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. .

2010

517.98
22.162
33
. . .

33

. .

. | : , 2010. | 176 c.
ISBN 978-5-94057-573-3

, 2003 . .
(
-)
. .
,
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22.162



18.11.2009 . 60
.

. . 11.

90

1000 .

1/ .
16

189.



119002, , ., 11. . (499) 241-74-83.
.
, 2- ., . 7.

ISBN 978-5-94057-573-3

. ., 2010

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2.

2.1.
2.2.
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3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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36
39
45
49

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3.

3.1.

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67
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76
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4.

4.1.
4.2.
4.3.

5.

5.1.
5.2.
5.3.
5.4.
5.5.
6.

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C - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

6.1.

C - . . . 87

C -.
| . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3. :
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. . . . . . . 91
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- B (X ) . . . . . . . .
- B (H ) . . . . .
:
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6.2.

7.

7.1.
7.2.
7.3.
7.4.
7.5.

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. 100
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. 105
. 107
. 108
. 114

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

C (X ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
8.3. | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

8.

8.1.
8.2.

........
, , . . . . . . .
- . . . . .
: . . . . . . . . . . . .
L - .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 141
. 149

..........................

C (X )-
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 150
. 152
. 160
. 164
. 170

9.

9.1.
9.2.
9.3.
9.4.

10.

10.1.
10.2.
10.3.

. 127
. 127
. 131
. 135

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174


,
2003 . , , C - (
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[30],
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pirkosha@yahoo.com.

1. :

. , :
, . | . ,
30- . ,
(. . , , ,
, . .) , (,
). , .
, . ;
, , .
,
, f (T ), T : E
E | 1 E ,
f | , -
.
, , ,
: p C[t] | , p(t) = an tn + : : :
: : : + a1 t + a0 , p(T ) | an T n + : : : + a1 T + a0 1E (
1E | E ).
T ? ,
, .
E = Cn , T - :
1.1.

T =

1
0

...

n

1 .

1. :

, p C[t] p(T )
:

p(1 )
0

...
p (T ) =

:
0
p ( n )
, p f , | 1 ; : : : ; n . M C, 1 ; : : : ; n , f : M C

f (T ) :=

f ( 1 )

...

0
f ( n )
T ,
(. . T )?
. L (E )
, E , p : C[t] L (E ), p
p(T ). T .
, p :
1) p ;
2) p (fg) = p (f ) p (g) f; g C[t];
3) p (1) = 1E ;
4) p (t) = T ( t C[t] | ).
1)|3) , p | ,
4) . ,
,
, .

C[ ] L ( ).

T : E E | ,

, T p : C[t] L (E ),
, ' : C[t] L (E ) T = '(t).
. M C, A | -

10

1. :

M ( ), M . r : C[t] A : r(p) = p|M .


.
A : A L (E ),
C[t]

 w

p /
L (E )
w;
w
w
w A

(1.1)

F (M )
M C. , 1.1,
.
1.1. E = Cn . , T
L (E )

1 ; : : : ; n .
M C, 1 ; : : : ; n , (1.1) A = F (M ).
1.1. , M {1 ; : : : ; n }
, (1.1) A = F (M ).
{1 ; : : : ; n }, , | ,
(T ) T . ,
T L (E ), E , , . .  C, T x = x x E .
( E

-; | .) , 1.1 1.1, ;
. - T -

-

,
( ),

T

.
, (1.1). E
( ) , ( L (E ) (1.1) B (E )
E ). A B (E ), ,

1. :

11

- ; , A .
, 1.1, . -, : ,

. , 1.1, ,
, ,
.
| |
, .
, 1.1 .
, H = Cn , T | H ,
, . ( , .) 1 ; : : : ; k | .
: 1 < : : : < k .  R
H () = {x E : T x = x} |
L
. , H =
H () E 6

H .
{H }R , : H H  6 . ,
H = 0  < 1 H = H  > k . , H [i ; i+1 ) (
H ), i :
H (i ). , T
, ,
i

T=

k
X
j =1

j ( E 

Ej 1 )

(1.2)

( E0 = 0). ,
1.1,

f (T ) =

k
X
j =1

f (j )(E

E j 1 ) :

12

1. :

H . . 8 , .
T H
{H }R (, , ,
), , T

T=

 dE ;

(1.2). T

f (T ) =

f () dE :

,
, T ( | !),
.
, , . (- )
. H = Cn . ,

T L (H ) , ,
L
H = H ().
R

(. . )

T=

R

1H () ;

f (T ) =

R

f ()1H () :

, ,

1. :

13

T=
f (T ) =

R
Z

1H () d();


f ()1H () d():

, H () T ( | ); , ,
, H . | .
, Cn
, . | -, , Cn ?
.
1.2. T L (C2 ) -



T = 00 10 :
, (T ) = {0}. 1.1 , , |
. , ,
f (t) = t.
1.2. T | 1.2. ,
1) S L (C2 ), S 2 = T ;
2) , n > 2
S L (C2 ), S n = T ;
3) T (1.1) () A = C (R).
,
,
t . ,
.
1.3. 1) , T 1.2
(1.1) A = C 1 (U ), U R |
.
2) T L (Cn ). , (T ) R. ,
U R, (T ), (1.1) A = C n1 (U ).
n

14

1. :

1.2 , Cn
. , , ,
, . (c ), ,
.

2.

2.1.

, . .
2.1. (, ) C,

A A A, (a; b) 7 ab, (ab)c = a(bc) a; b; c A. ab = ba a; b A,


A . 1 A
, 1 a = a 1 = a a A. ,
, .
, , , .

2.2. A; B | . ' : A B , , '(ab) = '(a)'(b)


a; b A. , A B , 1A 1B | , ' , '(1A ) = 1B .

, , :
. , |
. .
1. 1 C[t].
2. F (S ) ( CS ),
S , .
3. ` (S ), .
S - , F (S ) , ,
2.1 ( ).

1 , | ,
. C , C.

16

2.

. .
4. C () .
5. C (M ) M .
6. O (V ) V .
, , ,
.
7. C(t) .
8. C[[t]] . ,

P
an tn ( an C |

n=0

P

),
an tn
bn tn = cn tn ,
n
n
n
P
cn =
ai bj ( C[t] C[[t]]).
P

i+j =n

2.2 ( ). .
1. L (E ) E .
2. B (E ) E .
2.3. A | . a A , a1 A,
aa1 = a1 a = 1. a1 a.
2.1. , a ,
.
A
. , a; b ,
b1 a1 ab. A Inv(A).
.
2.4. A | . a A ( ), 1
1
a
` A ( ar A),
1
1
a` a = 1 ( aar = 1).

2.1.

17

2.2. 1. a .
1
a
` ?
2. , a , ,
1
1
1
a
` = ar = a .
3. , A a A ( ), .
4. A?

,
.
2.3. 1. C C(t) .
2. p C[t] deg p = 0 (. . p |
).

P
3. a = an tn C[[t]] a0 6= 0
n=0
(!).
4. f F (S ) f (x) 6= 0 x S .
C (), C (M ) O (V ).
5. f ` (S ) " > 0,
|f (x)| > " x S .
6. T L (E ) .
7. E | . T B (E ) .
2.1. . 6, , . 7 |
( ) :
,
.
2.3. . 7, E | (
) ?

, , .
2.5.

A | , a A.
a

A (a) = { C : a 1 }:

18

2.

2.4. A = F (S ), f A.
2.3 (4) ,
 (f ) f 1 x S : (f 1)(x) = 0
x S : f (x) =   f (S ):
, (f ) = f (S ) (
). ,
C (), C (M ) O (V ).
2.2. , C.
, S C, S 6= , S = A (a) A = F (S )
a(t) = t.
2.4. f ` (S ). , ` (S ) (f ) = f (S )
( f (S )).
2.5. 1. C[t], C(t)
C[[t]].
2. A a A, .
2.5. A = L (E ), E |
, T L (E ).
(T ) = { C : Ker(T 1E ) 6= {0}}
| T .
,
.
2.6. , E , , .
2.3. ,
, , E ( ).
, .
2.1. ' : A B | .
(1) a A , '(a) B
'(a)1 = '(a1 ).
(2) a A B ('(a)) A (a).
( ). (1) , (2) (1) a 1.

2.1.
2.4.

19

A | , B A | ,
A, A (b) B (b) b B . , A (b) 6= B (b) (. 2.4 2.4).
2.6. A | , B A | , A. B , , A, B .
2.2. A | , B | . A (b) = B (b) b B .
, | , C () | F (). , S ` (S ) F (S )
(. 2.4 2.4).
,
. ,
-, A | .
2.1. 1 ab 1 ba .
. , A = C, ,
C . , |a| < 1 |b| < 1,

P
c = (1 ab)1 . c = (ab)n . ,
n=0

(1 ba)1 =

(ba)n = 1 + b(1 + ab + (ab)2 + : : :)a = 1 + bca:

n=0

1 ab c = (1 ab)1 .
d = 1 + bca. , d(1 ba) =
= (1 ba)d = 1, . . d = (1 ba)1 .
2.3. a; b A  (ab)
{0} =  (ba) {0}.
. 
= (ab)  6= 0. 1 1 ab
. 2.1 1 1 ba .
ba 1 , . .  = (ba).
2.7. 1. A a; b A, (ab) 6= (ba).
2) , A , (ab) = (ba)
a; b A.
.

20

2.
2.2.

,

( 2.2), ( 2.5).
, , ` (S ) ( 2.4). | ,
.
2.7. | A C, , kabk 6
6 kakkbk a; b A. A ,
, k1k = 1. |
.
kabk 6 kakkbk ( ,
)
,
k1k = 1. ( , | ...) ,
, , |
A .
2.1. E; F | . T : E F ,
, . . C > 0, kT xk 6 C kxk
x E . C T .
2.8. E; F; G | . , R : E F G
, . . C > 0, kR(x; y)k 6 C kxkkyk
x E , y F .
, .
2.2. k k1 k k2 |
E . , k k1 k k2
( k k1  k k2 k k2 k k1 ), C > 0, kxk2 6 C kxk1 x E . k k1 k k2
(k k1 k k2 ), k k1 k k2 k k2 k k1 .
Ti | E ,
k ki (i = 1; 2).
k k1  k k2

T1 , T2 .

2.2.

21

, .

A
A A A

2.4.
| , ,

.
k k0 , .

, , k1k0 = 1.

. 2.8 C > 0,
kabk 6 C kakkbk a; b A. , , k k00 = C k k . , A . a A La : (A; k k00 )
(A; k k00 ), La (b) = ab, kak0 = kLa k. , k k0 .

, .
2.6. | B (E )
E . B (E ) | L (E ).

` (X ), X | , kf k = sup |f (x)|.
2.7.

xX

2.8. | .
C () |
` () , , . , C () | ` ().

C n [a; b] | n [a; b]. kf k =


= max kf (k) k , (
06k6n
n-) . ,
, C n [a; b] .
2.9.

1. C n [a; b] , .
2. C n [a; b], .
2.9.

22

2.

2.10 ( ). X | , 2X | . ,
A 2X -,
:
1) X A ;
2) S A , X \ S SA ;
3) {Sn }
n=1 A , Sn A .
n
A | - X . , f : X
C A -, f 1 (U ) A
U C. BA (X ) A - X . ,
, , BA (X ) | ` (X ) , ,
.
. X |
, A | - , . . -, .
A - ,
BA (X ) B (X ).
, A - ,
. .   : A [0; +), S

P
, 
Sn = (Sn ) n=1
n=1
{Sn } A . (X; A ; ) . (, ) - A , - . - M A , 
- M. X , M,
- . BM (X )
BA (X ), M 6= A . , [a; b], , B [a; b] 6= BM [a; b]
( , ).
2.11 (

L (X; )). (X; ) = (X; A ; ) | -

. , f; g : X C
- ( ),
, . . {x X : f (x) 6= g(x)} = 0.
f [f ].
f : X C ,

2.2.

23

E X ,
(X \ E ) = 0. (- : , .)
f
ess sup |f | = inf {kf |E k : E X; (X \ E ) = 0}:
, ,
ess sup |f | . L (X; ) X .
, M- A -
: , M-
A -. (,
), L (X; ) |
, k[f ]k = ess sup |f | f [f ]. , L (X; ) |
.
, ,
L (X; ), , ,
.
,
. .
2.8. A | .
I A ( ),
ab I a A b I ( a I
b A). , , -

, .

I A | , A=I
,
(a + I )(b + I ) = ab + I .
E | , E0 E | . E=E0 , kx + E0 k = inf {kx + yk : y E0 }. , x + E0 . , , | , . . , E E=E0 ,
x 7 x + E0 , . E=E0 (!).

24

2.

, A | , I A | . A=I |
.
2.10. , A=I . , , A k1A k = 1,
k1A=I k = 1.
, A=I A
I .
2.11. (X; ) | .
I0 = {f BA (X ): f = 0 }. , I0 |
BA (X ) BA (X )=I0 L (X; ).
2.5. f : X C
L (X; )
, (f 1 (U )) = 0 U C.
. , f | L (X; ) , 1=f E X , (X \ E ) = 0.
, " > 0 E |f (x)| > ". ,
U "- C. ,
U ,
E = X \ f 1 (U ).
2.9. f : X C | .  C
f , (f 1 (U )) > 0
U 3 , U C.
2.1. f L (X; ).
(f ) .
2.12. , | C.
, , ,
, . , ,
.

2.3.

25

, , ,
.
2.12 ( ). K |
C, Int K | .
C (K ):

P (K ) = {p|K :

p C[t]} ( C (K ));
A (K ) = {f C (K ): f |Int K }:

, P (K ) A (K ), A (K ) | C (K ).
D = {z C : |z | < 1} T = {z C : |z | = 1}. A (D)
.
2.13. ,
1) P (D) = A (D);
2) P (T) 6= A (T);
3) P (T) A (D) .
2.14. , P (T) (f ) f P (T)
f (T), f .
, P (T) C (T) .
P (T) (f ).

2.3.

,
.
2.1.

A | .

(1) a A, kak < 1, 1 a (1 a)1 =

P
an .
n=0

(2) Inv(A) A.
(3) Inv(A) Inv(A), a 7 a1 , .
n
P

n
P

(1)
kak k 6
kakk , A
k=0
k=0
, , (1) A kak < 1
n
P
b A. n Sn =
ak . .

k=0

, (1 a)Sn = Sn (1 a) = 1 an+1 . n
(1 a)b = b(1 a) = 1, . . b = (1 a)1 , .

26

2.

(2) a Inv(A) La : A A, b 7 ab, A Inv(A) Inv(A).


U Inv(A) A
( U (1)), La (U ) A
a.
(3) , a 7 a1 .
, " > 0  > 0,
ka 1k <  , a Inv(A) ka1 1k < ".
b A,

P
kbk < 1. (1) , (1 b)1 = 1 +
bn , n=1

k(1 b)1 1k 6

n=1

kbkn =

kbk
:
kbk

(2.1)

 > 0 ,  < 1 =(1  ) < ". ka 1k <  , ,


b = 1 a (2.1), ka1 1k < ",
. , a 7 a1
. .
2.15. G | , , G G G ,
G G . , G.

. .
2.10. A | C. A
C .
2.5. , ( ).
2.2. , .

.  : A C ,
, kk > 1, a A, kak < 1,
(a) = 1. 2.1 1 a . ,
(1 a) C. .
.

2.3.

27

2.6. , .
2.16. 2.1 ? 2.2?
.

2.2.
| ,
.
(1) ( ) | C;
(2) ( ), | | 6 k k.

a

 a

a A |

(2). || > kak, k1 ak < 1, 1  a . , a 1 , . .  = (a). (2) , ,


(a). .
' : C A, '() = a 1, ,
C \ (a) = '1 (Inv(A))
' . , (a)
, .
, . , . .
2.11. A | , a A |
. a
.
1

Ra : C \ (a) A; Ra () = (a 1)1 :


2.2. Ra C \  (a), lim Ra () = 0.


. Ra Inv(A) ( 2.1). ,

kRa ()k = k(a 1)1 k = ||1 k(1 1 a)1 k:


 , |
. .
, ,
.
2.12. E | , U C | . ' : U C ,

28

2.

'(z ) '(z0 )
z0 U zlim
.
z0
z z0
' z0 '0 (z0 ).
2.7. ' : U E | , f E f ' : U
C (f ')0 (z ) = f ('0 (z ))
z U . (. .
f ' f E '),
.
2.6 ( ).
a ( ) a ( ) = ( ) a ( ) a ( ).

R 

R 

 R R 

.
a 1 a 1.

Ra z C \ (a).

2.7.
0
C \ ( ), a
( ) = a ( )2

a

R z

R z

2.3. , |: E |
, x E , x 6= 0,
f E , f (x) 6= 0.
2.3. .

. ;  (a) = . f A 'f = f Ra : C C. 2.7, 2.7 2.2 , 'f |


, . 'f 0. f , | Ra () = 0
 C. , Ra () . .

2.4 (, ).
| (. . ,
).
C.

2.4.

29

. a A.
(a) 6= , a 1  C. A | ; , a 1 = 0, . . a = 1.
a A A = C1, .
2.17.

| -

2.4.

.
A | , a A | .
.
2.13. a
p : C[t] A,
p (t) = a.
2.8.
.

f
f (a).

a A a
C[t]

p (f )

2.5 ( ).

= f ((a)) f C[t].

(a) 6= , (f (a)) =

a ;:::;a

2.3. 1
n | . 1

1
n
n .

a :::a

2.18.

a ;:::;a

2.19. 1. , a1 ; : : : ; an .
2. , dim A < a1 ; : : : ; an .

. deg f = 0 (?).
deg f > 0.  C
f  : f (t)  = c(t 1 ) : : : (t n ), c 6= 0. ,
{1 ; : : : ; n } = f 1 (). f (a) 1 = c(a 1 1) : : : (a n 1),

30

2.

2.3 ,
 (f (a)) f (a) 1
i : a i 1
 (a) f 1 () 6=  f ( (a));
.
2.20. .
1. a; b,
[a; b] = ab ba 1.
2. , L (E ), E | ( | ) .
2.8. ,
. , q p
[q; p] = i~1, ~ | .
,
( ).
, .
(, , ), ...
.
2.21. 1. A | , a A | . , (a1 ) = {1 :  (a)}. (,
, (a1 ) = (a)1 .)
2. E | , T B (E ) | . , (T ) T.
.
M C R(M ) C(t), M .
,
R(M ) = {f C(t): p; q C[t]; f = p=q; q(z ) 6= 0 z M }:
, , A | , a A | .

2.4.

31

2.14. a M r : R(M ) A,
r (t) = a.
a M , .
f R(M ) r (f ) f (a).

2.6.

, ( )
; .

a

( ). ,  (a) M .
f R(M ) f = p=q, p q | q M .
, q(a) A . r (f ) = p(a)q(a)1 . , r : R(M ) A |
. r (. 2.1 (1)). (a) M .
2.9 ( ).

, R(M ) | C[t] S = {q C[t]: q(z ) 6= 0 z M }.



, p (q) A q S .
| , , 2.6. ,
, .

2.7.
| ,
C | .

{a A :  (a) M } 

R (M ) A

, ,


, ,
,
: ( )
( ), ( ) = .

a A

 RM
A
z M
f R(M ) z M . f f = p=q,
p; q C[t] q M ,

t

tz

32

2.

f (z ) = p(z )=q(z ). f~ M ,
f~(z ) = f (z ) z M . f 7 f~
R(M ) CM . , , M ;
R(M ) CM .
2.22 ( ).

6=

(a) M . , (f (a)) = f ((a))


f R(M ).
6=

2.10. , f R(M ) , f (z ) 6= 0 M , . . f~ | CM .
R(M ) (f ) = C (f~) = f (M ):
M

M = (a). (f (a)) = f ((a)) :

A ( r (f )) = R((a)) (f ):
, r (,
; . 2.1 (2)). .
2.5.

A | , a A |
.

r a) = sup{|| :  (a)}
a A.

2.15. (

(a) | C, . , 2.2 (2)


, r(a) 6 kak.
, A = ` (X )
a A r(a) = kak.
| C () BA (X ).
2.13.

2.23.

C n [a; b]?

, r(a) = kak L (X; )?

2.5.

33

2.24. A = B (Cn ), Cn
. , T B (Cn ) . ,
r(T ) = kT k.
2.14. A = B (C2 ), T 

0
1
T = 0 0 (. 1.2). (T ) = {0}, r(T ) = 0;
, kT k 6= 0.
, , .
2.25. A | , a
A | (. . an = 0 n). , (a) = {0}.
2.4. , |.

| ,
| . ,
( ) C
.
.

fM

A |
a A
r(a) = nlim
kan k1=n = inf kan k1=n :

2.8 ( ).
, .

, r(a) 6 inf
kan k1=n
n
r(a) > lim
kan k1=n ; n
, r(a).
 (a), n (an ) .
|n | 6 kan k || 6 kan k1=n . inf n N, sup
 (a), r(a) 6 inf
kan k1=n .
n
D = { C :
|| < 1=r(a)} ( r(a) = 0, D = C),
f A f () = f ((1 a)1 ), D.
,  7 (1 a)1 = 1 Ra (1 )
D \ {0} 1  0 (. 2.7 2.1).
, f D ( P
) : f () = cn n
n
 D.
.

34

2.

|| < 1=kak, (1 a)1 = (a)n (. 2.1).


n
P
f () = f (an )n .
n
, , cn = f (an ) n.
P
 D,  6= 0. f (an )n
n
, {f (an )n } .
f A , | , {n an } A, . . kn an k 6 C
C > 0 n.
kan k1=n 6 C 1=n =|| ,
kan k1=n 6 1=||.  D \ {0}
lim
n
, lim
kan k1=n 6 r(a), .
n
, , .
P

2.3. (. 2.25.)
, lim k n k1=n = 0.

(a) = {0}

a A ,
.
2.26. , ?
, , . ,
,
.
2.16.

B A|
b B.

2.4.
| ,
, 1A . B ( ) = A ( )

r b

r b

.
M C @M
.
2.27. ,
@B (b) @A (b) b B .
2.17. A | , a A.
(a)
a f (a).

2.5.

35

, f (a) (a) .
2.28. 2.4 , f;B (b) =
= f;A (b) b B .
,
A = A (K ) B = P (K ) (, K = T a(z ) = z ).

. . [29]; . [30]. , |
. . [15]. ( ) [4].
, , |
. . [21]. A (K ) P (K ) (. 2.12)
. [5].
. [26, 20, 10].

3.

3.1. , .

B (E ), E | , ,
.
3.1 ( ). E | `p (
1 6 p 6 ), c0 (, c0 | , sup-).
, E | x = (xn ),
.  ` M B (E ), M (x) = (n xn ) x = (xn ) E .
3.1. , ' : ` B (E ),  7
7 M , . , , kM k = kk = sup |n |.

'

3.1.
, , : B(E ) ( ( )) = ` ( ). ,

(M ) = {n }nN .

'

. , Im ' |
B (E ), . .  `
M .
n N en E
n- ,
M en = n en .  ` , . . 0 {n }nN , .
1) n, n = 0. M en = 0,
M , , .
2) n n 6= 0. {n } {n }, . M (en ) =
= n en 0 k . , , , . M .
k

3.1.

37

3.2 ( ). (X; ) | , E = Lp (X; ) ( 1 6 p 6 ). f : X C


Mf B (E ), (Mf g)(x) = f (x)g(x).

, ' : L (X; ) B (E ),
f 7 Mf , . , , kMf k = kf k = ess sup |f |.
3.2.

3.3. , ', , : B(E ) ('(f )) = L (X;) (f ).


, , (Mf ) |
f .

3.1.
,
, T 1 .
, S | E . ? -, , Ker S 6= 0 ( | ).
-, , Ker S = 0, Im S 6= E (
!). : Im S E , . S = T 1
.
3.1.

T B (E ) -

p (T ) = { C : Ker(T 1) 6= 0}:


c (T ) = { C \ p (T ): Im(T 1) = E; Im(T 1) 6= E }:


, T

r (T ) = { C \ p (T ): Im(T 1) 6= E }:
, (T ) = p (T ) t c (T ) t r (T ). ,
p (T ) | T . E , (T ) = p (T ), c (T )
r (T ) . , .

38

3.

3.2. E = `p ( 1 6 p < ) E = c0 ,
M B (E ) |  ` (. 3.1). p (M )= {n }, c (M )= {n }\{n }
r (M ) = .

. M en = n en ,
{n } p (M ). ,  C  6= n n, M 1 = M1 |  1 = (n ) . , ,
Ker(M 1) = 0  = p (T ). ,  (M ) = {n },
=
6 n n. en = (n )1 (M 1)en
Im(M 1) n.
en (n N) E ; , Im(M 1) E ,
. .  c (M ).
3.4.

E = ` .

p (M ), c (M ) r (M ) ,

E = Lp (X; ) ( 1 6 p < ), Mf
B (E ) | f : X C (. 3.2). , p (Mf ) =
= { C : (f 1 ()) > 0}, c (Mf ) = (Mf ) \ p (Mf ) r (Mf ) = .
3.5.

3.1. 3.5 |
Mt , L2 [0; 1]
(Mt g)(x) = xg(x). (Mt ) = c (Mt ) = [0; 1],
.

, ,
. , .
3.6. 1. f | . , |
.
2. f L (X; ); , f
?
3. , ,
f L (X; ) ?
3.7.

E = L (X; ).

p (Mf ), c (Mf ) r (Mf ) ,

3.2.

39

3.2. .

,
.
3.1. E; F | , T : E
F | . T : F E , T f = f T ,
T . , kT k = kT k.
,
.
3.8. , T B (E; F ) | , T |
.
3.2. , (?)
. E F ( ).
(T 1E ) = T 1E T B (E ), .
3.1. T B (E );  (T ) =  (T ).
, T T .
| , ?
.
3.9. T B (E; F ) | . ,
1) Im T = F Ker T = 0;
2) Im T = E Ker T = 0;
3) , E , | .
T 1 (
T B (E )), .
3.3. T B (E ).
1) p (T ) p (T ) r (T );
2) c (T ) c (T ) r (T );
3) r (T ) p (T );
4) p (T ) p (T ) r (T );
5) c (T ) c (T );

40

3.
6) r (T ) p (T ) c (T ).

7) c (T ) = c (T );
8) r (T ) p (T ).

.
E = `p ( 1 6 p 6 )
E = c0 . Tr B (E ) Tr (x) = (0; x1 ; x2 ; : : :) x = (x1 ; x2 ; : : :) E . , , kTr k = 1. T` B (E )
Tr (x) = (x2 ; x3 ; : : :). , , (
), kT` k = 1 (?).
3.3 ( ).

3.2. 1 6 p < q , 1=p + 1=q = 1 ( p = 1, q = ).

`q (`p ) ; y 7 fy ; fy (x) =

xi yi ;

. `1 (c0 ) .
, .
, (` ) `1 .
3.10.

, `p
1 < p < , c0 , `1 ` | .
3.11.

(`p ) `q , , ,
. , , .
: , |
1 .
3.2. S B (E ) T B (F ) | . ( ),
1 : ,

3.2.

41

( ) U : E F ,

E
U

S /
E
T / 
F

, S B (E ) T
, (S ) = (T ) p , c , r .
3.13. 1 6 p < 1=p + 1=q = 1. Tr | `p ( c0 ), T` | `q ( `1 ). , (Tr ) T` .

(T` ) Tr .
3.4. 1 < p < Tr ; T` B (`p ) |
3.12.

B (F )

1) (Tr ) = (T` ) = D;
2) p (Tr ) = , c (Tr ) = T, r (Tr ) = D;
3) p (T` ) = D, c (T` ) = T, r (T` ) = .
. -, , D, 1.
. ,

Tr x = x (0 = x1 )&(xn = xn+1 n) x = 0;


p (Tr ) = . ,
T` x = x xn+1 = xn n xn = x1 n1 n;
x 6= 0 T`  , (n1 )
`p , . . || < 1. , p (T` ) = D.
Tr(p) T`(p) . 1=p + 1=q = 1; 3.3 ,
(q )
(q )
D = p (T` ) p (Tr(p) ) r (Tr(p) ) = r (Tr(p) ) p (T` ) = D:

, r (Tr ) = D. , (Tr ) = D c (Tr ) = T. , `p ,


`q ; 3.1 3.3 ,

42

3.

(T` ) = D c (T` ) = T. r (T` ) =


.
3.3. |
, . . .
, , ,
.
3.14. (. . ,
, ) ,
c0 , `1 ` .
3.4 ( ). ,
, . G | , E | G, g G | .
Tg : E E (Tg f )(h) = f (g 1 h)
f E , h G. , ,
, E . .
1: G = Z, E = `p (Z) ( 1 6 p 6 ) E = c0 (Z). 1 Tb B (E ) (Tb x)n =
= xn1 x = (xn )nZ E . , .
2: G = T | , 1, . T
, 2 E = Lp (T) ( 1 6 p 6 )
E = C (T).  T T B (E )
(T f )(z ) = f ( 1 z ) f E , z T. , ( ) ;
T 1 .
3: G = R, E = Lp (R) ( 1 6 p 6 ) E = C0 (R) ( R, , sup-). s R Ts B (E ) (Ts f )(t) = f (t s) f E , s R. , ( ) ; Ts .
,
T (. 2.21).
,
,

1 : , ( n )
, , .

3.2.

43

(. 3.1 3.2).
|
.
3.5. 1. Tb `2 (Z)
Mz B (L2 (T)), (Mz f )(z ) = zf (z ), .
2.
2

( n ) B ( (Z)), ( n ) ( ) =
.

T L2 (T)
( n xn )nZ ,

. U : L2 (T) `2 (Z), f L2 (T)

: (Uf )n = hf; z n i =
Z
= T f (z )z n dz .

(.
3.5),
3.12.
3.2. Tb B (`2(Z)) | .  (Tb ) = c (Tb ) = T.
3.3. T B (L2 (T)) | . p (T ) = { n }nZ r (T ) = . ,
1)  | , (T ) = { n }nZ ;
2)  , (T ) = T.
.  | , { n }nZ
.  ,
.
3.1 3.2.
3.15. :
1) Ts B (L2 (R)) Me
B (L2 (R)), (Me
f )(t) = eist f (t), .
2) (Ts ) = c (Ts ) = T.
. .
3.16. (, , ) 3.4,
`p - Lp - p 6= 2, c0 (Z)
( ) C0 (R), C (T).
ist

ist

44

3.

3.5 3.15 ,
`2 (Z), L2 (T) L2 (R) | . | ,
, ,
. .
, . ,
`2 .
3.3. | L2 (T), :
H 2 = {f L2 (T): hf; z n i = 0 n < 0}:
, H 2 f L2 (T),

.
,
.
3.17. f
D C 0 <  < 1
kf k =

1
2

Z 

|f (eit )|2 dt

1=2

, H 2 , , :
H 2 = {f : D C : f kf k = lim
kf k < }:
1

.
.
3.18. , `2 Mz (.
3.5 (1)) H 2 .
, , , .
, .
3.3 3.4 (
), : . , -

3.3.

45

,
, . , , .
3.4. S B (E ) T B (F ) | . ( ), ( ) U1 ; U2 : E F ,

E
U1


S /
E
T / 
F

U2

.
, , , . , , : 1E . ,
. ,
(!), , ,
. .
.
3.19. T | 3.3
3.4, ,  T. ,
T 1 T 1 . , ,
 (T ) 1 (T ) p , c r .
3.3.
3.5. T B (E; F ) , T : E
Im T | .
3.20. .
1. T ,
. . c > 0, kT xk > ckxk x E .
2. T
Im T .
?

46

3.
3.6.

T B (E )

ap (T ) = { C : T 1 }:
T
su (T ) = { C : Im(T 1) 6= E }:
T
com (T ) = { C : Im(T 1) 6= E }:
.
3.6.

1) p (T ) su (T ) = (T ),
2) ap (T ) com (T ) = (T ),
3) p (T ) ap (T ),
4) com (T ) su (T ).
. . ,
, .
, . ,
, 1
:

ap

com

2
5

p ( T ) = 1 2
ap (T ) = 1 2 3 4
com (T ) = 2 4 5
r ( T ) = 4 5
c ( T ) = 3
su (T ) 2 3 4 5

| ap (T ), |
p (T ), | com (T ). ,
, .
1 . ; . [28].

3.3.

47

, ap , com su (. 3.3). .


E; F | , T : E
| . ,
1) T T ;
2) T T ;
3) .
3.21.

T
( T B (E )), .
3.7.

1) ap (T ) = su (T );
2) su (T ) = ap (T );
3) com (T ) = p (T );
4) p (T ) com (T ).


5) p ( ) = com ( ).

 T

1

T B (E ).

3.22. ap , com su , .

, , ,
(., , 3.2 3.4) |
, . ,
. , .

 T
@ T

3.8. ap ( )
B ( ) ( ).
su ( ). ,
ap ( ) su ( ) | C.

 T

 T

 T

( ). -

3.23. :
1)
B (E ).
2) ap (T ) .

48

3.

3.24. A | . :
1) a A kbk < ka1 1 k , a b ;

2) a A  = (a), k(a 1)1 k > (; 1(a)) , (; (a)) |


 (a).
(T ) = (T ) su (T ) = ap (T ),
, @(T ) ap (T ).  @(T ) {n } , n  n = (T ) n.
. 2 3.24 , k(T n )1 k n . {xn } E , kxn k = 1
k(T n )1 xn k n .
n
yn = k TT

(

xn
;
n )1 xn k
n .
)

kyn k = 1 (T n )yn 0
,
(T )yn = (T n )yn ( n )yn 0 (n ):
,  ap (T ), .
3.25. , su (T ), . 3 3.21.
. ,
B (E ) ap (T ) su (T ).
. T B (E ) | F E | , T (. . , T (F ) F ).
T |F | F . | (T |F ) (T )? ( !) , (T |F ) (T ),
| . , , f (T )
(. 2.17), (T )
. , .
3.9. T B (E ) | F
E | ,
 (T |F ) f (T ).

T.

( ). U = C \ f (T ); f (T ) , ( ) C.
 U || > kT k,

(T 1)1 = 1 (1 1 T )1 =

(n+1) T n

3.3.

(. 2.1). , (T
 x F .

1)1 x F

49
-

U
E | , F E | , f : U E | . ,
f (M ) F M U , U . f (U ) F .
3.1 ( ).

C | ,

.
,
f (x) = (T 1)1 x ( x F | ). , (T 1)1 x F  U , T |F 1F B (F )  U , . .
 = f (T ).
3.5. 3.9,
( ) , Tb B (E ) ( E {`p ; c0 }) c T. ,
F = {x E : xn = 0 n 6 0};
T |F Tr ,
(Tr ) = D (. 3.4). 3.9 , D | C \ (Tb ).
, Tb | E ,
(Tb ) T (. 2.21).
, (Tb ) = T.
3.26.

, ,
,
[30]; . . [26], . [5, 8].
, . . [43];
. . . [28].

4.

,
,
(. 2.4). , . . ,
. A | , : ,
.

,
.
4.1.

, , , . , ,
,
(. .
), .
. |
, .
4.1. k k : E [0; +) E ( ), :
1) kxk = ||kxk  C, x E ;
2) kx + yk 6 kxk + kyk x; y E .

, | , .
4.2. E , {k ki : i I } ( I | ), .

4.1.

51

E | , ,
. , x E , " > 0 i I

Ui (x; ") = {y E : kx yki < "}:


(4.1)
4.3. E ,
(4.1), , {k ki : i I }.
4.1. X | , P | , X , P .
P ,
P .
4.1. , E , {k ki : i I },
:
1) , ,
k ki ;
2)
Ui1 ;:::;i (x; ") = {y E : kx yki < " k = 1; : : : ; n}
(4.2)
( x E , n N, i1 ; : : : ; in I ).
, ,
, .
4.2. , E E E E C E E
.
4.2. , ,
,
.
,
, , . : E
,
. , , E
, .
, (4.2) .
n

52

4.

,
, ,
( ; . 4.4),
|, . , . , ,
.
(E; {k ki : i I }) | ,
.
4.3. , {xn } E x E , kx xn ki 0 i I .
4.4. , E
, x E
i I , kxki > 0.

. , .
4.1. U C | , O (U ) | U . K U k kK O (U ), kf kK = sup |f (z )|. ,
zK
, -. 4.3 , fn f , f
U .

.
().
( ) O ( ).

RU

U C

, , | , ,
(). ,
.

4.1.

53

4.5. (E; {k ki : i I }) (F; {k kj : j J }) | , T : E F | . , :


1) T ;
2) j J C > 0
i1 ; : : : ; in I , kT xkj 6 C max{kxki1 ; : : : ; kxki } x E .
, .
4.4. {k ki : i I } {k kj : j J }
E ,
.
4.6. .
4.2. DR = {z C : |z | < R} | R. (
R = DR = CP
.) f O (DR )
DR : f (z ) = cn z n . ( ,
n
- O (DRP
), 4.1.) 0 < r < R kf kr = |cn |rn ; ,
n
k kr | O (DR ).
4.7. {rn } |
, R. ,
n

{k kK :

K DR | };

{k kr :

0 < r < R}

{k krn :

n N}

O (DR ) .
, - O (U ), U = DR , (, , U ). ?
4.8. ,
(E; {k ki : i I }) , I0 I , {k ki : i I0 } .
4.9. , O (U ) .
4.3. ( ),
E (,

54

4.

) I0 I , , .
, , ,
.
, .
4.5. | A, ,
a A

La : A A; b 7 ab; Ra : A A; b 7 ba;
. A A A, (a; b) 7 ab,
A .

,
(
| ). .
4.10. , O (U ) | .
4.2. :

,
, . ,
A | , a A | , U C |
. , O (U )
U , - . t O (U ) t(z ) = z .
4.6. a U
h : O (U ) A, h (t) = a.
4.1. ,

a U

.
(. .

1)
2) (a) U ;
3) .

h |R(U ) = r );

4.2.

55

h (t) = a, | .
, h
.

U | .
4.2. DR = {z C : |z | < R} | R,
 (a) a A. ( R = DR = C.) a DR
.

. f O (DR ) P
P
: f (z ) = cn z n . , cn an n
n
A.  , r(a) <  < R; (.
2.5) , N N, kan k1=n <  n > N .
, C := sup kan k=n < .

|cn |kan k 6 C

|cn |n

(4.3)

cn an . h (f ).
n
, h : O (DR ) A , h (t) = a. , (4.3) ,
k h (f )k 6 C kf k f O (DR ) (. 4.2), h .
P

, , . , a A exp(a) =

P
=
an =n!.
n=0

U C | , (a),
a U ,
, : U
U . , U
.

56

4.

4.1. V U | , U V ,
@V .
f O (U ) z V -

f (z ) =

1
2i

@V

f ( )
 z

d

(4.4)

( @V , , ).
a A : V
, (a) V V U , a z (4.4)
f (a) = h (f ). ,
, ,
.
:

E |Z , f : [a; b] E | . b
a f (t) dt , , . .
4.7. x E f
Z b
[a; b] ( a f (t) dt), ! E b

! f : [a; b] C !(x) = a !(f (t)) dt.


, f , (?).
4.11. .
1. f : [a; b] E ,
Z

Z b
Z b



f (t) dt 6 kf (t)k dt 6 kf k (b a);

a
a

kf k = sup kf (t)k.
t[a;b]

Z b

2. T B (E; F ), T a f (t) dt = a T (f (t)) dt f : [a; b] E .




4.2.

57

4.8. ` | C,
: [a; b] C C 1 .

f : ` E Z
Z b
` f (z ) dz = a f ( (t)) 0 (t) dt.

, f
. , V C | , @V
, f @V ,
V .

a A

4.1.
| ,
|
,
C | , ( ).
h : O ( )
.

a
U

. V
@V , , , (a) V V U .
f O (U )

h (f ) =

1
2i

@V

f ( )( 1 a)1 d:

, h : O (U ) A ( ) . , (!), C > 0,
k h (f )k 6 C kf k@V f O (U ). , h .
, , h | h (t) = a. ,
:
(1) h (1) = 1;
(2) h ((t )f ) = (a 1) h (f ) f O (U ),  C.
, ,
h (f ) = f (a) f ; , h (t) = a. ,  = U , (a 1)n h ((t )n ) = h (1) = 1, h ((t )n ) =
= (a 1)n n N.

58

4.

f R(U ) , , h R(U ) r ; , h |R(U ) |


. O (U ) A , h | . , f; g O (U ), {fn } {gn } | R(U ), f g . fn gn fg O (U )
h (fn ) h (gn ) h (f ) h (g) A,
h (fg) = lim
(f g ) = lim
(f ) (g ) = h (f ) h (g);
n h n n
n h n h n

h | . ,
(1) (2).
(1)
! A R > 0, R > kak V DR .
 7 !(( 1 a)1 ) DR \ V , .
,

!( h (1)) =

1
2i

@V

!(( 1 a)1 ) d =

1
2i

,  @ DR

@ DR

( 1 a)1 =  1 (1  1 a)1 =

!(( 1 a)1 ) d: (4.5)

n=0

 n1 an

(. 2.1), @ DR .
(4.5) :

::: =

n=0

!(an )

1
2i

@ DR

 n1 d = !(1):

!
(1).
(2):

A -

h ((t )f ) (a 1) h (f ) =


= 21i

@V

( )f ( )( 1 a)1 d (a 1) 21i


= 2i
1

= 2i
1

Z@V

@V

f ( )( 1 a)1 d =

f ( )[( )1 (a 1)]( 1 a)1 d =

@V

f ( )( 1 a)( 1 a) d =

1
2i

@V

f ( ) d 1 = 0;

4.2.

59

f U . , (2)
. , , h | .
,
.
4.12.  (a) V U , U; V | C. rUV : O (U ) O (V ) , U V .
hU hV | a U V . , :
O (U ) O
U

rU V

O (V )

OOhO
OO'
7A
ooo
oooV
h

,
, h (f ) f (a) f ,
(a).
-
, . . .
, .
4.13. A | , a A |
, f | ,
(a). ,
f (a):
1) A = C (), a A | ;
2) A = ` , a A | ;
3) A = L (X; ), a A | ;
4) A = B (`p ) B (c0 ), a = M | ;
5) A = B (Lp (X; )), a = Mf | ;
6) A = B (`2 (Z)), a = Tb | ;
7) A = B (`2 ), a = Tr | .
, . -

60

4.

, .
.
K | C. (U; f ),
U K | f O (U ).
, (U; f ) (V; g),
W K , W U V f |W = g|W . K , O (K ). ,
O (K ) ,
.
R(M ) (. 2.4),
f O (K ) f (z ) z K , f (z ) z
. f~: K C, f~(z ) = f (z ). O (K ) CK , f 7 f~, , , . , , K
(?). , ,
(. 2.10).
4.14. 1. , f O (K ) , f~ CK , . . f (z ) 6= 0
z K .
2. , O (K ) (f ) = C (f~) = f (K )
f O (K ).
O (K ) .
U K rUK : O (U ) O (K ) , . k k O (K ) , U K f 7 krUK (f )k O (U ).
O (K ) ,
.
4.4.
; - .
: O (K ) =
lim
O (U ).
K

U K

, , D , .
4.15. E | . , T : O (K ) E -

4.2.

61

, U K T rUK : O (U )
E .
O (K ). , .
4.16. O (K ) - , , . , , , , O (K ).

, O (K ) | .
4.17 .

a A

4.2.
| ,
|
,
C | , ( ). K : O ( ) , h
K
h ( ) = .

a


K A
t a
. f O (K ) | ,
g O (U ) ( U K ) | .
hK (f ) = hU (g). 4.12 ,
hK | ,
hK (t) = a hK rUK = hU U K . hK 4.15, |
(. 4.1, . 3).

hK : O ((a)) A, , a A K (a).
4.9.

4.1 4.2 (. 2.7).

4.3.
| ,
C | ,
C | .

n o
O (U ) A
n
o
n o
a A : (a) K  O (K ) A

a A : (a) U

62

4.

, ,
( ), , ,
( ), ( ) =

(
).

a A

z K

t

tz

z U

, , 4.2, | (a).
(a)
. h (f ) ,
, f (a).
4.4 ( ).

O ( (a))

(f (a)) = f ((a)).

4.14
.
(a) : O ( (a)) A .
4.40 . h

, h(a)
( ) . f O ((a)) ; f () = 0
 (a). , f = (t )g g O ((a)). ,
(f ) = (a 1) (g). a 1 ,
(f ) (. 2.3).
4.1. a A exp(a) .
,
. ,
.
4.18. T B (E ) | .
p (f (T )) = f (p (T )),
1) f C[t];
2) f R(M ) ( M (T ));
3) f O (U ) ( U (T ) | );
4) f O (U ) ( U (T ) | ).
c (T ), r (T ), ap (T ), su (T ), com (T ).
.
4.19 ( ).
' : A B | , a A.
, '(f (a)) = f ('(a)) f O ((a)).
.

4.3.

63

4.20 ( ). a A, f O ( (a))
g O ((f (a))). , g(f (a)) = (g f )(a).
.
4.21.  (a) ,
. ,
1) n N b A, bn = a;
2) b A, exp(b) = a.
(n n)- , .
4.2. a Mn (C) | , a = exp(b)
b Mn (C). ,
exp: Mn (C) Inv(Mn (C)) | .
4.22.
B (E )? C [a; b]? C (T)? ` ? L (X; )?
exp: A Inv(A), Inv0 (A)
Inv(A) , exp(A)
Inv0 (A) A.
4.23. A | . ,
1) Inv0 (A) | Inv(A);
2) exp(A) Inv0 (A) ;
3) Inv0 (A) = exp(A), A .
4.24 ( ). A = C () |
. , Inv(A)= exp(A) H 1 (; Z).

4.3.

, , B (E ) . , p : C[t] B (E ) T B (E )
r : R((T )) B (E ), |
h : O ((T )) B (E ). , - ,

64

4.

( ) :
C[t]

/ R( (T ))
/ O ( (T ))
/A
CC
l l
w
l
w
CC
CC
h wwww l l l

C
r
l
w
C
p CC
ww l ?
C!  {wwvlw l l
B (E )

, A
, .
T ,
.
,
.
4.25 (-). :
1) M B (`p );
2) Mf B (Lp (X; ));
3) Tb B (`2 (Z))?
, - U C, , | C (U ).
,
.
.
U Rn | . () = ( 1 ; : : : ; n ) Zn+ , , | | = 1 + : : : + n
| |

D = @x 1 @: : : @x . K U
n
1
Zn+ k kK; C (U ), kf kK; = sup |D f (x)|.
xK
C (U ) . , (?).
4.26. 1. , C (U ) |
.
2) , U C, -
O (U ) , C (U ).
. .
n

4.3.

65

4.10.
B ( ) , -

: C (C) B (E ), (t) = T (,
, t(z ) = z | ).

4.5. , ,
, .
, .
4.27. T B (E ) | . , ?


, .
4.28. T B (E ) | . , C = U V U; V T - F; G E , (T |F ) U , (T |G ) V
F + G = E.
. , .
4.6. , ,
, ( ).

.
4.29. ,
.

C (T) T C.
-
dn
it
kf kn = sup dtn f (e )
tR
(n Z+ ). (!), C (C) C (T), f 7 f |T , .
4.30. T B (E ) | . ,
: C (T) B (E ), (t) = T .
, T | .
. f C (T)
t.

66

4.

.
4.31 . ,
`2 .

. [30]. , ,
[30] (
) .
,
, , . ,
(. 4.2).
. [26],
. [32] [25].
[29]; . [26].

. [39].
[43]; -
. . [11].

5.

,
. , ,
, (. 4.25). .
,
.
, , | ,
.
5.1.

A | ( ) .
5.1. I A , (. . I 6= A)
.
5.1.
.

I A -

. M , A, I .
() : J1 J2 , J1 J2 . , . ,
C S M | ; , , J = {K : K C } | A. 1 = K
K C , 1 = J , , J | . , J | C . ,
, M . , I .
5.1. , , ( ).

68

5.

, , . .

5.2.
| .

.

. I A | , I
. I I 6= I , I = A.
, I A, Inv(A) (. 2.1). , I = A. .
5.1.

O (U )?

C (U )? O (K )?

, , , .
5.2. A | .
, I A A=I | .


.
A .
5.2. ( | ) A (A)
. A X (A) .

(A) X (A) . , : X (A) (A),  7 Ker .


5.3.

, .

. .
5.4. A = C[t] | .
z C z X (A), z (f )= f (z ).
,  : C X (A) | .

, | . ,
.

5.1.

69

5.5. 1.
A, .
2. X (A), (A) C(t), C[[t]], R(M ), C (T)
C[t]=(t2 ).
3 . O (K ).
4. X (A) O (U ) C (U ).
, (
), .

5.3.
| . : X ( ) ( ), 7 Ker , | .

A 

. I (A) | .
5.2 , A=I | (. 5.2). |, A=I
= C. A A=I A=I C |
 X (A), Ker  = I . , | , 5.3.

5.1.
|
.
( ) 6= 0 X ( ).

a A

a

.
: a A ,
Aa, ,
I , .
, , A .
5.3. A | .
a A
a^ : X (A) C, a^(x) = x(a) x X (A).
(), A
CX (A) , a 7 a
^, | .
5.4. `A : A CX (A) , `A (a) = a
^, A.
5.2. ,
.

Ker `A =

{Ker  :

 X ( A) }:

,
A Im `A X (A).
, , -

70

5.

, ,
. , ( , ,
): | .
, X (A) , . . .
| . | , , ,
, ()
(, ).
, , | , , , ...
K - .
, C -.
5.6.
C[t], C[[t]], R(M ), O (U ), C (U ), O (K ) C[t]=(t2 ).
, A X (A) (A) | . , A | , X (A) ( (A); . 5.3) , A
. , .
5.2. *

E | . f E
k kf E , kxkf = |f (x)| x E .
5.5. E ,
{k kf : f E }, E
(E; E ).

5.2.

71

:
k kx E kf kx = |f (x)|

x E
f E .

E ,
{k kx : x E }, * E
(E ; E ).
5.3. , {xn } E x E (E; E ) , f (xn ) f (x) f E (. 4.3).
, {xn } x. {fn } E f E
(E ; E ) , fn (x) f (x) x E .
5.7. ,  (E; E )  (E ; E ) .
,
.
5.8. 1. ,  (E; E )
, E , dim E < .
2. , * (E ; E ) , E , kf k = sup |f (x)|,
5.6.

kxk61

dim E < .
, .
5.9. ,  (E; E )  (E ; E ) , E . ,
(E; E ) , E , (E ; E ) , E ,
kf k = sup |f (x)|.
kxk61

.
5.10. X | .
1. , ' : X (E; (E; E )) , f E
f ' : X C .
2. , ' : X (E ; (E ; E ))
, y E X C,
x 7 '(x)(y), .

72

5.

5.4 (). 4.15: . , * |


,
O (K ) | .
, , [25].
, E , , , . E , ,
, , , .
, , .
5.11. , f : E C
, ; , (E; (E; E )) = E .
, .
.
5.12. , F E
, .
* ?
,
.
5.1. iE : E E

iE (x) = Fx ; Fx (f ) = f (x) f E :
.
( , E E ),
E .
-. 1) , `p Lp (X; )
1 < p < , ,
2) , c0 , `1 , ` , C [a; b], L1 [a; b], L [a; b]
.
E , * .
5.13. , F : E C
* , -

5.2.

73

Fx () x E ; ,
(E ; (E ; E )) = Im iE .

5.2.
:
1) ;
2) : C
, * .

F E

5.14. , E , E
, * .
* . T B (E; F ) |
. , T
T (. 3.9). , .
5.15. , T B (E; F )
, Im T * E .
, *
.
5.1 (|). -

E UE =
= {f E : kf k 6 1} * .

( ). DU ,
UE = {x E : kxk 6 1} D C. | .
UE DU ,
UE . (!), . , UE
.
5.5. ,
.

5.3.
.

UE

74

5.

5.16. , UE E
(E; E ) ,
E .

5.3.

A. (. 5.3),
() X (A) (A), .
X (A) (A).
* (A ; A) X (A) A X (A) =
= (A).
5.7.

5.4.
.

(A) |

, X (A) UA (. 2.2).
| X (A) UA . f X (A) (
* ) ,
. a; b A " > 0  X (A) , * Ua;b;ab (f; ")
f . : , f  a, b ab ".
,
.

|f (ab) f (a)f (b)| 6 |f (ab) (ab)| + |(a)(b) (a)f (b)| +


+ |(a)f (b) f (a)f (b)| < " + kak" + kbk":

" > 0 f (ab) = f (a)f (b), . . f | . , f 6= 0. 0 X (A)


, |0 (1) f (1)| < 1=2.
0 (1) = 1, , f (1) 6= 0. , f |
, . . X (A).
, (A) . ,
(. 5.3 5.4) .

5.3.

75

5.2.
| . :
(1) ^ (( )) ;
(2) `A : (( )) | 1;
(3) k^k = ( ) ;
() (. . `A );
(4) A ( ) = ^T
(5) Ker `A = { : ( )} = { : ( ) = 0}.

a C
A
a r
 a

A
C
a
a

I I

a A

a A
a A
A
a A a

. (1) a
^ ,
X (A) A Fa = iA (a) A ,
* (. 5.13).
(4) a A , a^() = (a) = 0  X (A) (. 5.1), a^ |
C ((A)). , `A , , .
(3) . (4)
sup- C ((A)).
(2) . (3) , ka^k = r(a) 6 kak a A.
(5) . (3), 5.2 5.3.

, . (5)
, .

5.8. |
T
Rad = {
, Rad = {0}.

I : I (A)}.

5.6. ( ) . ., , [16].

, , , |
.
(. 2.2).
5.17. A B | , B . ,
A B .

76

5.
5.4. :

, .
C (X ) X . , ,
.
5.3. X | .
x; y X , x 6= y, f C (X ), f (x) 6= f (y).

; , ,
:
z 7 (x; z ).
C (X ), 5.3, : C (X ) X .
5.5. X | , A = C (X ) | -

X .
X : X (A); x 7 X;x ; X;x (f ) = f (x);

.
. X
5.3.
.
5.1 ( ). I C (X ) | .
x X , f (x) = 0 f I .
. ; x X
fx I , fx (x) 6= 0.
fx Ux 3 x, fx (y) 6= 0
y Ux . X ,
x1 ; : : : ; xn X , Ux1 : : : Ux = X ,
n
n
P
P
f = |fx |2 = fx fx . f I f (x) 6= 0
i=1
i=1
x X . , I f
. .
5.1 , ,
I A Ker X;x x X , ,
Ker X;x . X | .
n

5.4.

77

X 5.10. , f A X C, x 7 X (x)(f ), f .
, X | X (A). , X | .
5.7. 5.5
5.4. ,
-
X X . 5.5 , : -,
X , -, . ,
C[t1 ; : : : ; tn ] ;
| (Nullstellensatz). ( ,
C (X ) C[t]) , ,
[24].
C (X ). , X (C (X )) . ,
.
X Y | , ' : X
Y | .
' : C (Y ) C (X ); ' (f ) = f ' (f C (Y )):
, ' | 1. , ' '.
.
5.6. (1) ' : X Y
: Y Z |
, ( ') = ' .
(2) (1X ) = 1C (X ) .
(3) ' | , ' | .
. (!).

C (X ).

5.7.
| ,
= ( ) | . -

A CX

78

5.

`A :

C ((A)) |
X .

X

A ` C ((A)) C (X )
(5.1)
| A = C (X ) . ,
[X `A (f )](x) = `A (f )(X;x ) = X;x (f ) = f (x)
f C (X ), x X . , X `A = 1A . , X |
(. 5.5), X |
A

(. 5.6). , `A `A = (X )1 .
5.8. , A | - A = C (X ), ,
, X `A | A
C (X ). X | X (A) ( , ), `A A | A.

, C (X ) . , ,
.
5.18. A |
, ( ) a A (
, A {1; a; a2 ; : : :}). ,
a^ : (A) C (a) a^ (A)
(a).

.
5.19.

C n [a; b] A (D).

, , , (. 5.8).
. .

5.5.

79

b | 5.20. K C | , K
K .
, P (K ) (. 2.12) Kb .
.
, ,
( 3.1).

. | ,
.
5.21. A | 2 - , sup-. (A).
5.9. 2.2 : |
. , :
-

- X , a A a^ (A)
(. 5.2, . 4).
5.10. L (X; ) | , ,
. , ` (,
, N ) -
N N.
| .
5.22. A | , a A | , U C | (a)
f O (U ) | . , fd
(a) = f a^.
5.5.


: ( , ).
,
| .

80

5.

.

().
,
.
5.9. , C ,
1) Ob C ( C );
2) X; Y C
hC (X; Y ) ( X Y ); '
' hC (X; Y ) ' : X Y X
Y;
3) X; Y; Z Ob C

hC (Y; Z ) hC (X; Y ) hC (X; Z );

( ; ') ' '.


, :
'

) X
Y , Y Z Z
W ( ) ' =  ( ');
) X Ob C 1X ( ),
' : X Y : Y X
' 1X = ' 1X = .
5.10. : Y X ' : X Y ( '1 ), ' = 1X ' = 1Y .
, , .
5.11. A B , Ob A Ob B , X; Y Ob A hA (X; Y ) hB (X; Y ) , A , B . hA (X; Y ) = hB (X; Y )
X; Y Ob A , , A | .

.
5.1. S et. | ,
| , | , | . S et | .

5.5.

81


; ,
.
5.2. G r : | ,
| .

: , , ,
, ... ( ).
| .
5.3. T op: | , | .
Comp, | . ,
T op, Comp | .
5.4. | B an, | ,
| ( = ) .
B an | , . . , (
, ).
5.5. B an () B an1 , ,
B an, | , . . ,
1. B an1 | , . . , .
5.6.
, BA . ,
, CBA .
5.7. ,
. C | . X Ob(C ) X X . End(C ) : | (X; '), X Ob(C )
' hC (X; X ), (X; ') (Y; ) |

82

5.

u : X Y C ,
X
u


' /
X
/

(5.2)

. , (5.2) End(C ) , u | C .
, ' . ,
C = B an ,
C = B an1 | (. 3.2).
5.8. C C
: Ob C = Ob C hC (X; Y ) = hC (Y; X ).
C | C ,
.
. , ,
. .
5.12. C D | . ,
F : C D ,
1) X Ob(C ) F (X ) Ob(D );
2) X; Y Ob(C )
F : hC (X; Y ) hD (F (X ); F (Y ));

) F (' )= F (') F ( ) : X Y ' : Y Z ;
) F (1X ) = 1F (X ) X .
, F (') . ,
.
5.13. C D | C D .
, . 2

hC (X; Y ) hD (F (Y ); F (X )), )
F (' ) = F ( ) F (').

5.5.

83

, .
5.8. F : C D | (
), ' | C , F (') |

D.

.
, , ;
(. ) . , , , , .
[22].
-
(.
). ,
.
5.9. : B an
B an E E , T : E F |
T : F E . B an1 B an1 .
, .
5.4.
5.10. C : Comp CBA X C (X ),
' : X Y | ' : C (Y ) C (X ), f 7 f '
(. 5.6).
5.11. : CBA Comp, , A (A),
: A B |
( ): (B ) (A),  (B )  (A). , ( ) |
: B A (B ).
5.23. ( ) ?

84

5.

, C ,
. (. 5.5), - X C , ,
, , X .
: X
= (C (X )), X , . ,
.
C , D | F; G : C D | .
5.14.
)
: |

X : F (X ) G(X )

D , X Ob(C ), ,
' : X Y C

F (X )
X


G(X )

F (' ) /
F (Y )


G (' ) /
G(Y )

.
X | X Ob(C ),
( ).
5.12. , B an : 1Ban : B an B an, (. 5.9)
. E iE : E E . (!),
{iE : E E : E Ob(B an)}

| 1Ban .
RB an, , . (
,
, , .)

5.5.

85

5.11. ,
,
, . . , - -.
(, , , , ...) . . 1945 .
(. [38]).
C .
5.24. ,
{X : X (C (X )): X Ob(Comp)}

1Comp C : Comp Comp.
5.25. ,
{`A : A C ((A)): A Ob(CBA )}
| 1CBA
C : CBA CBA .
.
5.26 . , A X hComp (X; (A))
= hCBA (A; C (X )).
A X ( ).
5.12. C , , , .


(. . 2). [29];
,
. 5.3 , , . [13].
. [4, 39, 21] [5].
| . [17]; . . . [3]. ,

86

5.

, | . . . . [7],
. . [18]. , , . [30].
.
* . [30] -
(.
. 4).

6.

C -

. | , . . , .
, :

( | ). ,
, ( ) .
, .
6.1.
-

6.1. H | .

JH : H H ; JH (y) = fy ; fy (x) = hx; yi x H;


, , . H1 H2 | , T B (H1;H2 )|
, T B (H2 ; H1 ) | . T T + : H2 H1 ,

HO 1 o

H1 o

JH1

HO 2

JH2

H2

, T +=JH11 T JH2 . T + , , kT + k =
= kT k. T +
H2 H1 , hT x; yi = hx; T + yi x H1 , y H2 .

88

6. C -

, , T + ( )
T T ( ).
.
, - H , : B (H ) B (H ),
T 7 T , B (H ). , .
6.1. S; T B (H ) ;  C.
+ T ;
1) (S + T ) = S


2) (ST ) = T S ;
3) T = T ;
4) kT k = kT k;
5) kT T k = kT k2 .
. 4 , 1|3 | . 5.
, kT T k 6 kT kkT k = kT k2 4. ,
kT xk2 = hT x; T xi = hT T x; xi 6 kT T xkkxk 6 kT T kkxk2
x H . .
.
6.1. A | . : A A, a 7 a ,
, 1|3 6.1. , , . | ,
, ka k = kak
a A. C -,
ka ak = kak2 (a A). C -.
, .
6.2. ' : A B
( - ),
'(a ) = '(a) a A.
, ( , C -) ( ) .

6.1.

C - 89

.
C C -, .
6.1.

6.2.

6.1, B (H ) | C -.

6.3. X | . C (X ) f (x) = f (x) (x X ). , C (X )


C -.
6.4. , (X; A ; ) |
, BA (X ) A -
L (X; ) C -
f (x) = f (x) (x X ).

C n [a; b] | f (x) = f (x) (x [a; b]).


6.5.

6.6. A (D) | f (z ) = f (z ) (z D).

, n > 1,
1) C n [a; b] C -;
2) C n [a; b] C - (. . - C n [a; b] C - A);
3) C n [a; b] C -
;
4) C n [a; b] C - ;
5) A (D).
6.1.

- C -.
6.7. (X; ) | , H =
=L2(X; ). ' : L(X; )B (H ), f L(X; )
Mf B (H ), -. , Mf = Mf
(!), 3.2.

, L (X; )
( ) B (H ). , C -.

6. C -

90

6.1 ( |).

C - A H - A B (H ).

,
,
.
A | .
6.3. a A , a = a. A Asa .

, .

a A b; c Asa ,
a = b + ic. a = (a + a ), b = i (a a ).
6.2.

1

(!).

u A , uu =
= u u = 1 (. . u = u1 ).
6.4.

6.5.

= a a.

a A , aa =

,
.
6.6.

p = p2 = p.

p A ,

.
6.2. 1. , U B (H )
hUx; Uyi = hx; yi x; y H .
2. , P B (H ) | H0 H , P x = x
x H0 P x = 0 x H0 .

6.3. , (.
3.4) L2 - .

6.2.

C -

91

6.8. (X; ) | , f L (X; ),


Mf B (L2 (X; )) | f . Mf =
= Mf (. 6.7) ,
1) Mf ;
2) Mf f (x) R x X ;
3) Mf f (x) T x X ;
4) Mf | f (x) {0; 1}
x X.
6.1. , Mf | ; ,

Mf ( (X; ) f ).
6.4. , ,
. 3, , | .

6.2. -.
|

| |
, , , , -


- | , .

C -, .
6.3. A | ,
a A | .
1) a a ; (a )1 =
= (a1 ) .
2) (a ) = { :  (a)}.

A | C -, u A | . kuk = 1  (u) T.
6.4.

kuk2 = ku uk = k1k = 1, kuk = 1.  (u), || 6 1 (. 2.2).


, 1 (u1 ) (. 2.21). u1 , |1 | 6 1. , || = 1, .
.

6. C -

92

6.5. A | C -, p A | . kpk (p).

A | C -, a A | . eia .
6.5.

.
6.6. A | .
1. , a; b A , ea+b = ea eb .
2. , (ea )1 = ea a A.
.

(eia ) =

X ((ia) )n

n!

X (ia)n

n!

= eia = (eia )1 :

A | C -, a A | .  (a) R.
.   (a), ei  (eia ) 6.6.

. ,
|ei | = 1,  R.
6.7.

A | C -.

 : A C | -.
. a Asa .  (a) R, ((a)) R, . . (a) R. a A ,
a = b + ic, b; c Asa (. 6.2). (b); (c) R
(a ) = (b ic) = (b) i(c) = ((b) + i(c)) = (a),

A | C -, a A | . kak = r (a).
. b Asa kbk2 = kb2 k.
b = a a a,
kak4 = ka ak2 = k(a a)2 k = k(a2 ) a2 k = ka2 k2 :
, kak2 = ka2 k. ,
1
kak2 = ka2 k n. r(a) = lim ka2 k 2 = kak.
n
6.8.

6.7. ?

6.2.

C -

93

|. ,
| |. ( ).

6.2 (|).
| ,
( ) | :

B CX

1) 1 B ;
2) f B , f B ;
3) B X (. . x; y X ,
x 6= y, f B , f (x) 6= f (y)).
B C (X ).

6.3 ( |).
|
-. `A :
(( )) | -.

. a A x (A) = X (A)
6.7

`A (a )(x) = x(a ) = x(a) = `A (a)(x) = `A (a) (x):


, `A | -. a Asa , 6.8 , k`A (a)k =
= r(a) = kak. a A ,
k`A (a)k2 = k`A (a) `A (a)k = k`A (a a)k = ka ak = kak2 :

, `A , , . , , B = Im `A
C ((A)) |
(!) C ((A)). .
6.2. ,
C -, C (X ), . ` ? : `
C (X ), X = (` ) = N | - N, (. 5.10).
, - C -, ,
, X C (X ) | C --

6. C -

94

. : , .
, .
6.7. C D | , F : C D | . , F (
) C D ,
G : D C , F G 1D , G F 1C . G F .
F : C D | , ,
C D , F : C D | .
| . C A lg
C - -,
CC A lg | , C -.
|).
.

:
A C
.

: 1Comp
`: 1CC A lg
| .
6.4

C : Comp

CC A lg

CC

lg

omp

. 6.3 5.24 5.25.


,
: `A : A C ((A)) | -, . , , C A lg ( , CC A lg)
.

6.9.
|
,
| -, :
| -.
k k = 1.

'

' A

'

. a Asa ; '(a) Bsa ,


k'(a)k = r('(a)) 6 r(a) 6 kak (. 6.8).
a A , ,

a a,

k'(a)k2 = k'(a) '(a)k = k'(a a)k 6 ka ak 6 ka kkak = kak2 :

6.3.

95

, k'(a)k 6 kak a, . . k'k 6 1. , '(1) = 1.


6.1.
- .

- -

6.3. |
, | ,
C -. (. . ) C - (, , ). C - . . ,
( ) |
, . .
.

C -,
.

A | C -, B A | -, A. B (b) = A (b) b B .
. , B | , . . b B , A,
B . , b B Inv(A); b b Bsa Inv(A), B (b b) R ( 6.6). , t R b b + it1 B . (b b + it1)1 B
(b b)1 A A. t B , , (b b)1 B .
(b b)1 b B | b.
bb , , b B . , b Inv(B ), .
6.5.

6.3. :

, , , ( |
C -) .

96

6. C -

A | , a A |
, K C | . , t C (K )
t(z ) = z .
6.8. a K
- c : C (K ) A, c (t) = a.
6.10.
, .

. P C (K ) | , t t (. . t t).
| , P C (K ); , c
P .
6.8. , a
K , (a) K .

A , . , .
6.9. A a A, .

A | C -, a A | . K C,  (a),
c : C (K ) A a
K . K =  (a), c .
. K =  (a) (?). B A | C -, a (. . B = span{am (a )n : m; n Z+ }). , B . = (B ) | . 6.6.

|
`B : B C () | -. ' : B (a), '(x) = a^(x) x . , ' | ; , B (a) = (a)
6.5. ' ,
' : C ((a)) C (), f 7 f ', . c : C ((a)) A -

6.3.

97

, :

BO 

AO
c

1
`
B

C () o

'

C ((a))

( | B A). , c | -. , x
1
' (t)(x) = t('(x)) = a^(x), c (t) = `
B ' (t) = a. , c | a K = (a).
6.10. , ' :
 (a), , , (. 5.18). ,
' : C ((a)) C () | -.
6.6 (. 2.7
4.3).
6.7.

A | C -, K C |

a A:
(a) K

(


C (K ) A

, ,
, , , : ( )
( ),
( ) = .

a A

tz

z K

 CK

t

, .
. A | C -, a A |
.
-, , , .
6.11. h c | a (a). , :
O ( (a))
Q


C ((a))

QQhQ
QQ(
6A
mmm
mm mc

6. C -

98

( | , ).
6.12. (. . 4.12).
, , c (f ) f (a)
f , (a) (
, ).
6.13 ( ). ,
f C ((a)) (f (a)) =
= f ((a)).
6.14 ( ). , f
C ( (a)) g C ( (f (a))), g (f (a)) = (g f )(a).
6.15 ( ).
' : A B | - C -. ,
'(f (a)) = f ('(a)) f C ((a)).
6.2 ( ). -


( ( )).

Ca

fd
(a) = f a^

.
, ' A.
(. 4.18),
,
. , ,
.
6.16. T B (H ) | . ,
r (T ) = ; ap (T ) = su (T ) = (T ); p (T ) = com (T ):
. :
1) Ker T = Ker T T T B (H );
2) T , Ker T = Ker T = (Im T ) .
6.17. T B (H ) | , f
C ( (T )). , p (f (T )) = f (p (T ))? c .

6.3.

99

(. 6.1).
6.18. (X; ) | ,
f L (X; ). Mf , L2 (X; ).
, , (
), . , .
6.19 (-). A | C -, a1 ; : : : ; an A |
. (a1 ; : : : ; an )
, Cn n = 1 .
a1 ; : : : ; an
.

C -,
, | . [20].
C - . [12].
. [29, 30, 26, 21]. , (
[30]) | ( 6.1).
( , C -) . . . [2]. | ( 6.2) [26] [23].
. [34]; |
. [42] . . [41].

7.

,
C -
C, . |
,
. C - ,
, ; , , C - | B (H ) | .
. .
7.1.

H | ( , C).

 : H H C ;  C x; y; z H -

7.1.
,


1) (x + y; z ) = (x; z ) + (y; z );
(x; y) + (x; z ).
2) (x; y + z ) = 
 , (x;y)= (y;x)
x; y H .
H C, x 7 (x; x), , .

,
.
7.1. ,  | ,

(x; y) =

1
4

3
X

k=0

ik (x + ik y; x + ik y):

7.2. ,  , (x; x) R x H .

7.1.

101

H | . ( ) T : H H T H T (x; y) = hT x; yi
(x; y H ).
, T , .
7.3. , S; T : H H | , S = T S = T hSx; xi = hT x; xi x H .
7.1. , R : 90 .
7.4. :
1) T B (H ) T
hT x; xi R x H ;
2) T B (H ) T T = 1;
3) U B (H ) .
7.2. , . 2 3 , . (. . 3).
(. . ), , ,
.
, , , , , , .
.
7.2. 1. T B (H ) ,
T T = 1.
2. V B (H ) ,
(V V ) 2 = V V .
7.5.
.
, T H
T . , .

102

7.

7.3.  H , C > 0,
|(x; y)| 6 C kxkkyk x; y H . C
 kk.

,
H . ,
7.1.
7.1. , T H T kT k 6 kT k.
, .
7.1.

B (H )

n o

H ; T 7 T ;

| .
. T 7 T
7.3.
 | .
y H y : H C, x 7 (x; y). ,
y H ky k 6 kkkyk. S (y) H , (x; y) = hx; S (y)i x H .  , S : H H | ; ,
kS (y )k = ky k 6 kkky k y H , . . S kS k 6 kk. T = S ;  = T , T 7 T | . , kT k = kS k 6 kT k 6 kT k.

7.2.

. (
); .
X | , A 2X | - .

7.2.

7.4.
,

A1 ; : : : ; An A

103

: A

G
n

i=1

Ai =

n
X
i=1

 ( Ai ) :

,  -.
7.5. ,  , C > 0,
{Ai }ni=1 A n
P
|(Ai )| 6 C .
i=1

, .
7.1.
.

-

7.6. | A .
| | : A [0 +),

X
n

||(A) = sup

i=1

|(Ai )| :

7.2.

A=

n
G

i=1

Ai ; Ai A :

|| A .

MA (X ) A . , MA (X ) | .
7.3.  7 kk = ||(X )
MA (X ). MA (X )
.

(. 2.10), BA (X ) A - X .
A X A ().
SA (X ) = span{A : A A } BA (X ):
SA (X ) A -.
(), SA (X ) | BA (X ).
7.6. , SA (X ) BA (X ).

104

7.

7.7. ,  MA (X ) I BA (X ) , I (A ) = (A) A A .

f BA (X )
I (f ) Z
f  X f (x) d(x).
7.7.

7.2 (, ).

MA (X ) BA (X ) ;

 7 I ;

| .

X | , A = B or(X ) | - .
BA (X ), SA (X ) MA (X ) B (X ),
S (X ) M(X ) .
7.8.

B or(X ).

X |

7.9.  X ,
B B or(X ) " > 0 U B K B , ||(U \ K ) < ".
7.4.
.

--

7.3. : - .

M (X ) M(X ) , .

MX

7.5.
( ) |
M( ) (, ,
).

, .
7.3 (, , ).

M (X ) C (X ) ;  7 I ;
| .

7.3.

- B (X )

105

7.4. jM : M (X ) M(X ) jC : C (X )
B (X ) . | || jC M(X ) M (X ). , jC jM = 1M (X ) . , M (X ) | M(X ), jC |
M(X ) M (X ). ( -

.)
7.3. -

B(X )

- X |
. f B (X )

Ff M (X ) , Ff () = X f d.
B (X ) M (X ) .
M (X ) C (X ) , , : B (X ) C (X ) |
iC (X ) : C (X ) , C (X ) . ,
M(X ) B (X ) , Ff M (X ) | M (X ) iB(X ) (f ) M(X ) , iB(X ) : B (X ) ,
, B (X ) = M(X ) | (. ):
iB(X )

/ B (X )
M(X )
WWWWW
WWWWW
j
WWWWW
WWWWW M 
W+
iC (X )

B (X
) WWWWW
O
jC

C (X )

C (X )

M (X )

, k (f )k 6 kf k f B (X ).
, ,
.
7.8. , : B (X ) M (X ) | .
. (f ) , .
7.9.
:
f B (X ) (f ) C (X ) , C (X ) B (X ) , (f ) B (X ) ,
, f B (X ) , B (X ) . ,
k (f )k = kf k.
, B (X ) M (X ) .
.

106

7.

7.10. - B (X )
* (M (X ) ; M (X )) : B (X )
M (X ) .
- B (X ) wm.
Z



{k k :  M (X )}, kf k = f d .
X

, fn B (X )
f B (X ) wm
f .
, E
iE : E E E (
, E ). E
, , (E ; E ). , .
7.11. , Im iE E (E ; E ).
, Im iE F E , . C (X ) .
7.1. C (X ) B (X ) 7.10 .

- .

, C (X ) B (X ) , f (x) = f (x). C (X ) B (X ) ( C -;
. 6.3 6.4).
7.11. |
, .
7.1. B (X ) | - .

. f B (X ) ,
Lf : B (X ) B (X ), g 7 fg, - . Z  M (X ) f  (f )(A) = A f d.
 |(f )(A)| 6 ||(A)kf k f . , g S (X )

7.4.

- B (H )

107

fg d = X g d(f ). X
g B (X ) ( ), S (X )
B (X ), , g B (X ). , kfgk = kgkf 
g B (X ), Lf : g 7 fg - (. 4.5). , (B (X ); wm) | .
kf k = kf k .
7.12. , X ,
(B (X ); wm) . , , , (. . fn f gn g wm, fn gn fg wm).
Z

H)

7.4. - B (

H | . x; y H k kx;y B (H ), kT kx;y = |hT x; yi|


T B (H ).
7.12. B (H ), {k kx;y : x; y H }, -
wo.
7.13 . F (H ) H . (B (H ); wo)
= F (H ).
7.2. B (H ) | - .

. S; T B (H ) x; y H kST kx;y = |hST x; yi| = kS kT x;y . ,


RT : B (H ) B (H ), S 7 ST ,
- . , kST kx;y = |hT x; S yi| =
= kT kx;S y , LS : B (H ) B (H ),
T 7 ST , - . , kT kx;y = kT ky;x .
7.14. , H , (B (H ); wo) .
, , .

108

7.

7.5. :

H | , T B (H ) |
, K C | .
, t B (K ) t(z ) = z (z K ).
7.13. T K | - b : (B (K ); wm) (B (H ); wo),
b (t) = T .
.
7.3.
.
(1) ;

(2) K (T );
(3) b |C (K ) = c (. . );
(4) b : B (K ) B (H ) k b k = 1.
. (4) , b | - C - (. 6.9).
(3) (2) (4) .
(1) (3) C (K ) (B (K ); wm) (. 7.1).

C -,
.

7.4.
|
, : ( ) B ( ) | -.
-
~: ( ( )
) (B ( ) ), :

 CX

 B X ; wm

H ; wo

 /
B (H )
v;
v
v
v
v ~

C (X )
jC


B (X )

. x; y H
Fx;y C (X ) Fx;y (f ) = h(f )x; yi. -

7.5.

109

|| x;y

M (X ),

h (f )x; y i =

f dx;y f C (X ):
(7.1)
X
kx;y k = kFx;y k 6 k kkxkky k = kxkky k (. 6.9).


, ,

x;z
 x+ y;z = x;z + y;z x; y+ z = x;y + 
x; y; z H ; C.

(7.2)

, (7.1)
, f . , f B (X )

Z
f (x; y) = f dx;y (x; y H ):
X

(7.2) , f | H .
, x; y H
|f (x; y )| 6 kf k kx;y k 6 kf k kxkky k;

 . , 7.1 ~ (f ) B (H ),
Z
h
~ (f )x; yi = f (x; y) = f dx;y (x; y H ):
(7.3)
X

f B (X ),
~ : B (X ) B (H ) . , (7.3) , x; y H
k
~ (f )kx;y = kf k . , ~ - B (X ) - B (H ).
, ~ | -,
.
x;y

A; B

7.1.
| , 0 | , :
|
,
0 -. | -.

'

' A

. , a A
La ; Ra : A A ( )

110

7.

a. ,

'(ab) = '(a)'(b) a; b A0 :
,
(' La )|A0 = (L'(a) ')|A0 a A0 :
A,
A0 A, A. ,

' La = L'(a) ' a A0 ;


, ,

'(ab) = '(a)'(b) a A0 (!) b A:


:
(' Rb )|A0 = (R'(b) ')|A0 b A:
, , A, ,
'(ab) = '(a)'(b) a; b A, . , ' | . , a 7 '(a ) a 7 '(a) A
B A0 , ( ),
A. , ' | -.
, , ~ | -. C (X ) (B (X ); wm). .
7.5. , :

C (X=)

C (X1 )B

jC

==
==
=
F ===
=


C



~
F


B (X )


jC

/ B (X )
|
11BB

11 BBB
~ | |
B
11 BB
|
|
11 BB
!
}|
11

Fx;y 11 B (H ) F~x;y
11

11 "x;y
11

1  
C

7.5.

111

, F
C (X ) ( ) wm- B (X ). , Z M (X ), F , F~ (f ) = X f d f B (X ). , ,
, . "x;y B (H ), T B (H )
"x;y (T ) = hT x; yi.  : 
Fx;y = "x;y T C (X ), F~x;y B (X ) (. ),
F~x;y ~
.
- 7.4 .

7.5.
|
.

C (X ) B (H )

( )
-

:
(B (X ); wm) (B (H ); wo)

, ,
: ( ) B ( ) ( ),
, , : ( ) B ( ) ~
( ).

 BX

 CX

BX

CX

T
H K

7.6.
B ( ) |
,
C | , ( ).
b : ( ) B ( )

T
BK

. ,
 c : C (K ) B (H ) T
K .

6.7 7.5
.

112

7.

7.7.
| ,
.

( )

T B (H ) :
 (T ) K

(


C (K ) B (H )

K C | -

)


( )
-

:
(B (K ); wm) (B (H ); wo)
,
, 6.7, | , 7.5.
7.6. | (. . 1): | C[t].
, |
C[t], ,
C[t]. ,
E | E O (C), E
K | E O (K ) (. . 4). 7.7, ,
.

, , .
7.15. (X; ) | , ' : X C |
.
M' , L2 (X; ).
:
1) M `2 ;
2) Mt L2 [a; b],
(Mt f )(x) = xf (x).


`2 (Z), L2 (T) L2 (R).
. |  -.
7.16 ( ).

7.5.

113

, .
(. 4.12 6.12).
7.17. K; L C |  (T ) K L. bK bL T K L , rLK : B (L) B (K ) | .
, :

B (L) QQ
rLK


B (K )

QQbQ
Q(
B (H )
mm6
m
m
mm K
b

, (T ),
b (f ) f (T ) (
f (T )).
, , :
(. 4.2 6.3). , ( 6.6).
, .
7.18. 1. b : B ((T )) B (H )?
2. , (f (T )) = f ((T )) f B ((T ))?
3. K (T ) | , f B (K ), L f (K ) | , g B (L). , g(f (T )) = (g f )(T )?
7.7. , (f (T )) = ( b (f )) (f ) = f (K ) L.

(.
4.21).
7.19. U B (H ) | . , T B (H ),
U = exp(iT ).

, , , .

114

7.

7.20 . , H U B (H ),
exp(T ) T B (H ).
. H L2 (V ) O (V )
V C. (.
4.22.)

; , , [30]. , , [9, 31]; . [37]. - . . ; . [30]. - | ,


. , , , B (H )
.
. [29, 30, 20, 2].
, , [29].
( ) [30].
. [14, 23, 26, 10].

8.

| , , , ,
.

| 1 . , ,
.
, . ,
T B (H ) H

T=

m
X

k=1

k E k ;

Ek | .
. , , (, , )
T H
.
,
.
, - T , Ek
, k . ,
, T .
.
(. ).
x;y , x; y H . (. (7.3)),
f (T ) f (T )
hf (T )x; y i =

 (T )

f () dx;y ():

1 . [23].

116

8.

, f () 
Z

hT x; y i =

 (T )

 dx;y ():

: T
( | )

T=

 (T )

 d(?)()

( - , )? , .
(, ).
, , , . .
. , , .
8.1.

H | . PR(H ) H . ,
PR(H ) H ,
. , . .
8.1.
(

, P; Q PR(H ) -

Q), Im P Im Q.

, P Q P Q =0 QP =0 P + Q
Im(P + Q) = Im P Im Q.

8.1.

PR(H ),

8.2. P; Q PR(H ). , P Q PR(H )


P Q = QP , Im(P Q) = Im P Im Q.

8.1.
8.3.

117

P1 ; : : : ; Pn PR(H ) Pi Pj i 6= j . n

X



P
|k |
k k

= 1max
6k6n
k=1

1 ; : : : ; n C.
X | , A | - .
8.2. E : A PR(H ) ,
1) E () = 0;
2) E (X ) = 1H ;
n
n
P
F
Ak = E (Ak ) , Ai Aj = i 6= j ;
3) E
k=1
k=1
4) E (A B ) = E (A)E (B ) A; B A .
, , E (A) E (B )
A B = . , 1 3.
8.4. , 3 4.
8.5.  - A X .
A PR(C).
8.1. E : A PR(H ) | .
x; y H A A Ex;y (A) = hE (A)x; y i.
Ex;y MA (X ) kEx;y k 6 kxkkyk.
. , Ex;y | A . ,
, {Ai }ni=1 A k = 1; : : : ; n k C ,
|hE (Ak )x; y i| = k hE (Ak )x; y i |k | = 1. 8.3
n
X

k=1

|hE (Ak )x; y i| =

n
X

k=1

X
n

k E (Ak )x; y 6
k=1
X

n


6
k E (Ak ) kxkkyk 6 kxkkyk:
k=1

k hE (Ak )x; yi =

, Ex;y , |Ex;y |(A) 6 kxkkyk


A A . .

118

8.

8.1. (X; A ; ) | , H =
= L2 (X; ). A A E (A) = M ( A). , , E | A .  , ,
1, L2 (X; )  = E1;1 .
.
8.2.  : BA (X ) B (H ) | -.
E  : A PR(H ); E  (A) = (A );
| A .
, . , .
8.1. E : A PR(H ) |  - A 2X . - IE : BA (X ) B (H ), IE (A )= E (A)
A

A A .

hIE (f )x; y i =

f dEx;y

(8.1)

f BA (X ) x; y H .
. f BA (X ) x; y H -

f (x; y) =

f dEx;y :

Ex;y , f |
H . , 8.1
|f (x; y )| 6 kf kkEx;y k 6 kf kkxkky k;
f kf k 6 kf k. , IE (f ) B (H ), (8.1). , IE : BA (X )
B (H ) kIE (f )k = kf k 6 kf k f BA (X ).
(8.1) , IE (A ) = E (A) A A ,

IE (A B ) = IE (AB ) = E (A B ) = E (A)E (B )


A; B A . , IE
SA (X ) | .

8.1.

119

IE SA (X ) BA (X ) , IE : BA (X ) B (H ) | .
IE . ,
Ey;x = Ex;y x; y H ,
hIE (f)x; y i =

f dEx;y =

f dEy;x =
= hIE (f )y; xi = hx; IE (f )yi = hIE (f ) x; yi:

, IE | -. .
8.3. f BA (X ) IE (f ) f E
Z
f () dE ():
X

8.1. , , , 7.4
C (X ) B (X ):
.
8.2 .
8.2. X | , A 2X |  - -



n o
-

:
A PR(H )
BA (X ) B (H )
, , : A ( ) B ( )  (. 8.2),
, ,
: A PR( ) E : A ( ) B ( ).

 B X
E

B X


, .
8.1. T B (H ) | , K C |
,  (T ).
E : B or (K ) PR(H ),

T=

 dE ():

(8.2)

120

8.

f B (K )

f (T ) =

f () dE ():

(8.3)

8.2.
( ).

CX

8.1 . ? ,
, , (8.2) (, , (8.3)
E (A) = A (T ) E ). | -
B (X ) B (H ), - wm B (X ) - wo B (H ). ,
,
, , .
, X |
.
8.4.

, E : B or(X )
x; y H Ex;y

PR(H ) ,

or X

8.2.
: B ( ) PR( ) E : ( ) B ( )
- ( ) -
B ( ).

BX
BX

. () E , x; y H
f B (X )

Z



kIE (f )kx;y = |hIE (f )x; y i| = f dEx;y = kf kEx;y :
X

IE .
() x; y H . wm-wo-
IE , 1 ; : : : ; n M (X ) C > 0,

8.2.

C (X ) 121


kIE (f )kx;y 6 C max kf k
16k6n

(8.4)

n
P

|k |;  M (X )
f B (X ).  =
k=1
 > 0. (8.4) f B ,
|Ex;y (B )| = |hE (B )x; y i| 6 C max |k (B )| 6 C(B ):
16k6n

, B =
m
X

|Ex;y (Bk )| 6 C

k=1
|Ex;y |(B ) 6 C(B )

m
X
k=1

m
F

k=1

Bk

(Bk ) = C(B );

B .
 Ex;y .
.

8.3.
|
.

C (X ) B (H )

( )
-


(B (X ); wm) (B (H ); wo)
(
)

B or(X ) PR(H )

7.5, | 8.2.

, 7.7, .

8.4.
| ,
.

K C | -

( )
( )
T B (H ) :
-


 (T ) K
C (K ) B (H )
( )
(

(B (K ); wm) (B (H ); wo)

B or(K ) PR(H )

122

8.

, , .
8.5 ( ).

| ,
B ( ) | ,
C | , ( ). : B ( ) PR( ),
Z

H
K

T
T
E

T=

or K

 dE ():

K
f B (K )
Z

f (T ) =

(8.5)

f () dE ():

. .
8.6. 8.5 , E (B ) =
= E (B (T )) B K ( , E (T )).
8.5. E , , T , E (B ) ( B K ) | . (8.5) T .
8.7. 7.15 7.16 .
, .
8.3. T B (H ) | ,
E : B or(K ) PR(H ) | .
1) Ker(T 1) = Im E ({})  (T );
2) p (T ) = { (T ): E ({}) 6= 0}.
. , B (K ) (t ){} = 0 (, , t t(z ) = z ). b , ,
(T 1)E ({}) = 0, . . Im E ({}) Ker(T 1). .

8.3.

123

8.8. S B (H )
Ker S = Ker S S . , S ,
Ker S = Ker S .
, Ker(T 1) = Ker(T  1). , x Ker(T 1) m; n Z+

T n (T )m x = n  m x:
(8.6)
P B (K ) ,
t t. (8.6) , f (T )x = f ()x
f P .
y H . ,
f 7 hf (T )x; yi f 7 f ()hx; yi
(B (K ); wm). , P B (K ). (B (K ); wm)
(?), B (K ).
y H , f (T )x = f ()x f B (K ) x Ker(T 1).
f = {} , E ({})x = x, . . x Im E ({}). 1. 2 |
1.

8.3.
|

,
|. , ,
, | . , , .
|
. ' : [a; b] R | .
-
a = 0 < 1 < : : : < n = b
[a; b] [i1 ; i ] i . P (;  );

124

8.

d = max (i i1 ).


16i6n
f : [a; b] C P (;  )

S (f; P (;  )) =

n
X
i=1

f (i )('(i ) '(i1 )):

I C | f [a; b] ', " > 0


 > 0, P (;  )
 |S (f; P (;  )) I | < ".

I=

Z b

f () d'():

'() , .
, , [a; b] |.
, ' |
PR(H ). , ,
PR(H ).
8.9. H | ,
P; Q PR(H ) | . , :
1) Im P Im Q;
2) P Q = QP = P ;
3) hP x; xi 6 hQx; xi x H ;
4) Q P PR(H ).
8.6. P; Q PR(H )
, , P Q, P 6 Q.
8.10. E : [a; b] PR(H ), E () = E | , Ea = 0, Eb = 1H .
1.
f : [a; b] C. |Z b
a f () dE H ,
, Z f .
b
2. T = a  dE . , T = T , (T ) [a; b]
b

f C [a; b] f (T ) = a f () dE .


Z

8.3.

125

,
E : [a; b] PR(H )
Z b
T = a  dE B (H ). , T B (H ) E .
, T = T B (H ). , (T ) R (. 6.6), - (a; b], (T ).

;  > 0;
t+ () =
0;  < 0;
(

t () =

(
;

0;

 6 0;
 > 0:

 [a; b] H = Ker(t )+ (T ) E H .


8.7. E : [a; b] PR(H ) T .

E 0 : B or([a; b]) PR(H ) | T . , E = E 0 ([a; ])  [a; b].


8.11.

8.2.
T .
8.12 ( ). ,
1) Ea+ = 0  > 0 Eb = 1H ;
2) E : [a; b] PR(H ), E () = E | ;
3) x H [a; b] H ,  7 E x,
; Z
b
4) T = a  dE ;
5)
E : [a; b] PR(H ) 1)|4) ;
Z b
6) f (T ) = a f () dE f C [a; b].
. 5. E | - 1, 2
4, E 0 | T . 4.
, E 6 E 0 ([a; ]) 6 E  < ,
. 3.

126

8.

8.13. , E : [a; b] PR(H ) 3, , E : [a; b]


(PR(H ); wo).

.
8.6.

B( ) :

(T ) (a; b]

E : [a; b] PR(H ):
Ea+ = 0, Eb = 1H , :

 7 E x

 > 0:

, ,
, , ,

b
 dE .
a

.
8.14. T B (H ) | ,
E : [a; b] PR(H ) | , 0 (T ). ,

0  c ( T )

 7 E x 0
x H:

| , .
[29, 30, 20] (
, | |;
. 8.3). . [14, 10, 23, 26].

9.

,
. |
. |
, , M'
', L2 (X; ). ,
. , ,
(. . 3).
9.1. , ,

.
, | ,
. ,
, , - | , .
, ,
, .
A | ( , C), M | . , M A-,
A M M , (a; x) 7 a x,
(ab) x = a (b x) a; b A, x M . A 1 x = x x M , M .
M | A-. a A La : M M , x 7 a x. , A L (M ),
a 7 La , | , . . A M . , M | ,  : A L (M ) | A M , M A- a x = (a)x (a A,
x M ). , (
) . -

128

9.

A , , .
9.1. A | . A- | M ,
A- , A M M , (a; x) 7 a x, .
(. 2.8), C > 0,
ka xk 6 C kakkxk a A x M . , ,
, La L (M ) kLa k 6 C kak
a A. ,
A B (M ), a 7 La , . . A. ,  : A B (M ) A
M , M A- a x = (a)x (a A, x M ).
9.2. M; N | A-, M N ' B (M; N ),
'(a x) = a '(x) a A, x M .
( , A- |
A-, .)
, A- ; A-mod. A-mod1 A-mod, , A-mod, |
, 1:
hA-mod1 (M; N ) = {' hA-mod (M; N ): k'k 6 1}:
A-mod1 | (. 5.5).
, A | .
A-,
.
9.3. A | .
A- | H A-, A-,
ha x; yi = hx; a yi x; y H , a A.
,
, A B (H ), a 7 La , | -. ,

9.1.

, ,

129

H | , - A B (H ) H A-.
9.1.
, (. [36]).
C -.
, C - | M C - A, A- h; i : M M A. , C - . C - ,
. [19] [27].

A A-mod, A-Hmod. A-Hmod1 A-mod1 .



, .
A A-mod, A-Hmod . . () A-; .
, , . (. 6.7),
K C | , C (K ), . .
C (K )-Hmod:
T



,

(T ) K
 Ob(C (K )-Hmod) = Ob(C (K )-Hmod1 ): (9.1)

, C (K )- , , . , C (K )- .
9.1. S B (H1 ) T B (H2 ) | , K C | , , U : H1 H2 |

130

9.

. , :
1) U S T , . .

H1

S /
H1

U
T / 
H2

H2

;
2) U | C (K )-Hmod1 .
,

S B (H1 ) T B (H2 )

H1
= H2 C (K )-Hmod1

.
9.1. A | () , () A-
a b = ab.
9.2. A An = A : : : A
A- a (a1 ; : : : ; an ) =
= (aa1 ; : : : ; aan ). A-, An , A-. A | ,
n
P
An | A- k(a1 ; : : : ; an )k = kai k
i=1
P
(,
max |
i
i
). , X | A = C (X ), An
C (X; Cn ) X Cn .
9.3 ( ). - X |
,  : E X | X .

`(X; E ) = {f : X E : f  f = 1X }
C (X )- .
, E X

9.2.

131

F X , E F ,
. . X CN N .
`(X; E ) `(X; F )
= `(X; X CN )
= C (X; CN )
= C (X )N :
P A
, A-. ,
`(X; E ) | C (X )-. | , C (X )- ; , `



( )-.

CX

, |;
( 60- . ) | K -.
, ,
`(X; E ) |
,
, -, .
9.4. X |
,  M (X ) |
. L2 (X; ) C (X )- .
9.5. . - X | , (X ; A ; ) | , ' : X X | ( A B or(X )). f C (X ) g L2 (X ; ) f g L2 (X ; )
(f g)(x) = f ('(x))g(x). , (!), L2 (X ; ) C (X )-.
L2 (X ; )' .
| , C (X ), 9.5, .
9.2. -

,
, |

132

9.

9.4. ,
C (X )-.
9.4. A | , M |
A-, x M .
Ax = {a x : a A}
, x. x M , M = Ax, M
, x | M .
9.6. X |
,  M (X ) |

. , C (X ) L2 (X; ) (., , [15], X ). C (X )- L2 (X; ),


9.4, :
x 1.
9.2.

L2 (X; ) L2 (X; )?

C (X )-

, 9.6 ( ) C (X )-.
, .
X | ,
H | C (X )-. -  : C (X ) B (H ) -
~ : B (X ) B (H ), -
B (X ) - B (H ) (. 7.4).
, ( - ; . 6.9). H B (X )-.
E : B or(X ) PR(H ) (. 8.2); , E (B )x = B x
B X x H . x H
x M (X )

x (B ) = hE (B )x; xi (B B or(X )):


(9.2)
, x | Ex;x 8.1. ,
x (B ) = kE (B )xk2 , x . ,

9.2.

h
~ (f )x; xi =

133

f dx (f B (X ))

(9.3)

(. 8.1 8.3).
x - f X
[f ] x .
9.1.
( )- x : 2 (
x ) , x ([1]) = .
x Im x = ( ) .

CX

j L X; 

H
j

CXx

,
B (X ) L2 (X; x ); f 7 [f ];
| C (X )-. B 2 (X; x )
L2 (X; x ) . ,
L2 (X; x ) ( ).
(9.3) ,
.

h
~ (f )x; ~ (g)xi = h~ (f g)x; xi =

f g dx

(9.4)

f; g B (X ). f = g, , f = 0 x -. .,
~ (f )x = 0. ,
B (X ) H; f 7 ~ (f )x;
B 2 (X; x ). , jx0 : B 2 (X; x ) H ,
jx0 ([f ]) = ~ (f )x f B (X ). , jx0 |
C (X )-; , (9.4) ,
. , jx0 C (X )- jx : L2 (X; x ) H . [1]
L2 (X; x ), x = jx ([1])
Im jx . jx .
C (X )-.

9.1.
|

| ( )-.
( ), > 0,

2(
) ( )1.

L X; 

C X Hmod

 MX 

CX

134

9.

.
9.5. T B (H ) -, x H ,
H = span{T n (T )m x : n; m Z+ }:
x - T .
9.2. H ,
.
9.3. , T B (H )
- H | C ((T ))-.
.
9.2. T B (H ) | - .  M ( (T )),  > 0, U : H L2 (X; ),
T Mt :

H
U


L2 ((T ); )

U
Mt / 2 
L ((T ); )

(Mt f )(x) = xf (x).


. 9.1 9.1 9.3.
.
9.7. (. 9.6.) K C | ,
, Mt B (L2 (K )) | . Mt | - , x 1 | - Mt . 1
.
9.8. Tb B (`2 (Z)) -. e0 `2 (Z) (, en
`2 (Z)) - Tb .

Mt

9.3.

9.4.

e0 .

135

9.5. , T B (H )
-, ;
H , .
9.3. - 1. .
9.6. M
B (`2 ) -?
9.7. L2 (R)
L2 (T) -?

9.3. :

(. . ) C (X )-.
: , , 9.5. , , ,
M' , L2 (X ; ) (M' f )(x) = '(x)f (x); (X ; ) | , ' |
X . :
( ) ,
.
. |
:
- , .
: ( | ), ( |
), ( | ),. . . (
.)

136

9.

: | Z, | C[t],
| CG. , ( CG) . , , :
C (X )- (
!) .
, .

,
.
.
P
9.4.
xi ,
iI
I | xi C.
. , P
, J = {i I : xi 6= 0}
|xi | - ( ) iJ

J . xi = xi ;
iI
iJ
J .
{Hi }iI | .
9.6. {Hi }iI :
M
_ H = nx = (x ) Y H : X kx k2 < o:
P

iI

iI

iI

9.8. , H =
L
Q
Hi ,
= _ Hi

iI

x; y H

hxi ; yi i

iI

hx; yi = hxi ; yi i
iI
iI
H , H
.
9.5. i I Hi H . Hi H ,
Hi H .
P

9.3.

137

L
I = N Hi = C i I , _ Hi = `2 .
iI
I , `2 (I ).
.
9.9. i I Ti B (Hi ), sup kTi k < . , T (x) =
i L
= (Ti xi )iI ( x = (xi )iI _ Hi ) T
9.9.

iI

L
_ Hi , kT k = sup kTi k.

iI

9.7. T , ,
L
{Ti }iI _ Ti .

iI

9.10.

L
I = N Hi = C i I , _ Ti | -

iI

M `2 .

, .

9.1.
| ,
|
-. k k 6
6 k kk k , .

H
a x

a A x H

a x

. ,
(. 6.9).
9.9, .

9.2.
| , { i }iI |

A-.


( i )iI = ( i )iI .

a x

a x

A-

L
_

iI

Hi

, Hi
H ,
. , .

138

9.

9.10. A | , H | A-, {Hi }iI |


H . ,
L
U : _ Hi H A-Hmod, iI
Ux = x x HP
i i I . , U , Im U = Hi ( iI
).
. .

A | , H |
H0 H | . H0 |

9.2.
-,
.

x H0 a A, y H0
ha x; yi = hx; a yi = 0. , a x H0 .
.

9.3.
|
,
|
-. { i }iI
P

,
=
i . , -

H
H
H
L
_ Hi A-Hmod1 .

iI

iI

. M | , H . . , M . ,
S C M , = { : C } M
C . ,
M
P
= {Hi }iI . H0 = Hi , H0 = H .

iI

, H0 6= 0 H0 | H .
x H0 ; Ax H0 |
, Hi .
. , H0 = H ,
.
9.1 .

9.3.
|
,
| ( )-. { i }iI -

CX

9.3.


,
L 2
_
(
)

( ).
i

iI

L X; 

C X Hmod

139

H


9.4.
B ( ) | . { i }iI ( ),
-

T
T
Mt , i I Mt
iI

L2 ( (T ); i ) (Mt f )(z ) = zf (z ).

L
_

. H C ((T ))- (. (9.1))


.

9.4 . :
T Mt , , . , Mt
. , .
i

9.11. , 1 , 2 - K C ,
Mt B (L2 (K ); ) Mt1 _ Mt2 .
9.6. , , 9.4, , .

A B | , : A B | .
B - M
A-, a x = (a) x a A, x M .
u : M N | B -mod, A-mod
A M N .
# : B -mod A-mod.

.

| A

140

9.

B , # B -mod A-mod ( ). , (. . 7 ; . 5.5).


.
9.11. (X ; A ; ) | , X | , ' : X X | ( A B or(X )). ' : C (X ) L (X ; ) ' (f ) = f '. ,
, (' )# : L (X ; )-mod C (X )-mod. L2 (X ; ) (
L (X ; )),
C (X )- L2 (X ; )' (. 9.5).

9.5 ( ).
|
,
|

( ).
(X A ) : X ,
2 (X
)' ( )1.

CX

; ;

'
X
H
C X Hmod
. H , 9.3,
F
X = Xi , Xi = X
L

;

i I . - A
:
A

nG

iI

 : A

[0; +]

Bi : Bi B or(Xi ) ;

iI
(P
iI i (Bi );
Bi =
+
iI

G

2X

,
.

, ' : X X , '(x) =
= x x Xi i I .
H L2 (X ; )' ,
i I

Hi = {f L2 (X ; )' : f = 0 Xi }:
, Hi Hj i 6= j . , Ui : L2 (X; i )
Hi , f L2 (X; i ) Xi , , , C (X )-Hmod1 .
9.10

9.4.

L - . 141

L
U : _ L2 (X; i ) L2 (X ; )' , -

iI

L2 (X; i ) Ui , Hi . iI f L2 (X ; )
, U . ,
f Hi , f = 0 Xi . i I ,
f = 0 X . , (Im U ) = 0, U | .
.
9.6 ( ). T B (H ) | P

. (X A
) : X C,


'
B ( 2 (X )), ( ' )( ) = ( ) ( ).

; ;

;

'

M f x

'xfx

9.12. H , T
, X R,  .
| ,
. , T , T
U 1 M' U ( U | ,
T M' ) f (T ) = U 1 Mf ' U .
T (. 7.15 8.7).
.
9.13. T B (H ) | .
1. , Im T 0 |
(T ).
2. ? ?

9.4. - .


. ,
, , . ,

142

9.


, (. . 7). , . , . , ,
, .
|
L - .
(X; A ; ) | . ,

L (X; ) (L1 (X; )) ; f 7 Ff ; Ff (g) =

fg d g L1 (X; ):

, L (X; ) * (L ; L1 )
(. 5.2).
9.14. X | ,  M (X ) | .
1. , C (X )
L (X; ), , * .
2. , B (X ) L (X; ) - B (X ) * L (X; ).
T B (H ) | , K C | ,  M (K ) | . , t L (K; )
t(z ) = z (z K ), , .
9.8. L - T (K; )
- : L (K; ) B (H ), * L (K; ) - B (H ) , (t) = T .
9.15. , L - T (K; ) . ,
1) ;
2) (T ) K ;

9.4.

L - . 143

3)

B (K )


/ B (H )
9
s
s
ss
s
s
s
sss

L (K; )

( b | T ,
| ; . 9.14).
 , L - ( !).
, T  (T ), L - T .
T .
.
, X | , H | C (X )-,  : C (X ) B (H )
~ : B (X ) B (H ) | , E : B or(X )
PR(H ) | (. 8.3).
 M (X ) H B B or(X )

9.9.

,

E (B ) = 0 (B ) = 0 .


.
:

X | , A | - .
9.10. ;  |  -
A ,  > 0.
1. ,   ,
 (A) = 0, A A , (A) = 0.
  .
2.  > 0, ,   (
  ),      , . .
A A  (A) = 0 (A) = 0 .

144

9.

; 

9.7 (, ).
| - - A , > 0.
:

(1)    ;
(2)
 -  : X C,
Z
(A) = A  d A A (. ., . 7,  =   );
(3) " > 0  > 0, A A ,  (A) <  , ||(A) < ".
 > 0,  > 0  -. .  (  ) .  d
|  

d
(   ).
9.7. | | (1) (2) . (2)
(3) | , (3) (1) .

.
, , ,
.

.
9.11. x H ~ , f B (X ) ~ (f )x = 0 ,
~ (f ) = 0.

x

9.4.

,
(. (9.2))
.

, x (B ) = kE (B )xk2
B X . x (B ) = 0 E (B )x = 0
E (B ) = 0.
.

9.16.

, .

,
.

9.4.

L - . 145
H

9.5.
, . ,
.

H H =

iI

Hi , Hi | -

H (. 9.3).
H , I , , I = N I = {1; : : : ; n}. iP
I xi Hi , kxi k = 1,
x = x2ii . , x | . ,
i
~ (f )x = 0 f B (X ), Hi , ~ (f )xi = 0 i I .
xi | Hi , , ~ (f )|H = 0
i I , . . ~ (f ) = 0. , x | .
: - H , , 9.4? H .
9.17. , H
x ( , H ).
1. ,  M (X ),  > 0   x ,  = y
y H .
2. , H y (, )
y H.
. |.
. , .
9.18 . , :
1) H ;
2) H .
H y
y H .
. |
:  {i : i I }
, (B ) = 0 i (B ) = 0 i I ,
.
i

146

9.

, (. . H ) 9.5 .
.
9.19. , .
.  -  > 0 , ({x}) > 0
x X , (X \ S ) = 0
S X .

L - .
9.6.

 | H .

Ker ~ = {f B (X ): f = 0 x -. . x H } = {f B (X ): f = 0 -. .}:


.

(B ) = 0 E (B ) = 0

B X

kE (B )xk2 = 0 x H x (B ) = 0 x H:

.
Z
k~ (f )xk2 = X |f |2 dx .

, .
9.12. A | .
I A -, a I
a I .
9.20. , I | -
A, A=I (a + I ) = a + I . ,
A | , , A=I , , .

9.8.
|
,
| . ,
, : ( ) B ( ) | -, ~ | ( ),
( ) | . -) B ( ), : (

 CX


L X; 

BX  MX
H

9.4.

L - . 147

B (X )


~

/ B (H )
9
s
s
ss
s
s
s
sss

L (X; )

* L (X; ) -
B (H ).
.  ; . I0 = Ker ~ ; ,
- B (X ).
 : B (X )=I0 B (H ); f + I0 7 ~ (f ):
, ,
-. 9.6 - B (X )=I0 L (X; ), f + I0
f  (. 2.11).
B (X )=I0 L (X; ),  : L (X; ) B (H ).
 x; y H
 L1 (X; ) ,
k (f )kx;y 6 kf k f L (X; ):
(9.5)
, x; y H .

Z



~ (f )x; yi| = f dEx;y
(9.6)
k (f )kx;y = |h
X

( , , f
).
, Ex;y  .
 = dEx;y =d; (9.6) ,

Z



k (f )kx;y = f d = kf k ;
X

(9.5). .
9.21. ,  .
, .

148

9.
A; B | C -, ' : A
-.

9.22 .

B |

' .

: - ?
9.23.  M (X ),  > 0,
9.8? ( .)
9.8 .
9.9. T B (H ) | -

H K


,
C | , ( ),
( ) | . -
(
) . , .

T  MK
L

K; 

L - .
, L -
(. 7.17).
, .
.
9.13. X | .  M (X ) |
supp  X , :
x = supp  U 3 x : (U ) = 0:
, supp  | .
9.8. ,
- ,
, , (
). , , .
9.24. T B (H ) | H ,  | , K (T ). ,
supp  = (T ).
9.1. K; K1 C | ,  (T ) K1 K , 
M (K ) | T B (H ). -

9.4.

L - . 149


|Bor(K1 )
.

M (K1 )

9.25. K K1 L - T K K1 ,

rKK1 : L (K; ) L (K1 ; ) | . ,


:

L (K; ) S
rKK1


SS SS
SS)
B (H )
kkk5
kkkkK1

K

L (K1 ; )

L - (. 9.15) K (T ),
(f ) f (T ),
.
L - , , |
.
9.26 ( ). T
B (H ) | H ,  | ,
K (T ). ,
f L (K; )
(f (T )) = { f (T )}:

[29].
; . . . [36]. | , , . [1].
[30, 14, 23];
C (X )- . | [15, 14, 9].
L - . . [35].

10.

, , ,  T T 1.
? , ,
. ,
, , ,
. ,
, ,
,
. ,
, .
,
( , ), .
, . , H | , T B (H ) | ,
. , , H
T :
M
H = _ H (); H () = Ker(T 1 ):
(10.1)
H

(T )

, T
M
T = _ 1 :
(T )

H ( )

(10.2)

mT (T ) mT () =
= dim H (). ((T ); mT ) T :
S T (S ) = (T ) mS = mT
(10.3)

10.

151

10.1. , .

, , (10.1) (10.2) (10.3)


. , H () ( ,
T ); , , , H . (10.1) (10.2)
,
.
, , .
,
( ) Hi (i I ),
L2 ((T ); i ) i
(T ) (. 9.3 9.4).
( 9.5) , , ((T ); i )
f (t) = t (. ).

((T ); 1 )
|

((T ); 2 )
(X ; )
{z

((T ); 3 )

...


(X ; ) ' ; T
M' L2 (X ; ).
, , ((T ); i )
, , -

152

10.
...

((T );3 )
((T );2 )
((T );1 )

 (T )

(T ), . . ,
, . ,
; , i- i- (T ), i .
, . .  (T ), |
. , T , (T );
T ,
 (T ) .
, H , (T ) 
H (). | Mt , L2 [0; 1] (Mt f )(t) = tf (t).
L2 [0; 1] C (  [0; 1]), Mt |
 C .
.
10.1.

X | , A | - ,
 X } |
. Q

H () X
. ,
{H ():

X

H () = u : X
n

X

H (): u() H ()  X :

H ()  X .

10.1.

153

, | {H ():  X } ,
.
10.1. ( : ) (X; A ) |
H = ({H ():  X }; F ),
Q {H ():  X } F
H (),
X
:
(1) u; v Q
F  7 hu(); v ()i X ;
(2) u
H () ,  7 hu(); v()i
X
v F , u F ;
(3) {un }
n=1 F ,

span{un ()}n=1 = H ():


F H .
10.1. , ,
H () . ,
, . , | , ,
.
, ,
.
10.1. , H () = C  X F X .
10.2 ( ). H |
. , u : X H
, x H  7 hu(); xi. H () = H  X F
X H .
10.2. (1)|(3).
10.3 ( ). X F
X =
Xn , Xn A . n nN

Hn H () = Hn

154

10.

 Xn .
F

= u
n

X

H (): u|X : Xn Hn n N :
o

(1)|(3).
, ,
, .
, .
10.2.
H = ({H ():  X }; F ) H 0 = ({H 0 ():  X }; F 0 ) (X; A ). ( ) T : H H 0 | 0

Q{T (0) B (H (); H ()):  X }, u F
H (), (T u)() = T ()u(),
T u
10.3.

X

F 0 .
 | - A ,
T : H H 0 - ,
 7 kT ()k - .
T : H H 0 ,
T () |  X .
10.4 ( ). f : X C | . Df : H H Df () = f ()1H () (,
). , Df , f , ,
|f ()| = 1  X .
10.3.
,
(. 10.2).
N N {0} {}.
10.1.

H |

(X; A ). n N Xn = { X : dim H () = n}. -

n A H |Xn . , H (. 10.3). ,
.

10.1.

155

10.2 ( ). , :
!
| , ; , , ,
, .
...

( ). {un }, (3) 10.1.


I N n N
I n X

I () = | det(hui (); uj ()i)i;j I |;


n () = sup{I (): I N; Card I = n}:
, I , , n A -.
(3) 10.1 , dim H () < n , n () = 0. n N Yn =
= { X : n () = 0} A . ,

S
Xn = Yn+1 \ Yn , X0 = Y1 X = X \ Xn A .
n=0
, H
Xn , , X = Xn .
10.1. H | , dim ( ) =
( N). n
{ i }n
i=1 , { i ( )}i=1 |
( ) .

H

 X

H

 X

e 

10.4. .
.


|. , {uP
i }, , u1 : fi ui (
i>2

fi | ) ,
u01 , e1 = u01 =ku01 k.
ui ( i > 2) u0i = ui hui ; e1 ie1 ; e1 .
,
ui ; e2 , . . {ei }.

156

10.

Hn0 {e0i }ni=1 Tn Xn


Hn0 H |X T ()e0i = ei (). , H 0 |
, {Xn }
Hn0 Xn . T : H 0 H , Tn Xn , ,
(!), .
.
10.5. {H ():  X } |
, F F 0 | , (1)|(3) 10.1. , F = F 0 .
. (X; A ; ), H (X; A ). F .
10.4.
L 2 (X; H ) = {u F :  7 ku()k2 -}:
L 2 (X; H ) H .
, L 2 (X; H ) | F .

n

hu; v i =
10.5.

hu(); v ()i d():

(10.4)

L 2 (X; H )={u : u = 0 -. .}


Z

X H () d() `2 (X; H ) {H ():  X } .


10.3. L2 -,
`2 (X; H ) (, ,
).
(10.4), , `2 (X; H ) .

10.1.

157

10.6.

, `2 (X; H ) | -

10.5. X = {1; : : : ; n}, n N, ({k }) = 1


k ( ).

X
10.6.

H () d()
=

M
_
16k6n

H (k ):

H | C.
Z

H () d()
= L2 (X; ):

10.7. H | H . L2H (X; ) - u : X H ,  7 ku()k2 , (10.4). ,


,

H () d()
= L2H (X; ):

X X = Xn , Xn A
n
n, H () = Hn  Xn n N (. 10.3).
F

10.8.

M
_ L2 (X ; ):
H () d()
=
n
H

nN

10.2 ( ).

H | (X; A ; ).
n N Xn = { X : dim H () = n}. H | { k }kN . N n =span{ 1
n}
0 = {0}.

e ;:::;e

H () d()
=

= {u L2H (X; ):

u() Hn

 Xn n N}:

158

10.

. 10.1
10.8.
.
10.6. H (X; A ; ) , ({ X : H () = 0}) = 0.
, . X+ = { X : H () 6= 0},
0 X 0 (Y ) = (Y X+ )
Y A.
10.7. , H (X; A ; 0 )

H () d()
=

H () d0 ():

,
| .
, . ,
.
10.1. T : H H 0 | (X; ). u L 2 (X; H ) T u L 2 (X; H 0 ).
, T : `2 (X; H ) `2 (X; H 0 ), -


. , k k 6 ess sup k ( )k.

Tu

u L 2 (X; H

X

T

C = ess sup kT ()k.


X

) kT ()u()k2 6 C 2 ku()k2  X ,
T u L 2 (X; H 0 ). ,
kT uk2 6 C 2 kuk2 , .
k = ess sup kT ()k.
10.8. , kT
X

,

.
, 10.1,
10.7. T
T ={T (): X }

10.1.

159
Z

X T () d(). `(X; H ) `(X; H 0 ), , ( ).


10.9. , 10.5,
L
T = _ T (k). , , (X; ) |
16k6n

,
| , (. ).
, ,
.
10.10. H |
(X; ). f : X C

Z

Df =
f ()1H () d();
X

H = X H () d(). Df (. 10.4). H , , .


10.11. (X; )
N H (n) = C n,
| `2
(. 3.1). (X; ) , H | C, D f | Mf : L2 (X; )
L2 (X; ) (. 3.2).
, D f - f , . . L (X; ).
, :
1) D 1 = 1;
2) D f + g = D f + D g (f; g L (X; ), ; C);
3) D fg = D f D g (f; g L (X; ));
4) D f = D f (f L (X; )).
, .
10.2.

L (X; ) B

Z

H () d() ; f 7 D f ;

(10.5)

160

10.

-. ,

H () d() -

L (X; )-.

, , L (X; ). , L (X; )


. ,
, ( = ) , C (X )
X (. 8.4).
X | ,
 | X , C (X ) L (X; ),
L (X; )-
C (X )- (. ). 10.2
.

X

X
H  X ;
X; or X ;  Z


H () d()
X
C (X )-.

10.1.
| , |

, H = ({ ( ): } F ) |
(
B ( ) ). (10.5) -

10.9. , H ,
Z
 X H () d().

C X )-

10.2. (

| , C (X )- `2 (X; H )
H X (. 10.1).
C (X )-,
.

10.3.
|
,
| ( )-,
( ) | . -

 MX

CX

10.2.

C (X )- 161

H =
= ({ ( ): } F ) ( B ( ) ),

H  X ;

X; or X ; 

H
=

H () d()

C (X )-Hmod1 :

, .
H | (X; A ; ), H = `2 (X; H ) | ,
M L 2 (X; H ) |
.

HM =

X
n

i=1

ai ui : ai C (X ); ui M; n N

H;

, H , M . , HM
M .
10.2. M = {ui : i I } L 2 (X; H ) |
, HM `2 (X; H ) | -

 X

. ,

span{ i ( ): }
( ). M
`2 (
H ).

u  i I

X;

H

v HM
. i I f C (X )

0 = hfui ; vi =

f ()hui (); v()i d():


(10.6)
X
i : X C i
X i () = hui (); v()i i = i . 
, i , 9.7 (3)). i (.
Z
(10.6), , X f () di () = 0
f C (X ). , i = 0, . . i = 0 -. . , ,
, ui () v() -. . i I ,
I , , v = 0 -. .,

. . HM
= 0, .
. H L
: H = _ Hn . xn Hn |
n
, n = x | . n  , - n > 0, n

162

10.

n = n . Xn0 = { X : n () 6= 0}
0
m : X N, m() = Card{n N :  Xn
}.
N

X
=
{


X
:
m
(

)
=
p
}
.
,
,
p

p
F
, X = Xp .
pN

, Xp .
.
K {en }nN , n N Kn =
= span{e1 ; : : : ; en }; K0 = 0.  X
H () = Km() H X (. 10.3); ,
Xp (p N) H
Kp . , H | ; ,
n (X0 ) = 0, n N,
( ), (X0 ) = 0.
10.10.

K=

H () d() =

= {u L2K (X; ): u() Kp  Xp ; p N}:


(. 10.2). | H K C (X )-.
H K ,
Hn ; , Hn , Hn
xn . , n
un K , xn .
un . .
n N  Xn0
q(n; ) = Card{k N : k 6 n;  Xk0 }:
, q(n; ) 6 m(). un L2K (X; )
(p
n ()eq(n;) ;  Xn0 ;
un () =
0;
 = Xn0 :

q(n; ) 6 m() = dim H () , un () H ()


 X , . . un (, ) K .

10.2.

C (X )- 163

10.3.
N
( )- n : n ,
( n ) = n . .

'x

CX

'

. 'n ,
xn | . , f C (X )

kf xn k2Hn
Z

|f ()|2 dn () =

XZ

|f ()|2 kun ()k2 d() =

|f ()|2 n () d() =

k(f un )()k2K () d() = kf un k2K :

, C (X )xn K , f xn 7 f un , . , C (X )-. C (X )xn


Hn , Hn . .
10.4. i 6= j Im 'i Im 'j .
. i < j .
( ), ui () uj ()  X .
 Xi0 Xj0 , i < j , q(i; ) < q(j; ), ,
, ui () uj ().  ui () = 0,
uj () = 0. .
P
10.5.
Im 'j K .
j

. {ui }. 10.2 ,
 X K = span{ui (): i N} H (). p N,  Xp ;
p < . n1 < n2 < : : : < np ,
 Xn0 1 : : : Xn0  = Xk0 k = {n1 ; : : : ; np }. ui ,
un1 () = n1 ()e1 ; un2 () = n2 ()e2 ; : : : ; un () = n ()ep ;
, , n () 6= 0 j = 1; : : : ; p. ,
e1 ; : : : ; ep K , . . K = H (). p = , , ( , n1 < n2 < : : :
), , en K n N, . . K
H (). .
p

164

10.



L
' :
Hn K , '|H = 'n
n
n. , '
. ,
L
' : _ Hn = H K . n
.
.
n

10.4.
| ,
B ( ) | ,
| . H =({ ( ): ( )} F ) ( ( ) B ( ( )) ),

H  T ;

H () d().

 TZ ; or  T ; 

1H () d(),


X

10.3.

,

. , 10.2.
10.6. H |
(
A ),
= `2 ( H ) | 2
,
L ( H ) | , M
| ,
.
,
M . span{ ( ):
} ( ) .

X;
H

u u M

X; ;  H

H

X;

 X

. {un }nN F | , (3) 10.1.


un u0n () = un ()=kun ()k ( ,
un () 6= 0), , un  = span{u(): u M }
.  X HM
 6= H ()
, , . . HM
. n N
 }. ,
Xn = { X : un () = HM
(Xn ) > 0 n. n  ). dn () > 0 dn : X [0; ), dn () = (un (); HM
 Xn ; , " > 0

10.3.

165

Y Xn , (Y ) > 0 dn () > "  Y .


v HM
kv un k2 =

kv () un ()k2 d() >

d2n () d() > "2 (Y ):

, un = HM , . .

X
MX

10.5.
|
0
,
( ) | , H H 0 |
(
B ( ) )
(
B ( ) 0 ) ,
= `( H ) 0 = `( H 0 ) |
. :
(1)
= 0 ( )1;
(2) 0 , dim ( ) = dim 0 ( ) -. .

; 

X; or X ; 
H H
 

C X Hmod
H

X;

X; or X ; 
X;

H  

(2) (1). H H 0 , d0


d
0
10.2,  = d


=
. 0
d
0
(),  = 1 . , 10.3, ,
T : H H 0 ,
p
(T u)() = ()u(), ,
C (X )-.
p ,
S : H 0 H , (Su)() = 0 ()u(),
, , T . , T |
C (X )-Hmod1 .
(1) (2).  0 10.9.

m() = dim H (); m0 () = dim H 0 () Z = { X : m() 6= m0 ()}:


, (Z ) > 0.
Y Z , (Y ) > 0 m m0 . , H H 0 C (X )-Hmod1 , , Y H Y H 0
C (X )-Hmod1 , , , C (Y )-Hmod1 . , , , Y = X .
m() = p < q = m0 ()  X ,
' : H H 0 | C (X )-Hmod1 . 10.2 , H = L2H (X; ) H 0 = L2H (X; 0 ),
Hp Hq | p q . e1 ; : : : ; ep Hp
k = 1; : : : ; p ek : X Hp , ek () = ek .
p

166

10.

10.2 , H , e1 ; : : : ; ep , H . k = 1; : : : ; p vk : X Hq ,
'(ek ). , ' | ,
, v1 ; : : : ; vp H 0 .
10.6 , span{v1 (); : : : ; vp ()} = Hq
 X , p < q.
.
10.3 10.5, ,
, -, ( ) .

10.6 ( ).
| . .
I.
( )-

( )
H (
B ( ) ),


= `2 ( H ) ( )1 .

.
II.
0 |
( ), 0 | , H H 0 | . :
(1)
= 0 ( )1;
(2) 0 dim ( ) = dim 0 ( ) -. .

X;

H H
CX  
H H
 

C X Hmod
H

CX
 MX
X; or X ; 

C X Hmod
H
H  

10.6 .
10.8. H | C (X )-,  | , H =
= ({H ():  X }; F ) | , H
= `2 (X; H ) (. . I 10.6).
mH : X N
H , mH () = dim H () -. . mT
T B (H ) H H C ((T ))-.

10.6 , - H .

10.3.

167

, 10.6 C (X )- .
. , . H | , T B (H ) | , p N
pH ( pT )
p H ( T ).
10.11. p N, Hp |
p,  M (X ) | . , C (X )- L2H (X; ) pL2 (X; ) .
(; m),  M (X ) | m : X N | . (; m)
, m() > 0 -. .
(; m) (0 ; m0 ) ,  0
m() = m0 () -. . m : X N
p N Xpm = { X : m() = p}. , p M (X ) p (B ) = (B Xp ).
p

10.7 ( ).



( )-

CX

(


)


; m), )

(
( ) | ,

 MX
m : X N |

, ,
.
, , (
)
( )-

CX

; m

M
_

pN

M
_ pL2 (X m ; ):
pL2 (X; p )
=
p

pN

. 10.6,
10.2 (. 10.8) 10.11.
10.6 10.7
.
= .

168

10.

10.8 ( ).
|
. .
I.
B ( )
( ( )) H = { ( ):
( )} ( ( ) B ( ( )) ),

T
H
 MT
H  T
 T ; or  T ; 
T

 (T )

1H () d():


T


.
II.
B ( ) 0 B ( 0 ) | 0

,
0

| , H H 0 | . :
(1) 0 ;
(2) ( ) = ( 0 ), 0 dim ( ) = dim 0 ( ) -. .

T T
T T

 
H
H  
, T | T , mT | , ((T ); T ; mT )
T . -

(10.3)
. .
10.9 ( ).

)


K; ; m

(
):

C | ,

) |
(
),

( ) |

, supp = ,

: N |

(; m

M

m K

; m

 K

, , ,
. , , L
p
p
(
) _
t . t

K; ; m

pN

pM

10.3.


7 ( 7
( )).

9.24.

zf z

169

L2 (K; p )
= L2 (Kpm ; ),

10.7 10.8 -

L
T _ pMt , pN
, | ,
9.6.
10.4.

, , .
10.12. S B (H ) T B (K )
, . ,
, .
1) H = K = L2 [0; 1], (Sf )(t) = tf (t), (T f )(t) = t2 f (t);
2) H = L2h[0; 1], Ki= L2 [1; 1], (Sf )(t) = tf (t), (T f )(t) = t2 f (t);
3) H = L2 2 ; 2 , K = L2 (R), (Sf )(t) = tf (t), (T f )(t) = arctg t f (t).
10.13. `2 .
10.14. L2 (T) L2 (R).
10.15. T B (H ) | H ,  | , m | . , T
- , m = 1 -. .

, 9.6 9.7; . 9.3.


10.16. T B (H ) | H ,  | , m | . , :
1) m = -. .;
2) T
= T T;
3) T
= S S S : : : -
S B (H 0 ).

170

10.

10.17. X | , 1 ; 2 M (X ) | ,
, . . X = X1 t X2 X , 1 (X2 ) = 0
2 (X1 ) = 0. C (X )- Hi = L2 (X; i )
(i = 1; 2). H1 H2 .

. ,
.
10.18 . I = [0; 1] [0; 1] | , H = L2 (I ), K = L2 (R). S B (H ) T
B (K ), (Sf )(x; y ) = xy f (x; y ) (T f )(x) =
= 21 (sin x + 1) f (x). , S T .

10.5.
: Mf B (L2 (X; ))
f : X C  (Mf ) f 1 (). ,
: , . , , [33].

C (X )-,
, (
. [2]),
. .
. . . . [6]. , , [39].
(-, ).
[30, 35] (. 10.9).
( ) . [33].
.

. [40].

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[4]
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. . | .: , 1972.
. . | .: , 1973.
. ., . . . . | .: - ,
1961. | ( , . 4).
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, 1988.
. . | .:
, 1963.
., . . I. . |
.: , 1962.
., . . II.
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., . . III.
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Guichardet A.

15

| 20

154

| | 88
| 25

| 84

| 88

88

| 15

-
56

| 20
| 54

| 104

| | 106

| 119

| 75

| | 124

| 15

108

C -

 -

| 54

88

| | 61

22

| 96
103
144
| 132
|

| 29
| 31
|

L -

142

134
80


137
| | | 136
15
| 88

| 82
101

103
|

| 15

143
| 104

15

| | 104
| 103

23

| 143

| 23

| 117

| | 67

| | 120

| 23

146


153

 -

103

127
| 128
| 128

| | 154

| 127

80

| 132


128

51

| 80

50

| | 80

| | 80

175

69
| | 69

|
154

| 84

| | | | 154

167

| | | |

116

154

| 122

| 84

19

144

20

72

| 102

| 50

| 20

| 22

148

| 51
| | | 51

80

42

| 68
| 44

| 159
| 36

156
| | 158

| 40
| 65

75

| 45

122

| 40

| 65

153

| | 159

| | | 153

| 135

| | | 153

| 42

| | | 158

| 39

| | | 154

| | 87

60

|
152

45
| 37
|

134

90

| 153
|
156
152

80

68

| 80

132

46

40

| | 37

| | 45

| | 37

| 82

| | 46

50

| | 46

176

| | 37

23

| 17

23

| | | 34

100

122

| | 102

32

| | 100

23

33

| 56

24

82
| 82

| 73
| | 28
| |
90

C (X )-

167
| | 168
| 63, 98
| 140
| 29,
32, 62, 98, 149
| | 144
| ||
104
| 52
| 122, 125, 166, 168
| | 93
| |
104
28
| 100
|

| 83
| 83

A -
A - 103

-

| | 93

| 139

- 88

74
| - 52
|
51
| 70
| * 71
| - 106
| - 107

22

| 22
| 27
| 166
| 27
| 125
| 22

26

101

143
| 20
| 40
| | | 45
| 167
| 53
| 84
| 22
34
| 90
| 16
| | 16
| | 16
| 16
| 90

24

22

| 90