.10)

" .

"-'
6- / =
- - - = 61 - ""/...
JnblX, t /
11...

12..

= f(P,R)


kF
W/Wz - ,
WJ
/1,,( ,
.

(12.11)

12.3.


1f .

- -

116

117

, ,

, .

J{1'e

IM

+ IMM + IMy + Ibl'c

(12.15)

7:z > 30,

ffJ -

q = - -

. . : q =qu(.~JI()n

, - .


I. . .

r;

[] / .. . - : , 1988.-233 .

2. . ., . , . . [] /

(12.17)

. . , . , . . - .: , 1981.- 416 .

. . .

.0:.,

60 < (l/d) < 1500 ---+

1500<~)<3'104

---+

= 2,3;

= 0,3.

, 1956.- 392 .

1
q - .,------,-;; - (1,8ZlgRe -1,64)2

(12.18)

ffJ -

p.w 2

= (I'-z-

, [],

/3.

; = q()/'r

5. . ., . . [] / . .
., . . - .: , 1973. - 320 .
6. :
[] /. . , . . , . . .; ,

. . . _ 2- ., . . - .: - . . . ,

(12.19)

[]: . ./ .. , .. , ..

. -3- ., . -.: , 1986.- 352 .


4. . . [] / .. .- .-.:

=0,535;=0,1.

(12.22) .

'1]

n c(pe~Tm(%)-o.062.

an ,

ffJ = 1,5.

ffJ = 1.

V_ , 3/; G - ~,
/; - , ; - , /; 1] - -

(12.16)

1]

64(1'

w --

r; - .
r;


.
_GM , []
N
--- ,

[ < 30d - -

(12.21)

q = const.

[]

r; - ,

-: g.~p.h,

[- ; d = ~ - ; f -
;

(12.20)

, g - IC ; "+,' - ,.""
- -

2 . wi - , . wf, [],

h _ ;. -

; - ;

(12.14)

/. pw
; =; jd-z-' [],

2 - .
1,
~

- .

, .

bl' =

1997.- 683

- -

- -

120

10
10.1
10.2
10.2.1
10.2.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6

11
11.1
11.2
11.2.1
11.2.2
11.2.3
11.2.4
11.2.5
11.3
11.4
11.5
12
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4

96
96
98
98
99
100
101
102
102
103
103
104
104
104
104
105
106
107
108
109
111
111
112
115
117

- -

. .
n. 08.04.2008. 684/16. ..N'2 1. .

.-..

7,5. .-.JL 7,5. 100 IC. .

!! 40, . rbS~.

rpa n -

,
,4

198095, ., .