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54.01.14 , 54.02.01 ,
54.02.07
( 1512 5 2015 .)



2016
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745(075.32)

85.125723
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651

........................................................................................................... 3
I

..................................................................................................... 6
1.
....................................................................... 6
1.1. Homo sapiens .............................................. 6
1.2. ................................................................................. 32
1.3. ............................................... 36
1.4. ................................................ 56
1.5. ,
.................................................................................................. 88
1.5.1. ........................................................................................ 91
1.5.2. ......................................................... 92
1.5.3. ................................................................... 102
1.5.4. .......................................... 104
1.5.5. ............................... 108
1.5.6. () ............. 114
1.5.7. ............................................ 116
1.6. ........................................................................ 121
1.7. .................................................................................................................. 140

I ............................................ 142
II
................................................................ 149
2. ........................................................................ 149
2.1. ........................................................................................... 149
2.2. ............................................................................................ 154
2.3. .............................................................................. 165
2.4. ................................................................................................................... 170
3. ......................................................... 174
3.1. ........................................................................................... 174
3.2. ........................................ 188
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3.3. , ........................................... 191


3.4. .................................................................................. 219
3.5. .......................................................................................... 221
3.6. ..................................................................... 226
3.7. .......................................... 228
3.7.1. ..................................................................................................... 228
3.8. ................................................................ 231
3.9. ..................................... 234
3.9.1. ......................................................................... 236
3.9.2. .............. 239
3.10. .................................................................... 242
3.11. ......................................................... 246
3.11.1. C ............................ 251
3.11.2. ............................................................... 252
3.11.3.  .
() ............................................................................................. 253
3.11.4. II. .... 256
3.12. ............................................................................................................... 258
4. .
 .................. 259
4.1. . ........................ 259
4.2. .......................................................................................................... 270
4.3. , ......................................................... 275
4.4. ................................................................................. 280
4.5. , ........................................... 284
4.6. ................................................... 289
4.7. , ...................... 294
4.8. .................................................................... 300
4.9. ..................................................... 302
4.10.
................................................................................................ 314
4.11. , ....................................................... 319
4.12. ................................................................. 324
4.12.1. ............................................. 327
4.13.
........................................................................................................... 328
4.14. ...................................................................... 333
4.15. .
....................................................................................................... 336
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653

5. ....................................... 342
6. ............................................................... 355
6.1. ................................................................................ 363
7. ......................................................... 369
8. ............................................................. 397
9.
VI XXI ...................................................................... 402

II ........................................... 416
III
............................. 422
10. ....... 422
10.1.
......................................................................................................... 422
10.2. ............................................ 432
10.3. ................................................ 440
10.4. ......................................................... 458
10.5. ................ 469
10.6. .............. 477
10.7. , ,
..................................................................................... 485
10.8. ....................................... 489
10.9. ............................................................................................................... 493
11.  ...... 498
11.1. ........................................................................................................ 501
12. ................................. 509
12.1. ............................................................................................. 509
12.2. ................................................................... 525
12.3. ........................................................................................... 545
12.3.1. ................................................................................................... 568
12.4. ( ) ....................... 571
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13. .............................................. 576


14.
.................................................................................. 586
14.1. ................................................... 586
14.2. ................................... 588
14.3. ............................. 590
15. ............................................ 597
15.1. ............................................. 597
15.2. ................................................ 600
15.3.
.................................................................... 601
15.4. ............................................. 603
16. ................... 605
16.1. .
 .................................. 605
16.2. () ................................................................. 614
16.3. ...................................................................... 618
16.4. ........................................................................ 624
16.5. .............................................................................................. 630
16.6. .......................................................... 636
16.7. ..................................................... 640

III ......................................... 642

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