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. , . . . .: - . -, 2009.
138 .

() STATISTICA
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. 122

.: 15 .

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. .,
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, 2009


...4
1.
StatSoft STATISTICA 6.0 ... ... 6
2. STATISTICA .. 8
2.1. 8
2.2. STATISTICA. ..14
2.3. . 17
2.4. 20
3. .......26
3.1.
.31
3.2. .64
3.3. ,
.. .78
4. ...90
4.1. .

90
4.2.
.. 100
4.3.
.. .106
4.4.
.. 116
......124
... .. 125
1. 1.126
2. 2 128
3. ..130
4. ..131
5. t- Studenta.132
2

6. ...133
7. F-.135
8.
....137



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1.
StatSoft STATISTICA 7.0

Windows-.
Windows (, Microsoft
Word, Excel), ,
STATISTICA . (, Adobe Photoshop, Illustrator). 100.

. 1.1. STATISTICA.

(. 1.1.), :
1. Open a STATISTICA Data File1 STATISTICA.
2. Query an external database .
3. Open a Report STATISTICA.
4. Open a Workbook STATISTICA.
1


.
6

5. Open a Macro STATISTICA.


6. Open a Data Miner project .
7. Consult Electronic Textbook
.
8. View movie .
9. Most recently used filed
.
10. Dont show this dialog again ,
.
, . Dont show this dialog again . , Excel, 10 10
(. 1.2.)
, (. 2). ,
, , .

. 1.2. STATISTICA.

2. STATISTICA
2.1.

. STATISTICA . ,
File New (.
2.1.).

. 2.1. STATISTICA File.

:
1. Spreadsheet ( ).
2. Report .
3. Macro (SVB) Program .
4. Workbook .
8

5. Browser Window .
(Workbook) .
,
STATISTICA, , , , Microsoft
Office.
. Spreadsheet (. 2.2.).

, .. (number of variables)
(number of cases). ,
.
( ). ,
(Placement). In a new Workbook, ( ) . As a stand-alone window .
. Case name length , MD Code
(
), Default data type
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, ), Variable length , . Display format
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.
, ,
.

2.2. STATISTICA.

, , (. 2.3.).
Workbook1. , .
(, , ). 10


(. 2.4.).

. 2.3. STATISTICA .

. 2.4. STATISTICA .

11


.
File Save
as (. 2.5.).

. 2.5. STATISTICA.

, , ,
: ST, , , , :
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, ST193077/1 , 3077/1, 19
(. 2.6.).
12

. 2.6. STATISTICA.

. 2.7. STATISTICA File.

13

, *.stw. STATISTICA , . , File/Open


Windows ( 2.7, 2.8.).
(*.stw,
*.sta, *.stg).

. 2.8. STATISTICA.

2.2. STATISTICA
, STATISTICA
Windows-.
.
STATISTICA:
1)
Windows;
14

2) DDE
STATISTICA ;
3) .
Microsoft Excel.
File Open. STATISTICA (*.sta, *.stw, ..).
Excel
Excel Files (*.xls), xls
(. 2.9).

. 2.9. .

, , Excel (Import all sheets to a Workbook),


STATISTICA (Import selected sheet to a Spreadsheet) (.
2.10.).
15

. 2.10. .

,
,
Excel (.2.11.).

. 2.11. .

, , :
16

- , (Columns: from.. to; Rows: from.. to);


- Get variable names from first row Get case names
from first column , STATISTICA Excel .
- Excel (Import cell formatting). OK (. 2.12).

. 2.12. .

2.3.

( Enter,
).

(. 2.1) [12].
, () , 86 (. ).
Workbook1.stw ,
Var1 (. 2.13.).

17

. 2.13. .

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

45,4
55,3
47,6
46,8
41,6
39,4
31,7
37
37,3
46,5
30,2
38,3
52,5
43,4
41,8

46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60

18

49,8
41,3
52,6
45,6
53,5
50,9
45,1
51,1
43,9
43,3
57,8
65,3
41,9
43,2
36,6

43,9
41,5
28,8
45,3
46,6
51,0
50,0
36,0
48,4
41,7
44,3
44,9
45,8
26,0
35,0

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

50,0
59,8
44,6
44,7
47,7
43,1
55,1
62,2
49,2
33,5
42,3
40,9
49,6
61,7
51,4

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

2.1
2003 ().

61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75

42,2
47,4
38,2
56,2
48,2
47,3
56
45,8
63
66,7
45,1
54,8
49,9
56,9
50,1

76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86

48,5
57,1
42,8
36
47,4
49
74,1
49
49,5
56,5
51,6

2.1,
STATISTICA ( ,
, Copy) Microsoft
Excel (. 2.14, 2.15.) (
, ).

. 2.14. .

. 2.15. Microsoft Excel.

19

2.4.
,
. ,
, , , .

.
. (. 2.16.), (Add Variables) (Add Cases).

. 2.16. .

, , , 1. .
( 2.17.).
, Var2. >> <<, Cancel
,
. ,
, .
Display Format ,
(General), (Number). , ..
( Decimal places) (. . 2.17.).

20

. 2.17. .

. 2.18. .

21

,
.

Add Variables (. 2.18.) (
, , ).
After, , (. 2.19.).

. 2.19. .

22

,
.
,
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, ,
, Copy
(. 2.20.).

. 2.20. STATISTICA.

Paste ()
(. 2.21.).
. ,
10 15.
Case Management/Delete cases (. 2.22.). From
case , ;
23

To case ,
(. 2.23.).

. 2.21. STATISTICA.

. 2.22. .

24

. 2.23. STATISTICA.


: Vars Cases (. 2.24.).

. 2.24. .

25

3.


. , , ,
, . , , ,
. [4]
!!! ,
.
,
, .
Data Sort
(. 3.1.). , Sort cases.

. 3.1. .

26

Add Var(s)
Var1 (. 3.2.).

. 3.2. .

Direction () :
- (Ascending);
- (Descending).
Sort by :
- (Numeric);
- (Text).
Create new spreadsheet ( ) ,
Var1 , . , , .
Copy formatting to new spreadsheet
,
.
27

Remove Var(s) Remove All ,


, .
.
.
Var1.
Workbook1. Add to Workbook

(. 3.3.). ,
( ).
,
( ) ( (. 3.4.). STATISTICA:
( ).

. 3.3. .

28

. 3.4. .


, .
Delete . () ,
, (.
2.4.).
,
, STATISTICA , , .
,
, 85
(. 3.1).

, ,
, .. . Create new
spreadsheet (. . 3.2.).

29

. 3.5. .

30

!!!
STATISTICA -
,
Alt F3. . , .
, , .
,
.

3.1
,

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

26
28,8
30,2
31,7
33,5
35
36
36
36,6
37
37,3
38,2
38,3
39,4
40,9

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

41,3
41,5
41,6
41,7
41,8
41,9
42,2
42,3
42,8
43,1
43,2
43,3
43,4
43,9
43,9

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

44,3
44,6
44,7
44,9
45,1
45,1
45,3
45,4
45,6
45,8
45,8
46,5
46,6
46,8
47,3

46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60

47,4
47,4
47,6
47,7
48,2
48,4
48,5
49
49
49,2
49,5
49,6
49,8
49,9
50

61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75

50
50,1
50,9
51
51,1
51,4
51,6
52,5
52,6
53,5
54,8
55,1
55,3
56
56,2

76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86

56,5
56,9
57,1
57,8
59,8
61,7
62,2
63
65,3
66,7
74,1

3.1.

,
. . , (., ,
[6,7,8]).
31

. ,
(Sturges H.A., The choice of class
interval. J. Amer. Assoc. 21 (1926))2 (3.1), , .
, ,
,
.
:

k 1 3,322 lg N 1 1,44 ln N ,

(3.1.)

k - ; N .

,
.
:
;
(..

). , , , , .
, , ,
, .
: Statistics/Basic Statistics Tables (. 3.6.)

, ( )
.
Sturgess formula .
32

Frequency tables ( ) (.3.7.)


.
, Variables (. 3.8.)
, , (. 3.9.)
Quick
, Advanced
() (. 3.10.).

. 3.6. Basic Statistics/Tables.

33

. 3.7. Frequency Tables.

. 3.8. Frequency tables.

34

. 3.9. .

. 3.10. Advanced Frequency tables.

35

,
,
:
1. Summary
.
2. Cancel .
3. Options :
3.1 Close Analysis - ;
3.2 Creat macro - ;
3.3 Output - ,
.
, Output ,
,
(. 3.11.).

. 3.11. Output.

36

. 3.12. .

Use global Output settings ( ),


STATISTICA,

(. 3.12.).
Place all results
.
Individual window -
;
Workbook - . :
1. Workbook containing the datafile
, .
2. Multiple Workbooks .
37

3. Single Workbook ,
.
4. Existing Workbook
.

(Workbook containing the datafile).
( ) Place results in Workbook automatically,
.
,
, . Also send to Report Window
. New results go to top ( ),
.
, ,
.
. (Summary: Frequency Tables) , (Histograms)
.
, (. . 3.10.).
.
1. All distinct values , ,
With text labels, ,
.
2. No. of exact intervals ,
, ,
.
3. Neat intervals; approximate no. ,
, , , .
4. Step size ( ) (
38

starting at, at minimum).


5. Integer categories , .
6. Specific grouping codes (values) User-specified categories .
(2), (. . 3.10.).
Options (.3.13.).

. 3.13. Options Frequency Tables.

39

,
. Cumulative frequencies ( ), Percentages (relative frequencies) ( ) Cumulative percentages ( ). , , .
Count and report missing data (MD) , , .
Summary, (. 3.14.).
(. 3.10.) .

.

. 3.14. .

40

,
(k = 15, k = 10 k = 8).
)

. 3.15.
2003. : ) k = 15, ) k = 10.

41

. 3.16.
2003. k = 8.

, 8 . k = 15 . 10 ( ) .
(From To)
( )

ximin x ximax
;
Count (fi ), .. , ;
Cumulative Count ,
. ,
() ,
. (85);
Percent ( , wi ; ), :

42

wi =

fi

100 ,

(3.2.)

i 1

f i i - ;
k

i 1

wi , ..
,
;
Cumulative percent - ,
, , 100%.
, ..
,
.
,
.
, .
: ,
, . , STATISTICA
,
,
, . Box-andWhisker Plot, Hanging Bars.
Count . Graphs of block
data/Line Plot: Entire columns (
) (. 3.17.).

43

. 3.17. , .

. 3.18. (k = 15).

44

. 3.19. 2003. (k =10).

. 3.20. 2003. (k =8).

45

, Percent, Cumulative count , Cumulative percent


.

. 3.21.
2003. k = 10 ( ).

. 3.22.
2003. k = 10 ( ).

46

. Histograms Advanced Frequency Tables (. . 3.10., 3.23.), .


(. No.
of exact intervals, Options).

. 3.23. Advanced Frequency Tables.

(.3.24., 3.25., 3.26.) (


).
, , .

47

. 3.24.
2003. : ) k =15, ) k =10.

48

. 3.25.
2003. : k =8.

, STATISTICA .
. , . ,
.

Graphs/Histograms (. 3.26, 3.27.).
, ( Variables) Var1. Normal ( ), . , Categories ( )
. Advanced (. 3.28.),
(Graph type):
49

- Regular ;
- Multiple ;
- Double-Y ( ).
(Showing type) :
- Standard ( ).
- Cumulative .
- Hanging Bars . . 60.

. 3.26. .

Break between columns


, .
Show percentages .
Y axis
( Regular Multiple):
N ;
% ;
N&%, %&N .

50

. 3.27. .

Fit type . Descriptive statistics


, Total count . Intervals Categories .

51

. 3.28. .

Options 1 Common title


. . (. 3.29.)

. 10. , Categories.
, ,
. .
52

. 3.29. .

. 3.30.

53

2003. (k = 15).

. 3.31.
2003. (k = 10).

. 3.32.
2003. (k =8).

54

STATISTICA .

(Graph Properties
(All Options)) (. 3.33.), , 17 (. 3.34.). . , Graph Titles/Text : , ,
, . Plot: General
, , , . Windows- (Word,
Excel).

. 3.33. .

55

. 3.34. .


, .

, ,
"Box-and-Whisker Plot" " ".
,
.
Graphs/2D Graphs/Box
Plots (. 3.35.). (. 3.36.) ( Graph Type
Box-Whiskers). ,
Advanced (. 3.37.). Variables (. 3.38.).
Var1 Dependent variable.

56

. 3.35. Box-and-Whisker Plot.

. 3.36. Quick 2D Box Plots.

57

. 3.37. Advanced 2D Box Plots.

. 3.38. .

,
Grouping intervals ,
Fit Multiple box layout,
58

(. . 3.37.). .
Middle point Value Style. ( )
:
- Mean ;
- Median .
:
- Point ;
- Line .
Box. Value , . Coefficient ,
.
, :
- Std dev ;
- Std error ;
- Conf. interval ;
- Min-Max ;
- Constant .
, :
- Min-Max;
- Constant;
- Percentiles .
Whiskers.
. , Value
Box,
Non-outlier range, .
.
Coefficient ,
Box.
Outliers,
( )
:
59

1. Outliers , (,
).
:
- , ( + *( ));
- , ( *( )).
Coefficient
Outliers.
2. Extremes , 2.
, Options 1
, .
(. 3.39.) ,
.
90 ,
Graph Properties (All options)
(. 3.40.).

. 3.39. Box & Whisker Plot Var1.

60

. 3.40. .

. 3.41. 90 .

61

Graph layout: Axis position


Standard Reserved, . (. 3.41.).

. 3.42. Box & Whisker Plot 90 .

"Box",
- .
(Mean),
x (Mean SD).
x 1,96 (Mean 1.96 SD).
, , (, )
, .
Box & Whisker Plot (.
3.43.). , . . 62

"". "" 1,5 : (Q3-Q1)1.5.

. 3.43. Box & Whisker Plot.

"Box-and-Whisker Plot" , , ,
.
, ,
. "Hanging Histobars"
Hanging Bars ( ). , "HH-" ( 3.44.).

63

. 3.44. Hanging Bars Var1.

HH- , , , "" (Hanging) , .


""
, 0. "Hanging
Histobars",
,
. ,
. , .

3.2.


, 64

, , .

: , . : , , , .

: , , .
(). ,
, [. 6,7,8].
STATISTICA,
, ,
.
Statistics, Basic
Statistics/Tables (. 3.45.).

. 3.45. STATISTICA Basic Statistics/Tables.

65

, ,
Descriptive statistics (. 3.46.).

. 3.46. Basic Statistics/Tables.

Descriptive statistics , .
, .
, Variables ,
, Var1
( 3.47.).

66

. 3.47. .

. 3.48. Descriptive Statistics.

67

(. 3.48.).
, , :
1.Summary .
2.Cancel Descriptives statistics.
3.Options
:
3.1 Close Analysis - ;
3.2 Creat macro - ;
3.3 Output - ,
.
Descriptive statistics.
Quick - ,
, :
1.Summary: Descriptive statistics
Summary .
2. Frequency tables
.
3. Histograms .
4. Box & whisker plot for all variables .
Prob. & Scatterplots, Categ.plots, Options
. ,
3-D . Box & whisker
plot.
Advanced (.
3.49.) (), Summary
Quick .
Advanced , .
( Select all stats),
, , .
68

Reset. Summary: Descriptive statistics Summary.


,
.
,
.
, . Data (. 3.50.).
: Data /Transponse/File.
!!!
, . ,
.

. 3.51.

. 3.49. Advanced Descriptive Statistics.

69

. 3.50. .

. 3.47.
2003.

70

:
Valid N ( ).
Mean :

1 n
xi ,
n i 1

(3.3.)

x - i- ;
i

n (Valid N).
Geometric mean :

~
x n

(3.4.)

n ,

(3.5.)

i 1

Median :

x x
M

n
2

n
1
2

M e x n 1 , n .

(3.6.)

Mode () ( Multiple ,
).
Frequency .
n

Sum :

x .
i 1

71

Variance :

1 n
( xi x ) 2 ,

n 1 i 1

(3.7.)

x - .

Standard deviation () :

(3.8.)

Standard (Standard error) () :

(3.9.)

Minimum : x min .
Maximum : x max.
Range : R = x

max

xmin .

(3.10.)

Lower (Lower quartile) () :

Q1

xi x j
2

(3.11.)

n
j ceiling ,
4

n 1
,
i floor
4

floor ;
ceiling .
72

Upper (Upper quartile) () :

xi x j

Q3

3n
3(n 1)
i floor
, j ceiling .

4
4
Quartile (Interquartile range) : Q3 Q1.
Skewness :
n

n ( x x ) 3
A
S

i 1

(n 1)(n 2) 3

(3.12.)

Std.err. (Standardized skewness) :

A
6
; t AS s .
n
AS

AS

(3.13.)

Kurtosis ():
n

n(n 1) ( x x ) 4

3(n 1) 2
Ex

.
(n 1)(n 2)(n 3) 4 (n 2)(n 3)
i 1

(3.14.)

Std.err. (Standardized kurtosis) :

EX

E
24
; t EX x .
n
EX
73

(3.15.)

, A E , s

. n (Snedecor G.W. , Cochran


W.G.)3
.
, , : n 10 , n 50 , n 100 .
1

, n , '

( A )
s

''

( A ).
s

As'

( xi x )3

i 1

; As''

n ( x x ) 3
i 1

(n 1)(n 2) 3

(3.16.)

n
1
, .
n
(n 1)(n 2)
n
1
= 0.1000,
= 0,1389.
n
(n 1)(n 2)

n
1
= 0.0200 ,
= 0,0212.
n
(n 1)(n 2)

n
1
= 0,0100 ,
= 0,0103.
n
(n 1)(n 2)


.
.

Snedecor G.W. and Cochran W.G. , Statistical Methods, Sixth edition,


Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1967.
74

, (
):

100 (%)
x

(3.17.)


.
,
.

, ,
,
(. 1).
.
:
k
'

x f
i

i 1

f
i 1

fi ,

(3.18.)

n;

x 'i :
'

xi
x

min

ximin ximax
2

i- ;
75

(3.19.)

ximax i- .
:

M e xMmin
e

1 k
f FM e 1
2 i 1 i
h
fM

(3.20.)

xMmin

h ;
f M ;
e

FM

() , -

.
:

Q1 xQmin
1

1 k
f FQ1 1
4 i 1 i
h
fQ

(3.21.)

(3.22.)

Q3 xQmin
3

3
f FQ3 1
4 i 1 i
h
fQ
3

Q1 Q3 ;
76

min
x min , xQ ;
Q1

h ;
f Q1 ,Q3 ;
F

Q 1,Q 1
1

() , -

.
:

M x min h
o

Mo

fM fM
o

( fM fM
o

) ( fM fM
o

(3.23.)

xMmin ;
o

f M o ;
f M o 1 ;
f M o 1 ;
h .
:
k
'

(x x)
i

i 1

i 1

x'
i

fi
,

(3.24.)

i- ;

x .
f i i- .
77

,
(. 3.2).

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

3.2
,



STATISTICA

3.3. ,

, ,
, . , .
, .. ,
Statistics/Distribution Fitting (.3.52.).
, ,
.
:
- Continuous Distributions ;
- Discrete (. 3.53.)

,
, . 78


.
,
.

. 3.52. .

. 3.53. Distribution Fitting.

79

(. 3.54).
( Variable = Var1),
Distribution . Quick
Summary: Observed and expected distribution ( ) ( Summary
) Plot of observed and expected distribution ( ).
. .
Parameters
(. . 3.51.):
1. Number of categories . ( ,
, k = 8).
2. Lower limit .
( k = 8 ).
3. Upper limit . ( k = 8
).
4. Mean .
5. Variance .
Options (. 3.56.).
- (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test) (Chi-square test/Combine categories).
-, ,
( ),
, .
4 [4, . 301-302]. , ,

., Excel. ..: , 2008.- 608.: . ( ). 308.


.., . - .: , 1969.-576. . 157-158.

80

,
.

2 - (Chi-square test)

[8].

. 3.54. Quick Distribution Fitting.

Chisquare test/Combine categories. (if expected


bin-frequency is less than or equal to 5, then combine with adjacent bins)
,
,
'

f i 5 ( 7 10). , , 5,
. , .
( )
.
Graph (, , ) (. . 3.56.).
81

. 3.55. Parameters Distribution Fitting.

. 3.56. Options Distribution Fitting.

Chi-square test
,
(. 3.57., 3.58., 3.59.). :

82

0
i 1

'

( fi fi )2
,
'
fi

(3.24.)

f i (Observed Frequency);

f i ' (Expected
Frequency);
k .

. 3.57. Var1.

. 3.58.
Var1.

. 3.59. Var1.

83

Distribution Fitting, Var1 .


, ,
[7, 8].
.
:
f x

1
e
2

x x
2

, x ; .

(3.25.)

( 4):
t2

1 2
(t )
e ,
2

(3.26.)

x ;
x ;
;
e, ;

xx
.

f'
i

Nh
(ti ) ,

N ;
h - .

84

(3.27.)

. 3.60.
Var1.

. 3.61.
Var1.

85

. 3.62.
Var1.

:
Chi-square test ,
d.f. (adjusted) :

d . f .(r ) k l 1 ,

(3.28.)

k ( );
l ,
(, l 2 , )
p .

86

3.3

r
3
2
5

02

3,19542
4,34274
52,61178

,r

7,815
5,991
11,07

P( 2,r 02 )
(
)
0,36247
0,11402
0,00000

, 02 , (
) P ( 2,r 02 ) .

2 ,r , (-

0,05 ).
:
1.

02 = 3,19542< 02.05;3 = 7,815


P( 2 0, 05,3 02 ) 0,36247 0,05,
Var1 .
2.

02 = 4,34274 < 02.05; 2 = 5,991


P( 2 0, 05, 2 02 ) 0,11402 0,05,
Var1
.
3.

02 = 44,03609 > 02.05;5 = 11,07


P( 2 0, 05,5 02 ) 0,00000 0,05,
Var1 0,00000 . ,
87


.
.
3.4

ximin

ximax

xi

'

ti

02
i (t ) f i

i0

3.5

88

02

2 ,r


. 3.63.

. 3.63. - .

89

4.
, , :

;
, , .
STATISTICA
,
.



( ) .
.

4.1. .

,
. - , ,

.
. , ,
:

t2 2 N
n= 2
,
N t 2 2

(4.1)

N ;
t ; ;
90

;
, , 1/6 (1/5) ;

;
;
.
,
.
,
. , , , .

(
).
!!! 2-
1-
.
,
Use as
Active Input (. 4.1.). , .
Data () Subset/Random Sampling (/ ).
(.
4.2., 4.3.).

91

. 4.1. .

. 4.2. .

92

. 4.3. Simple Sampling .

(. 3.4.) (
Variables = Var1), . Cases ,
,
, ,
/ . , Simple Sampling ( ) Options for simple sampling (
) Case selection condition ( ). 93

, Cases . .
Systematic random sampling (
).
.
(k =)
.
Split node random sampling ,
Approximate N (%).
, . ( ),
( ).
( ),
( Options).
,
Simple random sampling.
,
, .
Options (. 4.4.). Copy formatting to new Spreadsheet cases ( ) .
Use case selection condition Simple Sampling. Use Diehard-certified random number generator (note: this algorithm is slower) , ,
.
Calculate based on percentage of cases Calculate based on
approximate N
, . .
Use spreadsheet case
weights as case multipliers in random sampling
(. . 4.4.).
Stratified Sampling .
94

. 4.4. Options .

Simple Sampling Simple


random sampling Approximate N (. 4.5.)
STATISTICA (. Approximate) ,
. , STATISTICA : , . . ,
.
95

With
replacement, .
, , , , Approximate N, , .
.

. 4.5. Simple Sampling c


.

, ( ),
.
96

, (.4.6.).

. 4.6. .

. 4.7. .

97

,
Add to Workbook Workbook1 (. 4.7.).

.
(
) ,
, .
,
,
( ) (. .
4.1.). . .

( - 6)
.
. , : .

.
( ),
( 6).

. 2.4.
, (, ) (.
4.8.).
. , .
,
( ). ,
, .

98

. 4.8. .

. 4.9. .

99

. 4.10. .

, .
Delete, (. 4.9., 4.10.).

4.2.

,
, , , . .
Statistics
Basic Statistics/Tables. t-test, single
sample, t-
(. 4.11.).
(.4.12.)
Variables ,
,
(. 4.13.).

100

. 4.11. Basic Statistics and Tables.

. 4.12. t-.

101

. 4.13. .

Summary: T-tests Summary t .


Reference values , .
Test all means against,

. Test means against different
user-defined constant, Specify, . . ( Box & whisker plot
, .).

102

. 4.14. t-.

Advanced. , ,
. p-level for highlighting ( )
.
0,05 ( 0.05 ), .. 0.95 ( = 0.95)
(. 4.14.).

103

. 4.15. t-.

Options Compute conf.limits; Interval


(95%). Display long variable names (. 4.15.).
Summary.
:

. 4.16. .

104

(Variable)
().
Mean .
Std. Dev. ()
.
N .
Std.Err. .
Confidence -95,000% 95%.
Confidence +95,000% 95%.
Reference (
).
t-value t-
.
df ( n 1).
p t-.
, : ,
. , ( 95%),
(: Confidence -95,000% Confidence +95,000% . 4.16.).
:

~
x x ~
x ,
x ;
~
x ;
.
:

t ,

(4.2.)

t (
);
- , :
105

2
,
n

(4.3.)

n ;

2 - .
1, , :

42,97439 x 49,52035 ,
: 95% ,
2003.
. ,
(n=43)
:

45,26299 x 51,43003 .
4.3.


(
). :
H0: Mean = 47,10465,
47,10465 ( ). t-,
:

106

|~
xx|
.

(4.4.)

, , t .

:

t t ,
.
STATISTICA : , t- .

P ( = 0.05).
, P > .
1:

| 46,24737 47,10465 |
0,550288,
1,557877


t 2,101 .
, :

t 0,550288 t 2,101 .

. ,
(P) c ( ):
P = 0,58886 >

107

= 0,05.



. 4.16
, .

.
4.1

4.2


t-
t-


.
, , , .
:

0 : x1 x2 .
, :
108

0 : x1 x2 0 .
:
? .
. ,
, , , t-, .

.
, , : ~
xi ~
xk Max.
- 1 5.
Statistics/ Basic Statistics/Tables, t-test, independent, by variables (t-
) (. 4.17.).

. 4.17. Basic Statistics and Tables.

109

. 4.18. t-.


Variables (groups) (. 4.18,
4.19.).

. 4.19. .

110

Quick
Summary: T-tests Box & whisker plot.
Options. (p-level for
highlighting), , , = 0,05.
(Display long variables
names) (
Levenes test Brown & Forsythe test ,
) (. 4.20.).

. 4.20. t-.

t-test with separate variance estimates , ,


, .
,
. ,
: Data/Transpose/File (. 3.2.).
111

. 4.21. t- .

:
Mean -

1
~
xj
nj

ij

j = 1,2 ,

(4.5.)

i 1

x - i j ( i = 1,,n , j = 1,2)
ij

t-value t-,

~
x1 ~
x2
,
1 1
p

n1 n2

~
x1 ;
112

(4.6.)

~
x2 ;
, 0
( = 0). :

~
x1 ~
x2
.
1 1
p

n1 n2

(4.7.)

df , ( n1 1) (n2 1) ,
n1 - ; n2 - .
p t-;
Valid N ;
Std.Dev. - :

~ ~ 2

1 j
( xij ~
x j )2 ,

n j 1 i 1

j = 1,2.

(4.8.)

n 1 ~ n 1 ~
2

n1 n 2 2

~12 ;

~22 .

113

2
2

(4.9.)

F-ratio F- ( ), :

~ 2
F ~12

(4.10.)

F-.
, t-test with separate variance estimates,
. (.
. 4.24, , :
t-separ t-
. , .
df - t-
:
n1 n2
2
~12 ~22

n1 n2

df = m
2,
2
2
~12 ~22

n1 n2
n1 1
n2 1

(4.11.)

, n1 = n2

2n 2
m n 1 ~2 ~2 .
1 2

~ 2 ~ 2
2

m
, .
p t- .

114

. 4.22. t- .

, t

t .

46,247 49,158
1,139 .
1 1
7,876

19 19
t- t 36 ; 0 . 05 2 , 028
t

0,05, - 36).
, t 1,139 t 2,028 , , .
:

p 0,2627 0,05 .
115

4.4.


STATISTICA. , , ,
,
. , , , .
,
.
. Workbook/Insert (. 4.23.).

4.23. .

116

STATISTICA document
( 4.24.).

. 4.24. .

Create new ( )
Spreadsheet (. 4.25.) .

. 4.25. .

117

(.
4.26.). .

. 4.26. 1010.

9 , : (..), (.. 1-6) (..


1-6) (.. 1-6) , . ,
(. 4.27.).

. 4.27. .

118

Graphs/2D Graphs/Range Plots ( ) (. 4.29.).

. 4.28. .


Whiskers, ,

. Mode (range values) (Absolute) (Relative to Mid-point) (. . 4.29.).
Variables, Mid-point . Max : , . Min . (. 4.30.).

119

. 4.29. .

120

. 4.30. .

. 4.31. .

121

Advanced Multiple plot layout


:
(Shifted), (Overlaid). (. 4.31.).
Option 1 Custom Title (.
4.32.). .

. 4.32. Options .

122

. 4.33.

, ,
, ,
. , , , , ,
.

,
.

123


, -,
STATISTICA,
. -, .
,
, .
STATISTICA
,
.

124


1. . ., STATISTICA.
: / . . . 2- .
. : 2003. 688 .
2. . ., - . / . . , . . . 2- ., . . . : , 1979.
477 .
3. .., : . / . . , . . , . . . . : -, 2002. 416 .
4. ., : . / . .
. : , 1976. 597 .
5. . ., . . : . / . . , . .
. . : , 2005. 128 .
6. . 4- .: . / .
. . : . , 2004. 1312 .
7. . - : . /
. . . : . , 2002. 1056 .8. .:
/ . . .. . .: , 2005.
. 448.
9. . : . / . . . . . :
, 2005. 560 .
10. : . / . . . . .
2- ., . . . : -, 2006. 476 .
11. Abridged from Table 12 of Biometrika Tables for Statisticians,
Vol. 1, edited by E.S. Pearson and H.O. Hartley (London: Cambridge University Press, 1962).
12. M. Merrington and .M. Thompson, Tables of Percentage Points
of the Inverted Beta (D-Distribution, Biometrika 33 (1943): 73-88. Reproduced by permission of the Biometrika Trustees.
13. . - .
2006: .. ., 2004. . 981.
14. www.statsoft.ru ( StatSoft Russia STATISTICA).
15. www.exponenta.ru (
STATISTICA).
125

1




,
,
,
,
.
, , ( ), . , .
,


. , , .
. .

, , , .
1.
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, , ( ),
.
126

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;
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2.
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3.
: , , , .
4.
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5.
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.

127

2

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, .
,


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1.
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.
: / .
2.
(
STATISTICA) 5 .
128

(. 4 ), , .
3.

( 90% , 95% 99%,
). . ,
;
. .
4.


, ,
( , ); (
) , . .

129

1


: _______

___________________
()
. .
( ..)
: _________________________
( , )

____________________
()
________________________
( ..)
________________________
()

-
200_
130

4
t2

5 f (t )

1 2
e
2

( )6
t
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3.0
4.0

0
3989
3970
3910
3814
3683
3521
3332
3123
2897
2661
2420
2179
1942
1714
1497
1295
1109
0940
0790
0656
0540
0440
0355
0283
0224
0175
0136
0104
0079
0060
0044
0001

1
3989
3965
3902
3802
3668
3503
3312
3101
2874
2637
2396
2155
1919
1691
1476
1276
1092
0925
0775
0644
0529
0431
0347
0277
0219
0171
0132
0101
0077
0058
0043
0001

2
3989
3961
3894
3790
3653
3485
3292
3079
2850
2613
2371
2131
1895
1669
1456
1257
1074
0909
0761
0632
0519
0422
0339
0270
0213
0167
0129
0099
0075
0056
0042
0001

3
3988
3956
3885
3778
3637
3467
3271
3056
2827
2589
2347
2107
1872
1647
1435
1238
1057
0893
0748
0620
0508
0413
0332
0264
0203
0163
0126
0096
0073
0055
0040
0000

4
3986
3951
3876
3765
3621
3448
3251
3034
2803
2565
2323
2083
1849
1626
1415
1219
1040
0878
0734
0608
0498
0404
0325
0258
0203
0158
0122
0093
0071
0053
0039
0000

5
3984
3945
3867
3752
3605
3429
3230
3011
2780
2541
2299
2059
1826
1604
1394
1200
1023
0863
0721
0596
0488
0396
0317
0252
0198
0154
0119
0091
0069
0051
0038
0000

6
3982
3939
3857
3739
3589
3410
3209
2989
2756
2516
2275
2036
1804
1582
1374
1182
1006
0848
0707
0596
0478
0387
0310
0246
0194
0151
0116
0088
0067
0050
0037
0000

7
3980
3932
3847
3725
3572
3391
3187
2966
2732
2492
2251
2012
1781
1561
1354
1163
0989
0833
0694
0584
0468
0379
0303
0241
0189
0143
0113
0086
0065
0048
0036
0000

8
3977
3925
3836
3712
3555
3372
3166
2943
2709
2468
2227
1989
1758
1539
1334
1145
0973
0818
0681
0573
0449
0371
0297
0235
0184
0139
0110
0084
0063
0047
0035
0000

9
3973
3918
3825
3697
3538
3352
3144
2920
2685
2444
2203
1965
1736
1518
1315
1127
0957
0804
0669
0562
0449
0363
0290
0229
0180
0147
0107
0081
0061
0046
0034
0000

10 000
: .., .. - : . 2- ., . . . : , 1979. 447 .
6

131

t - Studenta7
1 - ,

1
2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
40
60
120

.50
.25
1.000
.816
.765
.741
.727
.718
.711
.706
.703
.700
.697
.695
.694
.692
.691
.690
.689
.688
.688
.687
.686
.686
.685
.685
.684
.684
.684
.683
.683
.683
.681
.679
.677
.674

.20
.10
3.078
1.866
1.638
1.533
1.440
1.440
1.415
1.397
1.383
1.372
1.363
1.356
1.350
1.345
1.341
1.337
1.333
1.330
1.328
1.325
1.323
1.321
1.319
1.318
1.316
1.315
1.314
1.313
1.311
1.310
1.303
1.296
1.289
1.282

.10
.05
6.314
2.920
2.353
2.132
1.943
1.943
1.895
1.860
1.833
1.812
1.796
1.782
1.771
1.761
1.753
1.746
1.740
1.734
1.729
1.725
1.721
1.717
1.714
1.711
1.708
1.706
1.703
1.701
1.699
1.697
1.684
1.671
1.658
1.645

.05
.025
12.70
4.303
3.182
2.776
2.447
2.447
2.365
2.306
2.262
2.228
2.201
2.179
2.160
2.145
2.131
2.120
2.110
2.101
2.093
2.086
2.080
2.074
2.069
2.064
2.060
2.056
2.052
2.048
2.045
2.042
2.021
2.000
1.980
1.960

2 -

.02
.01
31.82
6.965
4.541
3.747
3.143
3.143
2.998
2.896
2.821
2.764
2.718
2.681
2.650
2.624
2.602
2.583
2.576
2.552
2.539
2.528
2.518
2.508
2.500
2.492
2.485
2.479
2.473
2.467
2.462
2.457
2.423
2.390
2.358
2.326

.01
.005
63.63
9.925
5.841
4.604
3.707
3.707
3.499
3.355
3.250
3.169
3.106
3.055
3.012
2.977
2.947
2.921
2.898
2.878
2.861
2.845
2.831
2.819
2.807
2.797
2.787
2.779
2.771
2.763
2.756
2.750
2.704
2.660
2.617
2.576

.005
.0025
127.3
14.08
7.453
5.598
4.317
4.317
4.020
3.833
3.690
3.581
3.497
3.428
3.372
3.326
3.286
3.252
3.222
3.197
3.174
3.153
3.135
3.119
3.104
3.091
3.078
3.067
3.057
3.047
3.038
3.030
2.971
2.915
2.860
2.807

.002
.001
318.3
22.32
10.21
7.173
5.208
5.208
4.785
4.501
4.297
4.144
4.025
3.930
3.852
3.787
3.733
3.686
3.646
3.610
3.579
3.552
3.257
3.505
3.485
3.467
3.450
3.435
3.421
3.408
3.396
3.385
3.307
3.232
3.160
3.090

.001
.0005
636.6
31.59
12.92
8.610
5.959
5.959
5.408
5.041
4.781
4.537
4.437
4.318
4.221
4.140
4.073
4.015
3.965
3.922
3.883
3.850
3.189
3.792
3.767
3.745
3.725
3.707
3.690
3.674
3.659
3.646
3.551
3.460
3.373
3.291

: Abridged from Table 12 // Biometrika Tables for Statisticians 1962. Vol. 1 / Ed.
E.S. Pearson, H.O. Hartley. London: Cambridge University Press, 1962.

132

2
(r)
(

.500

.250

.100

.050

.025

.010

.005

.001

r
1

0.455

1.323

2.706

3.841

5.024

6.635

7.879

10.83

1.386

2.773

4.605

5.991

7.378

9.210

10.60

13.82

2.366

4.108

6.251

7.815

9.348

11.34

12.84

16.27

3.357

5.385

7.779

9.488

11.14

13.28

14.86

18.47

4.351

6.626

9.236

11.07

12.83

15.09

16.75

20.52

5.348

7.841

10.64

12.59

14.45

16.81

18.55

22.46

6.346

9.037

12.02

14.07

16.01

18.48

20.28

24.32

7.344

10.22

13.36

15.51

17.53

20.09

21.96

26.12

8.343

11.39

14.68

16.92

19.02

21.67

23.59

27.88

10

9.342

12.55

15.99

18.31

20.48

28.21

25.19

29.59

11

10.34

13.70

17.28

19.68

21.92

24.72

26.76

31.26

12

11.34

14.85

18.55

21.03

23.34

26.22

28.30

32.91

13

12.34

15.98

19.81

22.36

24.74

27.79

29.82

34.53

14

13.34

17.12

21.06

23.68

26.12

29.14

31.32

36.14

15

14.34

18.25

22.31

25.00

27.49

30.58

32.80

37.70

133

6 ()

.500

.250

.100

.050

.025

.010

.005

.001

r
16

15.34

19.37

23.54

26.30

28.85

32.00

34.27

39.25

17

16.34

20.49

24.77

27.59

30.19

33.41

35.72

40.79

18

17.34

21.60

25.99

28.87

31.53

34.81

37.16

42.31

19

18.34

22.72

27.20

30.14

32.85

36.19

38.58

43.82

20

19.34

23.83

28.41

31.41

34.17

37.57

40.00

45.32

21

20.34

24.93

29.62

33.67

35.48

38.93

41.40

46.80

22

21.34

26.04

30.81

33.92

36.78

40.29

42.80

48.27

23

22.34

27.14

32.01

35.18

38.08

41.64

44.18

49.73

24

23.34

28.24

33.20

36.42

39.36

42.98

45.56

51.18

25

24.34

29.34

34.38

37.65

40.65

44.31

46.93

52.62

26

25.34

30.43

35.56

38.89

41.92

45.64

48.29

54.05

27

26.34

31.51

36.74

40.11

43.19

46.96

49.64

55.48

28

27.34

32.62

37.92

41.34

44.46

48.28

50.99

56.89

29

28.34

33.71

39.09

42.56

45.72

49.59

52.34

58.30

30

29.34

34.80

40.26

43.77

46.98

50.89

53.67

59.70

40

39.34

45.62

51.81

55.76

59.34

63.69

66.77

73.40

50

49.33

56.33

63.17

67.50

71.42

76.15

79.49

86.66

60

59.33

66.98

74.40

79.08

83.30

88.38

91.95

99.61

70

69.33

77.58

85.53

90.53

95.02

100.4

104.2

112.3

80

79.33

88.13

96.58

101.9

106.6

112.3

116.3

124.8

90
100

89.33
99.33

98.65
109.1

107.6
118.5

113.1
124.3

118.1
129.6

124.1
135.8

128.3
140.2

137.2
149.4

: Abridged from Table 8 of Biometrika Tables for Statisticians, Vol. 1,


edited E.S. Pearson and H.O. Hartley (London: Cambridge University Press, 1962).

134

7
F-8, = 0.05

161.4

199.5

215.7


4
5
6
224.6

230.2

234.0

236.8

238.9

240.5

18.51

19.00

19.16

19.25

19.30

19.33

19.35

19.37

19.38

10.13

9.55

9.28

9.12

9.01

8.94

8.89

8.85

8.81

7.71

6.94

6.59

6.39

6.26

6.16

6.09

6.04

6.00

6.61

5.79

5.41

5.19

5.05

4.95

4.88

4.82

4.77

5.99

5.14

4.76

4.53

4.39

4.28

4.21

4.15

4.10

5.59

4.74

4.35

4.12

3.97.

3.87

3.79

3.73

3.68

5.32

4.46

4.07

3.84

3.69

3.58

3.50

3.44

3.39

5.12

4.26

3.86

3.63

3.48

3.37

3.29

3.23

3.18

10

4.96

4.10

3.71

3.48

3.33.

3.22

3.14

3.07

3.02

11

4.84

3.98

3.59

3.36

3.20

3.09

3.01

2.95

2.90

12

4.75

3.89

3.49

3.26

3.11

3.00

2.91

2.85

2.80

13

4.67

3.81

3.41

3.18

3.03

2.92

2.83

2.77

2.71

14

4.60

3.74

3.34

3.11

2.96

2.85

2.76

2.70

2.65

15

4.54

3.68

3.29

3.06

2.90

2.79

2.71

2.64

2.59

16

4.49

3.63

3.24

3.01

2.85

2.74

2.66

2.59

2.54

17

4.45

3.59

3.20

2.96

2.81

2.70

2.61

2.55

2.49

18

4.41

3.55

3.16

2.93

2.77

2.66

2.58

2.51

2.46

19

4.38

3.52

3.13

2.90

2.74

2.63

2.54

2.48

2.42

20

4.35

3.49

3.10

2.87

2.71

2.60

2.51

2.45

2:39

21

4.32

3.47

3.07

2.84

2.68

2.57

2.49

2.42

2.37

22

4.30

3.44

3.05

2.82

2.66

2.55

2.46

2.40

2.34

23

4.28

3.42

3.03

2.80

2.64

2.53

2.44

2.37

2.32

24

4.26

3.40

3.01

2.78

2.62

2.51

2.42

2.36

2.30

25

4.24

3.39

2.99

2.76

2.60

2.49

2.40

2.34

2.28

26

4.23

3.37

2.98

2.74

2.59

2.47

2.39

2.32

2.27

27

4.21

3.35

2.96

2.73

2.57

2.46

2.37

2.31

2.25

28

4.20

3.34

2.95

2.71

2.56

2.45

2.36

2.29

2.24

29

4.18

3.33

2.93

2.70

2.55

2.43

2.35

2.28

2.22

30

4.17

3.32

2.92

2.69

2.53

2.42

2.33

2.27

2.21

40

4.08

3.23

2.84

2.61

2.45

2.34

2.25

2.18

2.12

60

4.00

3.15

2.76

2.53

2.37

2.25

2.17

2.10

2.04

120

3.92

3.07

2.68

2.45

2.29

2.17

2.09

2.02

1.96

3.84

3.00

2.60

2.37

2.21

2.10

2.01

1.94

1.88

135

7 ()
8

10

12

15

20


24
30
40

60

120

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

241.9
19.40
8.79
5.96
4.74
4.06
3.64

243.9
19.41
8.74
5.91
4.68
4.00
3.57

245.9
19.43
8.70
5.86
4.62
3.94
3.51

248.0
19.45
8.66
5.80
4.56
3.87
3.44

249.1
19.45
8.64
5.77
4.53
3.84
3.41

250.1
19.46
8.62
5.75
4.50
3.81
3.38

251.1
19.47
8.59
5.72
4.46
3.77
3.34

252.2
19.48
8.57
5.69
4.43
3.74
3.30

253.3
19.49
8.55
5.66
4.40
3.70
3.27

254.3
19.50
8.53
5.63
4.36
3.67
3.23

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

3.35
3.14
2.98
2.85
2.75
2.67
2.60
2.54
2.49
2.45
2.41
2.38
2.35

3.28
3.07
2.91
2.79
2.69
2.60
2.53
2.48
2.42
2.38
2.34
2.31
2.28

3.22
3.01
2.85
2.72
2.62
2.53
2.46
2.40
2.35
2.31
2.27
2.23
2.20

3.15
2.94
2.77
2.65
2.54
2.46
2.39
2.33
2.28
2.23
2.19
2.16
2.12

3.12
2.90
2.74
2.61
2.51
2.42
2.35
2.29
2.24
2.19
2.15
2.11
2.08

3.08
2.86
2.70
2.57
2.47
2.38
2.31
2.25
2.19
2.15
2.11
2.07
2.04

3.04
2.83
2.66
2.53
2.43
2.34
2.27
2.20
2.15
2.10
2.06
2.03
1.99

3.01
2.79
2.62
2.49
2.38
2.30
2.22
2.16
2.11
2.06
2.02
1.98
1.95

2.97
2.75
2.58
2.45
2.34
2.25
2.18
2.11
2.06
2.01
1.97
1.93
1.90

2.93
2.71
2.54
2.40
2.30
2.21
2.13
2.07
2.01
1.96
1.92
1.88
1.84

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
40
60

2.32
2.30
2.27
2.25
2.24
2.22
2.20
2.19
2.18
2.16
2.08
1.99

2.25
2.23
2.20
2.18
2.16
2.15
2.13
2.12
2.10
2.09
2.00
1.92

2.18
2.15
2.13
2.11
2.09
2.07
2.06
2.04
2.03
2.01
1.92
1.84

2.10
2.07
2.05.
2.03
2.01
1.99
1.97
1.96
1.94
1.93
1.84
1.75

2.05
2.03
2.01
1.98
1.96
1.95
1.93
1.91
1.90
1.89
1.79
1.70

2.01
1.98
1.96
1.94
1.92
1.90
1.88
1.87
1.85
1.84
1.74
1.65

1.96
1.94
1.91
1.89
1.87
1.85
1.84
1.82
1.81
1.79
1.69
1.59

1.92
1.89
1.86
1.84
1.82
1.80
1.79
1.77
1.75
1.74
1.64
1.53

1.87
1.84
1.81
1.79
1.77
1.75
1.73
1.71
1.70
1.68
1.58
1.47

1.81
1.78
1.76
1.73
1.71
1.69
1.67
1.65
1.64
1.62
1.51
1.39

120

1.91
1.83

1.83
1.75

1.75
1.67

1.66
1.57

1.61
1.52

1.55
1.46

1.50
1.39

1.43
1.32

1.35
1.22

1.25
1.00

: Merrington M. , Thompson . M. Tables of Percentage Points of the Inverted


Beta (D-Distribution// Biometrika. 1943. 33. 73-88. Reproduced by permission of the Biometrika Trustees. 4 - 8 .

136

137

.
.

( STATISTICA)

020593 07.08.97

005 93, .2; 95 3005

. . . 6084/16.
. . . .
. .-. .
500.

-, ,
.
195251, -, ., 29
1