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..

--

2015
- www.phoenixbooks.ru

373.167.1:51
22.1729
444
18

18

..
/ .. . . 5-. / : , 2015. 190, [1] .
( ).
ISBN 978-5-222-24751-8
, .

, , , .

373.167.1:51
22.1729



,



:
12.02.2015.
84108 1/32. 2.
3 000 . .

344011, . --, . , 150.
E-mail: morozovatext@aaanet.ru

ISBN 978-5-222-24751-8

.., , 2010
, , 2015

- www.phoenixbooks.ru


(R) ,
(Q)

m , m
n
, n
.

m
, m ,
n

n .

1
= 0, 333... = 0,(3).
3

2 = 1, 4142135...


(Z)

- ,
, , - .
, 0.
(Z)

(N)
{1;2;3;4...}.

0
,


a + 0 = 0 + a = a.


,
{...3;2;1}.

N Z QR
3
- www.phoenixbooks.ru


,
(=).
. ,
2 + 2 =4 ( ), 3 1 = 5 ( ).
,
(<, >, , ).
. ,
2 + 1  4 ( ), 3 1>5 ( ).

1. = b, b = a

1. a > b, b < a

2. a = b b = c, a = c
( )

2. a > b b > c, a > c


( )

3. a = b, a + c = b + c

3. a > b, a + c > b + c

4. a = b c = d,
a + c = b + d

4. a > b c > d,
a + c > b + d

5. = b 0, ac = bc

5. a) > b > 0,
ac > bc
) > b < 0,
ac < bc

6. a = b c = d, ac = bd 6. a > b (a > 0, b > 0)


> d (c > 0, d > 0), ac > bd
7. a = b, an = bn

7. a) a > b (a > 0, b  0),


a2k > b2k
) a > b, a2k+1 > b2k+1

4
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8. a) a = b (a  0, b  0),
2k
2k
a = b
) a = b,

2 k +1

a = 2 k +1 b

9. a = b, a 0, b 0,

8. a) a > b (a > 0, b > 0),


2k
2k
a > b
) a > b,

2 k +1

a > 2 k +1 b

9. a > b (a > 0, b > 0),

1 1
=
a b

1 1
<
a b

10. ab = 0 ,
(a = 0
b = 0)

10. a) ab > 0 ,
a > 0 b > 0 a < 0 b < 0
) ab < 0 ,
a > 0 b < 0 a < 0
b>0

11.

a
= 0 ,
b

a = 0 b 0

11. a)

a
> 0
b

, a > 0 b > 0
a<0b<0
)

a
< 0 ,
b

a > 0 b < 0 a < 0


b>0



a1 + a2 + ... + an
n
a1, a2, , an
An =


Gn =

a1a2 ...an

a1  0; a2  0; ; an  0
5

- www.phoenixbooks.ru


a+b
 ab
2

a +b+c
 abc
2

a  0; b  0

a  0; b  0; c  0

a1 + a2 + ... + an n
 a1a2 ...an
n
a1  0; a2  0; ; an  0


1
 2.
a

2 (
a = 1).
a > 0, a +

1
 2.
b

(2) (
b = 1).

b < 0, b +


a, b, c
a2 + b2 + c2  ab + ac + b


a > 0 r > 0
(1 + a) r > 1 + ra
6
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a1, a2, , an, b1, b2, , bn
(a1b1 + a2b2 + + anbn)2  (a12 + a22 + ... + an2 )(b12 + b22 + ... + bn2 )
, ai bi
( ,
a
a a
, 1 = 2 = ... = n , -
b1 b2
bn
, , 0, (a1 = b1, a2 = b2, , an = bn).


. -

, , , .

| 7 | = 7; | 9 | = 9;
| 0 | = 0; | a4 | = a4 ; ( a4  0)
a p a > 0

| a | = 0  a = 0 =

a  a < 0

a  a , 0
a  a > 0
=

a  a < 0 a  a - 0

7
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b
|
B

a
|
A

| a | = OA; | b | = OB
| a b | = AB

, .

a b a b .

1. | a |  0

2. | a | = | a |

3. a  | a |

4. | a b | = | a | | b |

a a
=
(b 0)
b
b


, (
).

5.

6. | an | = | a |n
7. | a |2 = a2
8. | a |2k = a2k
8
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9. | a + b |  | a | + | b |
| a1 + a2 + + an |  | a1 | +
+ | a 2 | + + | an |

10. | | a | | b | |  | a b |  | a | + | b |

( ).

1% a =

1
a
100


1.
p% a=

p
a
100

. 7% 600.
7
600 = 42.
.
100

2.
p% -
b,
:
b:

p b 100
=
.
100
p

. , 40% 16.
. x
:
40
x = 16,
100
40
= 40.
x = 16 :
100
9

- www.phoenixbooks.ru

3.

a
100%
b

. 25 200?
. x :
25
x=
100 = 12, 5 (%).
200

b.

. -

(

).
a c
=

b d
a : b = c : d (a, b, c, d 0)

a d ;
b c .

.

ad = bc

a=

bc
bc
; d=
d
a


,
.

10
- www.phoenixbooks.ru

b=

ad
ad
; c=
c
b

:
a c a b
= ; = ;
b d c d


,
.


,
, .

d c d b
= ; =
b a c a

(a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2

(a b)2 = a2 2ab + b2

a2 b2 = (a + b)(a b)



.
11

- www.phoenixbooks.ru

(a + b) =
= a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3;
(a + b)3 =
= a3 + b3 + 3ab(a + b)

(a b) =
= a3 3a2b + 3ab2 b3;
(a b)3 =
= a3 b3 3ab(a b)

a +b =
= (a + b)(a2 ab + b2)

a3 b 3 =
= (a b)(a2 + ab + b2)

(a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 +
+ c2 + 2ab + 2ac + 2bc



,

.


,

.

.

.


.

12
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( )
(a + b) n = an + c1an1b + c2an2b2 + + cn2a2bn2 +
+ cn1abn1 + bn,
1; c1; c2 ; ; cn2 ;
cn1; 1 , .

(a + b) 0

(a + b)
(a + b)

(a + b)

(a + b)

(a + b)

(a + b)

1
1
1
1
1

2
3

4
5

1
3
6

10
15

1
1
4
10

20

1
5

15

1
6




,
,


.

. (a + b)5 = a5 + 5a4b + 10a3b2 + 10a2b3 + 5ab4 + b5

x
:
P(x) = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + + anxn,
0, 1, , n .
13
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an 0, n- x.
anxn (an 0)
P(x), a0
.

.
1. 24x 3 x 2 + 15 .
2. x2 16 .


. -

A(x) B(x)
Q(x),
A(x) = B(x)Q(x), ,
A(x) B(x).
A(x ) = B(x ) Q(x )

.
x2 1 =
= (x 1)(x + 1),

A(x) = x2 1 B(x) = x 1
(
Q(x) = x +1).

() = + 5 + + 8 20
() = 2 + 2 + 3

1.
.

14
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4
3
2
2
x + 5x + x + 8x 20 x + 2x + 3
x4 + 2x3 + 3x2
x2 + 3x 8

2.
.
3
2
3x 2x + 8x 20
3.
3x3 + 6x2 + 9x

2

20
8x

.
8x2 16x 24
4. 15x + 4
: 4
3
2

x + 5x + x + 8x 20 =
2
2
= (x + 3x 8) (x + 2x + 3) + 15x + 4

. .
,
,
.


P(x) x a
P(a).
.
x = P(x) (. . P() = 0),

x .

P(x) = x5 + 2x3 + x 2
1 (1),
(1) = 0, . .
.

15
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

0 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

- www.phoenixbooks.ru

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