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C#

3.03.0

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .


, , sharp@microsoft.com


(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .
Microsoft, Windows, Visual Basic, Visual C# Visual C++
.
.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .


1. ...........................................................................................................................................................1
1.1 Hello world...........................................................................................................................1
1.2 ................................................................................................................................2
1.3 ....................................................................................................................................4
1.4 ..................................................................................................................................................8
1.5 .................................................................................................................................................10
1.6 .....................................................................................................................................14
1.6.1 ..................................................................................................................................................14
1.6.2 .......................................................................................................................................15
1.6.3 .................................................................................................................................15
1.6.4 ..................................................................................................................................16
1.6.5 ....................................................................................................................................................16
1.6.6 ...............................................................................................................................................17
1.6.6.1 ...................................................................................................................................17
1.6.6.2 .......................................................................................19
1.6.6.3 ...............................................................................19
1.6.6.4 , .......................................................20
1.6.6.5 .......................................................................................................................22
1.6.7 -.....................................................................................................................23
1.6.7.1 ..............................................................................................................................25
1.6.7.2 .......................................................................................................................................26
1.6.7.3 ................................................................................................................................26
1.6.7.4 .......................................................................................................................................27
1.6.7.5 ....................................................................................................................................27
1.6.7.6 ................................................................................................................................28
1.7 .................................................................................................................................................28
1.8 ....................................................................................................................................................29
1.9 ..............................................................................................................................................31
1.10 ..............................................................................................................................32
1.11 ..................................................................................................................................................33
1.12 .................................................................................................................................................34
2. ...............................................................................................................................37
2.1 ................................................................................................................................................37
2.2 ...............................................................................................................................................37
2.2.1 ...................................................................................................................37
2.2.2 ....................................................................................................................38
2.2.3 ..............................................................................................................38
2.3 ..................................................................................................................................38
2.3.1 .....................................................................................................................39
2.3.2 ......................................................................................................................................40
2.3.3 ................................................................................................................................................41
2.4 .....................................................................................................................................................41
2.4.1 .................................................................41
2.4.2 ................................................................................................................................42
2.4.3 ..................................................................................................................44
2.4.4 ............................................................................................................................................44
2.4.4.1 ..................................................................................................................44
2.4.4.2 ...........................................................................................................45
2.4.4.3 ..........................................................................................................46
2.4.4.4 ................................................................................................................46

1.1.1.1
.............................................................................................................47
2.4.4.5 null.................................................................................................................................49
2.4.5 ........................................................................................................49
2.5 ..................................................................................................................50
2.5.1 .......................................................................................................51
2.5.2 ...........................................................................................................51
2.5.3 ......................................................................................................................52
2.5.4 ....................................................................................................53
2.5.5 ....................................................................................................................55
2.5.6 ..........................................................................................................................56
2.5.7 ................................................................................................................................56
2.5.8 pragma.............................................................................................................................57
2.5.8.1 pragma warning..........................................................................................................57
3. ...................................................................................................................................59
3.1 ..................................................................................................................................59
3.2 ..........................................................................................................................60
3.3 ...............................................................................................................................................60
3.4 .........................................................................................................................................................62
3.4.1 .................................................................................................................63
3.4.2 ...............................................................................................................................63
3.4.3 ..........................................................................................................................63
3.4.4 ......................................................................................................................................63
3.4.5 .............................................................................................................................64
3.4.6 ...................................................................................................................................64
3.4.7 ...................................................................................................................................64
3.5 ....................................................................................................................................64
3.5.1 .................................................................................................................64
3.5.2 .........................................................................................................................65
3.5.3 ................................................................................68
3.5.4 ................................................................................................................69
3.6 ...........................................................................................................................69
3.7 ......................................................................................................................................................71
3.7.1 ...................................................................................................................................73
3.7.1.1 .............................................................................................................74
3.7.1.2 ......................................................................................................74
3.8 ............................................................................................................76
3.8.1 ....................................................................................................................................78
3.9 .....................................................................................................79
3.10 ..............................................................................................................................81
4. ...............................................................................................................................................................83
4.1 ..........................................................................................................................................83
4.1.1 System.ValueType........................................................................................................................84
4.1.2 ............................................................................................................84
4.1.3 .................................................................................................................................85
4.1.4 .....................................................................................................................................85
4.1.5 ........................................................................................................................................86
4.1.6 ...............................................................................................................88
4.1.7 decimal.........................................................................................................................................89
4.1.8 bool..............................................................................................................................................89
4.1.9 .........................................................................................................................90
4.1.10 ............................................................................................................................90
4.2 .......................................................................................................................................91
iv

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

4.2.1 ......................................................................................................................................91
4.2.2 ........................................................................................................................................92
4.2.3 ...................................................................................................................................92
4.2.4 ...............................................................................................................................92
4.2.5 ...................................................................................................................................92
4.2.6 ..................................................................................................................................92
4.3 ..............................................................................................................................93
4.3.1 .................................................................................................................93
4.3.2 ..............................................................................................................94
4.4 ............................................................................................................................95
4.4.1 .................................................................................................................................96
4.4.2 ..............................................................................................................96
4.4.3 ........................................................................................................97
4.4.4 .................................................................................................................97
4.5 ........................................................................................................................................98
4.6 ..........................................................................................................................99

5. .................................................................................................................................................101
5.1 ...........................................................................................................................101
5.1.1 ................................................................................................................101
5.1.2 ..................................................................................................................101
5.1.2.1 ...........................................................................................102
5.1.2.2 .....................................................................................102
5.1.3 ............................................................................................................................102
5.1.4 ..................................................................................................................102
5.1.5 ......................................................................................................................102
5.1.6 ......................................................................................................................103
5.1.7 ...................................................................................................................103
5.2 .........................................................................................................................104
5.3 ..................................................................................................................104
5.3.1 .............................................................................................105
5.3.2 ............................................................................................106
5.3.3 .....................................................106
5.3.3.1 ................................................................................................106
5.3.3.2 , ...............................................107
5.3.3.3 ..............................................................................................................107
5.3.3.4 ..............................................................................................................107
5.3.3.5 If..........................................................................................................................107
5.3.3.6 switch...................................................................................................................108
5.3.3.7 while....................................................................................................................108
5.3.3.8 do.........................................................................................................................108
5.3.3.9 for........................................................................................................................109
5.3.3.10 break, continue goto............................................................................................109
5.3.3.11 throw......................................................................................................................109
5.3.3.12 return.....................................................................................................................109
5.3.3.13 try-catch.............................................................................................................110
5.3.3.14 try-finally...........................................................................................................110
5.3.3.15 try-catch-finally.................................................................................................110
5.3.3.16 foreach...............................................................................................................111
5.3.3.17 using...................................................................................................................111
5.3.3.18 lock....................................................................................................................111
5.3.3.19 yield...................................................................................................................112
5.3.3.20 ..............................................................................112
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

5.3.3.21 ...........................................112
5.3.3.22 ..............................................................112
5.3.3.23 ........................................................................................113
5.3.3.24 &&........................................................................................................................113
5.3.3.25 ||.............................................................................................................................114
5.3.3.26 !.........................................................................................................................115
5.3.3.27 ?? ??..................................................................................................................115
5.3.3.28 ?:.......................................................................................................................116
5.3.3.29 ...............................................................................................................116
5.4 .........................................................................................................................117
5.5 .....................................................................................................117
6. ..........................................................................................................................................119
6.1 .......................................................................................................................119
6.1.1 ....................................................................................................119
6.1.2 .....................................................................................120
6.1.3 ...........................................................................120
6.1.4 ................................................................................120
6.1.5 null.........................................................................................................121
6.1.6 ..................................................................................121
6.1.7 ...............................................................................................................121
6.1.8 .............................................................................122
6.1.9 , .............................................................122
6.1.10 ................................................................................122
6.1.11 ...............................123
6.2 ...........................................................................................................................123
6.2.1 ........................................................................................123
6.2.2 ...............................................................................125
6.2.3 ....................................................................................125
6.2.4 ......................................................................................126
6.2.5 ............................................................................................................126
6.2.6 , .................................................................127
6.2.7 ......................................................................................128
6.3 ................................................................................................................128
6.3.1 ..........................................................................................128
6.3.2 ..............................................................................................128
6.4 ........................................................................................................128
6.4.1 ............................................................................128
6.4.2 .................................................................................129
6.4.3 ............................................................................129
6.4.4 ..................................................................................130
6.4.5 ......................................................................................131
6.5 ..................................................................................................132
6.5.1 ............................................133
6.5.2 ............................134
6.5.3 ..........................................................................................................................134
6.6 ..........................................................................................................137
7. ..................................................................................................................................................141
7.1 .................................................................................................................................141
7.1.1 ........................................................................................................................142
7.2 ...............................................................................................................................................142
7.2.1 .....................................................................................143
7.2.2 ....................................................................................................................144
vi

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

7.2.3 ................................................................................145
7.2.4 ..............................................................................145
7.2.5 -.......................................................................................146
7.2.6 ......................................................................................................................146
7.2.6.1 ............................................................................146
7.2.6.2 ..........................................................................146
7.2.7 ............................................................................................................147
7.3 ..........................................................................................................................................148
7.3.1 ....................................................................................................................................149
7.4 -......................................................................................................................................150
7.4.1 ..........................................................................................................................153
7.4.2 .......................................................................................................................................155
7.4.2.1 ...............................................................................................................................156
7.4.2.2 ................................................................................................................................156
7.4.2.3 .................................................................................................................................156
7.4.2.4 ..............................................................................................................................156
7.4.2.5 ...............................................................................................................................157
7.4.2.6 ....................................................................................................................157
7.4.2.7 ...............................................................................................157
7.4.2.8 ............................................................................................................................157
7.4.2.9 ...............................................................................................................157
7.4.2.10 ..........................................................................................................................158
7.4.2.11 ............................................................................158
7.4.2.12 ...................................................................159
7.4.2.13 ....................................159
7.4.3 ...................................................................................................................160
7.4.3.1 -......................................................................................................160
7.4.3.2 -.............................................................................................161
7.4.3.3 ....................................................................................162
7.4.3.4 ...............................................................................................162
7.4.3.5 ......................................................................................163
7.4.4 -......................................................................................................................163
7.4.4.1 ..........................................................................................165
7.5 .............................................................................................................................165
7.5.1 ..........................................................................................................................................166
7.5.2 .................................................................................................................................166
7.5.2.1 ..........................................................................................167
7.5.3 ..................................................................................................................168
7.5.4 ....................................................................................................................168
7.5.4.1 ............................................................................170
7.5.4.2 ............................................................................................171
7.5.5 ...........................................................................................................................171
7.5.5.1 ........................................................................................................................172
7.5.5.2 ...................................................................................................173
7.5.5.3 ......................................................................................................................175
7.5.6 ...............................................................................................................176
7.5.6.1 .......................................................................................................................176
7.5.6.2 ...............................................................................................................177
7.5.7 this........................................................................................................................................177
7.5.8 base.......................................................................................................................................178
7.5.9 .....................................................................179
7.5.10 new.................................................................................................................................180
7.5.10.1 ...............................................................................................180
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

vii

7.5.10.2 ......................................................................................................181
7.5.10.3 ...................................................................................................183
7.5.10.4 .................................................................................................184
7.5.10.5 ................................................................................................186
7.5.10.6 ...........................................................................188
7.5.11 typeof..............................................................................................................................189
7.5.12 checked unchecked....................................................................................................191
7.5.13 ............................................................................................193
7.5.14 ....................................................................................................194
7.6 ................................................................................................................................194
7.6.1 ..............................................................................................................194
7.6.2 ............................................................................................................194
7.6.3 ...................................................................................................195
7.6.4 ..................................................................................................195
7.6.5 .......................................................................195
7.6.6 ..........................................................................................................196
7.7 ..................................................................................................................197
7.7.1 ...................................................................................................................197
7.7.2 .............................................................................................................................198
7.7.3 .............................................................................................................................199
7.7.4 ..........................................................................................................................200
7.7.5 ........................................................................................................................202
7.8 ...................................................................................................................................204
7.9 ...............................................................................................205
7.9.1 ................................................................................................206
7.9.2 .......................................................................206
7.9.3 .......................................................................................207
7.9.4 ...................................................................................................207
7.9.5 ..............................................................................208
7.9.6 ..........................................................................208
7.9.7 .............................................................................................................209
7.9.8 ......................................................................................................210
7.9.9 null.............................................................................................210
7.9.10 is.....................................................................................................................................210
7.9.11 as.....................................................................................................................................211
7.10 .........................................................................................................................212
7.10.1 ......................................................................................212
7.10.2 ....................................................................................213
7.10.3 ...................................................................................................................213
7.10.4 .............................................................................................213
7.11 .........................................................................................................214
7.11.1 ..................................................................................................214
7.11.2 ...................................................................214
7.12 null.......................................................................................................................215
7.13 ...............................................................................................................................216
7.14 ........................................................................................................217
7.14.1 ......................................................................................................218
7.14.2 .............................................................................................................219
7.14.3 .................................................................................................................219
7.14.4 ....................................................................................................................220
7.14.4.1 ........................................................................................220
7.14.4.2 ....................................................................221
7.14.5 ............................................................................223
viii

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

7.15 ............................................................................................................................223
7.15.1 ...................................................................................224
7.15.2 .......................................................................................................225
7.15.2.1 select groupby ..................................................................225
7.15.2.2 ......................................................................................226
7.15.2.3 ......................................................................................226
7.15.2.4 from, let, where, join orderby.........................................................................227
7.15.2.5 select..................................................................................................................230
7.15.2.6 groupby.............................................................................................................230
7.15.2.7 .................................................................................................231
7.15.3 ..........................................................................................................232
7.16 .....................................................................................................................233
7.16.1 ...................................................................................................................234
7.16.2 ..................................................................................................................236
7.16.3 ..................................................................................................................237
7.17 ............................................................................................................................................237
7.18 ......................................................................................................................237
7.19 ........................................................................................................................239
8. .......................................................................................................................................240
8.1 ..........................................................................................................240
8.2 .......................................................................................................................................................242
8.2.1 ..........................................................................................................................242
8.3 .....................................................................................................................................243
8.4 ..........................................................................................................................243
8.5 ...........................................................................................................................244
8.5.1 ..............................................................................................244
8.5.2 ....................................................................................................246
8.6 -...........................................................................................................................246
8.7 ..................................................................................................................................246
8.7.1 if........................................................................................................................................247
8.7.2 switch................................................................................................................................247
8.8 ..............................................................................................................................251
8.8.1 while.................................................................................................................................251
8.8.2 do......................................................................................................................................252
8.8.3 for.....................................................................................................................................252
8.8.4 foreach..............................................................................................................................253
8.9 ...............................................................................................................................256
8.9.1 break.................................................................................................................................257
8.9.2 continue............................................................................................................................258
8.9.3 goto...................................................................................................................................258
8.9.4 return.................................................................................................................................259
8.9.5 throw.................................................................................................................................260
8.10 try..........................................................................................................................................261
8.11 checked unchecked..........................................................................................................264
8.12 lock........................................................................................................................................264
8.13 using......................................................................................................................................265
8.14 yield.......................................................................................................................................267

9. ....................................................................................................................................269
9.1 .............................................................................................................................269
9.2 .............................................................................................................269
9.3 ............................................................................................................................271
9.4 using.....................................................................................................................................271
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

ix

9.4.1 using alias......................................................................................................................272


9.4.2 using namespace............................................................................................................274
9.5 ......................................................................................................................276
9.6 ...................................................................................................................................276
9.7 .................................................................................277
9.7.1 .............................................................................................................278
10. Classes.........................................................................................................................................................281
10.1 ..............................................................................................................................281
10.1.1 .................................................................................................................281
10.1.1.1 ................................................................................................................282
10.1.1.2 ..............................................................................................................282
10.1.1.3 .................................................................................................................283
10.1.2 partial.......................................................................................................................284
10.1.3 .............................................................................................................................284
10.1.4 ...........................................................................................................284
10.1.4.1 ........................................................................................................................284
10.1.4.2 ........................................................................................................286
10.1.5 ......................................................................................................286
10.1.6 .....................................................................................................................................290
10.2 .................................................................................................................................290
10.2.1 ........................................................................................................................................291
10.2.2 ...............................................................................................................................291
10.2.3 ....................................................................................................292
10.2.4 .................................................................................................................................292
10.2.5 ......................................................................................................................292
10.2.6 ..............................................................................................................................................293
10.2.7 ......................................................................................................................293
10.2.8 ................................................................................................................................296
10.3 .........................................................................................................................................296
10.3.1 ...............................................................................................................................298
10.3.2 .....................................................................................................298
10.3.3 .................................................................................................................................299
10.3.4 new...........................................................................................................................300
10.3.5 .................................................................................................................300
10.3.6 .............................................................................................................................300
10.3.7 ......................................................................................300
10.3.8 ............................................................................................................................301
10.3.8.1 ..........................................................................................................................302
10.3.8.2 .......................................................................................................302
10.3.8.3 ....................................................................................................................................302
10.3.8.4 this...............................................................................................................................303
10.3.8.5 -...............................................303
10.3.8.6 ..........................................................................304
10.3.9 ................................................................................................305
10.3.9.1 , ....................................................................305
10.3.9.2 , ...................................................................306
10.3.9.3 , ..........................................................306
10.3.9.4 , ..........................................................306
10.4 .............................................................................................................................................307
10.5 .......................................................................................................................................................308
10.5.1 .........................................................................................309
10.5.2 .................................................................................................................310
x

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

10.5.2.1 .............................310
10.5.2.2 ...........................311
10.5.3 volatile.....................................................................................................311
10.5.4 ......................................................................................................................313
10.5.5 .......................................................................................................313
10.5.5.1 .........................................................................................314
10.5.5.2 ...........................................................................................315
10.6 ..................................................................................................................................................315
10.6.1 ..........................................................................................................................317
10.6.1.1 .........................................................................................................318
10.6.1.2 ..............................................................................................................319
10.6.1.3 ..............................................................................................................320
10.6.1.4 ...............................................................................................................320
10.6.2 ..................................................................................323
10.6.3 .....................................................................................................................323
10.6.4 ..........................................................................................................325
10.6.5 ....................................................................................................................327
10.6.6 ......................................................................................................................328
10.6.7 ............................................................................................................................329
10.6.8 ......................................................................................................................330
10.6.9 ......................................................................................................................330
10.6.10 ...................................................................................................................................331
10.6.11 ........................................................................................................................331
10.7 ................................................................................................................................................331
10.7.1 ..............................................................................333
10.7.2 .............................................................................................................................333
10.7.3 .........................................................................................338
10.7.4 ...................................................................................................................................339
10.7.5 , , ...................340
10.8 .................................................................................................................................................342
10.8.1 , ............................................................................................................344
10.8.2 .........................................................................................................345
10.8.3 .............................................................................346
10.8.4 , , ...................347
10.9 .........................................................................................................................................347
10.9.1 ................................................................................................................351
10.10 ...........................................................................................................................................351
10.10.1 ......................................................................................................................352
10.10.2 ....................................................................................................................353
10.10.3 .........................................................................................................353
10.11 ................................................................................................................356
10.11.1 .................................................................................................357
10.11.2 ...............................................................................358
10.11.3 ...........................................................................................................358
10.11.4 ......................................................................................................360
10.11.5 ..............................................................................................................360
10.11.6 ...........................................................361
10.12 ................................................................................................................361
10.13 ........................................................................................................................................363
10.14 ...........................................................................................................................................365
10.14.1 ........................................................................................................365
10.14.2 .........................................................................................................365
10.14.3 yield........................................................................................................................................365
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

xi

10.14.4 ...............................................................................................................365
10.14.4.1 MoveNext....................................................................................................................366
10.14.4.2 Current....................................................................................................................367
10.14.4.3 Dispose........................................................................................................................367
10.14.5 ...............................................................................................................368
10.14.5.1 GetEnumerator............................................................................................................368
10.14.6 ......................................................................................................................368
11. .................................................................................................................................................375
11.1 ............................................................................................................................375
11.1.1 .............................................................................................................375
11.1.2 partial.......................................................................................................................376
11.1.3 .................................................................................................................376
11.1.4 ...............................................................................................................................376
11.2 ..................................................................................................................................376
11.3 ...............................................................................................376
11.3.1 .......................................................................................................................377
11.3.2 ..................................................................................................................................378
11.3.3 .................................................................................................................................378
11.3.4 ................................................................................................................378
11.3.5 ...................................................................................................................379
11.3.6 this......................................................................................................381
11.3.7 ..................................................................................................................381
11.3.8 .................................................................................................................................381
11.3.9 ...................................................................................................................................382
11.3.10 ..........................................................................................................382
11.4 ................................................................................................................................382
11.4.1 ..............................................................................382
11.4.2 ........................................................................................................384
12. .....................................................................................................................................................387
12.1 ........................................................................................................................................387
12.1.1 System.Array............................................................................................................................388
12.1.2 IList................................................................................388
12.2 ..................................................................................................................................389
12.3 ................................................................................................................389
12.4 ......................................................................................................................................389
12.5 ...........................................................................................................................389
12.6 .....................................................................................................................390
13. ..............................................................................................................................................393
13.1 .....................................................................................................................393
13.1.1 ...........................................................................................................393
13.1.2 partial.......................................................................................................................393
13.1.3 ......................................................................................................................394
13.1.4 ............................................................................................................................394
13.2 ................................................................................................................................395
13.2.1 .......................................................................................................................396
13.2.2 .....................................................................................................................396
13.2.3 .....................................................................................................................396
13.2.4 ..............................................................................................................396
13.2.5 ........................................................................................................397
13.3 ......................................................................................................399
13.4 ......................................................................................................................399
xii

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

13.4.1 .........................................................................................400
13.4.2 ................................................................................402
13.4.3 .............................................................................................403
13.4.4 .........................................................................................................404
13.4.5 .......................................................................................407
13.4.6 ...............................................................................................408
13.4.7 ..............................................................................................409
14. ..............................................................................................................................411
14.1 ...................................................................................................................411
14.2 ..............................................................................................................412
14.3 .............................................................................................................................412
14.4 System.Enum..................................................................................................................................414
14.5 ....................................................................................................414
15. ....................................................................................................................................................415
15.1 ..........................................................................................................................415
15.2 ....................................................................................................................417
15.3 .............................................................................................................417
15.4 ......................................................................................................................................418
16. ..............................................................................................................................................421
16.1 ..........................................................................................................................421
16.2 System.Exception........................................................................................................................421
16.3 ........................................................................................................................421
16.4 ..................................................................................................................422
17. ...................................................................................................................................................425
17.1 .................................................................................................................................425
17.1.1 ..............................................................................................................425
17.1.2 ....................................................................................426
17.1.3 ............................................................................................................427
17.2 .......................................................................................................................427
17.3 .........................................................................................................................433
17.3.1 ....................................................................................................................433
17.3.2 .............................................................433
17.4 ..............................................................................................................433
17.4.1 AttributeUsage..................................................................................................................434
17.4.2 Conditional.......................................................................................................................434
17.4.2.1 .....................................................................................................................435
17.4.2.2 ...................................................................................................437
17.4.3 Obsolete............................................................................................................................437
17.5 .............................................................................................................438
17.5.1 COM Win32.........................................................................438
17.5.1.1 .NET IndexerName........................................439

18. .....................................................................................................................................441
18.1 ......................................................................................................................441
18.2 .....................................................................................................................................443
18.3 ..................................................................................446
18.4 .................................................................................................................446
18.5 ......................................................................................................................447
18.5.1 .............................................................................................448
18.5.2 ........................................................................................................448
18.5.3 ..................................................................................................449
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

xiii

18.5.4 .............................................................................................................................450
18.5.5 ...........................................................................................451
18.5.6 .....................................................................................451
18.5.7 ....................................................................................................................452
18.5.8 sizeof...............................................................................................................................452
18.6 fixed.......................................................................................................................................453
18.7 ........................................................................................................457
18.7.1 ...........................................................................457
18.7.2 .........................................................................458
18.7.3 .......................................................................................459
18.8 ...................................................................................................................................459
18.9 ........................................................................................................460
A. ................................................................................................................463
A.1 .................................................................................................................................................463
A.2 ..............................................................................................................................464
A.2.1 <c>.............................................................................................................................................465
A.2.2 <code>........................................................................................................................................465
A.2.3 <example>..................................................................................................................................466
A.2.4 <exception>................................................................................................................................466
A.2.5 <include>...................................................................................................................................467
A.2.6 <list>..........................................................................................................................................467
A.2.7 <para>........................................................................................................................................468
A.2.8 <param>.....................................................................................................................................469
A.2.9 <paramref>.................................................................................................................................469
A.2.10 <permission>............................................................................................................................469
A.2.11 <summary>...............................................................................................................................470
A.2.12 <returns>..................................................................................................................................470
A.2.13 <see>........................................................................................................................................471
A.2.14 <seealso>..................................................................................................................................471
A.2.15 <summary>..............................................................................................................................471
A.2.16 <value>....................................................................................................................................472
A.2.17 <typeparam>............................................................................................................................472
A.2.18 <typeparamref>........................................................................................................................472
A.3 ...........................................................................................................473
A.3.1 .....................................................................................................473
A.3.2 ..................................................................................................474
A.4 ....................................................................................................................................................477
A.4.1 C#.............................................................................................................................477
A.4.2 XML....................................................................................................................480
B. .................................................................................................................................................483
B.1 ...................................................................................................................................................483
B.1.1 ...............................................................................................................483
B.1.2 ...................................................................................................................................483
B.1.3 ..............................................................................................................................................484
B.1.4 ...........................................................................................................................................484
B.1.5 ..............................................................484
B.1.6 .............................................................................................................................484
B.1.7 ...............................................................................................................................486
B.1.8 ..........................................................................................................................................486
B.1.9 ......................................................................................................488
B.1.10 ......................................................................................488
B.2 ...............................................................................................................................................491
xiv

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

B.2.1 .........................................................................................................................491
B.2.2 .................................................................................................................................................491
B.2.3 .....................................................................................................................................492
B.2.4 .......................................................................................................................................492
B.2.5 ........................................................................................................................................499
B.2.6 ..........................................................................................................................502
B.2.7 ..............................................................................................................................................503
B.2.8 ........................................................................................................................................510
B.2.9 ...........................................................................................................................................511
B.2.10 ...................................................................................................................................511
B.2.11 .................................................................................................................................512
B.2.12 ........................................................................................................................................513
B.2.13 ........................................................................................................................................513
B.3 ........................................................................514

C. ........................................................................................................................................................519

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

xv

1.
C# ( - -) , ,
- . C#
C , C, C++ Java.
C# ECMA ECMA-334, ISO/IEC
ISO/IEC 23270. Microsoft C# .NET Framework
.
C# - ,
_ .

.
, , ,
,
. C# ,
,
.
C# ,
. : ,
; ,
;
, ,

.
C# . C#, (,
int double), object. ,
, ,
. , C#
,
.
C#,
C# .
,
.
C# : virtual
override,
.
C#.

. , .
,
, .

1.1 Hello world


Hello, World .
C#:

using System;
class Hello
{
static void Main() {
Console.WriteLine("!");
}
}

C# cs. Hello, World


hello.cs, Microsoft C#,
:
csc hello.cs

hello.exe.
:
!

Hello, World using,


System. C#.
. ,
System (, Console),
(, IO Collections). using
, .
using
Console.WriteLine System.Console.WriteLine.
Hello, Hello, World, Main.
Main static. C#
this,
, . Main
.
WriteLine Console,
System.
.NET Framework, Microsoft
C#. , C# .
C# .NET Framework.

1.2
C# : , , ,
. C# .
, .
. , ,
. C# .
exe dll
.
:
using System;
namespace Acme.Collections
{
public class Stack
{
Entry top;
2

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
public void Push(object data) {
top = new Entry(top, data);
}
public object Pop() {
if (top == null) throw new InvalidOperationException();
object result = top.data;
top = top.next;
return result;
}
class Entry
{
public Entry next;
public object data;
public Entry(Entry next, object data) {
this.next = next;
this.data = data;
}
}

Stack, Acme.Collections.
Acme.Collections.Stack. : top,
Push Pop, Entry. Entry : next
data, . acme.cs,
csc /t:library acme.cs

( Main) acme.dll.
(Intermediate Language,
IL), . IL
JIT- .NET CLR.
,
, , C# #include.
C# , ,
. ,
Acme.Collections.Stack, acme.dll:
using System;
using Acme.Collections;
class Test
{
static void Main() {
Stack s = new Stack();
s.Push(1);
s.Push(10);
s.Push(100);
Console.WriteLine(s.Pop());
Console.WriteLine(s.Pop());
Console.WriteLine(s.Pop());
}
}

test.cs, acme.dll
/r:
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

csc /r:acme.dll test.cs

test.exe,
:
100
10
1

C# .
C# .
.
. C#
, , ,
. C#
.
.

1.3
C# : .
,
().
. , ,
.
. (
ref out).
C# , ,
. C# , ,
.
C#.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

: sbyte, short, int, long


: byte, ushort, uint, ulong
: char
IEEE : float, double
: decimal
: bool

enum E {...}

struct S {...}

,
null

: object
: string
class C {...}

interface I {...}

- , int[] int[,]

, delegate int D(...)

8-, 16-, 32- 64-


.
(float double) 32- ( )
64- ( ) IEEE 754.
decimal 128- ,
.
bool C# true false.
C# . char
UTF-16, string UTF-16.

C#.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

sbyte

128...127

16

short

32 768...32 767

32

int

2 147 483 648...2 147 483 647

64

long

9 223 372 036 854 775 808...9 223 372 036 854 775 807

byte

0...255

16

ushort

0...65 535

32

uint

0...4 294 967 295

64

ulong

0...18 446 744 073 709 551 615

32

float

1,5 1045 3,4 1038 7

64

double

5,0 10324 1,7 10308 15

128

decimal

1,0 1028 7,9 1028 28

C# .
. C#
: , , , .
, - () - (,
). ,
,
.
, , , - -.
, ,
. .
object.
-.
, , - .
.
.

. ,
.
, . ,
, -
.
, , ,
.
,
. ,
.
.
C# - . ,
, . ,
. , int[]
6

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

int; int[,] int, int[][] ,


int.
.
T T?,
null. , int? 32- ,
null.
C# ,
. C# object,
.
object.
.
int object int.
using System;
class Test
{
static void Main() {
int i = 123;
object o = i;
int j = (int)o;
}
}

//
//

object (
), ,
. object , ,
, .
.
C#
. ,
, object.

C# , , ,
. .
, , ,
.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

null

object

,
,

, ,
,
,

1.4
. ,
. : +, -, *, / new. :
, , .
, ,
. , x + y * z x + (y *
z), * +.
.
,
.
C#
.
.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

x.m

x(...)

x[...]

x++

x--

new T(...)

new T(...){...}

new {...}

new T[...]

typeof(T)

System.Type T

checked(x)

checked

unchecked(x)

unchecked

default(T)

delegate {...}

( )

+x

-x

!x

~x

++x

--x

(T)x

x T

x*y

x/y

x%y

x+y

, ,

xy

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

x << y

x >> y

x<y

x>y

x <= y

x >= y

x is T

true, x T;
false

x as T

x, T,
null, x , T

x == y

x != y

AND

x&y

AND, AND

XOR

x^y

XOR,
XOR

OR
AND

x|y

OR, OR

x && y

y , x
true

OR

x || y

y , x
false

null

X ?? y

x null, y;
x

x?y:z

x true, y;
x false, z

x=y

x = y

;
:

*= /= %= += -= <<= >>= &= ^= |


=
(T x) => y

(-)

1.5
. C#
, .
,
. , { }.
.
.
: , new,

10

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

= ,
++ --.

- . if switch.
.
while, do, for foreach.
.
break, continue, goto, throw, return yield.
try...catch ,
. try...finally ,
( , ).
checked unchecked
.
lock ,
.
using ,
.

C# .

static void Main() {


int a;
int b = 2, c = 3;
a = 1;
Console.WriteLine(a + b + c);
}

static void Main() {


const float pi = 3.1415927f;
const int r = 25;
Console.WriteLine(pi * r * r);
}

static void Main() {


int i;
i = 123;
//
Console.WriteLine(i); //
i++;
//
Console.WriteLine(i); //
}

if

static void Main(string[] args) {


if (args.Length == 0) {
Console.WriteLine(" ");
}
else {
Console.WriteLine(" ");
}
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

11

12

switch

static void Main(string[] args) {


int n = args.Length;
switch (n) {
case 0:
Console.WriteLine(" ");
break;
case 1:
Console.WriteLine(" ");
break;
default:
Console.WriteLine(": {0}", n);
break;
}
}
}

while

static void Main(string[] args) {


int i = 0;
while (i < args.Length) {
Console.WriteLine(args[i]);
i++;
}
}

do

static void Main() {


string s;
do {
s = Console.ReadLine();
if (s != null) Console.WriteLine(s);
} while (s != null);
}

for

static void Main(string[] args) {


for (int i = 0; i < args.Length; i++) {
Console.WriteLine(args[i]);
}
}

foreach

static void Main(string[] args) {


foreach (string s in args) {
Console.WriteLine(s);
}
}

break

static void Main() {


while (true) {
string s = Console.ReadLine();
if (s == null) break;
Console.WriteLine(s);
}
}

continue

static void Main(string[] args) {


for (int i = 0; i < args.Length; i++) {
if (args[i].StartsWith("/")) continue;
Console.WriteLine(args[i]);
}
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

goto

static void Main(string[] args) {


int i = 0;
goto check;
loop:
Console.WriteLine(args[i++]);
check:
if (i < args.Length) goto loop;
}

return

static int Add(int a, int b) {


return a + b;
}
static void Main() {
Console.WriteLine(Add(1, 2));
return;
}

yield

static IEnumerable<int> Range(int from, int to) {


for (int i = from; i < to; i++) {
yield return i;
}
yield break;
}
static void Main() {
foreach (int x in Range(-10,10)) {
Console.WriteLine(x);
}
}

throw
try

static double Divide(double x, double y) {


if (y == 0) throw new DivideByZeroException();
return x / y;
}
static void Main(string[] args) {
try {
if (args.Length != 2) {
throw new Exception(" ");
}
double x = double.Parse(args[0]);
double y = double.Parse(args[1]);
Console.WriteLine(Divide(x, y));
}
catch (Exception e) {
Console.WriteLine(e.Message);
}
finally {
Console.WriteLine(" ");
}
}

checked
unchecked

static void Main() {


int i = int.MaxValue;
checked {
Console.WriteLine(i + 1);
}
unchecked {
Console.WriteLine(i + 1);
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

//
//
13

lock

class Account
{
decimal balance;
public void Withdraw(decimal amount) {
lock (this) {
if (amount > balance) {
throw new Exception(" ");
}
balance -= amount;
}
}
}

using

static void Main() {


using (TextWriter w = File.CreateText("test.txt")) {
w.WriteLine(" 1");
w.WriteLine(" 2");
w.WriteLine(" 3");
}
}

1.6
C# . ,
() ( -).
( ).
,
, .
. ,
, , ( ),
, . ,
, { }.
Point:
public class Point
{
public int x, y;

public Point(int x, int y) {


this.x = x;
this.y = y;
}

new,
, .
Point,
:
Point p1 = new Point(0, 0);
Point p2 = new Point(10, 20);

, , , . C#
( ) .
14

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

1.6.1
.
. ( ).
, .

, ,

1.6.2
,
, .
. .

public

protected

internal

protected internal

private

1.6.3
.
.
. Pair
TFirst TSecond:

public class Pair<TFirst,TSecond>


{
public TFirst First;

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

15

public TSecond Second;


}

, ,
. , .

:
Pair<int,string> pair = new Pair<int,string> { First = 1, Second = "" };
int i = pair.First;
// TFirst is int
string s = pair.Second; // TSecond is string

, Pair<int,string>,
.
1.6.4
,
. , ,
object. Point3D Point,
Point object:
public class Point
{
public int x, y;
public Point(int x, int y) {
this.x = x;
this.y = y;
}
}
public class Point3D: Point
{
public int z;

public Point3D(int x, int y, int z): base(x, y) {


this.z = z;
}

. ,
( ).
, .
Point3D x y Point. ,
Point3D : x, y z.
.
,
. , Point
Point, Point3D:
Point a = new Point(10, 20);
Point b = new Point3D(10, 20, 30);

1.6.5
, .

16

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

, static, .
.
.
, static, .
.
Color r,
g b. Black, White, Red, Green Blue:
public class Color
{
public static readonly
public static readonly
public static readonly
public static readonly
public static readonly

Color
Color
Color
Color
Color

Black = new Color(0, 0, 0);


White = new Color(255, 255, 255);
Red = new Color(255, 0, 0);
Green = new Color(0, 255, 0);
Blue = new Color(0, 0, 255);

private byte r, g, b;

public Color(byte r, byte g, byte b) {


this.r = r;
this.g = g;
this.b = b;
}


readonly. readonly
.
1.6.6
, ,
. .
.
(, ) ,
, , ,
, . ,
void.
, , ,
. ,
.
, .
, , , .
.

.
, .
: , ,
.

.
, ,
. , .
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

17

, . ,
, .
, .
ref.
ref.
using System;
class Test
{
static void Swap(ref int x, ref int y) {
int temp = x;
x = y;
y = temp;
}

static void Main() {


int i = 1, j = 2;
Swap(ref i, ref j);
Console.WriteLine("{0} {1}", i, j);
}

// : "2 1"

.
, ,
. out.
out.
using System;
class Test
{
static void Divide(int x, int y, out int result, out int remainder) {
result = x / y;
remainder = x % y;
}
static void Main() {
int res, rem;
Divide(10, 3, out res, out rem);
Console.WriteLine("{0} {1}", res, rem);
}

// : "3 1"

.
params.
.
. Write WriteLine System.Console
. .
public class Console
{
public static void Write(string fmt, params object[] args) {...}
public static void WriteLine(string fmt, params object[] args) {...}
}

...

, .
,

18

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

.
.
Console.WriteLine("x={0} y={1} z={2}", x, y, z);

:
string s = "x={0} y={1} z={2}";
object[] args = new object[3];
args[0] = x;
args[1] = y;
args[2] = z;
Console.WriteLine(s, args);


, .
, .
. ,
.
i j .
using System;
class Squares
{
static void Main() {
int i = 0;
int j;
while (i < 10) {
j = i * i;
Console.WriteLine("{0} x {0} = {1}", i, j);
i = i + 1;
}
}
}

C#
. , i (. ) ,
, i
.
return .
, void, return . ,
void , return ,
.

, static, .

.
, static, .

, . ,
, this.
this .

Entity , .
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

19

class Entity
{
static int nextSerialNo;
int serialNo;
public Entity() {
serialNo = nextSerialNo++;
}
public int GetSerialNo() {
return serialNo;
}
public static int GetNextSerialNo() {
return nextSerialNo;
}

public static void SetNextSerialNo(int value) {


nextSerialNo = value;
}

Entity (, , ,
). Entity ( )
.
, serialNo,
nextSerialNo.
GetNextSerialNo SetNextSerialNo
nextSerialNo, serialNo
.
Entity.
using System;
class Test
{
static void Main() {
Entity.SetNextSerialNo(1000);
Entity e1 = new Entity();
Entity e2 = new Entity();

Console.WriteLine(e1.GetSerialNo());
Console.WriteLine(e2.GetSerialNo());
Console.WriteLine(Entity.GetNextSerialNo());

// : "1000"
// : "1001"
// : "1002"

, SetNextSerialNo GetNextSerialNo
, GetSerialNo .
,
virtual,
. virtual , .
,
, .
.

20

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

.
override,
. .
,
.
.
abstract ,
abstract.
.
Expression,
, : Constant, VariableReference Operation,
, .
( , 4.6.
.)
using System;
using System.Collections;
public abstract class Expression
{
public abstract double Evaluate(Hashtable vars);
}
public class Constant: Expression
{
double value;
public Constant(double value) {
this.value = value;
}
public override double Evaluate(Hashtable vars) {
return value;
}
}
public class VariableReference: Expression
{
string name;
public VariableReference(string name) {
this.name = name;
}
public override double Evaluate(Hashtable vars) {
object value = vars[name];
if (value == null) {
throw new Exception(" : " + name);
}
return Convert.ToDouble(value);
}
}

public class Operation: Expression


{
Expression left;
char op;
Expression right;

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

21

public Operation(Expression left, char op, Expression right) {


this.left = left;
this.op = op;
this.right = right;
}

public override double Evaluate(Hashtable vars) {


double x = left.Evaluate(vars);
double y = right.Evaluate(vars);
switch (op) {
case '+': return x + y;
case '-': return x - y;
case '*': return x * y;
case '/': return x / y;
}
throw new Exception(" ");
}


. , x + 3
.
Expression e = new Operation(
new VariableReference("x"),
'+',
new Constant(3));

Evaluate Expression
double. Hashtable,
( ) ( ). Evaluate
. ,

.
Constant Evaluate .
VariableReference -
. Operation
( Evaluate),
.
Expression x * (y + 2)
x y.
using System;
using System.Collections;
class Test
{
static void Main() {
Expression e = new Operation(
new VariableReference("x"),
'*',
new Operation(
new VariableReference("y"),
'+',
new Constant(2)
)
);
22

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
Hashtable vars = new Hashtable();

vars["x"] = 3;
vars["y"] = 5;
Console.WriteLine(e.Evaluate(vars));

// : "21"

vars["x"] = 1.5;
vars["y"] = 9;
Console.WriteLine(e.Evaluate(vars));

// : "16.5"



.
.
, , ,
, .
. Main ,
.
class Test
{
static void F() {
Console.WriteLine("F()");
}
static void F(object x) {
Console.WriteLine("F(object)");
}
static void F(int x) {
Console.WriteLine("F(int)");
}
static void F(double x) {
Console.WriteLine("F(double)");
}
static void F<T>(T x) {
Console.WriteLine("F<T>(T)");
}
static void F(double x, double y) {
Console.WriteLine("F(double, double)");
}

static void Main() {


F();
F(1);
F(1.0);
F("abc");
F((double)1);
F((object)1);
F<int>(1);
F(1, 1);

// F()
// F(int)
// F(double)
// F(object)
// F(double)
// F(object)
// F<T>(T)
// F(double, double)

,
.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

23

1.6.7 -
, , -.
, -.
-, C#: , ,
, , .
List<T>,
. .
public class List<T>
{
const int defaultCapacity = 4;

T[] items;
int count;

public List(): this(defaultCapacity) {}

public List(int capacity) {


items = new T[capacity];
}
public int Count {
get { return count; }
}

public int Capacity {


get {
return items.Length;
}
set {
if (value < count) value = count;
if (value != items.Length) {
T[] newItems = new T[value];
Array.Copy(items, 0, newItems, 0, count);
items = newItems;
}
}
}

24

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
public T this[int index] {
get {
return items[index];
}
set {
items[index] = value;
OnChanged();
}
}

public void Add(T item) {


if (count == Capacity) Capacity = count * 2;
items[count] = item;
count++;
OnChanged();
}

protected virtual void OnChanged() {


if (Changed != null) Changed(this, EventArgs.Empty);
}
public override bool Equals(object other) {
return Equals(this, other as List<T>);
}
static bool Equals(List<T> a, List<T> b) {
if (a == null) return b == null;
if (b == null || a.count != b.count) return false;
for (int i = 0; i < a.count; i++) {
if (!object.Equals(a.items[i], b.items[i])) {
return false;
}
}
return true;
}
public event EventHandler Changed;

public static bool operator ==(List<T> a, List<T> b) {


return Equals(a, b);
}

public static bool operator !=(List<T> a, List<T> b) {


return !Equals(a, b);
}
}

C# .
, ,
. , ,
.
,
. , static,
. .

. , List<T>
: , int.
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

25

new.
List<string> List.
List<string> list1 = new List<string>();
List<string> list2 = new List<string>(10);

, .
, .
, .

. ,
,
. , , .
, ,
.
,
, get set, { }. ,
get set, .
, get, .
, set, .
get ,
. ,
, get
.
set value,
.
++ -- set ,
.
List<T> : Count Capacity (
). .
List<string> names = new List<string>();
names.Capacity = 100;
// set
int i = names.Count;
// get
int j = names.Capacity;
// get

, C#
. , static, .
.
.
virtual, abstract override, .

, ( ).
, this,
, [ ].
. , ,
. .
List , int.
List int.
:
26

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
List<string> names = new List<string>();
names.Add("");
names.Add("");
names.Add("");
for (int i = 0; i < names.Count; i++) {
string s = names[i];
names[i] = s.ToUpper();
}

. ,
, .

, .
,
event.
,
, , . ,
, .
, null.
List<T> Changed,
. Changed OnChanged,
, null (. . ).
, .
.
.
+=, -=.
Changed List<string> .
using System;
class Test
{
static int changeCount;
static void ListChanged(object sender, EventArgs e) {
changeCount++;
}
static void Main() {
List<string> names = new List<string>();
names.Changed += new EventHandler(ListChanged);
names.Add("");
names.Add("");
names.Add("");
Console.WriteLine(changeCount);
// : "3"
}
}

, ,
add remove,
set .

,
. : ,
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

27

.
public static.
List<T> : == !=,
, List. ,
List<T>
Equals. ==
List<int>.
using System;
class Test
{
static void Main() {
List<int> a = new List<int>();
a.Add(1);
a.Add(2);
List<int> b = new List<int>();
b.Add(1);
b.Add(2);
Console.WriteLine(a == b);
// : "True"
b.Add(3);
Console.WriteLine(a == b);
// : "False"
}
}

Console.WriteLine True,
. List<T>
==, Console.WriteLine False, a b
List<int>.

, ,
.
. .

. , .
.
.

using.

1.7
, , -
-. , ,
. ,
.
.
object.
,
. ,
-.

. ,
28

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

100 . Point, 101


100 .
class Point
{
public int x, y;
public Point(int x, int y) {
this.x = x;
this.y = y;
}
}
class Test
{
static void Main() {
Point[] points = new Point[100];
for (int i = 0; i < 100; i++) points[i] = new Point(i, i);
}
}

Point .
struct Point
{
public int x, y;
public Point(int x, int y) {
this.x = x;
this.y = y;
}
}

. Point
.
new,
.
( ),
.
. ,
, .
.
. , ,
Point .
Point a = new Point(10, 10);
Point b = a;
a.x = 20;
Console.WriteLine(b.x);

Point , 20, a b .
Point , 10, a b
, a.x.

, . -,
, , -
,
. -,
( ref out),
.
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

29

1.8
, ,
.
,
.
,
.
new. new
,
. 0 Length - 1. new
(
null ).
int,
.
using System;
class Test
{
static void Main() {
int[] a = new int[10];
for (int i = 0; i < a.Length; i++) {
a[i] = i * i;
}
for (int i = 0; i < a.Length; i++) {
Console.WriteLine("a[{0}] = {1}", i, a[i]);
}
}
}

. C#
.
, .
-, - .
int[] a1 = new int[10];
int[,] a2 = new int[10, 5];
int[,,] a3 = new int[10, 5, 2];

a1 10 , a2 50 (10 5) , a3 100 (10 5 2)


.
( ). ,
(jagged array, ), ,
.
int:
int[][] a = new int[3][];
a[0] = new int[10];
a[1] = new int[5];
a[2] = new int[20];

, int[],
null.
.

30

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

new
, , { }.
int[], .
int[] a = new int[] {1, 2, 3};

,
{ }. ,
.
int[] a = {1, 2, 3};

:
int[] t = new int[3];
t[0] = 1;
t[1] = 2;
t[2] = 3;
int[] a = t;

1.9
, .
, , .
. ,
, .
.
IComboBox ITextBox IListBox.
interface IControl
{
void Paint();
}
interface ITextBox: IControl
{
void SetText(string text);
}
interface IListBox: IControl
{
void SetItems(string[] items);
}
interface IComboBox: ITextBox, IListBox {}

.
EditBox IControl IDataBound.
interface IDataBound
{
void Bind(Binder b);
}
public class EditBox: IControl, IDataBound
{
public void Paint() {...}
public void Bind(Binder b) {...}
}

,
. :
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

31

EditBox editBox = new EditBox();


IControl control = editBox;
IDataBound dataBound = editBox;

, ,
. ,
IControl IDataBound .
EditBox, .
object obj = new EditBox();
IControl control = (IControl)obj;
IDataBound dataBound = (IDataBound)obj;

EditBox Paint IControl Bind


IDataBound public. C#
, public.
.
, EditBox
IControl.Paint IDataBound.Bind .
public class EditBox: IControl, IDataBound
{
void IControl.Paint() {...}
}

void IDataBound.Bind(Binder b) {...}

.
, IControl.Paint, EditBox,
EditBox
IControl.
EditBox editBox = new EditBox();
editBox.Paint();
IControl control = editBox;
control.Paint();

// :
//

1.10
,
. Color,
: Red, Green Blue.
using System;
enum Color
{
Red,
Green,
Blue
}

32

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
class Test
{
static void PrintColor(Color color) {
switch (color) {
case Color.Red:
Console.WriteLine("");
break;
case Color.Green:
Console.WriteLine("");
break;
case Color.Blue:
Console.WriteLine("");
break;
default:
Console.WriteLine(" ");
break;
}
}
static void Main() {
Color c = Color.Red;
PrintColor(c);
PrintColor(Color.Blue);
}
}

, .
, int.
.
, .
,
.
Alignment,
sbyte.
enum Alignment: sbyte
{
Left = -1,
Center = 0,
Right = 1
}

,
, .
.
, ,
, .
( )
. :
int i = (int)Color.Blue;
Color c = (Color)2;

// int i = 2;
// Color c = Color.Blue;


, .
,
. , 0

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

33

. ,
.
Color c = 0;

1.11

. ,
.
, . ,
, -
.
Function.
using System;
delegate double Function(double x);
class Multiplier
{
double factor;
public Multiplier(double factor) {
this.factor = factor;
}
public double Multiply(double x) {
return x * factor;
}
}
class Test
{
static double Square(double x) {
return x * x;
}
static double[] Apply(double[] a, Function f) {
double[] result = new double[a.Length];
for (int i = 0; i < a.Length; i++) result[i] = f(a[i]);
return result;
}
static void Main() {
double[] a = {0.0, 0.5, 1.0};
double[] squares = Apply(a, Square);
double[] sines = Apply(a, Math.Sin);

Multiplier m = new Multiplier(2.0);


double[] doubles = Apply(a, m.Multiply);

Function ,
double. Apply Function
double[] double[], . Main Apply
double[].
(, Square Math.Sin
), (, m.Multiply ). ,
34

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

, .
this.
,
, .
. ,
Multiplier:
double[] doubles = Apply(a, (double x) => x * 2.0);

, ,
. ,
, .

1.12
, C# ,
. , public,
protected, internal private. C#
.

.
HelpAttribute
.
using System;
public class HelpAttribute: Attribute
{
string url;
string topic;
public HelpAttribute(string url) {
this.url = url;
}
public string Url {
get { return url; }
}
public string Topic {
get { return topic; }
set { topic = value; }
}
}

System.Attribute,
.NET Framework. ,
.
Attribute, . ,
HelpAttribute .
[Help("http://msdn.microsoft.com/.../MyClass.htm")]
public class Widget
{
[Help("http://msdn.microsoft.com/.../MyClass.htm", Topic = "Display")]
public void Display(string text) {}
}

HelpAttribute Widget, HelpAttribute


Display . ,
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

35

.

(, Topic ).

.
using System;
using System.Reflection;
class Test
{
static void ShowHelp(MemberInfo member) {
HelpAttribute a = Attribute.GetCustomAttribute(member,
typeof(HelpAttribute)) as HelpAttribute;
if (a == null) {
Console.WriteLine(" {0}", member);
}
else {
Console.WriteLine(" {0}:", member);
Console.WriteLine(" Url={0}, Topic={1}", a.Url, a.Topic);
}
}

static void Main() {


ShowHelp(typeof(Widget));
ShowHelp(typeof(Widget).GetMethod("Display"));
}


, ,
. ,
.

36

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2.
2.1
C# ,
(9.1). .
,
.
UTF-8.
:
:
.
: .
: .

2.2
C#,
. (2.2.2) ,
, , , .
(2.2.3) , ,
, C#.
2.2.1
.

.
,
.
,
.
,
. , :
_while:
while ( _ ) _
_while while, (,
_, ) _.
,
. , :
_:

_ , _
. , ,
.
. :
:

{ _ }

:
:
{ }
{ _ }

_, {
}.
, , one of (
) , .
. , :
__:
F f D d M m

:
__:
F
f
D
d
M
m

2.2.2
C# 2.3, 2.4 2.5.
. ,
(2.4), (2.3.3), (2.3.2)
(2.5).
C#
(2.3).
2.2.3
C# , .
,
. ,
C#.
C# _
(9.1).

2.3
C#.
C# .
:
_
38

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

_:
__
_ __
__:
_ _
_
_:
_
_ _
_:

C# :
(2.3.1), (2.3.3), (2.3.2), (2.4)
(2.5).
C# (2.2.3).
C# ,
. ,
;
,
C#.

, .
, // ,
, /.
2.3.1
C#.
_:
(U+000D)
(U+000A)
(U+000D) (U+000A)
(U+0085)
(U+2028)
(U+2029)
, ,
,
C# :
CTRL-Z ( U+001A),
;

(U+000D) ,
( U+000D),
(U+000A), (U+2028)
(U+2029).

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

39

2.3.2
: .
// .
/* */.
.
:
_
__
_:
// _
_:
_
_ _
_:
, __
__:
(U+000D)
(U+000A)
(U+0085)
(U+2028)
(U+2029)
__:
/* ___ /
___:
___
___ ___
___:
/

_____
:
*

*
_____:
, / *
. /* */
//, // /*
.
.

/* Hello, world
hello, world
*/
class Hello
{
static void Main() {
System.Console.WriteLine("hello, world");
}
}
40

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

.

// Hello, world
// hello, world
//
class Hello //
{
static void Main() { // "Main"
System.Console.WriteLine("hello, world");
}
}

.
2.3.3
Zs ( ),
, .
:
Zs
(U+0009)
(U+000B)
(U+000C)

2.4
: , , ,
. ,
.
:

_
_
_
_
_
___
2.4.1
.
(2.4.2),
(2.4.4.4) (2.4.4.5).
(,
, ).
__:
\u 16__ 16__ 16__ 16__
\U 16__ 16__ 16__ 16__ 16__ 16__ 16__ 16__

(escape- )
, , \u
\U. C# 16-
, U+10000 U+10FFFF
.
0x10FFFF .
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

41

. , \u005Cu005C
\u005C, \. \u005C \.

class Class1
{
static void Test(bool \u0066) {
char c = '\u0066';
if (\u0066)
System.Console.WriteLine(c.ToString());
}
}

\u0066, escape- f.
:
class Class1
{
static void Test(bool f) {
char c = 'f';
if (f)
System.Console.WriteLine(c.ToString());
}
}

2.4.2
,
15 , :
( C), escape , @
, .
:
_
@ ___
_:
___, _
___:
__ __
__:
_
_ ( U+005F)
__:
__
__ __
__:
_
_
_
_
__

42

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

_:
Lu, Ll, Lt, Lm, Lo Nl
__, Lu, Ll, Lt, Lm,
Lo Nl
_:
Mn Mc
__, Mn Mc
_:
Nd
__, Nd
_:
Pc
__, Pc
__:
Cf
__, Cf
.
, 3.0, 4.5.
: identifier1, _identifier2, @if.
,
C , 15 .
C ,
.
@ ,
. @
,
, . @
. @ ,
, ,
.

class @class
{
public static void @static(bool @bool) {
if (@bool)
System.Console.WriteLine("true");
else
System.Console.WriteLine("false");
}
}
class Class1
{
static void M() {
cl\u0061ss.st\u0061tic(true);
}
}

class static,
bool. , ,

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

43

, cl\u0061ss ,
, @class.
,
:

@, ;

___
;

__ .

, ( U+005F),
. ,
, .
2.4.3

.
@.
_:
abstract
byte
class
delegate
event
fixed
if
internal
new
override
readonly
short
struct
try
unsafe
volatile

as
base
bool
break
case
catch
char
checked
const
continue
decimal
default
do
double
else
enum
explicit
extern
false
finally
float
for
foreach
goto
implicit
in
int
interface
is
lock
long
namespace
null
object
operator
out
params
private
protected public
ref
return
sbyte
sealed
sizeof
stackalloc static
string
switch
this
throw
true
typeof
uint
ulong
unchecked
ushort
using
virtual
void
while

,
. , get set
(10.7.2). , get set,
,
.
2.4.4
.
:
_
_
_
_
_
_null
44

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .


: true false.
_:
true
false

_ bool.

, int, uint, long ulong.
: .
_:
__
__
__:
_ __
_:
_
_ _
_:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

__:
U u L l UL Ul uL ul LU Lu lU lu

__:
0x 16__ __
0X 16__ __
16__:
16__
16__ 16__
16__:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F a b c d e f

, ,
: int, uint, long ulong;

U u, ,
: uint ulong;

L l, ,
: long ulong;

UL, Ul, uL, ul, LU, Lu, lU lu, ulong.

ulong,
.
L l long, l
1.

int long
:
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

45

__ 2147483648 (231)
__ ,
(7.6.2), int
2147483648 (231). __
uint;

__ 9223372036854775808 (263)
__ __ L l
, (7.6.2),
long 9223372036854775808 (263).
__ ulong.


float, double decimal.
_:
_ . _ _
__
. _ _ __
_ _ __
_ __
_:
e _
E _
:
+ -

__:
F f D d M m

__ , double.
:

F f float. , 1f, 1.5f, 1e10f


123.456F float;

D d double. , 1d, 1.5d,


1e10d 123.456D double;

M m decimal. , 1m, 1.5m,


1e10m 123.456M decimal. decimal,

(4.1.7). ,
, , (
0). , 2.900m
0, 2900 3.

,
.
float double
IEEE.
,
. , 1.3F , 1.F .

46

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .


, 'a'.
_:
' '
:
_
__
_escape-
escape-_
_:
, ' (U+0027), \ (U+005C) __
__:
\' \" \\ \0 \a \b \f \n \r \t \v

_escape-:
\x 16__ 16__ 16__ 16__
, (\) , : ', ", \, 0,
a, b, f, n, r, t, u, U, x, v. .
escape- ,
, \x.
, , U+FFFF,
.
(2.4)
U+0000 U+FFFF.
,
.
Escape

\'

0x0027

\"

0x0022

\\

0x005C

\0

Null

0x0000

\a

0x0007

\b

0x0008

\f

0x000C

\n

0x000A

\r

0x000D

\t

0x0009

\v

0x000B

_ char.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

47

1.1.1.1
C# :
.
, ,
"hello", ( \t
), escape- escape-
.
@ ,
.
@"hello".
, __.
, , escape-
escape- .
.
_:
__
__
__:
" ___ "
___:
___
___ ___
___:
____
__
_escape-
escape-_
____:
, " (U+0022), \ (U+005C) __
__:
@" ___ "
___:
___
___ ___
___:
____
__
____:
, "
__:
""

, (\)
___, : ', ", \, 0, a, b,
f, n, r, t, u, U, x, v. .

string a = "hello, world";
string b = @"hello, world";
48

// hello, world
// hello, world
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
string c = "hello \t world";
string d = @"hello \t world";

// hello
world
// hello \t world

string e = "Joe said \"Hello\" to me";


// Joe said "Hello" to me
string f = @"Joe said ""Hello"" to me"; // Joe said "Hello" to me
string g = "\\\\server\\share\\file.txt";
string h = @"\\server\share\file.txt";

// \\server\share\file.txt
// \\server\share\file.txt

string i = "one\r\ntwo\r\nthree";
string j = @"one
two
three";

. j
, . , ,
, .
escape-
, "\x123"
123. , 12
3, "\x00123" "\x12" + "3".
_ string.
.
, (7.9.7),
, . ,

class Test
{
static void Main() {
object a = "hello";
object b = "hello";
System.Console.WriteLine(a == b);
}
}

True, .
null
_null:
null

_null .
2.4.5
.
, . , a + b
+ a b.
.
___:

{
+
=
->
&=

}
<
==
|=

[
*
>
!=
^=

]
/
?
<=
<<

(
%
??
>=
<<=

)
&
::
+=
=>

.
|
++
-=

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

,
^
-*=

:
!
&&
/=

;
~
||
%=

49

shift_c:
>| >
_shift_:
>|>=
shift_c _shift_ , ,
, ( )
. ,
__ (10.1.3).

2.5
,
.

C C++. C# ;
.
_:
_
__
_
_
_
_pragma
:

#define #undef, , ,

(2.5.3);

#if, #elif, #else #endif, (2.5.4);

#line, ,

(2.5.7);

#error #warning, , , (2.5.5);

#region #endregion, (2.5.6);

#pragma, (2.5.8).


# . #
# .
, #define, #undef, #if, #elif, #else, #endif #line,
. ( /* */)
, .

C#. ,
C#. ,
:
#define A
#undef B

50

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
class C
{
#if A
void F() {}
#else
void G() {}
#endif
#if B
void H() {}
#else
void I() {}
#endif
}

, :
class C
{
void F() {}
void I() {}
}

, , ,
.
2.5.1
, #if, #elif, #else #endif,
(2.5.2) .
_:
___, true false
: .
,
(
). #define ,
, . ,
#undef ,
. , #define #undef
.

true, false.
,
. ,
, false.

C#.
#define #undef .
2.5.2
#if #elif.
!, ==, !=, && ||, .

_:
__
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

51

__:
__
__ || __
__:
__
__ && __
__:
__
__ == __
__ != __
__:
__
! __
__:
true
false

_
( _ )

true, false.
.
, (7.18), ,
, ,
.
2.5.3

.
_:
# define _ __
# undef _ __
__:
_ _
#define ,
, . #undef
, ,
.
#define #undef (2.3.3)
, . ,
#define #undef .

#define Enterprise
#if Professional || Enterprise
#define Advanced
#endif

52

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
namespace Megacorp.Data
{
#if Advanced
class PivotTable {...}
#endif
}

, #define (
namespace) .
, #define
:
#define A
namespace N
{
#define B
#if B
class Class1 {}
#endif
}

#define , -
#undef .
A , .
#define A
#define A

#undef .
A,
; #undef , .
#define A
#undef A
#undef A

2.5.4

.
__:
__if __elif __else _endif
__if:
# if _ __
_
__elif:
__elif
__elif __elif
__elif:
# elif _ __
_
__else:
# else __ _

_endif:
# endif __
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

53

_:
_
_
_:
__
_ __
__:
_ _
_
_:
__ _
__:
_, #
, ,
, , #if, #elif,
#else #endif. .
.
, .
__ _
:

_ #if #elif ,
true. true, _
;

_ false #else, _
#else;

_ .

_, , _: ,
, ;
, .
_, , _:
,
; ,
, .
_, _,
_ ( #if...#endif #region...#endregion)
_.
, :
#define Debug
#undef Trace

54

//
//

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
class PurchaseTransaction
{
void Commit() {
#if Debug
CheckConsistency();
#if Trace
WriteToLog(this.ToString());
#endif
#endif
CommitHelper();
}
}

,
. , ,
#else:
#define Debug

//

class PurchaseTransaction
{
void Commit() {
#if Debug
CheckConsistency();
#else
/*
#endif
}
}

,
.
,
. , :
class Hello
{
static void Main() {
System.Console.WriteLine(@"hello,
#if Debug
world
#else
Nebraska
#endif
");
}
}

:
hello,
#if Debug
world
#else
Nebraska
#endif


_.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

55

#if X
/*
#else
/* */ class Q { }
#endif

( class Q { }), , X
. X , - #if
#endif. X , (#if, #else #endif) .
2.5.5
,
, .
_:
# error _
# warning _
_:
_
_ _

#warning Code review needed before check-in
#if Debug && Retail
#error A build can't be both debug and retail
#endif
class Test {...}

(Code review needed before check-in)


(A build cant be both debug and retail),
Debug Retail. , _ ;
, ;
cant.
2.5.6
.
_:
__ _ __
__:
# region _
__:
# endregion _
;
, . , #region
#endregion, , .
#region #endregion _.

#region
...
#endregion

:
56

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
#if true
...
#endif

2.5.7
,
, .
,
C# .
_:
# line _ __
_:
_ _
_
default
hidden

_:
" __ "
__:
__
__ __
__:
_, "
#line
. #line, _,
default, (
, ).
#line default #line.
, #line
.
#line hidden , ,
. #line hidden
#line ( #line hidden)
. .
, _ , escape ; \
_.
2.5.8 pragma
#pragma
. , #pragma,
.
_pragma:
# pragma __pragma
__

__pragma:
___pragma
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

57

C# #pragma .
#pragma.
C#, C#
#pragma; ,
.
pragma warning
#pragma warning
.
___pragma:
warning _
warning _ _
_:
disable
restore

_:
_
_ , _
#pragma warning, ,
. #pragma warning, ,
, .
#pragma warning disable
.
#pragma warning restore
, . ,
, #pragma warning restore (
) .
#pragma warning
, ,
C# .
using System;
class Program
{
[Obsolete]
static void Foo() {}
static void Main() {
#pragma warning disable 612
Foo();
#pragma warning restore 612
}
}

58

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

3.
3.1 .
.
.
, .

. ,
, . ,
, , ,
.
, ,
.

.
, ,
. Main
:
static void Main() {...}
static void Main(string[] args) {...}
static int Main() {...}
static int Main(string[] args) {...}

, int.
(3.2).
. ,
string[].
string[], ,
. string[] null, ,
.
C# ,
- , .
Main,
.
Main ,
string[].
.
Main,
. Main
(, ).
C# . ,
(3.5.1) (10.3.5),
, , ,
, . , ,

. . ,

.
.
.

3.2 .
.
int,
.
, , .
void,
(}), , return
0.
,
, , (,
GC.SuppressFinalize).

3.3 .
C# . C#
(9),
. (9.6)
(10), (10.14), (13), (14) (15).
, , . ,
(10.4), (10.5), (10.6),
(10.7), (10.8), (10.9), (10.10), (10.11),
(10.12), (10.13) (10.3.8).
, .
(3.6), ,
, . ,
. ,
.
, .

___
__
, .

___
__
.

, .
__,
__, __ _.
,

. ,
. ,
. , ,

60

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

,
(3.6). ,
,
.
. .

.
_.

.
___.

, for, foreach using


,
.
__ __.
, , get
set , ,
, .
, _,
, .
.

. ,

.
, .

switch_ .
_,
_goto.
.
.

, , . ,
, ,
, , , , , , ,
. .


( ).

(3.7).

(14.3) ,
_.

,
.
:

namespace Megacorp.Data
{
class Customer
{
...
}
}
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

61

namespace Megacorp.Data
{
class Order
{
...
}
}

,
Megacorp.Data.Customer
Megacorp.Data.Order. ,
,
.
, .
F G , i
. H I ,
i .
class A
{
void F() {
int i = 0;
if (true) {
int i = 1;
}
} void G() {
if (true) {
int i = 0;
}
int i = 1;
}
void H() {
if (true) {
int i = 0;
}
if (true) {
int i = 1;
}
}

void I() {
for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++)
H();
for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++)
H();
}

3.4 .
.
, , .,
.
, .
, , ,
, .
,
62

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

, ,
. ,
(3.5.1), ,
(3.7.1.2).
3.4.1 .
, ,
. ,
.
, ,
. ,
.
. ,
, .
3.4.2 .
, , ,
System.ValueType object.

.

sbyte System.SByte.

byte System.Byte.

short System.Int16.

ushort System.UInt16.

int System.Int32.

uint System.UInt32.

long System.Int64.

ulong System.UInt64.

char System.Char.

float System.Single.

double System.Double.

decimal System.Decimal.

bool System.Boolean.

3.4.3 .
, , ,
System.Enum
System.ValueType object.
3.4.4 .

, , ,
( object, ). , ,
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

63

, , , , , , ,
, .
.
, , , , ,
, , , ,
.
object string ,
.

object System.Object.

string System.String.

3.4.5 .
,
. object, , -
(13.2). object
(7.3).
3.4.6 .
, System.Array.
3.4.7 .
, System.Delegate.

3.5 .
.
(3.5.1)
, .
, . ,
, . ,
, , (3.5.2) .
3.5.1 .
.

, public .
public .

, protected .
protected -
, -.

, internal .
internal .

( ),
protected internal .
protected internal ,
-.

64

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

, private .
private -.

, ,
. ,
, , ,
.

public.
.

, ,
public internal, internal.

,
private. ( , ,
, , ,
,
public internal.)

public, internal private,


private, .
, (. . ),
protected protected internal. ( ,
, , public,
internal private, , ,
public internal.)

public.
.

public.
.

3.5.2 .
( ) ,
. ,
, , .
,
, ,
{" "} _,
_, _ _ (, , ,
).
(, object, int double) .
T (4.4.3), P,
.

T public, T P
, P.

T internal, T P.

,
, .

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

65

T<A1, ...,AN>
T A1, ...,AN.
M, T P,
(, M ).

M public, M
T.

M protected internal, D
P , T, P.
M T D.

M protected, D T
, T. M
T D.

M internal, M
T P.

M private, M T.

,
, . ,
, ,
.
, M
.

, M ( ),
.

, M public, .

, M protected internal, ,
, M,
, , M,
(3.5.3).

, M protected, ,
, M, ,
, M,
(3.5.3).

, M internal, ,
, M.

, M private, ,
, M.

, .


public class A
{
public static int X;
internal static int Y;
private static int Z;
}
66

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
internal class B
{
public static int X;
internal static int Y;
private static int Z;
public class C
{
public static int X;
internal static int Y;
private static int Z;
}
private class D
{
public static int X;
internal static int Y;
private static int Z;
}
}

A A.X .

A.Y, B, B.X, B.Y, B.C, B.C.X B.C.Y


.

A.Z A.

B.Z B.D B, B.C B.D.

B.C.Z B.C.

B.D.X B.D.Y B, B.C


B.D.

B.D.Z B.D.

,
. , , X
, A.X , -.
3.4 , ,
, .
.
, .
class A
{
int x;
static void F(B b) {
b.x = 1;
// Ok
}
}

class B: A
{
static void F(B b) {
b.x = 1;
// , x
}
}
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

67

B x A. ,
_ A. b.x A.F,
B.F.
3.5.3 .
protected , ,
protected internal , ,
, , .

.
,
.
B , M, D
B. _ D M .

_ _ M.

_ E.M , E T T
, T D , D.

_ base.M.


_ (10.11.1).

public class A
{
protected int x;
static void F(A a, B b) {
a.x = 1;
// Ok
b.x = 1;
// Ok
}
}
public class B: A
{
static void F(A a, B b) {
a.x = 1;
// , B
b.x = 1;
// Ok
}
}

A x A B,
A A . B
x A, A B.

class C<T>
{
protected T x;
}

68

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
class D<T>: C<T>
{
static void F() {
D<T> dt = new D<T>();
D<int> di = new D<int>();
D<string> ds = new D<string>();
dt.x = default(T);
di.x = 123;
ds.x = "test";
}
}

x , ,
.
3.5.4 .
C# ,
. , T M,
T M. , T
M, T , M.
.

, .

,
.

,
.

, .

, .

,
.

, .

, .

, .

,
.

,
.


class A {...}
public class B: A {...}

B , A , B.
,

class A {...}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

69

public class B
{
A F() {...}
internal A G() {...}
public A H() {...}
}

H B , A
, .

3.6 .
, , .

, (,
) , .
, ,
, .
, params,
, .

(, )
, .
params,
.

,
.
params, .

,
. .

,
.

,
, , .


,
.

,
, ,
.


, .

, out ref , ,
, ref out.
, , ,
out ref, .
(, ) ref out
. (
C# Common Language Infrastructure
(CLI), , ref out.)
70

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

.
interface ITest
{
void F();
void F(int x);
void F(ref int x);
void F(out int x);

// F(int)
// F(ref int)
// F(out int)

void F(int x, int y);

// F(int, int)

int F(string s);

// F(string)

int F(int x);


void F(string[] a);
}

// F()

void F(params string[] a);

// F(int)

// F(string[])
// F(string[])

, ref out (10.6.1) .


F(int) F(ref int) . F(ref int) F(out int)
, ref
out. , params
,
params. ,
F(int) F(params string[]), ,
.

3.7 .
, ,
. ,
( ,
3.3,
, ).
, ,
.
, ___ (9.5),
__ .

, ___
__ N, __
__ N, N
.

, __ ,
_, _ ___
.
__ -
. , __ ,
, .

, _ (9.4),
_____
__, _.
_

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

71

, _ __,
.
, _ ,
_ __, .

, __ _ (10.1),
_, ___ _
_.

, __ _
(11.1), _, ___
_ _.

, __ _
(13.1), _, ___
_ _.

, __ _ (15.1),
__, __
___ _.

, __ (10.1.6), _,
. , _
, (3.5.2) .

, __ (11.2), _,
.

, ___ (14.3),
__, .

, _ (10.6), _
_.

, _ (10.9),
__ _.

, _ (10.10),
_.

, _ (10.11),
_ _.

, _ (), __
_.

, __ (),
__.

, _ (8.4), ,
.

, __ (8.5.1),
, .

, _ switch (8.7.2),
_.

, _for for (8.8.3),


_for, _for, _for for.

72

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

, __ (8.5.2),
, .
, _, .

, _foreach, _using,
_lock _, .

, ,
, . :
class A
{
void F() {
i = 1;
}
int i = 0;
}

F i .
,
__ ,
. :
class A
{
int i = 0;
void F() {
i = 1;
int i;
i = 2;
}
void G() {
int j = (j = 1);
}

// ,

//

void H() {
int a = 1, b = ++a;
}

//

F i ,
. ,
, . G
j j ,
__. H
__ ,
__ __.
,
.
,
, , ,
, ,
.

,
.
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

73

using System;
class A {}
class Test
{
static void Main() {
string A = "hello, world";
string s = A;
Type t = typeof(A);

//

Console.WriteLine(s);
Console.WriteLine(t);

//
// "hello, world"
// "A"

A A
A.
3.7.1 .
, .
, , ,
. ,
. , , .
,
.
.
.

,
.

class A
{
int i = 0;
void F() {
int i = 1;
}
void G() {
i = 1;
}
}

F i i, G
i .
,
.
class Outer
{
static void F(int i) {}
static void F(string s) {}
74

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
class Inner
{
void G() {
F(1);
F("Hello");
}
}

// Outer.Inner.F
// .

static void F(long l) {}

F(1) F, Inner, F
. F("Hello")
.
.
, ,
. .

, , , , ,
.

, , ,
, ( ,
).

, ,
( ).

, (10.10),
, .
.
,
.
class Base
{
public void F() {}
}
class Derived: Base
{
public void F() {}
}

// ,

F Derived .
, . ,
, Base F,
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
new:

class Base
{
public void F() {}
}
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

75

class Derived: Base


{
new public void F() {}
}

new , F Derived ,
.

.
class Base
{
public static void F() {}
}
class Derived: Base
{
new private static void F() {}
}
class MoreDerived: Derived
{
static void G() { F(); }
}

// Base.F Derived

// Base.F

F Derived F, Base, ,
F Derived , MoreDerived.
F() MoreDerived.G , Base.F.

3.8 .
C# __ .
__:
____
_:
____
__ :
_opt__
____ . _op_ _
__
__ ____,
. ____
__ ,
. (4.4.1)
__ ( ).
_ ____, .
____ _ ,
.
____ ,
9.7.
____ .

I<A1, ..., AK>

76

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

N.I

N.I<A1, ..., AK>

I , N ____ <A1, ..., AK>


__. __ , K
.
____ .

____ I I<A1, ..., AK>.


o

K , ____
(10.6),
(10.1.3) I, ____ .

, ____
, T (10.3.1),
,
( ):

K , T I,
____ .

, T
I K, ____
, .
, .
, , (, , , ,
, , , ,
),
____.

, N,
, ____,
( ), ,
.

K , I N.

, ____,
N,
__ __,
I ,
____ ,
.

____
I N.

, N I K.

K ,
____, N,
__
__, I
, ____ ,
.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

77

, ____ ,
.

, , ____,
N.
o

K
__ __,
I ,
____ .

, ,
___,
I K, ____
, .

, ,
___,
I K,
____ ,
.

____ ,
.
, ____ N.I N.I<A1, ..., AK>.
N ____. N
, . N.I N.I<A1, ...,
AK> .

K N
I, ____
.

, N
I K, ____ ,
.

, N (, )
I K,
____ ,
. ,
.

N.I ____,
.

____ (10.1.1.3)
.

____ T ____ T.I

____ T _typeof (7.5.11) typeof(T).

3.8.1 .
,
.
N .
78

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

N , N.

S.N, S ,
N .

, N ,
N, .
, .

.
class A {}
namespace X
{
class B
{
class C {}
}
namespace Y
{
class D {}
}

// A
// X
// X.B
// X.B.C
// X.Y
// X.Y.D

}
namespace X.Y
{
class E {}
}

// X.Y
// X.Y.E

3.9 .
C# ,
, .
. .
, ,
.


, ,
. C#
,
. ,
, ,
, ( )
.

, ,
(10.13) ( ) .
.


, ,
.

, , ,
, .

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

79


, , ,
.
, , C# ,
. , C#
, ,
,
.

System.GC. ,
( ) . .

, ,
.
using System;
class A
{
~A() {
Console.WriteLine("Destruct instance of A");
}
}
class B
{
object Ref;
public B(object o) {
Ref = o;
}

~B() {
Console.WriteLine("Destruct instance of B");
}

class Test
{
static void Main() {
B b = new B(new A());
b = null;
GC.Collect();
GC.WaitForPendingFinalizers();
}
}

A B.
, b null,
. :
Destruct instance of A ( A)
Destruct instance of B ( A)

Destruct instance of B
Destruct instance of A

80

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

,
.

. ,
using System;
class A
{
~A() {
Console.WriteLine("Destruct instance of A");
}

public void F() {


Console.WriteLine("A.F");
Test.RefA = this;
}

class B
{
public A Ref;

~B() {
Console.WriteLine("Destruct instance of B");
Ref.F();
}

class Test
{
public static A RefA;
public static B RefB;
static void Main() {
RefB = new B();
RefA = new A();
RefB.Ref = RefA;
RefB = null;
RefA = null;
// A B
GC.Collect();
GC.WaitForPendingFinalizers();
// B , A
if (RefA != null)
Console.WriteLine("RefA is not null");
}

, A
B, :
Destruct instance of A
Destruct instance of B
A.F
RefA is not null (RefA null)

, , , A , A
, A ( F) .
, ,
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

81

. B
, A, ,
Test.RefA. WaitForPendingFinalizers B , A
- Test.RefA.
,
, ,
.

System.IDisposable. ,
using (8.13).

3.10
C# ,
.
volatile, volatile,
. ,
, volatile (10.5.3), lock
(8.12) .
C#, .

.
, ,
.

(10.5.4 10.5.5).

volatile
(10.5.3). , ,
, ,
(
volatile).
(, )
.

82

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

4.
C# : .
,
. ,
.
:
_
_
_
.
. 18.2.
,
,
(). .
, , .
.
.
C# ,
. C# object,
.
object.
(4.3).

4.1
: . C#
, .
.
_:
_
_
_:
_
_
_
_:
_
bool

_:
_
___
decimal

_:
sbyte
byte
short
ushort
int
uint
long
ulong
char

___:
float
double

_:
__ ?
__:

_:
_
, null
, .
, null.
.
, ,
.
4.1.1 System.ValueType
System.ValueType, , ,
object. . ,
(10.1.1.2).
, System.ValueType _.
_, _.
4.1.2

, .
, .

84

_ ,
:
o

sbyte, byte, short, ushort, int, uint, long ulong


0.

char '\x0000'.

float 0.0f.

double 0.0d.

decimal 0.0m.

bool false.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

_ E 0 E.

_
, , null.

_ , HasValue
false, Value .
.

,
new.
. i j
.
class A
{
void F() {
int i = 0;
int j = new int();
}
}


,
. ,
(11.3.8).
4.1.3
, , ,
, , , , ,
. . 11.1.
4.1.4

C# , .
.
System (. ).

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

85

sbyte

System.SByte

byte

System.Byte

short

System.Int16

ushort

System.UInt16

int

System.Int32

uint

System.UInt32

long

System.Int64

ulong

System.UInt64

char

System.Char

float

System.Single

double

System.Double

bool

System.Boolean

decimal

System.Decimal

,
. , int , System.Int32, ,
System.Object. :
int i = int.MaxValue;
string s = i.ToString();
string t = 123.ToString();

// System.Int32.MaxValue constant
// System.Int32.ToString() instance method
// System.Int32.ToString() instance method

,
:

(2.4.4).
, 123 int, 'a' char. C#
.

.

, ,
. _
(7.18). , , ,
.

const (10.4).
, static readonly.

, ,
.

(6.4.3).

4.1.5
C# : sbyte, byte, short, ushort, int, uint, long, ulong char.
:
86

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

sbyte 8- 128 127.

byte 8- 0 255.

short 16- 32768 32767.

ushort 16- 0 65535.

int 32- 2147483648


2147483647.

uint 32- 0 4294967295.

long 64- 9223372036854775808


9223372036854775807.

ulong 64- 0
18446744073709551615.

char 16- 0 65535.


char . ,
char ushort ,
.

, 32- 64 :

+ ~ T, T
int, uint, long ulong,
. , T.
T.

T, T int
long, .
, T.
T. ulong.

+, , *, /, %, &, ^, |, ==, !=, >, <, >= <=


T, T int, uint, long ulong,
.
, T. T ( bool
).
( long ulong).

<< >> T, T
int, uint, long ulong,
. ,
T. T.

char , :
char. ,
, sbyte, byte ushort
char, sbyte, byte ushort char
.

char _
char. , (char)10 '\x000A' .

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

87


checked unchecked (7.5.12). checked

System.OverflowException. unchecked , ,
, .
4.1.6
C# : float double. float double
32- ( ) 64- ( )
IEEE 754 :

.
.
(7.7.2).

. , ,
. , 1.0 / 0.0
, 1.0 / 0.0 .

NaN. NaN
, .

s x m x 2e, s 1 1, m e
, float 0 < m < 224 149 e 104,
double 0 < m < 253 1075 e 970.
.

float 1,5 x 1045 3,4 x 1038 ()


7 .
double 5,0 x 10324 1,7 x 10308 ()
1516 .
,
.
:

, ,
.

, double,
double. ,
double. double ( bool ).

,
float. float ( bool ).

, ,
.
, ,
:

,
.

,
.

88

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

,
NaN.

NaN,
NaN.

,
. ,
extended long double,
double.
.

( ).
, C#
.
- , .
x * y / z, ,
double, ,
double,
.
4.1.7 decimal
decimal 128- ,
. decimal 1,0 x 1028
7,9 x 1028 () 2829 .
decimal (1) s x c x10-e, s
0 1, c 0 c < 296, e
0 e 28. decimal ,
. decimal 96- ,
. decimal 1.0m
28 . decimal
1.0m 28 29 . float double,
decimal , 0,1. float
double ,
.
decimal,
decimal. (
) decimal.
decimal.
( , )
.
. ,
, (
). 0 0.
decimal
5 10-29, .
decimal ,
decimal, System.OverflowException.

decimal ,
. , ,
, decimal .
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

89

.
decimal.
decimal ,
.
4.1.8 bool
bool . bool : true
false.
bool . , bool
.
bool .
C C++ ,
false.

true. C#
,
null.
4.1.9
,
. :
byte, sbyte, short, ushort, int, uint, long ulong.
.
.
(14.1).
4.1.10
.
T?, T .
System.Nullable<T>.
.
, ,
System.Nullable<T> T? ( T), ,
(
struct). System.Nullable<T> T (10.1.5).
,
.
. , int?? string? .
T? , :

HasValue bool.

Value T.

, HasValue true, . Value


.
, HasValue false, .
. Value
System.InvalidOperationException. Value
.
90

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

, T?
, T. x T

new T?(x)

T?, Value x.

.
null T? (6.1.5) T T? (6.1.4).

4.2
: , ,
.
_:
_
_
_
_
_:
_
object
string

_:
_
_:
__ _
__:

_:
_
_ _
_:
[ _ ]
_:
,

_ ,
_:
_
(). null
.
4.2.1

, - ( ), (, , , , , ,
), .
, ,
.
__ (7.5.10.1).
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

91

. 10.
C# (. ).

System.Object

. . 4.2.2.

System.String

C#. . 4.2.3.

System.ValueType

. . 4.1.1.

System.Enum

. .14.

System.Array

. . 12.

System.Delegate

. . 15.

System.Exception

. . 16.

4.2.2
object . C#
object.
object
System.Object.
4.2.3
string ,
object. string , .
string (2.4.4.5).
string
System.String.
4.2.4
. , ,
. .
.
. 13.
4.2.5
, ,
.
,
.
. 12.
4.2.6
, .
.
C C++ .
, ,
92

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

, .
,
, .
. 15.

4.3
C#.
_ _
_ object .
,
.
4.3.1
_ _.
:

_ object.

_ System.ValueType.

__ _,
_.

_ _,
_.

_ System.Enum.

_, _,
System.Enum.

,
,
(6.1.9).
__
.
null ( HasValue false) _,
.
.
__,
,
:
sealed class Box<T>: System.ValueType
{
T value;
public Box(T t) {
value = t;
}
}

v T new Box<T>(v)
object. ,

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

93

int i = 123;
object box = i;


int i = 123;
object box = i;

Box<T> ,
. T
T. is T.
,
int i = 123;
object box = i;
if (box is int) {
Console.Write("Box contains an int");
}

Box contains an int.


.
_ object,
object .
,
struct Point
{
public int x, y;
public Point(int x, int y) {
this.x = x;
this.y = y;
}
}


Point p = new Point(10, 10);
object box = p;
p.x = 20;
Console.Write(((Point)box).x);

10,
( p box) p.
Point class, 20, p box
.
4.3.2
_ _.
:

object _.

System.ValueType _.

_ __,
_.

_ _,
_.

94

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

System.Enum _.

System.Enum _,
_.

,
,
(6.2.6).
__ ,
__.
.
_ null,
_.
, _.
, ,
box _ T
((Box<T>)box).value. ,
object box = 123;
int i = (int)box;


object box = new Box<int>(123);
int i = ((Box<int>)box).value;

__

__. null,
System.NullReferenceException. ,
System.InvalidCastException.
_
null
__, _.
, System.InvalidCastException.

4.4
,
.
( < >)
. , ,
. ,
.
_typeof (7.5.11).
(7.5.2)
(7.5.4).

____ ,
. , ,
, .
, :

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

95

namespace Widgets
{
class Queue {...}
class Queue<TElement> {...}
}
namespace MyApplication
{
using Widgets;
class X
{
Queue q1;
// Widgets.Queue
Queue<int> q2;
// Widgets.Queue
}
}

_ , .
, ,
(10.3.8.6):
class Outer<T>
{
public class Inner {...}
}

public Inner i;

// i Outer<T>.Inner


_ (18.2).
4.4.1
.
__:
< _ >
_:
_
_ , _
_:

(18) _ .
,
(10.1.5).
4.4.2
. ,
. :

, .

,
.
,
.

96

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

.
, ,
,
.
.
.
.
,

. , ,
, . ,

.
4.4.3

.
.
, .
,
, .
typeof (7.5.11).
4.4.4

,
(10.1.5).
where A, ,
:

, ,
C, .
, .
, A C
:
o

(6.1.1).

(6.1.6)

(6.1.7), A .

, A C.

( class), A
:
o

A , , . ,
System.ValueType System.Enum
.

A , (10.1.5).
( struct), A
:

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

97

A .
, System.ValueType System.Enum
.

A ,
(10.1.5).

new(), A
abstract .
, :
o

A ,
(4.1.2).

A ,
(10.1.5).

A ,
(10.1.5).

A , abstract,
public, .

A abstract (10.11.4).

,
.
,
. T D.
T , B<T>.
, E , List<T> IEnumerable
T.
class B<T> where T: IEnumerable {...}
class D<T>: class B<T> where T: IEnumerable {...}
class E<T>: B<List<T>> {...}

4.5
, ,
.
_:


, , ,
. :

(10.2.4)
(13.1.3).


( ). . 7.3.


( ). .
6.1.9 6.2.6.

98

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

null , ,
, (6.1.9).
default (7.5.13). ,
, , , ,
null == != (7.9.6).

new (7.5.10.1) ,
_ (10.1.5).

(7.5.4) (3.8)
.


_ (18.2).

, ,
. ,
. , ,
,
(4.4.2). , ,
, .

4.6

.
System.Linq.Expressions.Expression<D>, D .
Expression<D>.
D,
Expression<D>.
, .

.
,
.
Expression<D> ,
D.
,
. Func<int,int>,
Expression<Func<int,int>>:
Func<int,int> del = x => x + 1;
Expression<Func<int,int>> exp = x => x + 1;

//
//

del , x + 1,
exp , x => x + 1.
Expression<D>,

.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

99

. ,
,
. - ,
.

Expression<D> Compile, D:
Func<int,int> del2 = exp.Compile();

, .
, , del del2 ,
:
int i1 = del(1);
int i2 = del2(1);

i1 i2 2.

100

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

5.
. , ,
. C#
, C# ,
. +
+ - -.
,
(5.3).
,
.
.
.
,
, .

5.1
C# : , ,
, , ,
. .

class A
{
public static int x;
int y;

void F(int[] v, int a, ref int b, out int c) {


int x = 1;
c = a + b++;
}

x , y , v[0]
, a , b , c , i
.
5.1.1
, static, .
(10.12)
.
,
(5.2).

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

101

5.1.2
, static, .


, (
).
,
(5.2).

.

, ,
. ,
.

, . ,
,
. ,
.
5.1.3

.

(5.2).

.
5.1.4
, ref out, .
- (,
, ) ,
, , .
, , -
. , (7.14),
, ,
, .

.
5.1.5
, ref, .
.
, -
102

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

. ,
.
.
, 5.1.6.

(5.3),
- .

-
.

struct this
, struct (7.5.7).
5.1.6
, out, .
.
, -
. ,
.
.
, 5.1.5.

-
.

- ,
, .

-
.

-
(5.3) -
.

struct this ,
struct (7.5.7).
5.1.7
__,
, _for, _switch _using,
_foreach __catch _try.

,
. ,
for, switch, using, foreach __catch,
, , for, switch, using, foreach
__catch . (
, , for, switch, using, foreach
__catch.)
(7.14.4.1), ,
, , ,
, .

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

103

, for, switch, using, foreach __catch


, ,
__ ( ).
, __,
.
,
__, .
__ __.

, __.
,
__, ,
__, .
(8.5.1),
__ .
, _foreach
__catch, .
. ,
,
. ,
, .
, ,
(3.9).

5.2

.

___, ,
___ (4.1.2).

_ null.

, ,
.
, .

5.3
-
, (5.3.3) ,

. ,
:
104

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

(5.3.1) .

(5.3.2)
, , ,
:
o

(7.16.1), .

(7.5.5) (7.5.10.1),
.

(8.5.1),
.

, , 5.3.1, 5.3.2 5.3.3.


_struct
, .
_struct :

,
_struct .

_struct ,
.

, .
.
:
o

_struct
.

,
. , -
.

- ,
- ( return
-). , -
, -,
,
.

this _struct
, .

5.3.1
:
.

struct .

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

105

, catch foreach.

5.3.2
:

struct .

, this
struct.

, catch foreach.

5.3.3
, ,
, .
-,
. v
v -:

(8.1)

v :

. ,
v .

.
bool ( )
:
o

true.
, v ,
true, ,
false.

false.
, v ,
false, ,
true.

v .

106

v -.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

v .

v
v
, . ,
v ,
.
,
(8.1).

v
checked, unchecked, if, while, do, for, foreach, lock, using switch
v ,
. v
,
. v
. ,
(8.1).

,
v ,
( , )
v , checked
unchecked.

stmt, expr:

v expr,
stmt;

v expr,
stmt;
stmt.

stmt , v
stmt, .

stmt ,
v
( ).

If
if :
if ( expr ) then-stmt else else-stmt

v expr,
stmt;

v expr,
then-stmt,
else-stmt, stmt, else ;

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

107

v
true expr,
then-stmt
else-stmt, stmt, else ;

v
false expr, else-stmt
then-stmt.
stmt ,
then-stmt;

v
then-stmt else-stmt stmt, else
.

switch
switch stmt expr:

v expr
v stmt;

v
switch
v expr.

while
while stmt :
while ( expr ) while-body

v expr,
stmt;

v expr,
while-body
stmt;

v
true expr,
while-body,
stmt;

v
false expr,
stmt,
while-body.

do
do stmt :
do do-body while ( expr ) ;

108

v
stmt do-body, stmt.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

v expr,
do-body.

v expr,
stmt.

v
false expr,
stmt.

for
for
for ( for-initializer ; for-condition ; for-iterator ) embedded-statement

:
{

for-initializer ;
while ( for-condition ) {
embedded-statement ;
for-iterator ;
}
}

_for for ,
, _for
true.
break, continue goto
v ,
break, continue goto,
v .
throw
stmt
throw expr ;

v expr
v stmt.
return
stmt
return expr ;

v expr
v stmt.

v ,
:

expr

finally try-finally try-catch-finally,


return.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

109

stmt
return ;

v ,
:
o

stmt

finally try-finally try-catch-finally,


return.

try-catch
stmt
try try-block
catch(...) catch-block-1
...
catch(...) catch-block-n

v try-block
v stmt.

v catch-block-i (
i) v stmt.

v stmt
, v try-block catch-block-i
( i 1 n).

try-finally
stmt
try try-block finally finally-block

v try-block
v stmt.

v finally-block
v stmt.

v stmt
:
o

v try-block

v finally-block

(, goto), try-block
, v
, v finally-block. (
v
, .)
try-catch-finally
try-catch-finally,

110

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
try try-block
catch(...) catch-block-1
...
catch(...) catch-block-n

, try-finally try-catch:
try {
try try-block
catch(...) catch-block-1
...
catch(...) catch-block-n
}
finally finally-block

, try (8.10)
.
class A
{
static void F() {
int i, j;
try {
goto LABEL;
// i, j

i = 1;
// i
}
catch {
// i, j

i = 3;
// i
}
finally {
// i, j

j = 5;
// j
}
// i j
LABEL:;
// j
}

foreach
foreach stmt
foreach ( type identifier in expr ) embedded-statement

v expr
v stmt.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

111

v
_ stmt v
expr.

using
using stmt
using ( _ ) _

v resource-acquisition
v stmt.

v
_ v
_.

lock
lock stmt
lock ( expr ) _

v expr
v stmt.

v
_ v expr.

yield
yield return stmt
yield return expr ;

v expr
v stmt.

v stmt
v expr.

yield break .


: (7.5.1),
(7.5.2), (7.5.4), (7.5.8),
typeof (7.5.11) (7.5.13).

v
v .


: (7.5.3),
(7.5.6), (7.5.8),
(7.5.9, 7.6.5), (7.6.6), +, -, ~,
*, +, -, *, /, %, <<, >>, <, <=, >, >=, ==, !=, is, as, &, |, ^ (7.7, 7.8, 7.9,
7.10), (7.16.2), checked unchecked (7.5.12),
(7.5.13).
112

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

,
. , %
, .
,
. expr, expr1, expr2, ..., exprn,
:

v expr1
expr.

v expri (i )
expri-1.

v expr
exprn.


expr
_ ( arg1 , arg2 , , argn )

new type ( arg1 , arg2 , , argn )

v
_ v expr;

v arg1
v _;

v arg1
v expr;

argi v argi
ref out;

argi i
v argi v argi-1;

v out (, out v)
, v expr .
v expr v
argn;

(7.5.10.4), (7.5.10.2),
(7.5.10.3) (7.5.10.6)
, .


expr w = expr-rhs:
v expr-rhs
v expr.

w , v, v
expr .

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

113

v expr
v expr-rhs.
&&
expr expr-first && expr-second:

v expr-first
v expr;

v expr-second ,
v expr-first
true.
;

v expr
:
o

v expr-first , v
expr ;

, v expr-second
, v expr-first
false,
v expr ;

, v expr-second
true,
v expr
true;

, v expr-first
false, expr-second
false,
expr
false;

v expr .

:
class A
{
static void F(int x, int y) {
int i;
if (x >= 0 && (i = y) >= 0) {
// i
}
else {
// i
}
// i
}
}

i
if. if F i
, (i = y)
. , i
114

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

, x >= 0
false, i .
||
expr expr-first || expr-second:

v expr-first
v expr;

v expr-second ,
v expr-first
false.
;

v expr
:
o

v expr-first , v
expr ;

, v expr-second
, v expr-first
true,
v expr ;

, v expr-second
false,
v expr
false;

, v expr-first
true, expr-second
true,
v expr
true;

v expr .

class A
{
static void G(int x, int y) {
int i;
if (x >= 0 || (i = y) >= 0) {
// i
}
else {
// i
}
// i
}
}

i
if. if G i
, (i = y)
. , i
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

115

, x >= 0
true, i .
!
expr ! expr-operand:

v expr-operand
v expr.

v expr
:
o

v expr-operand ,
expr ;

v expr-operand ,
expr ;

v expr-operand
false, expr
true;

v expr-operand
true, expr
false.

??
expr expr-first ?? expr-second:

v expr-first
expr;

v expr-second
expr-first.

v expr
:
o

expr-first (7.18), null,


v expr
expr-second;
v expr
expr-first.

expr expr-cond ? expr-true : expr-false:

v expr-cond
expr;

v expr-true ,
expr-cond
true;

116

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

v expr-false ,
expr-cond
false;

v expr
:
o

expr-cond (7.18), true,


v expr
expr-true;

, expr-cond (7.18),
false, v expr
expr-false;

, v
expr-true, expr-false, expr
;

v expr .


- __ expr ,
:

v body
expr. ,
.

v expr
expr.

:
delegate bool Filter(int i);
void F() {
int max;
// , max
Filter f = (int n) => n < max;
max = 5;
DoWork(f);
}

, max
. :
delegate void D();
void F() {
int n;
D d = () => { n = 1; };
d();
// , n
Console.WriteLine(n);

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

117

,
n
n .

5.4
__ , .
__ ,
, .
__:

C C++ __ lvalue.

5.5
: bool, char, byte, sbyte,
short, ushort, uint, int, float .
.
, long, ulong, double decimal, ,
.
, , ,
, .

118

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

6.
.
,
.
, . ,
int long , int
long. long int
.
int a = 123;
long b = a;
// int long
int c = (int) b; // long int

.
(6.4).

6.1
:

null.

,
(7.4.4), (7.6.6) (7.16).

.
.
6.1.1
.
, ,
.

6.1.2
:

sbyte short, int, long, float, double decimal.

byte short, ushort, int, uint, long, ulong, float, double decimal.

short int, long, float, double decimal.

ushort int, uint, long, ulong, float, double decimal.

int long, float, double decimal.

uint long, ulong, float, double decimal.

long float, double decimal.

ulong float, double decimal.

char ushort, int, uint, long, ulong, float, double decimal.

float double.

int, uint, long ulong float, long ulong double


, .
.
char ,
char.
6.1.3
__
_decimal 0 _ _,
_.
_ (4.1.9).
6.1.4

.
,
S T,
:

S? T?.

S T?.

, S T,
:

S? T?:
o

null ( HasValue false),


null T?.

S? S,
S T (4.1.9) T T?.

120

S T?,
S T T T?.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

6.1.5 null
null .
null (4.1.9) .
6.1.6
:

_ object.

_ S _ T ( S T).

_ S _ T ( S T).

_ S _ T ( S T).

_ S, SE, _ T,
TE, :
o

S T . , S T
.

SE TE _.

SE TE.

_ System.Array.

S[] System.Collections.Generic.IList<T>
, S
T.

_ System.Delegate.

null _.

, , .
, , . 6.1.9.

_
.

. ,
, , .
,
. , List<B> ( , )
List<A>, B A. ,
List<B> List<object>.
6.1.7
_ .
__ object,
System.ValueType, _,
__. , _
System.Enum.

_ ,
__ .
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

121

__
.
System.ValueType, (11.3.2).
_ :

null ( HasValue false),


null .

T,
.

. 4.3.1.
6.1.8
:

_ (7.18) int sbyte, byte, short, ushort, uint


ulong, _ .

_ long ulong,
_ .

6.1.9 ,
T:

T C, T C , T
, C. T ,
.
.

T I, T, T
I. T ,
.
.

T U, T U. T , U
, .
, T U , T U ,
. T , U
,
.

null T, T .

T (10.1.5),
(6.1.6). , T
, , ,
(6.1.7).
6.1.10

, ,
.
6.4.4.

122

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

6.1.11
,
.
. 6.5 6.6 .

6.2
:

(7.6.6).
. ,
.
, , ,
, .
6.2.1
_
_, (6.1.2):
sbyte byte, ushort, uint, ulong char.

byte sbyte char.

short sbyte, byte, ushort, uint, ulong char.

ushort sbyte, byte, short char.

int sbyte, byte, short, ushort, uint, ulong char.

uint sbyte, byte, short, ushort, int char.

long sbyte, byte, short, ushort, int, uint, ulong char.

ulong sbyte, byte, short, ushort, int, uint, long char.

char sbyte, byte short.

float sbyte, byte, short, ushort, int, uint, long, ulong, char decimal.

double sbyte, byte, short, ushort, int, uint, long, ulong, char, float decimal.

decimal sbyte, byte, short, ushort, int, uint, long, ulong, char, float double.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

123

,
_
(7.6.6).
.
:


(7.5.12), :
o

checked ,
.
System.OverflowException.

unchecked :

,
.
.

,
.
,
. .

,
.

decimal
. .
,
System.OverflowException.

float double
(7.5.12), :
o

124

checked :

,
System.OverflowException.


. ,
.

System.OverflowException.

unchecked :

,
.


. ,
.

double float double


float. double float,

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

. double
float,
. double ,
.

float double decimal


decimal 28-
(4.1.7).
, .
, decimal,
System.OverflowException.

decimal float double decimal


double float.
, .

6.2.2
:

sbyte, byte, short, ushort, int, uint, long, ulong, char, float, double decimal
_.

_ sbyte, byte, short, ushort, int, uint, long, ulong, char, float,
double decimal.

_ _.


_ _
.
, _ E int, E byte
(6.2.1) int byte, byte
E (6.1.2) byte int.
6.2.3
,
, .
S
T (6.1.1, 6.1.2, 6.1.3, 6.2.1 6.2.2)
:

S? T?.

S T?.

S? T.

, S T,
:

S? T?:
o

null ( HasValue false),


null T?.

S? S,
S T T T?.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

125

S T?,
S T T T?.

S? T,
S? S S T.

, null
.

6.2.4
:

object _.

_ S _ T, S T.

_ S _ T, S
T.

_ S _ T, T
S.

_ S _ T, S
T.

_ S, SE, _ T,
TE, :
o

S T . , S T
.

SE TE _.

SE TE.

System.Array _.

S[] System.Collections.Generic.IList<T>
, S T.

System.Collections.Generic.IList<S>
T[], S T.

System.Delegate _.

, , .
, , . 6.2.6.

.

null, ,
, ,
(6.1.6).
System.InvalidCastException.

. ,
, , .

126

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

6.2.5
_.
object System.ValueType
__, _
__, _. ,
System.Enum _.
_ ,
__,
_.
,
_. .
_ null _.
System.ValueType,
(11.3.2).
. 4.3.2.
6.2.6 ,
T:

T C T, C T.
T ,
.
.

T. T ,
.
.

T _ I, T I.
T ,
.
.

U T, T U. T , U
, .
, T U , T U ,
. T , U
,
.

T ,
(6.2.4). , T ,
, ,
(6.2.5).


, , .

. , :

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

127

class X<T>
{
public static long F(T t) {
return (long)t;
}
}

//

t int, ,
X<int>.F(7) 7L. ,
,
.
:
class X<T>
{
public static long F(T t) {
return (long)(object)t;
long
}
}

// , T

, X<int>.F(7)
, int
long.
6.2.7

, ,
.
6.4.5.

6.3
,
.
6.3.1
:

(6.1.1).

(6.1.2).

(6.1.4).

(6.1.6).

(6.1.7).

(6.1.8).

, (6.1.9).

.
6.3.2
,
,
128

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

. , A
B, A B B A.

6.4
C#
.
(10.10.3) .
6.4.1
C# . ,
.
, S T ( S T
) S0 T0 ( S0 T0
S T ).
S T ,
:

S0 T0 .

S0, T0 , .

S0, T0 _.

, S T T S, .

, , .
10.10.3.
6.4.2
S
T ,
S? T?.
S? S, S T,
T T? ( , S?
null T? null.
( ),
.
,
.
6.4.3

, .
,
. :

,
. ,
( ,
, , ,
). , _,
.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

129

,
.
, (6.3)
,
.

,
. ,
, ,
.
.

.


, :

, ,
.

, ,
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. ,
S T S X
X T.

. :

(6.3.1) A B,
A B _, , A B, B
A.

,
. ,
. ,
,
.

,
. ,
. ,
,
.

6.4.4
S T :

S0 T0. S T , S0 T0
( S0 T0 S T ).

(D),
. S0 ( S0 ),

130

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

S0 ( S0 ) T0 ( T0
).


(U).
, D
, S, , T. U ,
.

(SX) U:
o

U S, SX
S.

SX
U.
,
.

(TX) U:
o

U T, TX
T.

TX
U.
,
.

:
o

U SX TX,
.

, U
SX TX, .

,
.

:
o

S SX, S SX.

SX TX .

TX T, TX T.

6.4.5
S T :
S0 T0. S T , S0 T0
( S0 T0 S T ).

(D),
. S0 ( S0 ),
S0 ( S0 ), T0 ( T0 )
T0 ( T0 ).

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

131


(U).
, D
, S , , T
. U ,
.

(SX) U:
o

U S, SX
S.

, U ,
S, SX
. ,
.

SX
U.
,
.

(TX) U:
o

U T, TX
T.

, U ,
T, TX
.
,
.

TX
U.
,
.

:
o

U SX TX,
.

, U
SX TX, .

:
o

S SX, S SX.

SX TX
.

TX T, TX T.

132

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

6.5
__ _
(7.14). ,
. , D F
:

F __, D F
.

F __, D
, D
out.

F , D
, F.

F , D ref
out.

D void, F
, D, F
(wrt 7), _ (8.6).

D void, F
, D, F
(wrt 8.2), return
.

D void , F
, D,
F (wrt 7),
D.

D void , F
, D,
F (wrt 8.2) ,
return ,
D.

Expression<D> F ,
D F.
Func<A,R>,
, A R:
delegate R Func<A,R>(A arg);


Func<int,int> f1 = x => x + 1;

//

Func<int,double> f2 = x => x + 1;

//

Func<double,int> f3 = x => x + 1;

//


, .


Func<int,int>. x int, x + 1
, int.
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

133

,
Func<int,double>, x + 1 ( int)
double.
.
x double, x + 1 ( double)
int.
,
. . 7.4.
6.5.1

, ( ) ,
. .
,
.
, , .
. , ,
null, this - .
( )
( )
. .
,
. ,
.
delegate double Function(double x);
class Test
{
static double[] Apply(double[] a, Function f) {
double[] result = new double[a.Length];
for (int i = 0; i < a.Length; i++) result[i] = f(a[i]);
return result;
}

static void F(double[] a, double[] b) {


a = Apply(a, (double x) => Math.Sin(x));
b = Apply(b, (double y) => Math.Sin(y));
...
}

( )
, ,
. ,
.
6.5.2

(4.6). ,
, . ,
.

134

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

6.5.3

C#. ,
Microsoft C#, , .
,
.
,
. ,
C#. D
:
public delegate void D();

:
class Test
{
static void F() {
D d = () => { Console.WriteLine("test"); };
}
}

,
, :
class Test
{
static void F() {
D d = new D(__Method1);
}

static void __Method1() {


Console.WriteLine("test");
}

this:
class Test
{
int x;

void F() {
D d = () => { Console.WriteLine(x); };
}

,
:
class Test
{
int x;
void F() {
D d = new D(__Method1);
}

void __Method1() {
Console.WriteLine(x);
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

135

:
class Test
{
void F() {
int y = 123;
D d = () => { Console.WriteLine(y); };
}
}


. ()
.
(7.14.4.2) .

. ,
:
class Test
{
void F() {
__Locals1 __locals1 = new __Locals1();
__locals1.y = 123;
D d = new D(__locals1.__Method1);
}
class __Locals1
{
public int y;

public void __Method1() {


Console.WriteLine(y);
}

this,
:
class Test
{
int x;

void F() {
int y = 123;
for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
int z = i * 2;
D d = () => { Console.WriteLine(x + y + z); };
}
}

,
.
. __Locals2,
, z ,
__Locals1. __Locals1, ,
y , this
-. __Local2

136

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

. ,
.
class Test
{
void F() {
__Locals1 __locals1 = new __Locals1();
__locals1.__this = this;
__locals1.y = 123;
for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
__Locals2 __locals2 = new __Locals2();
__locals2.__locals1 = __locals1;
__locals2.z = i * 2;
D d = new D(__locals2.__Method1);
}
}
class __Locals1
{
public Test __this;
public int y;
}
class __Locals2
{
public __Locals1 __locals1;
public int z;
public void __Method1() {
Console.WriteLine(__locals1.__this.x + __locals1.y + z);
}
}

, ,
.
,
. ,
()
.

6.6
(6.1) (7.1) .
D E, ,
E D , E ,
(7.4.3.1) ,
D, .
E D
. , E D ,
.

M (7.5.5.1) E(A)
:

A ,
(ref out),
__ D.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

137

, (7.4.3.1),
, .

7.5.5.1 , .
M, ,
D. .

M (15.2) D.
.

M , , E,
.

M ,
, .

D, ,
.

, .
, 7.5.5.1 ,
E(A) (7.5.5.2).
.
:
delegate string D1(object o);
delegate object D2(string s);
delegate object D3();
delegate string D4(object o, params object[] a);
delegate string D5(int i);
class Test
{
static string F(object o) {...}
static void G() {
D1 d1 = F;
D2 d2 = F;
D3 d3 = F;
D4 d4 = F;
D5 d5 = F;

//
//
//
//



// ,

}
}

d1 F D1.
d2 ,
()
().
d3 .
d4 , .
d5 ,
.
,
. ,
138

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
object obj = new EventHandler(myDialog.OkClick);


object obj = (EventHandler)myDialog.OkClick;

, .
. 7.4.

:


, ,
E :
o

. ,
.

_, ,
, . null,
System.NullReferenceException. .

_, (4.3.1)
. .
,
null.

D.
,
System.OutOfMemoryException. .

, ,
, .

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

139

7.
. ,
, .

7.1
.

. .

. ,
.

.
__ (7.5.4).
.

. __ (7.5.4)
as (7.9.11), is (7.9.10) typeof (7.5.11).
.

, ,
(7.3).
.
, this (7.5.7).
_ (7.5.5) __
(7.5.10.5) (6.6).
.

null.
.

.
.

. , .
, .
( get set)
, this (7.5.7).

. , .
, .
+= -= (7.16.3).
.

. ,
. ,
. ( get set)
,
this (7.5.7),
.

. ,
void.
_ (8.6).

, ,
. , ,
, .

get set.
. ,
__set (7.16.1).
get (7.1.1).
7.1.1
, , ,
. ,
, , , .
,
, .

, ,
.
(5.3), .

__get
. __get, .
- (7.4.4),
.

__get
. __get, .
- (7.4.4) ,
,
.

7.2
. ,
. , , +, -, *, / new. ,
, , , .
.

.
(, x) (, x++).

.
(, x + y).

. , ?:.
(c? x: y).


(7.2.1).

142

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

. , F(i) + G(i++) * H(i)


F i, G i , ,
H i. .
.
,
(7.2.2).
7.2.1
,
. , x + y * z x + (y * z),
* , +.
. , _
_, + ,
, + , *, / %.

.

7.5

x.y f(x) a[x] x++ x-- new


typeof default checked unchecked delegate

7.6

+ - ! ~ ++x --x (T)x

7.7

* / %

7.7

+ -

7.8

<< >>

7.9

< > <= >= is as

7.9

== !=

7.10

AND

&

7.10

XOR

7.10

OR

7.11

AND

&&

7.11

OR

||

7.12

??

7.13

?:

7.16,
7.14

= *= /= %= += -= <<= >>= &= ^= |=


=>

,
.


. , . ,
x + y + z (x + y) + z.
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

143

(?:) .
, . , x = y = z
x = (y = z).

. , x + y *
z y z, x, (x + y) * z
x y, z.
7.2.2
,
. operator
(10.10).
.
7.2.3 7.2.4,
, .
, , :
+ - ! ~ ++ -- true false

true false (
7.2.1), ,
: (7.19) (7.13)
(7.11).
, , :
+ - * / % & | ^ << >> == != > < >= <=

, . ,
, =, &&, ||, ??, ?:, =>, checked,
unchecked, new, typeof, default, as is.
( )
. , * *=.
7.16.2. , ( =)
.
.
, (T)x,
(6.4).
, a[x], , .
(10.9).
,
.

. op ,
. op ++ -- .
op , .

144

op x

operator op(x)

x op

operator op(x)

x op y

operator op(x, y)

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .


, . ,
, .
,
. , / , ,
.
,
, . ,
operator ==
.
7.5-7.11
, .
,
, .
7.2.3
op x x op, op , , x
X, .

7.2.5 -,
X operator op(x).

- ,
- . -
operator op,
.
(7.5 7.6).

, (x),
- 7.4.3,
.
,
.

7.2.4
x op y, op , , x
X, y Y, .
-, X Y
operator op(x, y). -,
X, -, Y.
7.2.5. X Y
X Y ,
- .

- ,
- . -
operator op,
.
(7.7-7.11).

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

145

, (x, y),
- 7.4.3,
.
,
.

7.2.5 -
T operator op(A), op , , A
, -, T
operator op(A), .

T0. T null, T0 ,
T0 T.

operator op T0 ,
A (7.4.3.1),
- T0.

, T0 object, - .

-, T0, , T0
T0, T0 .

7.2.6

.
,
. ,
.

*:
int operator *(int x, int y);
uint operator *(uint x, uint y);
long operator *(long x, long y);
ulong operator *(ulong x, ulong y);
float operator *(float x, float y);
double operator *(double x, double y);
decimal operator *(decimal x, decimal y);

(7.4.3)
, . ,
b * s, b byte, s short, operator *(int,
int). , b s int, int.
i * d, i int, d double, operator
*(double, double).


+, ~.
sbyte, byte, short, ushort char int. ,
uint
long.
146

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .



+, , *, /, %, &, |, ^, ==, !=, >, <, >= <=.
. ,
, .
.

decimal, decimal,
float double, .

, double, double.

, float, float.

, ulong, ulong,
sbyte, short, int long,
.

, long, long.

, uint, sbyte, short int,


long.

, uint, uint.

int.

, ,
decimal double float. ,
decimal double float .
, ulong,
. , ,
ulong .
,
, .

decimal AddPercent(decimal x, double percent) {
return x * (1.0 + percent / 100.0);
}

, decimal
double.
decimal, .:
decimal AddPercent(decimal x, double percent) {
return x * (decimal)(1.0 + percent / 100.0);
}

7.2.7
,
, .
,
, .

+ ++ - -- ! ~
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

147

,
.
? .
null, null.
,
.

.
+ - * / % & | ^ << >>

,
.
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null, null (
& | bool?, . 7.10.3).
,
.


== !=

,
, bool.
? .
null, null .
null,
bool .


< > <= >=

,
, bool.
? .
false, null.
bool
.

7.3
, .
_ (7.5.2)
__ (7.5.4) . _ __
_ _ (7.5.5.1), , .
,
(15), , .
, ,
, , .

, .
N K T .

148

N.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

T ,
N ,
(10.1.5) T, N object.

(3.5) N T,
N object. T
, ,
10.3.2. override.

, K , ,
. K , .
, K , ,
(7.4.2) .

, , __ .

, . S.M ,
S , M, .
o

M , , , ,
, S.

M , S
, , ,
M, S.

M , S ,
.

, . ,
T T ,
object, (10.1.5). S.M
, S , M, , S
, object.
o

M , , , ,
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M , ,
,
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, .
o

, ,
.

, , .

, .

, ,
(
)

.
. ,
, 13.2.5.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

149

7.3.1
, T :

T object, .

T _, T System.Enum,
System.ValueType object.

T _, T System.ValueType
object.

T _, T T,
object.

T _, T T
object.

T _, T System.Array object.

T _, T System.Delegate
object.

7.4 -
- , . -
. C#
-:

( )
- -. -.
(7.4.1) -
-.
, ,
, - .
7.4.3.
- (,
), -
7.4.4.
,
-, . e, x, y value
150

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

, T , F ,
P .

F(x, y)

F
.
(x, y).
static,
this.

T.F(x, y)

F
T .
static,
.
(x, y).

e.F(x, y)

F ,
, e
.
static,
.
e (x, y).


get P. P
, .
static,
this.

P = value


set P (value).
P ,
.
static, this.

T.P

T get
P. P static
,
.

T.P = value

T set
P (value). P
static ,
.

e.P

, ,
e, get P
e. P static
,
.

e.P = value

, ,
e, set P
e (value).
P static ,
.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

151

E += value


add E. E
static, this.

E -= value


remove E. E
static, this.

T.E += value

T add
E. E static,
.

T.E -= value

T
remove E. E
static, .

e.E += value

, ,
e, add E
e. E static,
.

e.E -= value

, ,
e, remove E
e. E
static, .

e[x, y]

,
, e,
.
get e
(x, y).
,
.

e[x, y] =
value

,
, e,
.
set e
(x, y, value).
,
.

-x


, x,
.
(x).

x+y


, x y,
.
(x, y).

new T(x, y)


T
.
(x, y).

152

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

7.4.1
- ,
-.
- -.

,
_, .

get ,
, set.

,
+= -=.

,
. set
,
.

(10.7), (10.8) (10.10)


(10.6.1.1).
(10.9) (10.6.1.1)
(10.6.1.4). -
.
,
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out
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, , (10.6.1.1).

ref, __ (5.4), ,
(10.6.1.2).
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__ (5.4), ,
(10.6.1.3). -,
, (5.3).

- (7.4.4)
.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

153


(6.1) .
-.


,
-. , ,
_, ,
. ,
System.ArrayTypeMismatchException.

,
(10.6.1.4). - ,
, (7.4.3.1):

- ,
, (6.1)
.
.

- ,
,
, (6.1)
.
, ,

.

. ,
class Test
{
static void F(int x, int y, int z) {
System.Console.WriteLine("x = {0}, y = {1}, z = {2}", x, y, z);
}
static void Main() {
int i = 0;
F(i++, i++, i++);
}
}


x = 0, y = 1, z = 2

(12.5) A[]
B[], B A.
, _ ,
,
.
class Test
{
static void F(ref object x) {...}

154

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

static void Main() {


object[] a = new object[10];
object[] b = new string[10];
F(ref a[0]);
// Ok
F(ref b[1]);
// ArrayTypeMismatchException
}

F System.ArrayTypeMismatchException,
b string, object.
- ,
,
(7.5.10.4). ,
void F(int x, int y, params object[] args);


F(10, 20);
F(10, 20, 30, 40);
F(10, 20, 1, "hello", 3.0);


F(10, 20, new object[] {});
F(10, 20, new object[] {30, 40});
F(10, 20, new object[] {1, "hello", 3.0});

, , ,
.
7.4.2

.

. ,
class Chooser
{
static Random rand = new Random();

public static T Choose<T>(T first, T second) {


return (rand.Next(2) == 0)? first: second;
}

Choose :
int i = Chooser.Choose(5, 213);

// Choose<int>

string s = Chooser.Choose("foo", "bar");

// Choose<string>

int string .

(7.5.5.1)
.
,
. ,
.
,
.
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

155

, .
. ,
.
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. ,

Tr M<X1Xn>(T1 x1 Tm xm)

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7.4.2.13.

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156

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T.

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Xj, Ek Tk Xj Ek Tk, Xi
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Tb T1Tk Tb,
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U Tb .

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.


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V1Vk, Ui (7.4.2.8)
Ui Vi.

U V .
V Xi, U Xi.

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Ue Ve.

, V C<V1Vk> U
C<U1Uk>, Ui Vi.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

157


U V .

V Xi, U Xi.

, U Ue[] V Ve[] ,
U Ue[] V
IEnumerable<Ve>, ICollection<Ve> IList<Ve>,
o

, Ue , Ue Ve
;

Ue Ve.

, V C<V1Vk>
U1Uk, U C<U1Uk>,
Ui Vi.

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Uj Xi.

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Uj,
U.

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F
.
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.
.

F , F
.

F ,
return T (7.4.2.13), F T.

E .

Select,
System.Linq.Enumerable:

158

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
namespace System.Linq
{
public static class Enumerable
{
public static IEnumerable<TResult> Select<TSource,TResult>(
this IEnumerable<TSource> source,
Func<TSource,TResult> selector)
{
foreach (TSource element in source) yield return selector(element);
}
}
}

, System.Linq using
Customer Name string.
Select:
List<Customer> customers = GetCustomerList();
IEnumerable<string> names = customers.Select(c => c.Name);

(7.5.5.2) Select
:
IEnumerable<string> names = Enumerable.Select(customers, c => c.Name);

,
. customers source, T Customer.
c
Customer, c.Name selector,
S string. ,
Sequence.Select<Customer,string>(customers, (Customer c) => c.Name)

IEnumerable<string>.
,
.
static Z F<X,Y,Z>(X value, Func<X,Y> f1, Func<Y,Z> f2) {
return f2(f1(value));
}


double seconds = F("1:15:30", s => TimeSpan.Parse(s), t => t.TotalSeconds);

. 1:15:30 value,
X string. s
string, TimeSpan.Parse(s) f1, Y
System.TimeSpan. , t
System.TimeSpan, t.TotalSeconds
f2, Z double. , double.

,
M, , D (6.6).

Tr M<X1Xn>(T1 x1 Tm xm)

M D,
S1Sn, :
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

159

M<S1Sn>

(15.1) D.
,
, . , , ,
.
Xi ,
Uj D Tj M. - Xi
, . Xi Si,
.

. ,

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E1Em
Tr M<X>(X x1 X xm)

Ei .
, X.
Ei X. , X S
.
7.4.3

- . -
C#:

, _ (7.5.5.1);

, __ (7.5.10.1);

__ (7.5.6);

, (7.2.3
7.2.4).

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160

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7.4.3.2. -, , ,
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(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

-
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ref out)

(6.1)

, ref out,
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o

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(6.1)

, ref out,
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A { E1, E2, ..., EN }
- MP MQ { P1, P2, ..., PN } { Q1, Q2, ..., QN } MP
-, MQ,

EX QX EX
PX

EX PX EX QX.

MP MQ , PX QX
.

{P1, P2, , PN} {Q1, Q2, , QN} ,


- .

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

161

MP , MQ , MP
, MQ.

, MP , MQ params
, MP , MQ.

, MP , MQ, MP ,
MQ. , - params,
.

, MP , MQ, MP ,
MQ. {R1, R2, , RN} {S1, S2, , SN}
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, MQ, RX , SX,
RX , SX.
o

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C2, E T2,
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.

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.

E , T1 T2
(7.4.2.11)
E X:

T1 Y1, T2 Y2
X Y1 X Y2, C1 ;

T1 Y1, T2 Y2
X Y2 X Y1, C2 ;

T1 Y, T2 void, C1
;

162

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

T1 void, T2 Y, C2
.
.


C1, S T1, C2,
S T2, .

T1 T2 , .

S T1, C1.

S T2, C2.

T1 T2 T2
T1, C1.

T2 T1 T1
T2, C2.

T1 sbyte T2 byte, ushort, uint ulong,


C1.

T2 sbyte T1 byte, ushort, uint ulong,


C2.

T1 short T2 ushort, uint ulong, C1.

T2 short T1 ushort, uint ulong, C2.

T1 int T2 uint ulong, C1.

T2 int T1 uint ulong, C2.

T1 long T2 ulong, C1.

T2 long T1 ulong, C2.

, ,
. , ,
6 short , 6 ushort,
short ushort.


,
. ,
, .

:
interface I1<T> {...}

interface I2<T> {...}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

163

class G1<U>
{
int F1(U u);
int F1(int i);

void F2(I1<U> a);


void F2(I2<U> a);

class G2<U,V>
{
void F3(U u, V v);
void F3(V v, U u);
void F4(U u, I1<V> v);
void F4(I1<V> v, U u);

// G<int>.F1
//
//

// ,
// G2<int,int>.F3
// ,
// G2<I1<int>,int>.F4

void F5(U u1, I1<V> v2);//


void F5(V v1, U u2);
void F6(ref U u);
void F6(out V v);

//

7.4.4 -
,
-. ,
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this, E .

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164

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

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this.
M - , _

E. ,
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E _, (4.3) E
object. , E object. M
System.Object.

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System.NullReferenceException .

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7.5

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

165

:
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this
base





typeof
checked
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object o = new int[3][1];


object o = (new int[3])[1];

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_ , :
:

_ I I<A1, ..., AK>, I , <A1, ...,
AK> __. __ ,
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K _
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166

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

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_ ,
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____ ,
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(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

167

, , _using_namespace
, I K
, _ .

,
____ (3.8).

_ .


_
_
(8.2) _switch (8.7.2)
. ,
.

class Test
{
double x;
void F(bool b) {
x = 1.0;
if (b) {
int x;
x = 1;
}
}
}

, x
( if). ,
class Test
{
double x;

void F(bool b) {
if (b) {
x = 1.0;
}
else {
int x;
x = 1;
}
}

, x .
, .

(7.5.4). :
struct Point
{
int x, y;

168

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

public Point(int x, int y) {


this.x = x;
this.y = y;
}


. x y ,
this.x this.y .
7.5.3
__ , .

( )
__ .
, ,
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.
7.5.4
___ _, _
__, . .
__.

.
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:
bool
byte
object sbyte

char
short

decimal
uint

float
int
ulong
ushort

long

__ 9.7.
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__ , , K .
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K , E E I,
.

, E , E I K
, , .

E _ _,
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I , ,
.

I ,
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(7.5.5.1).

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

169

I static,
.

I static,


, , , ,
I E.

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E , T
I (7.3) T K , E.I
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(7.5.5.1).

I ,
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170

E null, System.NullReferenceException.

,
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T _ I _,

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I ,

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

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E.

E.I (7.5.5.2).
, E.I
.


E.I, E , E
_ (7.5.2) , , ,
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E.I , I
E. ,
E,
. :
struct Color
{
public static readonly Color White = new Color(...);
public static readonly Color Black = new Color(...);
public Color Complement() {...}
}
class A
{
public Color Color;

// Color Color

void F() {
Color = Color.Black;
// Color.Black
Color = Color.Complement();
// Complement() Color
}

static void G() {


Color c = Color.White;
}

// Color.White

A Color, Color, ,
Color, .

_ (7.5.2) ___ (7.5.4)
. ,
F(G<A,B>(7));

F , G < A B > (7).


F ,
G .

( ) _ (7.5.2),
___ (7.5.4) ____ (18.5.2),
__ (4.4.1), ,
>.
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

171

( ) ] } : ; , . ? == !=

__ _, ___
____,
. __ _,
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F(G<A,B>(7));

F ,
G
.
F(G < A, B > 7);
F(G < A, B >> 7);

F .
x = F < A > +y;

, ,
x = (F < A) > (+y), _
__, .
x = y is C<T> + z;

C<T> ____
__.
7.5.5
_ .

( )
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(7.5.5.1). _ _,
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, _, .
_ (7.4.1)
.
_ .

_ , void,
. , ,
_ (8.6).

, .


___ .
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172

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

M(A), M (,
__), A _,
.

- . F,
M
o

F , F , :

F A (7.4.3.1).

F , M , F
, :

(7.4.2),
,


F
(4.4.4), F A (7.4.3.1).

F , M , F
, :

F ,
,


F (4.4.4),
F A (7.4.3.1).

- .
C.F , C , F, ,
C . , C ,
object, , .
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.)

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-
7.4.3. ,
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(
) .

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

173

.
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__.
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,
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7.4.4.
, , .
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(7.5.5.1)
. ( )
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(. ), .

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Ci Mj ,

174

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .


(. ), .


, .

, (7.4.3).
, .

C , .

C (7.4.4).

,
, , ,
,
, , ,
,
. :
public static class E
{
public static void F(this object obj, int i) { }
}

public static void F(this object obj, string s) { }

class A { }
class B
{
public void F(int i) { }
}
class C
{
public void F(object obj) { }
}
class X
{
static void Test(A a, B b, C c) {
a.F(1);
// E.F(object, int)
a.F("hello");
// E.F(object, string)

b.F(1);
b.F("hello");

// B.F(int)
// E.F(object, string)

c.F(1);
c.F("hello");

// C.F(object)
// C.F(object)

B , C
.

public static class C


{
public static void F(this int i) { Console.WriteLine("C.F({0})", i); }
public static void G(this int i) { Console.WriteLine("C.G({0})", i); }
public static void H(this int i) { Console.WriteLine("C.H({0})", i); }
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

175

namespace N1
{
public static class D
{
public static void F(this int i) { Console.WriteLine("D.F({0})", i); }
public static void G(this int i) { Console.WriteLine("D.G({0})", i); }
}
}
namespace N2
{
using N1;
public static class E
{
public static void F(this int i) { Console.WriteLine("E.F({0})", i); }
}

class Test
{
static void Main(string[] args)
{
1.F();
2.G();
3.H();
}
}

:
E.F(1)
D.G(2)
C.H(3)
D.G C.G, E.F D.F C.F.


___ _.
, , _ -
, _, (7.4.3.1)
___.
D(A), D
___, A _,
.

D. ,
.

D. D null,
System.NullReferenceException .

D . - (7.4.4)
. ,
, ,
.

176

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

7.5.6
___ _____,
[ _, ]. _
, .
:
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:

,
_____, ___
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(7.5.6.1). _____,
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_____,
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int, uint, long, ulong , .
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P[A], P
_____, _, A
_, .
P. ,
.

_ .
(6.1)
: int, uint, long, ulong. ,
. , short,
int, short
int short long.
,
.

P. P null,
System.NullReferenceException .

_
, P.
,
System.IndexOutOfRangeException .

, ,
.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

177


_____
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P[A], P
_____, , T,
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, T. ,
T T ,
(3.4.7).

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S.I , S , I,
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- ,
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7.4.3. ,
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_ .
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__get
__set . ,
__set (7.16.1).
__get (7.1.1).
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_this this.
this:
this

_this ,
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this _ ,
. (10.3.1) ,
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this _
, .

178

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

(10.3.1) , ,
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this _ ,
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this , out
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(10.3.1), .
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this _ , ,
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7.5.8 base
_base base, .
, _, :
base
base .
base [ ]

_base ,
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, base[E] ,
.
_base base.I base[E] ,
((B)this).I ((B)this)[E], B
, . , base.I base[E]
this.I this[E] , this
.

_base - (,
), - (7.4.4) .
- (10.6.3)
- B ( this ,
, base). ,
- _base
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, .

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

179

7.5.9
:
++
:
- ,
, .
, .

, get set.
.

(7.2.3). ++ -- : sbyte, byte, short, ushort,
int, uint, long, ulong, char, float, double, decimal .
++ , 1 , --
, 1 . checked

, System.OverflowException.
x++ x- .

x , :
o

x .

x .

x .

, , ,
x.

x .

x , :
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), x,
get set.

get x, .

x .

set x ,
value.

x .

++ -- (7.6.5). x++ x- x , ++x --x x .


x .
++ -- .
.

180

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

7.5.10 new
new .
new:

new ,
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.

__ _
_.
:
new ( )
new
:


__ _, _
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_ (7.4.1) , _
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_ _, A _,
.

T _ A .
o

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o

__ .
__ T, T ,
4.1.1.
T (10.1.5),
.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

181

__ ,
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T _ abstract, .


7.4.3.
, T, A (7.4.3.1).

, .

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T _:
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- (7.4.4) .
,
this.


.
:
{ }
{ , }


,
:
=

182

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .


,
{ } .
,
.
.
.
, , ,
(7.16.1) .
, ,
, .

.
,
.
, ,
.
, , ,
. ,
7.5.10.3.
.
public class Point
{
int x, y;
public int X { get { return x; } set { x = value; } }
public int Y { get { return y; } set { y = value; } }
}

Point :
Point a = new Point { X = 0, Y = 1 };


Point __a = new Point();
__a.X = 0;
__a.Y = 1;
Point a = __a;

__a .
, :
public class Rectangle
{
Point p1, p2;

public Point P1 { get { return p1; } set { p1 = value; } }


public Point P2 { get { return p2; } set { p2 = value; } }

Rectangle :

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

183

Rectangle r = new Rectangle {


P1 = new Point { X = 0, Y = 1 },
P2 = new Point { X = 2, Y = 3 }
};


Rectangle __r = new Rectangle();
Point __p1 = new Point();
__p1.X = 0;
__p1.Y = 1;
__r.P1 = __p1;
Point __p2 = new Point();
__p2.X = 2;
__p2.Y = 3;
__r.P2 = __p2;
Rectangle r = __r;

__r, __p1 __p2 ,


.
Rectangle Point
public class Rectangle
{
Point p1 = new Point();
Point p2 = new Point();
public Point P1 { get { return p1; } }
public Point P2 { get { return p2; } }
}

Point
:
Rectangle r = new Rectangle {
P1 = { X = 0, Y = 1 },
P2 = { X = 2, Y = 3 }
};


Rectangle __r = new Rectangle();
__r.P1.X = 0;
__r.P1.Y = 1;
__r.P2.X = 2;
__r.P2.Y = 3;
Rectangle r = __r;


.
:
{ }
{ , }


,

184

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

:

{ }
,
{ } . ,
, ,
{ } .
, ,
. __
7.17.
, :
List<int> digits = new List<int> { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 };

, , ,
System.Collections.Ienumerable,
. Add
,
. ,
Add .
:
public class Contact
{
string name;
List<string> phoneNumbers = new List<string>();
public string Name { get { return name; } set { name = value; } }
}

public List<string> PhoneNumbers { get { return phoneNumbers; } }

List<Contact> :
var contacts = new List<Contact> {
new Contact {
Name = "Chris Smith",
PhoneNumbers = { "206-555-0101", "425-882-8080" }
},
new Contact {
Name = "Bob Harris",
PhoneNumbers = { "650-555-0199" }
}
};


var contacts = new List<Contact>();
Contact __c1 = new Contact();
__c1.Name = "Chris Smith";
__c1.PhoneNumbers.Add("206-555-0101");
__c1.PhoneNumbers.Add("425-882-8080");
contacts.Add(__c1);
Contact __c2 = new Contact();
__c2.Name = "Bob Harris";
__c2.PhoneNumbers.Add("650-555-0199");
contacts.Add(__c2);

__c1 __c2 , .
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

185


__ _.
:
new [ ]

new
new
,
. ,
new int[10, 20] int[,], new int[10][,]
int[][,]. int, uint,
long ulong , .

. ,
_
.
(18.1) .
,
, ,
, .

.

. ,
new int[,] {{0, 1}, {2, 3}, {4, 5}}


new int[3, 2] {{0, 1}, {2, 3}, {4, 5}}


. ,
, (7.4.2.13)
. ( _,
) , _.
12.6.
,
.
.

_ .
(6.1)
: int, uint, long, ulong. ,
.
,
.

.
,
System.OverflowException .

186

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

.
, System.OutOfMemoryException


(5.2).

,

.
, , ,
.
,
(,
).


, . ,

int[][] a = new int[100][];

100 int[].
null. ,

int[][] a = new int[100][5];

//

.
, .:
int[][] a = new int[100][];
for (int i = 0; i < 100; i++) a[i] = new int[5];

,
, .
101 100 . ,

int[,] = new int[100, 5];

, , .
.
var a = new[] { 1, 10, 100, 1000 };
var b = new[] { 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 };
var c = new[,] { { "hello", null }, { "world", "!" } };
var d = new[] { 1, "one", 2, "two" };

// int[]
// double[]
// string[,]
//

, int string
, .
, ,
object[]. ,
.


(7.5.10.6) :

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

187

var contacts = new[] {


new {
Name = "Chris Smith",
PhoneNumbers = new[] { "206-555-0101", "425-882-8080" }
},
new {
Name = "Bob Harris",
PhoneNumbers = new[] { "650-555-0199" }
}
};


__ _.
:
new ( )
,
_. , ,
, . ,
.
_, , .
__ new D(E), D
_, E , .

E , ,
(6.6) E D.

E , ,
(6.5) E D.

E , E (15.1) D,
D, , E.
E D, .

__ new D(E), D
_, E , .

E ,
(6.6) E D.

E ,
E D (6.5).

E _:
o

E. ,
.

E null, System.NullReferenceException
.

D.
, System.OutOfMemoryException

,
, E.

188

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .


.
.
(15.1) . .
, , , ,
, .
, ,
.
delegate double DoubleFunc(double x);
class A
{
DoubleFunc f = new DoubleFunc(Square);
static float Square(float x) {
return x * x;
}

static double Square(double x) {


return x * x;
}

A.f , Square,

DoubleFunc. Square , .

___ .
:
new

{ }
{ , }
:

,
:


=
.
, object.
,
, . ,

new { p1 = e1 , p2 = e2 , pn = en }

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

189

class __Anonymous1
{
private readonly T1 f1 ;
private readonly T2 f2 ;

private readonly Tn fn ;
public __Anonymous1(T1 a1, T2 a2,, Tn an) {
f1 = a1 ;
f2 = a2 ;

fn = an ;
}
public T1 p1 { get { return f1 ; } }
public T2 p2 { get { return f2 ; } }

public T1 p1 { get { return f1 ; } }

public override bool Equals(object o) { }


public override int GetHashCode() { }

Tx ex. ,
_, . _ null
, .
, .
,
.
,
,
.

var p1 = new { Name = "Lawnmower", Price = 495.00 };
var p2 = new { Name = "Shovel", Price = 26.95 };
p1 = p2;

, p1 p2 .
Equals GetHashcode ,
object, Equals GetHashcode ,
.
(7.5.2) (7.5.4).

. ,

:
=

= .

, ,
, .
, .

190

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

7.5.11 typeof
typeof System.Type .
typeof
typeof ( )
typeof ( )
typeof ( void )

:

::
.
:
< >
:
,

,
_typeof typeof, .
System.Type .
System.Type. , T
typeof(T) == typeof(T).
_typeof typeof,
__ . __ _ (3.8)
, __ __,
_ __. _typeof
, __
_, __,
__, _.
__ .

_
__ __
object, _.

_ , .

__ ,
(4.4.3).

_typeof System.Type
.
_typeof typeof,
void . System.Type,
. , typeof(void), ,
.
, ,
, , void,
System.Type.

typeof . System.Type
, . typeof
(4.4.3).
System.Type System.Type
. ,
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

191

System.Type ,
.

using System;
class X<T>
{
public static void PrintTypes() {
Type[] t = {
typeof(int),
typeof(System.Int32),
typeof(string),
typeof(double[]),
typeof(void),
typeof(T),
typeof(X<T>),
typeof(X<X<T>>),
typeof(X<>)
};
for (int i = 0; i < t.Length; i++) {
Console.WriteLine(t[i]);
}
}
}
class Test
{
static void Main() {
X<int>.PrintTypes();
}
}


System.Int32
System.Int32
System.String
System.Double[]
System.Void
System.Int32
X`1[System.Int32]
X`1[X`1[System.Int32]]
X`1[T]

, int System.Int32 .
, typeof(X<>) ,
typeof(X<T>) .
7.5.12 checked unchecked
checked unchecked
.
checked:
checked ( )
unchecked:
unchecked ( )
192

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

checked ,
unchecked . _checked _unchecked
__ (7.5.3) ,
.
checked
unchecked (8.11).
, checked
unchecked, .

++ -- (7.5.9 7.6.5), .

(7.6.2), .

+, -, *, / (7.7), .

(6.2.1) float
double .


, .

checked (7.18),
. ,
System.OverflowException.

unchecked ,
.

(, ),
checked unchecked,
unchecked, (,
) checked.
(, )
checked.
unchecked, ,

.
checked unchecked,
.

class Test
{
static readonly int x = 1000000;
static readonly int y = 1000000;
static int F() {
return checked(x * y);
}

// OverflowException

static int G() {


return unchecked(x * y); // -727379968
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

193

static int H() {


return x * y;
}

//

,
. F System.OverflowException,
G 727379968 ( 32 , ).
H ,
, F, G.

class Test
{
const int x = 1000000;
const int y = 1000000;
static int F() {
return checked(x * y);
}

// ,

static int G() {


return unchecked(x * y); // -727379968
}
static int H() {
return x * y;
}

// ,

, F H,
, checked.
G ,
unchecked, .
checked unchecked ,
( ). , .
class Test
{
static int Multiply(int x, int y) {
return x * y;
}
static int F() {
return checked(Multiply(1000000, 1000000));
}
}

checked F x * y Multiply, x * y
.
unchecked
. :
class Test
{
public const int AllBits = unchecked((int)0xFFFFFFFF);
}
194

public const int HighBit = unchecked((int)0x80000000);

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

uint.
int, unchecked int
.
checked unchecked
.
. ,
unchecked.

checked. ,
, .
7.5.13
(5.2) .
,
, . (
, null .)
:
default ( )
___ ,
null, .
___ ,
_ (4.1.2).
___ (7.18),
, (10.1.5). ,
__ ,
: sbyte, byte, short, ushort, int, uint, long, ulong, char, float, double,
decimal, bool .
7.5.14
__
. 7.14.

7.6
+, -, !, ~, ++, -- .
:

+
-
!
~



7.6.1

+x ,
(7.2.3). ,
. c
:
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

195

int operator +(int x);


uint operator +(uint x);
long operator +(long x);
ulong operator +(ulong x);
float operator +(float x);
double operator +(double x);
decimal operator +(decimal x);

.
7.6.2
-x ,
(7.2.3). ,
. c
:

:
int operator (int x);
long operator (long x);

x . x
(231 int 263 long),
. checked,
System.OverflowException. unchecked,
.
uint, long
long. ,
int 2147483648 (231) (2.4.4.2).
ulong,
. , long
9223372036854775808 (263) (2.4.4.2).

:
float operator (float x);
double operator (double x);

x . x NaN,
NaN.

:
decimal operator (decimal x);

x .
System.Decimal.
7.6.3
!x ,
(7.2.3). ,
.
:
bool operator !(bool x);

. true,
false. false, true.
196

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

7.6.4
~x ,
(7.2.3). ,
.
:
int operator ~(int x);
uint operator ~(uint x);
long operator ~(long x);
ulong operator ~(ulong x);

x.
E :
E operator ~(E x);

~x, x E U,
(E) (~(U)x).
7.6.5
:
++
:
--
,
, .
, .

, get set.
.

(7.2.3). ++ -- : sbyte, byte, short, ushort, int, uint,
long, ulong, char, float, double, decimal . ++
, 1 , -- ,
1 . checked

, System.OverflowException.
++x --x
.

x , :
o

x .

x .

, , ,
x.

, , .
x , :

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

197

( x static) ( x
), x,
get set.

get x.

,
get.

set x ,
value.

, , .

++ -- (7.5.9). x++ x- x , ++x --x x .


x .
++ -- .
.
7.6.6
__ .
:
( )
__ (T)E, T , E _,
(6.2) E T. E T ,
. ,
. , E .
__ . ,
(x)y __ (y x)
_ __ ( x y).
__ .
(2.3.3),
__, .

, .

, ,
, ~, !, (, (2.4.1),
(2.4.4) (2.4.3) as is.

,
.
- . , x y
, x.y , x.y
.
, x y , (x)y, (x)(y)
(x)(-y) __, (x)-y , x .
x , (, int),
__ (
).

198

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

7.7
*, /, %, + .
:

*
/
%
:

+

7.7.1
x * y ,
(7.2.4).
, .
. x y.

:
int operator *(int x, int y);
uint operator *(uint x, uint y);
long operator *(long x, long y);
ulong operator *(ulong x, ulong y);

checked
, System.OverflowException. unchecked
, ,
, .


float operator *(float x, float y);
double operator *(double x, double y);

IEEE 754.
, ,
NaN z x * y.
, z . , z
.

+y

+0

NaN

+x

+z

+0

NaN

+z

+0

NaN

+0

+0

+0

NaN

NaN

NaN

+0

+0

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

.
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

199

decimal operator *(decimal x, decimal y);

decimal,
System.OverflowException.
decimal, .
.

System.Decimal.
7.7.2
x / y ,
(7.2.4).
, .
. x y.

:
int operator /(int x, int y);
uint operator /(uint x, uint y);
long operator /(long x, long y);
ulong operator /(ulong x, ulong y);

,
System.DivideByZeroException.
,
, .
, , ,
.
int long,
1, . checked
System.ArithmeticException ( ). unchecked
System.ArithmeticException ( )
( )
.

:
float operator /(float x, float y);
double operator /(double x, double y);

IEEE 754.
, ,
NaN z x / y.
, z . , z
.

200

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

+y

+0

NaN

+x

+z

+0

NaN

+z

+0

NaN

+0

+0

NaN

NaN

+0

NaN

+0

NaN

NaN

+0

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

:
decimal operator /(decimal x, decimal y);

,
System.DivideByZeroException.
decimal, System.OverflowException.
decimal,
. ,
.
System.Decimal.
7.7.3
x % y ,
(7.2.4).
, .
. x y.

:
int operator %(int x, int y);
uint operator %(uint x, uint y);
long operator %(long x, long y);
ulong operator %(ulong x, ulong y);

x % y x (x / y) * y. y ,
System.DivideByZeroException.
int long, -1,
System.OverflowException. x / y , x % y
.

:
float operator %(float x, float y);
double operator %(double x, double y);

,
, NaN z x % y x n *
y, n , x / y.
, ,
IEEE 754 ( n , x / y).

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

201

+y

+0

NaN

+x

+z

+z

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

+0

+0

+0

NaN

NaN

+0

+0

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

:
decimal operator %(decimal x, decimal y);

,
System.DivideByZeroException.
, ( ) x.

System.Decimal.
7.7.4
x + y ,
(7.2.4).
, .
.
.
,
.

:
int operator +(int x, int y);
uint operator +(uint x, uint y);
long operator +(long x, long y);
ulong operator +(ulong x, ulong y);

checked ,
System.OverflowException. unchecked
, , ,
.

:
float operator +(float x, float y);
double operator +(double x, double y);

IEEE 754.

, , NaN x y
, z x + y. x y ,
, z . x + y
, z , x +
y.
202

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

+0

NaN

NaN

+0

+0

+0

NaN

+0

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

:
decimal operator +(decimal x, decimal y);

decimal,
System.OverflowException.
.

System.Decimal.

.
, E , U
E:
E operator +(E x, U y);
E operator +(U x, E y);

(E)((U)x + (U)y).

:
string operator +(string x, string y);
string operator +(string x, object y);
string operator +(object x, string y);

+ , string.
null, .

ToString, bject. ToString null,
.
using System;
class Test
{
static void Main() {
string s = null;
Console.WriteLine("s = >" + s + "<");
int i = 1;
Console.WriteLine("i = " + i);
float f = 1.2300E+15F;
Console.WriteLine("f = " + f);
decimal d = 2.900m;
Console.WriteLine("d = " + d);
}
}

// s = ><
// i = 1
// f = 1.23E+15
// d = 2.900

, ,
.
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

203

null.
System.OutOfMemoryException.

.
, D :
D operator +(D x, D y);

+ ,
D. ( , .)
null, (
null). , null,
. ,
, .
. 7.7.5 15.4. System.Delegate ,
+ .
7.7.5
x y, ,
(7.2.4).
, .
. y x.

:
int operator (int x, int y);
uint operator (uint x, uint y);
long operator (long x, long y);
ulong operator (ulong x, ulong y);

checked ,
System.OverflowException. unchecked
, , ,
.

:
float operator (float x, float y);
double operator (double x, double y);

IEEE 754.

, , NaN x y
, z x - y. x y , z
. x - y , z
, x - y.

204

+0

NaN

NaN

+0

+0

+0

NaN

+0

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

NaN

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

.
decimal operator (decimal x, decimal y);

decimal,
System.OverflowException.
.

System.Decimal.

.
, E , U
E:
U operator (E x, E y);

(U)((U)x (U)y). ,
x y,
.
E operator (E x, U y);

(E)((U)x y). ,
, .

.
, D :
D operator (D x, D y);

- ,
D. , .
null, null. ,
null, .
(15.1) ,
, ,
,
. (
, (7.9.8).)
.
.
,
. , null.
:
delegate void D(int x);

class C
{
public static void M1(int i) { /* */ }
public static void M2(int i) { /* */ }
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

205

class Test
{
static void Main() {
D cd1 = new D(C.M1);
D cd2 = new D(C.M2);
D cd3 = cd1 + cd2 + cd2 + cd1;
cd3 -= cd1;

// M1 + M2 + M2 + M1
// => M1 + M2 + M2

cd3 = cd1 + cd2 + cd2 + cd1;


cd3 -= cd1 + cd2;

// M1 + M2 + M2 + M1
// => M2 + M1

cd3 = cd1 + cd2 + cd2 + cd1;


cd3 -= cd2 + cd2;

// M1 + M2 + M2 + M1
// => M1 + M1

cd3 = cd1 + cd2 + cd2 + cd1;


cd3 -= cd2 + cd1;

// M1 + M2 + M2 + M1
// => M1 + M2

cd3 = cd1 + cd2 + cd2 + cd1;


cd3 -= cd1 + cd1;

// M1 + M2 + M2 + M1
// => M1 + M2 + M2 + M1

7.8
<< >> .
:

<<

x << x >> , ,
(7.2.4).
,
.

, , int.
.

:
int operator <<(int x, int count);
uint operator <<(uint x, int count);
long operator <<(long x, int count);
ulong operator <<(ulong x, int count);

<< x ,
.
x ,
, .


int operator >>(int x, int count);
uint operator >>(uint x, int count);
long operator >>(long x, int count);
ulong operator >>(ulong x, int count);

>> x ,
.
206

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

x int long, x ,
, , x
, , x .
x uint ulong, x ,
, .
.

x int uint, .
, & 0x1F.

x long ulong, .
, & 0x3F.

, x.

checked unchecked.
>> ,
, ( )
. >> ,
, .

. , x int, unchecked((int)((uint)x
>> y)) x .

7.9
==, !=, <, >, <=, >=, is as .
:






<
>
<=
>=
is
as

:

==
!=
is 7.9.10, as 7.9.11.
==, !=, <, >, <= >= . x op y, op
, ,
(7.2.4). ,
.

.
bool, .

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

207

x == y

true, x y, false

x != y

true, x y, false

x<y

true, x y, false

x>y

true, x y, false

x <= y

true, x y, false

x >= y

true, x y, false

7.9.1
:
bool
bool
bool
bool

operator
operator
operator
operator

==(int x, int y);


==(uint x, uint y);
==(long x, long y);
==(ulong x, ulong y);

bool
bool
bool
bool

operator
operator
operator
operator

!=(int x, int y);


!=(uint x, uint y);
!=(long x, long y);
!=(ulong x, ulong y);

bool
bool
bool
bool

operator
operator
operator
operator

<(int x, int y);


<(uint x, uint y);
<(long x, long y);
<(ulong x, ulong y);

bool
bool
bool
bool

operator
operator
operator
operator

>(int x, int y);


>(uint x, uint y);
>(long x, long y);
>(ulong x, ulong y);

bool
bool
bool
bool

operator
operator
operator
operator

<=(int x, int y);


<=(uint x, uint y);
<=(long x, long y);
<=(ulong x, ulong y);

bool
bool
bool
bool

operator
operator
operator
operator

>=(int x, int y);


>=(uint x, uint y);
>=(long x, long y);
>=(ulong x, ulong y);


bool, , .
7.9.2
:
bool operator ==(float x, float y);
bool operator ==(double x, double y);
bool operator !=(float x, float y);
bool operator !=(double x, double y);
bool operator <(float x, float y);
bool operator <(double x, double y);

208

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
bool operator >(float x, float y);
bool operator >(double x, double y);
bool operator <=(float x, float y);
bool operator <=(double x, double y);
bool operator >=(float x, float y);
bool operator >=(double x, double y);

IEEE 754.

- , false,
!=, true. x
!= y , !(x == y).
, <, >, <=, >= ,
. , x y , x < y
false, !(x >= y) true.

,

< . < ... < . < 0.0 == +0.0 < +. < ... < +. < +

. . ,
.
.
o

,
.

,
.

7.9.3
:
bool operator ==(decimal x, decimal y);
bool operator !=(decimal x, decimal y);
bool operator <(decimal x, decimal y);
bool operator >(decimal x, decimal y);
bool operator <=(decimal x, decimal y);
bool operator >=(decimal x, decimal y);


bool, , .

System.Decimal.
7.9.4
:
bool operator ==(bool x, bool y);
bool operator !=(bool x, bool y);

== true, x y true false.


, false.
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

209

!== false, x y true false.


true. bool, !=
, ^.
7.9.5
:
bool operator ==(E x, E y);
bool operator !=(E x, E y);
bool operator <(E x, E y);
bool operator >(E x, E y);
bool operator <=(E x, E y);
bool operator >=(E x, E y);

x op y, x y E U,
op , ((U)x) op ((U)y).
,
.
7.9.6
:
bool operator ==(object x, object y);
bool operator !=(object x, object y);

.

object, , operator ==
operator !=. ,
.

.

_ null. ,
(6.3.1).

T, T _,
null. , T .

- , .
.

, ,

. , A B
A, B ,
. , .


. ,
.

210

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

,
.

T null T
, false.

,
null.
class C<T>
{
void F(T x) {
if (x == null) throw new ArgumentNullException();
...
}
}

x == null , T ,
false, T .
x == y x != y operator == operator !=,
(7.2.4)
.
,
object.
using System;
class Test
{
static void Main() {
string s = "Test";
string t = string.Copy(s);
Console.WriteLine(s == t);
Console.WriteLine((object)s == t);
Console.WriteLine(s == (object)t);
Console.WriteLine((object)s == (object)t);
}
}


True
False
False
False

s t string,
True, string
(7.9.7).
False, object
.

, .

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

211

class Test
{
static void Main() {
int i = 123;
int j = 123;
System.Console.WriteLine((object)i == (object)j);
}
}

False,
int.
7.9.7
:
bool operator ==(string x, string y);
bool operator !=(string x, string y);

string , :

null;

, .
, ,
. 7.9.6,
.
7.9.8
:
bool operator ==(System.Delegate x, System.Delegate y);
bool operator !=(System.Delegate x, System.Delegate y);

, .

null, , null.

, .

(15.1), ,
(
) .

, .


( ), .

,
__ ( )
( ) .

212

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

7.9.9 null
== != , ,
null, (
).

x == null

null == x

x != null

null != x

x , (7.2.4)
, HasValue x.
, !x.HasValue,
x.HasValue.
7.9.10 is
is ,
. E is T, E , T ,
, , E T
, .
.

E ,

E null E
E null, false.

D E .
o

E , D ,
E.

E , D .

E , D E.

D T .
o

T , true, D T , D
D T D
D T.

T , true, D T.

T , true, T D

false.

, is .
7.9.11 as
as
. (7.6.6) as
. , , null.

E as T E , T ,
, , . ,
.
.
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

213

E T (6.1.1),
(6.1.6), (6.1.7),
(6.2.4) (6.2.5).

E T .

E null.

E as T ,
E is T ? (T)(E) : (T)null

, E .
E as T,
.

, ,
as .

class X
{
public string F(object o) {
return o as string;
// OK,
}
public T G<T>(object o) where T: Attribute {
return o as T;
// , T
}

public U H<U>(object o) {
return o as U;
}

// , U

T G , . ,
U H , as H .

7.10
&, ^ | .
:

&
:

^
:

|
x op y, op ,
, (7.2.4).
,
.
.

214

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

7.10.1
:
int operator &(int x, int y);
uint operator &(uint x, uint y);
long operator &(long x, long y);
ulong operator &(ulong x, ulong y);
int operator |(int x, int y);
uint operator |(uint x, uint y);
long operator |(long x, long y);
ulong operator |(ulong x, ulong y);
int operator ^(int x, int y);
uint operator ^(uint x, uint y);
long operator ^(long x, long y);
ulong operator ^(ulong x, ulong y);

& AND , |
OR , ^
OR .
.
7.10.2
E
:
E operator &(E x, E y);
E operator |(E x, E y);
E operator ^(E x, E y);

x op y, x y E U,
op , (E) ((U)x op (U)y).
,
.
7.10.3
:
bool operator &(bool x, bool y);
bool operator |(bool x, bool y);
bool operator ^(bool x, bool y);

x & y true, x y true. ,


false.
x | y true, x y true. ,
false.
x ^ y true, x true, y false, x false, y true.
false. bool, ^
, !=.
7.10.4

bool? : true, false null,


, SQL.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

215

& | bool? SQL,


:
bool? operator &(bool? x, bool? y);
bool? operator |(bool? x, bool? y);


true, false null.
x

x&y

x|y

true

true

true

true

true

false

false

true

true

null

null

true

false

true

false

true

false

false

false

false

false

null

false

null

null

true

null

true

null

false

false

null

null

null

null

null

7.11
&& || .
.
:

&&
:

||
&& || & |.

x && y x & y, , y ,
x false.

x || y x | y, , y ,
x true.

x && y x || y (7.2.4),
x & y x | y.


, .

, (7.10.3)
(7.10.4), ,
7.11.1.

, ,
7.11.2.

216

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

.
,

. 7.11.2.
7.11.1
&& || bool ,
operator & operator |, bool,
.

x && y x ? y : false. , x
bool. , x true, y bool
. false.

x || y x ? true : y. , x
bool. , x true, true. y
bool .

7.11.2
&& || ,
operator & operator |, , T ,
.

T.
, AND OR
T T.

T operator true operator false.

- , .
&& || operator true
operator false :

x && y T.false(x) ? x : T.&(x, y), T.false(x)


operator false, T, T.&(x, y) &.
, x operator false,
, x false. , x false,
, x. y
operator & x
y, .

x || y T.true(x) ? x : T.|(x, y), T.true(x)


operator true, T, T.|(x, y) |.
, x operator true,
, x true. , x true,
, x. y
operator | x y,
.

x , y
, .
, operator true operator false, . 11.4.2.

7.12 null

?? null.
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

217

null:

|| null
null a ?? b , a .
a null, a ?? b a, b.
b , a null.
null , ,
. , a ?? b ?? c a ?? (b ?? c).
E1 ?? E2 ?? ... ?? EN , null, null,
null.
a ?? b ,
. a ?? b A0, A B, A a, B b (
, b ), A0 A, A ,
A . , a ?? b .

A ,
.

A b A0,
A0. a. a null, a
A0 . b
A0 .

, b A, A.
a. a null, a .
b A .

, b B A0 B,
B. a. a null, a
A0 ( A A0 ),
B . b .

a b .

7.13
?: . .
:
null
null ? :
b ? x : y b. , b true,
x . y
. x, y.
, ,
. , a ? b : c ? d : e a ? b : (c ? d : e).
?: ,
bool, , operator true.
, .
?: . X Y
.

218

X Y , .

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

, X Y (6.1), Y X ,
Y.

, Y X (6.1), X Y ,
X.

, .

b ? x : y .

b b:
o

b bool,
.

operator true,
b.

true, x
.

y
.

7.14
, .
,
.
. , ,
, ,
,
.
,
: _ __.
_ , __,
.
-:
=>
:
delegate
:


:
( )


,

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

219

:
ref
out

:
( )



,
:

=> , ( =) .
_ .
.
,
, ,
, (6.5).

.
( ) =>

:
=>
__
. , ,
,
out.
.
x => x + 1

// ,

x => { return x + 1; }

// ,

(int x) => x + 1

// ,

(int x) => { return x + 1; }

// ,

(x, y) => x * y

//

() => Console.WriteLine()

//

delegate (int x) { return x + 1; }

//

delegate { return 1 + 1; }

//

_ __
:

220

__ ,
.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

_ ,
__ .

_ ,
__ .

_ _,
__ (4.6).

7.14.1
__ ()
.
__. (3.7) ( )
(3.3). ,
, ,
__ _,
.
___,
,
. (6.6)
.
__,
, out.
, __
. __ ,
.
, , ,
(4.6).
7.14.2
( ) .
, , ,
. ,
(6.5), .

ref out,
, , ref out (
) .

this , this
. ( this.x) (. x, x
). ,
.

(7.14.4) .
,
_ __ (7.14.5).

goto, break continue,


,
.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

221

return
, -. , return,
,
_ __ (6.5).

, ,
- __. ,
, .
,
.
7.14.3
.
. 7.4.2.3.

class ItemList<T>: List<T>


{
public int Sum(Func<T,int> selector) {
int sum = 0;
foreach (T item in this) sum += selector(item);
return sum;
}

public double Sum(Func<T,double> selector) {


double sum = 0;
foreach (T item in this) sum += selector(item);
return sum;
}

ItemList<T> Sum. selector,


. int
double, int double.
Sum , , .
class Detail
{
public int UnitCount;
public double UnitPrice;
...
}
void ComputeSums() {
ItemList<Detail> orderDetails = GetOrderDetails(...);
int totalUnits = orderDetails.Sum(d => d.UnitCount);
double orderTotal = orderDetails.Sum(d => d.UnitPrice * d.UnitCount);
...
}

orderDetails.Sum Sum , d =>


d.UnitCount Func<Detail,int> Func<Detail,double>.
Sum, Func<Detail,int>
Func<Detail,double>.

222

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

orderDetails.Sum Sum,
d => d.UnitPrice * d.UnitCount double.
Sum.
7.14.4
, ,
_ __,
. - this
, -.

,
.
, (5.1.7).
, ,
, .

using System;
delegate int D();
class Test
{
static D F() {
int x = 0;
D result = () => ++x;
return result;
}

static void Main() {


D d = F();
Console.WriteLine(d());
Console.WriteLine(d());
Console.WriteLine(d());
}

x
, , F, (
).
x, :
1
2
3

,
(18.3),
. ,
, fixed,
.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

223


, ,
. , x
, .
static void F() {
for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
int x = i * 2 + 1;
...
}
}

x , x
.
static void F() {
int x;
for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
x = i * 2 + 1;
...
}
}

, ,
, .
.
, .

using System;
delegate void D();
class Test
{
static D[] F() {
D[] result = new D[3];
for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
int x = i * 2 + 1;
result[i] = () => { Console.WriteLine(x); };
}
return result;
}
static void Main() {
foreach (D d in F()) d();
}
}


1
3
5

x :

224

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
static D[] F() {
D[] result = new D[3];
int x;
for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
x = i * 2 + 1;
result[i] = () => { Console.WriteLine(x); };
}
return result;
}


5
5
5

for ,
. , ,
static D[] F() {
D[] result = new D[3];
for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
result[i] = () => { Console.WriteLine(i); };
}
return result;
}

.
3
3
3


. , F
static D[] F() {
D[] result = new D[3];
int x = 0;
for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
int y = 0;
result[i] = () => { Console.WriteLine("{0} {1}", ++x, ++y); };
}
return result;
}

x, y. :
11
21
31

.
:
using System;
delegate void Setter(int value);

delegate int Getter();

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

225

class Test
{
static void Main() {
int x = 0;
Setter s = (int value) => { x = value; };
Getter g = () => { return x; };
s(5);
Console.WriteLine(g());
s(10);
Console.WriteLine(g());
}
}

x
. :
5
10

7.14.5
F D E
, new D(F).
, 6.5.

7.15

, , SQL XQuery.
:
from
from:
from in
:
select group

:


:
from
let
where
join
join into
orderby
let:
let =
where:
where
join:
join in on equals
226

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

join into:
join in on equals into

orderby:
orderby
:

,
:

:
ascending
descending

select group:
select
group
select:
select
group:
group by
:
into
from select group.
from from, let, where, join orderby.
from , ,
. let ,
, .
where .
join ,
. orderby
. select group
. , into ,
.
7.15.1
,
, . , from,
where, join, on, equals, into, let, orderby, ascending, descending, select, group by.
,
,
.
, from
, ;, = ,.

,
@ (2.4.2).

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

227

7.15.2
C# .
, (7.15.3).
, Where, Select, SelectMany,
Join, GroupJoin, OrderBy, OrderByDescending, ThenBy, ThenByDescending, GroupBy Cast.
, 7.15.3.
,
, .
,
- .
, C# .

. , , ,

.
,
. :
,
.
,
*. 7.15.2.7.
select groupby

from into x


from x in ( from )

, into.

from c in customers
group c by c.Country into g
select new { Country = g.Key, CustCount = g.Count() }


from g in
from c in customers
group c by c.Country
select new { Country = g.Key, CustCount = g.Count() }


customers.
GroupBy(c => c.Country).
Select(g => new { Country = g.Key, CustCount = g.Count() })


from,
from T x in e

228

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .


from x in ( e ) . Cast < T > ( )

join,
join T x in e on k1 equals k2


join x in ( e ) . Cast < T > ( ) on k1 equals k2

,
.

from Customer c in customers


where c.City == "London"
select c


from c in customers.Cast<Customer>()
where c.City == "London"
select c


customers.
Cast<Customer>().
Where(c => c.City == "London")

,
IEnumerable,
IEnumerable<T>. , customers
ArrayList.


from x in e select x


( e ) . Select ( x => x )

from c in customers
select c


customers.Select(c => c)

.
, ,
. ,
,
, .
, ,
Select . , Select
, , .
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

229

from, let, where, join orderby


from, select,
from x1 in e1
from x2 in e2
select v


( e1 ) . SelectMany( x1 => e2 , ( x1 , x2 ) => v )

from, , select,
from x1 in e1
from x2 in e2


from * in ( e1 ) . SelectMany( x1 => e2 , ( x1 , x2 ) => new { x1 , x2 } )

let
from x in e
let y = f


from * in ( e ) . Select ( x => new { x , y = f } )

where
from x in e
where f


from x in ( e ) . Where ( x => f )

join into, select,


from x1 in e1
join x2 in e2 on k1 equals k2
select v


( e1 ) . Join( e2 , x1 => k1 , x2 => k2 , ( x1 , x2 ) => v )

join into, , select,


from x1 in e1
join x2 in e2 on k1 equals k2


from * in ( e1 ) . Join(
e2 , x1 => k1 , x2 => k2 , ( x1 , x2 ) => new { x1 , x2 })

230

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

join into,
select,
from x1 in e1
join x2 in e2 on k1 equals k2 into g
select v


( e1 ) . GroupJoin( e2 , x1 => k1 , x2 => k2 , ( x1 , g ) => v )

join into, ,
select,
from x1 in e1
join x2 in e2 on k1 equals k2 into g


from * in ( e1 ) . GroupJoin(
e2 , x1 => k1 , x2 => k2 , ( x1 , g ) => new { x1 , g })

orderby
from x in e
orderby k1 , k2 , , kn


from x in ( e ) .
OrderBy ( x => k1 ) .
ThenBy ( x => k2 ) .
.
ThenBy ( x => kn )

descending,
OrderByDescending ThenByDescending.
, let, where,
join orderby, from.

from c in customers
from o in c.Orders
select new { c.Name, o.OrderID, o.Total }


.
SelectMany(c => c.Orders,
(c,o) => new { c.Name, o.OrderID, o.Total }
)

from c in customers
from o in c.Orders
orderby o.Total descending
select new { c.Name, o.OrderID, o.Total }
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

231


from * in customers.
SelectMany(c => c.Orders, (c,o) => new { c, o })
orderby o.Total descending
select new { c.Name, o.OrderID, o.Total }


customers.
SelectMany(c => c.Orders, (c,o) => new { c, o }).
OrderByDescending(x => x.o.Total).
Select(x => new { x.c.Name, x.o.OrderID, x.o.Total })

x , ,
.

from o in orders
let t = o.Details.Sum(d => d.UnitPrice * d.Quantity)
where t >= 1000
select new { o.OrderID, Total = t }


from * in orders.
Select(o => new { o, t = o.Details.Sum(d => d.UnitPrice * d.Quantity) })
where t >= 1000
select new { o.OrderID, Total = t }


orders.
Select(o => new { o, t = o.Details.Sum(d => d.UnitPrice * d.Quantity) }).
Where(x => x.t >= 1000).
Select(x => new { x.o.OrderID, Total = x.t })

x , ,
.

from c in customers
join o in orders on c.CustomerID equals o.CustomerID
select new { c.Name, o.OrderDate, o.Total }


customers.Join(orders, c => c.CustomerID, o => o.CustomerID,
(c, o) => new { c.Name, o.OrderDate, o.Total })

from c in customers
join o in orders on c.CustomerID equals o.CustomerID into co
let n = co.Count()
where n >= 10
select new { c.Name, OrderCount = n }

232

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
from * in customers.
GroupJoin(orders, c => c.CustomerID, o => o.CustomerID,
(c, co) => new { c, co })
let n = co.Count()
where n >= 10
select new { c.Name, OrderCount = n }


customers.
GroupJoin(orders, c => c.CustomerID, o => o.CustomerID,
(c, co) => new { c, co }).
Select(x => new { x, n = x.co.Count() }).
Where(y => y.n >= 10).
Select(y => new { y.x.c.Name, OrderCount = y.n)

x y , ,
.

from o in orders
orderby o.Customer.Name, o.Total descending
select o


orders.
OrderBy(o => o.Customer.Name).
ThenByDescending(o => o.Total)

select

from x in e select v


( e ) . Select ( x => v )

, v x,
(e)

:
from c in customers.Where(c => c.City == London)
select c


customers.Where(c => c.City == London)

groupby

from x in e group v by k


( e ) . GroupBy ( x => k , x => v )

, v x,

( e ) . GroupBy ( x => k )
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

233


from c in customers
group c.Name by c.Country


.
GroupBy(c => c.Country, c => c.Name)


,
*. ,
.
,

. .

,
.

,
.


, .

, ,

. C#
, .
,
.

from c in customers
from o in c.Orders
orderby o.Total descending
select new { c.Name, o.Total }


from * in customers.
SelectMany(c => c.Orders, (c,o) => new { c, o })
orderby o.Total descending
select new { c.Name, o.Total }


customers.
SelectMany(c => c.Orders, (c,o) => new { c, o }).
OrderByDescending(* => o.Total).
Select(* => new { c.Name, o.Total })


customers.
SelectMany(c => c.Orders, (c,o) => new { c, o }).
OrderByDescending(x => x.o.Total).
Select(x => new { x.c.Name, x.o.Total })
234

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

x , ,
.

from c in customers
join o in orders on c.CustomerID equals o.CustomerID
join d in details on o.OrderID equals d.OrderID
join p in products on d.ProductID equals p.ProductID
select new { c.Name, o.OrderDate, p.ProductName }


from * in customers.
Join(orders, c => c.CustomerID, o => o.CustomerID,
(c, o) => new { c, o })
join d in details on o.OrderID equals d.OrderID
join p in products on d.ProductID equals p.ProductID
select new { c.Name, o.OrderDate, p.ProductName }


customers.
Join(orders, c => c.CustomerID, o => o.CustomerID, (c, o) => new { c, o }).
Join(details, * => o.OrderID, d => d.OrderID, (*, d) => new { *, d }).
Join(products, * => d.ProductID, p => p.ProductID, (*, p) => new { *, p }).
Select(* => new { c.Name, o.OrderDate, p.ProductName })


customers.
Join(orders, c => c.CustomerID, o => o.CustomerID,
(c, o) => new { c, o }).
Join(details, x => x.o.OrderID, d => d.OrderID,
(x, d) => new { x, d }).
Join(products, y => y.d.ProductID, p => p.ProductID,
(y, p) => new { y, p }).
Select(z => new { z.y.x.c.Name, z.y.x.o.OrderDate, z.p.ProductName })

x, y z , ,
.
7.15.3
,
.
,
. ,
, ,
, .
C<T>,
. ,
,
.
delegate R Func<T1,R>(T1 arg1);

delegate R Func<T1,T2,R>(T1 arg1, T2 arg2);

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

235

class C
{
public C<T> Cast<T>();
}
class C<T> : C
{
public C<T> Where(Func<T,bool> predicate);
public C<U> Select<U>(Func<T,U> selector);
public C<V> SelectMany<U,V>(Func<T,C<U>> selector,
Func<T,U,V> resultSelector);
public C<V> Join<U,K,V>(C<U> inner, Func<T,K> outerKeySelector,
Func<U,K> innerKeySelector, Func<T,U,V> resultSelector);
public C<V> GroupJoin<U,K,V>(C<U> inner, Func<T,K> outerKeySelector,
Func<U,K> innerKeySelector, Func<T,C<U>,V> resultSelector);
public O<T> OrderBy<K>(Func<T,K> keySelector);
public O<T> OrderByDescending<K>(Func<T,K> keySelector);
public C<G<K,T>> GroupBy<K>(Func<T,K> keySelector);
public C<G<K,E>> GroupBy<K,E>(Func<T,K> keySelector,
Func<T,E> elementSelector);
}
class O<T> : C<T>
{
public O<T> ThenBy<K>(Func<T,K> keySelector);
}

public O<T> ThenByDescending<K>(Func<T,K> keySelector);

class G<K,T> : C<T>


{
public K Key { get; }
}

Func<T1, R> Func<T1, T2, R>,



.
C<T> O<T>, ,
ThenBy ThenByDescending OrderBy
OrderByDescending.
GroupBy ,
Key.
System.Linq
, System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<T>.

7.16
, ,
.
:

236

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

:
=
+=
-=
*=
/=
%=
&=
|=
^=
<<=


, ,
.
= .
, , .
(
, 10.8.1). 7.16.1.
, =,
. ,
, ,
. 7.16.2.
+= -=
__.
.
7.16.3.
; ,
. , a = b = c a = (b = c).
7.16.1
= .
, .
, ,
.
.
, , .
,
set.
.
x = y .

x , :
o

x .

y x
(6.1).

, x, _,
, , y
, x.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

237

, y null
(6.1.6) , y,
, x.
System.ArrayTypeMismatchException.
o

, y, ,
x.
x , :

( x static) ( x
), x,
set.

y x
(6.1).

set x , y,
value.

(12.5) A[]
B[], B A.
_
,
.
string[] sa = new string[10];
object[] oa = sa;
oa[0] = null;
// Ok
oa[1] = "Hello";
// Ok
oa[2] = new ArrayList(); // ArrayTypeMismatchException

System.ArrayTypeMismatchException,
ArrayList string[].
_,
, ,
. ,
. 7.5.4 .
:
struct Point
{
int x, y;
public Point(int x, int y) {
this.x = x;
this.y = y;
}
public int X {
get { return x; }
set { x = value; }
}

}
238

public int Y {
get { return y; }
set { y = value; }
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
struct Rectangle
{
Point a, b;
public Rectangle(Point a, Point b) {
this.a = a;
this.b = b;
}
public Point A {
get { return a; }
set { a = value; }
}
public Point B {
get { return b; }
set { b = value; }
}
}


Point p = new Point();
p.X = 100;
p.Y = 100;
Rectangle r = new Rectangle();
r.A = new Point(10, 10);
r.B = p;

p.X, p.Y, r.A r.B , p r .

Rectangle r = new Rectangle();


r.A.X = 10;
r.A.Y = 10;
r.B.X = 100;
r.B.Y = 100;

, r.A r.B .
7.16.2
x && y x || y (7.2.4),
x op y.

x,
x = x op y, , x .

,
x y
x , x =
(T)(x op y), T x, , x .

, x op y,
x
x. , A()[B()] += C(), A , int[],
B C , int,
A, B, C.
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

239

,
get, set.
.
(. ) x op= y x = (T)(x op y).
,
, sbyte, byte, short, ushort char.
, int,
7.2.6.2. , .
,
x op= y , x op y x = y.
byte b = 0;
char ch = '\0';
int i = 0;
b
b
b
b

+=
+=
+=
+=

1;
1000;
i;
(byte)i;

// Ok
// , b = 1000
// , b = i
// Ok

ch += 1;
ch += (char)1;

// , ch = 1
// Ok

,
.
, .

int? i = 0;
i += 1;

// Ok

+(int?,int?).
7.16.3
+= -= ,
.

( ).

+= -=
(6.1).

,
. +=,
add; -=, remove.

. ,
_ (8.6).

7.17
__, .
:

240

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

:

-

7.18
_ ,
.
:

null : sbyte,
byte, short, ushort, int, uint, long, ulong, char, float, double, decimal, bool, string
. :

( null).

, .

, , .

checked unchecked

+, , ! ~.

+, , *, /, %, <<, >>, &, |, ^, &&, ||, ==, !=, <, >, <= >=
, , .

?:.

,
, null.

, ,
, . :

class C {
const object i = 5; // :
const object str = hello; // :
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

241

i , .
str ,
.
, , .
, ,
.
,
, ,
,
.
unchecked, ,

, (7.18).
, .
, .

(10.4).

(14.3).

case switch (8.7.2).

goto case (8.9.3).

(7.5.10.4), .

(17).

(6.1.8)
int sbyte, byte, short, ushort, uint ulong ,
.

7.19
_ , bool.
_:

_ _if (8.7.1),
_while (8.8.1), _do (8.8.2) _for (8.8.3).
?: (7.13) , _, -
__.
_ , bool
, operator true. ,
.
, bool,
operator true,
operator true .
DBBool 11.4.2 ,
operator true operator false.

242

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

8.
C# . ,
C C++.
_:
_
_
_
_:

_
_
_
_
_
_try
_checked
_unchecked
_lock
_using
_yield
_ ,
. _
_
.
void F(bool b) {
if (b)
int i = 44;
}

, if
_ if, _. , i
, . , , ,
i .

8.1
. ,
, .
( , ) ,
, . ,
,
.
, ,
. , ,
.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

243

void F() {
Console.WriteLine("reachable");
goto Label;
Console.WriteLine("unreachable");
Label:
Console.WriteLine("reachable");
}

Console.WriteLine ,
.
, .
.
, ,
,
. (7.18),
,
. , ,
.

void F() {
const int i = 1;
if (i == 2) Console.WriteLine("unreachable");
}

if ,
== .
false, Console.WriteLine .
i :
void F() {
int i = 1;
if (i == 2) Console.WriteLine("reachable");
}

Console.WriteLine , .
- .
, .

void F(int x) {
Console.WriteLine("start");
if (x < 0) Console.WriteLine("negative");
}

Console.WriteLine :

- Console.WriteLine , F
.

- Console.WriteLine ,
.

if , - Console.WriteLine
.

- Console.WriteLine ,
if false.

244

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

switch switch ,
switch
. break.

-, ,
. return.

8.2
,
.
:

{ _ }

_ (8.2.1), .
, , .
(8.5).
, , .
, ,
(7.5.2.1).
.

, .

, .
, .

, .
,
.
, yield (8.14), .
- (10.14).
.

return (
yield return ).


(18.1). ,
.

8.2.1
.
(8.2) _switch (8.7.2).
_:
_
_ _

.
, .
,
.
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

245

, .

goto.

,
.

8.3
_ .
_:
;

, , ,
.
.
, , .
while :
bool ProcessMessage() {...}
void ProcessMessages() {
while (ProcessMessage())
;
}

,
:
void F() {
...
if (done) goto exit;
...
exit: ;
}

8.4
_ .
, .
_:
: _
, .
, , , .
,
.
goto (8.9.3), . ,
goto , .
.

246

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
int F(int x) {
if (x >= 0) goto x;
x = -x;
x: return x;
}

; x , .
, ,
.
,
, goto. ( :
goto try, finally,
try, finally ,
goto.)

8.5
_ .
, .
_:
__ ;
__ ;
8.5.1
__ .
__:
__ __
__:

var

__:
__
__ , __
__:

= __
__:

_
__ __
, , var ,
.
__, .
__ , ,
= __,
.

__ var var
, :
.
.
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

247

__
__.

__ __.

__ .

, .

:
var
var
var
var
var

x;
// ,
y = {1, 2, 3}; // ,
z = null;
// , null
u = x => x + 1; // ,
v = v++;
// ,

_ (7.5.2),
(7.16).
(5.3) , .
, __,
, . ,
__, .

.

. ,

.

void F() {
int x = 1, y, z = x * 2;
}

:
void F() {
int x; x = 1;
int y;
int z; z = x * 2;
}


, . :
var
var
var
var
var

i = 5;
s = "Hello";
d = 1.0;
numbers = new int[] {1, 2, 3};
orders = new Dictionary<int,Order>();

248

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
int i = 5;
string s = "Hello";
double d = 1.0;
int[] numbers = new int[] {1, 2, 3};
Dictionary<int,Order> orders = new Dictionary<int,Order>();

8.5.2
__ .
__:
const _
_:
_
_ , _
_:
= _
__ , .
_, .
_ , ,
= _ (7.18), .
_ ,
- (10.4).
_ (7.5.2).
, .
, _,
.
.

.

8.6 -
_ . ,
( ), .
_:
_ ;
_:
_
__

__
__
__
__
. , , x
+ y x == 1, ( ),
.

_ ,
_.
_ , _.
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

249

8.7

.
_:
_if
_switch
8.7.1 if
if .
_if:
if ( _ ) _
if ( _ ) _ else _
else if,
. , if
if (x) if (y) F(); else G();

:
if (x) {
if (y) {
F();
}
else {
G();
}
}

if .

_ (7.19).

true,
. ,
if.

false else,
.
, if.

false else ,
if.

if , if
false.
if ( ) , if
true.
if ,
. , if else
, if true.
8.7.2 switch
switch ,
switch-.
250

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

_switch:
switch ( ) _switch
_switch:
{ _switch }
_switch:
_switch
_switch _switch
_switch:
_switch _
_switch:
_switch
_switch _switch
_switch:
case _ :
default :

_switch switch, (
switch-) _switch. _switch (,
) _switch, . _switch
_switch _ (8.2.1).
switch switch-. switch sbyte, byte, short, ushort, int, uint, long, ulong, char, string
_, switch.
(6.4) switch : sbyte, byte, short, ushort, int, uint,
long, ulong, char, string.
, .
case ,
(6.1) switch.
, case switch
.
switch default.
switch .

switch-, .

, case switch,
switch-, , case.

, case switch,
switch- default,
, default.

, case switch,
switch- default ,
switch.

switch ,
. .

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

251

switch (i) {
case 0:
CaseZero();
break;
case 1:
CaseOne();
break;
default:
CaseOthers();
break;
}

, switch .
C C++, switch switch,

switch (i) {
case 0:
CaseZero();
case 1:
CaseZeroOrOne();
default:
CaseAny();
}

. switch
switch, goto case goto
default:
switch (i) {
case 0:
CaseZero();
goto case 1;
case 1:
CaseZeroOrOne();
goto default;
default:
CaseAny();
break;
}

_switch . :
switch (i) {
case 0:
CaseZero();
break;
case 1:
CaseOne();
break;
case 2:
default:
CaseTwo();
break;
}

, case 2:
default: _switch.


C C++, break. ,
252

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

switch switch
. , switch
, :
switch (i) {
default:
CaseAny();
break;
case 1:
CaseZeroOrOne();
goto default;
case 0:
CaseZero();
goto case 1;
}

switch break, goto case goto default,


,
. , while, true,
. throw return
, .
:
switch (i) {
case 0:
while (true) F();
case 1:
throw new ArgumentException();
case 2:
return;
}

switch string. :
void DoCommand(string command) {
switch (command.ToLower()) {
case "run":
DoRun();
break;
case "save":
DoSave();
break;
case "quit":
DoQuit();
break;
default:
InvalidCommand(command);
break;
}
}

(7.9.7), switch
switch , switch-
case.
switch string, case
null.

_ _switch (8.5).
, switch, switch.
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

253

, ,
switch (7.5.2.1).
switch , switch
.

switch- .

switch- , case
switch.

switch- , case,
switch default.

switch switch goto case goto default.

switch ,
.

switch break,
switch.

switch , switch-
default .

switch , switch- ,
case, default .

8.8
.
_:
_while
_do
_for
_foreach
8.8.1 while
while (, )
.
_while:
while ( _ ) _
while .

_ (7.19).

true,
. (,
continue), while.

false,
while.

while break (8.9.1)


while (. .
), continue (8.9.2)
( while).
254

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

while , while
false.
while ,
.

while break, while.

while
true.

8.8.2 do
do
.
_do:
do _ while ( _ ) ;
do .

(,
continue), _ (7.19).
true, do.
do.

do break (8.9.1)
do (. . ),
continue (8.9.2) .
do , do .
do ,
.

do break, do.


true.

8.8.3 for
for ,
,
.
_for:
for ( _for ; _for ; _for )
_
_for:
__
__
_for:
_

_for:
__

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

255

__:
_
__ , _
_for ( ) __ (8.5.1)
_ (8.6), . ,
_for, __
. _for _for.
_for ( ) _ (7.19).
_for ( ) _ (8.6), .
for .

_for,
. .

_for, .

_for true,
.
(, continue),
_for ( ),
, _for (. ).

_for false,
for.

for break (8.9.1)


for (. . ),
continue (8.9.2) (
_for for, _for).
for ,
.

for _for .

for , _for false.

for ,
.

for break, for.

for , _for true.

8.8.4 foreach
foreach ,
.
_foreach:
foreach ( __ in )
_
foreach .
__ var, ,
, foreach,
. ,
. foreach
256

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

,
. (
++ --) ref out,
.
foreach ,
. .

X ,
X System.Collections.IEnumerable ( System.Array
). System.Collections.IEnumerable,
System.Collections.IEnumerator,
X.

, X
GetEnumerator.
o

X GetEnumerator
. , ,
, ,
, . ,
-, .


.
, ,
,
, . ,
-,
.

E GetEnumerator ,
, , .

E Current
. , -,
, , ,
.

E MoveNext
. , -,
, , .


. ,
,
, bool,
, .

X, E,
Current.

T, X
System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<T>,
,
System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerator<T>, T.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

257

T , , .

X System.Collections.IEnumerable,
,
System.Collections.IEnumerator, object.

, .

, :
C, E T. foreach,
foreach (V v in x) _

:
{

E e = ((C)(x)).GetEnumerator();
try {
V v;
while (e.MoveNext()) {
v = (V)(T)e.Current;

_
}
}
finally {
// e

}
}

e x,
. v .
(6.2) T ( ) V ( foreach),
, . x null,
System.NullReferenceException.
foreach ,
(, ), ,
.
finally .

E System.IDisposable,
finally , :
finally {
((System.IDisposable)e).Dispose();
}

, e ,
; e
System.IDisposable .

E , finally :
finally {
}

finally :
finally {
System.IDisposable d = e as System.IDisposable;

258

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
if (d != null) d.Dispose();
}

d . ,
, finally.
foreach .
, 0 Length 1.

,
.
:
using System;
class Test
{
static void Main() {
double[,] values = {
{1.2, 2.3, 3.4, 4.5},
{5.6, 6.7, 7.8, 8.9}
};
foreach (double elementValue in values)
Console.Write("{0} ", elementValue);
Console.WriteLine();
}
}

:
1.2 2.3 3.4 4.5 5.6 6.7 7.8 8.9


int[] numbers = { 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 };
foreach (var n in numbers) Console.WriteLine(n);

n int numbers.

8.9
.
_:
_break
_continue
_goto
_return
_throw
, , .
, , ,
. ,
.

try.
try .
try .
try,
finally, finally
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

259

try. finally,
finally try. ,
finally try.

using System;
class Test
{
static void Main() {
while (true) {
try {
try {
Console.WriteLine("Before break");
break;
}
finally {
Console.WriteLine("Innermost finally block");
}
}
finally {
Console.WriteLine("Outermost finally block");
}
}
Console.WriteLine("After break");
}
}

finally,
try.
:
Before break
Innermost finally block
Outermost finally block
After break

8.9.1 break
break switch, while, do, for
foreach.
_break:
break ;

break switch, while, do,


for foreach. break switch, while, do, for
foreach, .
switch, while, do, for foreach , break
.
goto (8.9.3).
break finally (8.10). break
finally, break finally,
.
break .

260

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

break try,
finally, finally
try. finally,
finally try.
, finally try.

break.

break ,
break .
8.9.2 continue
continue while, do, for
foreach.
_continue:
continue ;

continue
while, do, for foreach. continue
while, do, for foreach, .
while, do, for foreach , continue
.
goto (8.9.3).
continue finally (8.10). continue
finally, continue finally,
.
continue .

continue try,
finally, finally
try. finally,
finally try.
, finally
try.

continue.

continue ,
continue .
8.9.3 goto
goto , .
_goto:
goto ;
goto case _ ;
goto default ;

goto .
- goto
, .
goto ,
.

using System;
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

261

class Test
{
static void Main(string[] args) {
string[,] table = {
{"Red", "Blue", "Green"},
{"Monday", "Wednesday", "Friday"}
};
foreach (string str in args) {
int row, colm;
for (row = 0; row <= 1; ++row)
for (colm = 0; colm <= 2; ++colm)
if (str == table[row,colm])
goto done;
Console.WriteLine("{0} not found", str);
continue;
done:

Console.WriteLine("Found {0} at [{1}][{2}]", str, row, colm);

}
}
}

goto .
goto case
switch (8.7.2), case . goto
case switch, _
(6.1) switch,
switch case
, .
goto default
switch (8.7.2), default. goto default
switch, switch default,
.
goto finally (8.10). goto
finally, goto finally,
.
goto .

goto try,
finally, finally
try. finally,
finally try.
, finally try.

goto.

goto ,
goto .
8.9.4 return
return , -,
return.
_return:
return ;
262

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

return -,
, . . void, set
, add remove , ,
.
return -, ,
. . , void, get
, .
(6.1) -,
.
return finally (8.10) .
return .

return , ,
-,
. ,
.

return try,
finally, finally try.
finally,
finally try. ,
finally try.

-, .

return ,
return .
8.9.5 throw
throw .
_throw:
throw ;
throw , .
System.Exception, ,
System.Exception, ,
System.Exception ( ). null,
System.NullReferenceException.
throw catch;
, catch.
throw ,
throw .
catch
try, . ,
,
.
catch, .
.

- try, .
S, try
try, .
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

263

try S S
catch, catch
. catch,
, .
catch (8.10) .
catch ,
catch.

, try catch S
S finally, finally. finally
, .
, finally,
.

-,
. , -,
, -.

-
, , ,
. .

8.10 try
try , .
, try ,
try.
_try:
try _catch
try _finally
try _catch _finally
_catch:
__catch __catch
__catch __catch
__catch:
__catch
__catch __catch
__catch:
catch ( _ )
__catch:
catch
_finally:
finally
try:

try, catch;

try, finally;

try, catch finally.

catch _, System.Exception,
System.Exception ,
System.Exception ( ).
264

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

catch _, ,
.
, catch. catch
.
,
.
catch ,
catch.
catch, , ,
catch. try
catch, , catch.
,
, System.Exception,
C#. catch . ,
catch
System.Exception ,
.
catch
. catch , catch
try ( ), .
catch.
catch throw (8.9.5)
, catch.
.

using System;
class Test
{
static void F() {
try {
G();
}
catch (Exception e) {
Console.WriteLine("Exception in F: " + e.Message);
e = new Exception("F");
throw;
// re-throw
}
}
static void G() {
throw new Exception("G");
}
static void Main() {
try {
F();
}
catch (Exception e) {
Console.WriteLine("Exception in Main: " + e.Message);
}
}

}
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

265

F , ,
.
, :
Exception in F: G
Exception in Main: G

catch e ,
:
Exception in F: G
Exception in Main: F

break, continue goto finally


. break, continue goto finally,
finally, .
, return finally.
try .

try.

try, :
o

try finally, finally;

try.

try try,
.
o

catch, ,
. catch,
, .
catch . catch
, :

catch ,
;

catch;

catch:

try finally, finally;

try;

catch try:
o

try finally, finally;

try.

try catch catch


, :

try finally, finally;

try.

finally try.
, ,
266

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

break, continue, goto return,


try.
finally ,
finally, try.
, .
throw (8.9.5).
try try , try.
catch try , try.
finally try , try.
try , :

try catch;

finally, .

8.11 checked unchecked


checked unchecked
.
_checked:
checked
_unchecked:
unchecked
checked ,
unchecked .
checked unchecked checked
unchecked (7.5.12), , .

8.12 lock
lock ,
.
_lock:
lock ( ) _
lock ,
_. lock
(6.1.7); ,
_, .
lock :
lock (x) ...

x _,

System.Threading.Monitor.Enter(x);
try {
...
}
finally {
System.Threading.Monitor.Exit(x);
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

267

, x .
, ,
. , ,
, .
System.Type
. , .

. :
class Cache
{
private static object synchronizationObject = new object();
public static void Add(object x) {
lock (Cache.synchronizationObject) {
...
}
}
public static void Remove(object x) {
lock (Cache.synchronizationObject) {
...
}
}
}

8.13 using
using ,
.
_using:
using ( _ ) _
_:
__

, System.IDisposable,
Dispose. , ,
Dispose, , . Dispose,
.
_ __,
__ System.IDisposable ,
System.IDisposable. _ ,
System.IDisposable ,
System.IDisposable.
, _,
.
( ++ --),
ref out, .
using : , .
try finally.
finally . null, Dispose
.
268

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

using
using (ResourceType resource = expression) statement

. ResourceType ,
:
{
ResourceType resource = expression;
try {
statement;
}
finally {
((IDisposable)resource).Dispose();
}
}

ResourceType , :
{
ResourceType resource = expression;
try {
statement;
}
finally {
if (resource != null) ((IDisposable)resource).Dispose();
}
}

resource .
using
using (expression) statement

, ResourceType
expression, , resource
.
_ __,
. using
using (ResourceType r1 = e1, r2 = e2, ..., rN = eN) statement

using:
using (ResourceType r1 = e1)
using (ResourceType r2 = e2)
...
using (ResourceType rN = eN)
statement

log.txt .
, .

using System;
using System.IO;

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

269

class Test
{
static void Main() {
using (TextWriter w = File.CreateText("log.txt")) {
w.WriteLine("This is line one");
w.WriteLine("This is line two");
}
using (TextReader r = File.OpenText("log.txt")) {
string s;
while ((s = r.ReadLine()) != null) {
Console.WriteLine(s);
}
}
}

TextWriter TextReader IDisposable,


using ,
.

8.14 yield
yield (8.2)
(10.14.4) (10.14.5),
.
_yield:

yield return ;
yield break ;

yield ; ,
return break. yield

.
yield .

yield ( ) _, _
__ .

yield ( )
.

yield ( ) finally try


.

yield return try,


catch, .


yield.
delegate IEnumerable<int> D();

270

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
IEnumerator<int> GetEnumerator() {
try {
yield return 1;
//
yield break;
//
}
finally {
yield return 2;
// , yield finally
yield break;
// , yield finally
}
try {
yield
yield
}
catch {
yield
yield
}

return 3;
break;

// , yield return try...catch


//

return 4;
break;

// , yield return try...catch


//

D d = delegate {
yield return 5;
};

// , yield

}
int MyMethod() {
yield return 1;

}

// ,

(6.1) yield return


(10.14.3).
yield return .

, ,
Current .

. yield return
try, finally .

MoveNext true ,
.

MoveNext
, .
yield break .

yield break try,


finally, finally
try. finally,
finally try.
, finally try.

, . MoveNext,
Dispose .

yield ,
yield .

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

271

9.
C# .
,
, .
using (9.4) .

9.1
_ . 0
_using, 0 _,
0 ___.
_:
_extern_alias _using _
___
C# ,
. C#
. , ,
.
_using _
___ ,
.
_ (17)
. .
.
___
, . :
A.cs:
class A {}

B.cs:
class B {}

,
A B.
, ,
.

9.2
__ namespace,
, ().
__:
namespace _ __ ;

272

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

_:

_ .
__:
{ _extern_alias _using
___ }
__ _
__.
__ _,
.
__ __,
.
.
( public);
.
__ _using
, ,
. ___
. ,
_using.
_ __
, ..

. :
namespace N1.N2
{
class A {}
}

class B {}


namespace N1
{
namespace N2
{
class A {}
class B {}
}
}

,
(3.3).
namespace N1.N2
{
class A {}
}

namespace N1.N2
{
class B {}
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

273

,
N1.N2.A N1.N2.B.
, ,
.

9.3
_extern_alias , .

.
_extern_alias:
_extern_alias
_extern_alias _extern_alias
_extern_alias:
extern alias ;
_extern_alias _using, _
___
.
, _extern_alias,
, _extern_alias,
. global,
.
_extern_alias
, . ,
_extern_alias ,
, .
, X Y,
:
extern alias X;
extern alias Y;
class Test
{
X::N.A a;
X::N.B b1;
Y::N.B b2;
Y::N.C c;
}

X Y,
. N.B
X.N.B Y.N.B,
X::N.B Y::N.B. ,
, .

9.4 using
using ,
. using
____ (3.8) _ (7.5.2), , ,
using
, .
274

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

_using:
_using
_using _using
_using:
_using_alias
_using_namespace
_using_alias (9.4.1) .
_using_namespace (9.4.2) .
_using ___
.
_using _using. ,
_using , .
9.4.1 using alias
_using_alias ,
.
_using_alias:
using = ____ ;
,
_using_alias, , _using_alias,
. :
namespace N1.N2
{
class A {}
}
namespace N3
{
using A = N1.N2.A;
}

class B: A {}

N3, A
N1.N2.A, N3.B N1.N2.A.
, R N1.N2 R.A:
namespace N3
{
using R = N1.N2;
}

class B: R.A {}

_using_alias
, _using_alias.
:

namespace N3
{
class A {}
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

275

namespace N3
{
using A = N1.N2.A;
}

// : A

N3 A,
_using_alias . ,
, _using_alias
.
_using_alias
, . ,
_using_alias ,
, .
namespace N3
{
using R = N1.N2;
}
namespace N3
{
class B: R.A {}
}

// : R

_using_alias, R,
, , R
. _using_alias ,
:
using R = N1.N2;
namespace N3
{
class B: R.A {}
}
namespace N3
{
class C: R.A {}
}

, , _using_alias,
.
using R = N1.N2;
namespace N3
{
class R {}
class B: R.A {}

// : R A

R.A B , R N3.R,
N1.N2.
, _using_alias, ,
____, _using_alias,
_using_alias, _using
. , ____ _extern_alias
,
276

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

_using. _using_alias _extern_alias


.
namespace N1.N2 {}
namespace N3
{
extern alias E;
using R1 = E.N;

//

using R2 = N1;

//

using R3 = N1.N2;

//

using R4 = R2.N2;

// : R2

_using_alias ,
_using_alias. _using_alias ,
E _using_alias.
_using_alias ,
, , ,
.
,
. , :
namespace N1.N2
{
class A {}
}
namespace N3
{
using R1 = N1;
using R2 = N1.N2;
class B
{
N1.N2.A a;
R1.N2.A b;
R2.A c;
}

// N1.N2.A
// N1.N2.A
// N1.N2.A

N1.N2.A, R1.N2.A R2.A ,


N1.N2.A.
,
, . :
namespace N1
{
class A<T>
{
class B {}
}
}

namespace N2
{
using W = N1.A;

// :

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

277

using X = N1.A.B;

// :

using Y = N1.A<int>;

// ,

using Z<T> = N1.A<T>; // : using


}

9.4.2 using namespace


_using_namespace , ,
,
.
_using_namespace:
using __ ;
,
_using_namespace, .
:
namespace N1.N2
{
class A {}
}
namespace N3
{
using N1.N2;
}

class B: A {}

N3 N1.N2
, N3.B N1.N2.A.
_using_namespace , ,
.
namespace N1.N2
{
class A {}
}
namespace N3
{
using N1;
class B: N2.A {}

// : N2

_using_namespace , N1, ,
N1. , N2.A B
, N2.
_using_alias, _using_namespace ,

. , , _using_namespace,
.
:
namespace N1.N2
{
class A {}
278

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
class B {}
}
namespace N3
{
using N1.N2;
}

class A {}

N3, A N3.A,
N1.N2.A.
, _using_namespace
, ,
.
namespace N1
{
class A {}
}
namespace N2
{
class A {}
}
namespace N3
{
using N1;
using N2;
class B: A {}

// : A

}
N1 N2 A, N3 , A N3
. A,
_using_alias, A. :
namespace N3
{
using N1;
using N2;
using A = N1.A;
class B: A {}

// A N1.A

_using_alias, _using_namespace
,
, .
__, _using_namespace,
, ____, _using_alias.
, _using_namespace
.

9.5

___ __ (9.2),
_ (9.6).
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

279

___:
___
___ ___
___:
__
_

___,
.

9.6
_ _ (10.1), _ (11.1),
_ (13.1), __ (14.1) _
(15.1).
_:
_
_
_
__
_
_
, .
T ,
T. T
, , N.T, N
, .
, , (10.3.8).
,
(3.5.1):

, , public
internal. internal;

, , public, protected internal, protected, internal


private. private;

, , public, internal private.


private.

9.7
:: ,
.
, .
., ::
extern using.
__ :
__:
:: __

280

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

__ ____ (3.8)
__ (7.5.4).
__ :

N::I<A1, ..., AK>, N I , <A1, ..., AK>


. (K );

N::I, N I . ( K .)

__
:

N global, I :
o

I, K ,
__ ;

, I, K
, __ ;

, I,
K , __ ,
;

__ .

, (9.2),
__ ( ),
( ), ,
__, , :
o


_using_alias, N , __
;

,
_extern_alias _using_alias, N , :

, N, I, K
, __ ;

, , N,
I, K , __ ;

, , N, I,
K , __ ,
;

__ .

__ .

, ,
, . , N
global, ,
using, global .
9.7.1


extern using. , extern using
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

281

extern using,
, ,
, :: .

namespace N
{
public class A {}
}

public class B {}

namespace N
{
using A = System.IO;
class X
{
A.Stream s1;
A::Stream s2;

// : A
//

}
}

A , A, A
. A A.Stream
. A :: ,
A .

282

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

10. Classes
, ( ),
(, , , , , ,
) .
, .

10.1 .
_ _ (9.6), .
_:
(/) _ (/) partial (/) class
__ (/)
_ (/) ___ (/) _ ;
(/)
_ (17),
_ (10.1.1), partial, class
, , __ (10.1.3),
_ (10.1.4),
___ (10.1.5), _ (10.1.6)
.
___,
__.
, __,
. ,
, ,
.
10.1.1 .
_ .
_:
_
_ _
_:
new
public
protected
internal
private
abstract
sealed
static


.
new .
10.3.4. new

, ,
.
public, protected, internal private .
, ,
(3.5.1).
abstract, sealed static .
.
abstract
.
.

, new
.
, ,
null
, .

( ) .

,
,
. :
abstract class A
{
public abstract void F();
}
abstract class B: A
{
public void G() {}
}
class C: B
{
public override void F() {
// F
}
}

A F. B
G, F, B
. C F .
C , C ( ) .
.
sealed .
,
.
.
sealed
, .
284

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

, - ,
-
.
.
static , .
,
.
(10.6.9).
.

sealed abstract.
, ,
, .

_ (10.1.4)
.
object.

(10.3.7). ,
.

protected
protected internal.

.
.
; (10.11.4)
.
,
static ( ).
, ,
static.
10.1.1.3.1 .
____ (3.8)
.

____ T ____ T.I

____ T _typeof (7.5.11) typeof(T).

_ (7.5) .

_ = E __ (7.5.4) E.I.

.
,
, (10.3.8) ,
. ,
, new, , is, as, sizeof
.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

285

10.1.2 partial.
partial , _
.
,
10.2.

. ,
, .
.
10.1.3 .
, ,
.
, . , (4.4.1)
, .
__:
< _ >
_:
(/) _
_ , (/) _
_:

(3.3) .
,
. .
10.1.4 .
_,
(13), .
_:
: _
: __
: _ , __
__:
_
__ , _
, , (4.4).
,
.
class Extend<V>: V {}

// ,

.
_ _, .
_ _ ,
object.
(. 10.3.3).

286

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

:
class A {}
class B: A {}

A B, B
A. A ,
object.
, ,
_
_ .

class B<U,V> {...}
class G<T>: B<string,T[]> {...}

G<int> B<string,int[]>.
, (3.5.2).
, public private internal,
.
: System.Array,
System.Delegate, System.MulticastDelegate, System.Enum System.ValueType. ,
System.Attribute
.
.
,
. , B A object. :
class A {...}
class B<T>: A {...}
class C<T>: B<IComparable<T>> {...}
class D<T>: C<T[]> {...}

D<int> C<int[]>, B<IComparable<int[]>>, A object.


object, .
object
.
B A, , A
B. ( ) ,
( ). ,
, ,
.
:
class A: B {}
class B: C {}
class C: A {}

, . ,

class A: B.C {}
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

287

class B: A
{
public class C {}
}

, A B.C (
), B ( ), A,
.
, , . :
class A
{
class B: A {}
}

B A ( A
), A B ( B
A). .
sealed.
sealed class A {}
class B: A {}
// ,

B , A
sealed.
.
_ , ,
. 13.4.
10.1.5 .
,
___.
___:
___
___
___
_ _:
_ : __
__:
_
_
_
_ , _
_ , _
_ , _
_ , _ , _
_:
_
class
struct

288

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

_:
_
_
_ , _
_ , _
_:
new ( )

___ where,
, .
where ,
where . get set
, where .
where
: ,
, new().
class
struct. _
_.
, , ,
. , , ,
(. ), .
, , ,
. ,
. , ,
, (4.1.9)
.
_.

.
, ,
,
.
.
,
, .
_ .

sealed.

: System.Array, System.Delegate, System.Enum


System.ValueType.

object. object,
.

, _, :

.
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

289

where.


, .
, ,
(3.5.4), .
, _, .

where.

, ,
, .

T S, S
T.

S T T U, S
U.

, (
), .
. S
T, .

T . T
, S , T,

S , T _.

S _ A T _ B,
A B ( B
A).

S U, U _ A T
_ B,
A B ( B A).

S T .
T System.Object, System.ValueType, System.Enum

.
where ( new()),
new (7.5.10.1). ,
,
( )
(
. 10.1.5).
.
interface IPrintable
{
void Print();
}

290

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
interface IComparable<T>
{
int CompareTo(T value);
}
interface IKeyProvider<T>
{
T GetKey();
}
class Printer<T> where T: IPrintable {...}
class SortedList<T> where T: IComparable<T> {...}
class Dictionary<K,V>
where K: IComparable<K>
where V: IPrintable, IKeyProvider<K>, new()
{
...
}

,
.
class Circular<S,T>
where S: T
where T: S
{
...
}

// ,

.
class Sealed<S,T>
where S: T
where T: struct
{
...
}

// , T

class A {...}
class B {...}
class Incompat<S,T>
where S: A, T
where T: B
{
...
}

// ,

class StructWithClass<S,T,U>
where S: struct, T
where T: U
where U: A
// , A
{
...
}

T .

T ,
object.
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

291

T ,
System.ValueType.

T _ C, _,
C.

T _, _,
(6.4.2)
_.
.

T _ _,
(6.4.2) ,
_ T _.
.

T , _,
object.

T .

T _, .

T _, _ ,
_.

T _, _,

_.

T _ _,
_
_.

, ,
object System.ValueType.

, . :
interface IPrintable
{
void Print();
}
class Printer<T> where T: IPrintable
{
void PrintOne(T x) {
x.Print();
}
}

IPrintable x, T
IPrintable.
10.1.6 .
_ .
_:
{ __opt }
292

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

10.2 .
.
,
.
, ,
partial. partial
,
class, struct interface void .
.
partial.
,
. partial , ,
;
partial.
,
.
.

partial. - partial,
-.
partial .
10.2.1 .

. ,
. , :
[Attr1, Attr2("hello")]
partial class A {}
[Attr3, Attr2("goodbye")]
partial class A {}

:
[Attr1, Attr2("hello"), Attr3, Attr2("goodbye")]
class A {}

.
10.2.2 .
( public,
protected, internal private), ,
.
, (3.5.1).
new,
, (3.7.1.2).
abstract,
(10.1.1.1). .

sealed,
(10.1.1.2). .
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

293

, .
unsafe
(18.1).
10.2.3 .
,
.
( ).
( where),
, .
, , ,
, ,
. ,
.
, .
:
partial class Dictionary<K,V>
where K: IComparable<K>
where V: IKeyProvider<K>, IPersistable
{
...
}
partial class Dictionary<K,V>
where V: IPersistable, IKeyProvider<K>
where K: IComparable<K>
{
...
}
partial class Dictionary<K,V>
{
...
}

, , ( ),
,
.
10.2.4 .
,
, .
,
System.Object (10.1.4.1).
10.2.5 .
, ,
, .
,
.
.

294

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
partial class C: IA, IB {...}
partial class C: IC {...}
partial class C: IA, IB {...}

C IA, IB IC.
, ,
. ,
.
partial class X
{
int IComparable.CompareTo(object o) {...}
}
partial class X: IComparable
{
...
}

10.2.6 .
(10.2.7), , ,
, .
(3.3), (3.7)
. ;
private, , .
,
partial.
partial class A
{
int x;

partial class Inner


{
int y;
}

partial class A
{
int x;

partial class Inner


{
int z;
}

// , x
// , Inner

// , x
// , Inner

, C#,
. ,
, .
10.2.7 .

.
. ,
,
.
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

295

, private.
void,
out. partial
, void,
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, .
, .

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, .
.

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, .

partial .


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M ,
, .
296

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

(7.5.10.5).

M , ,
(6.5.2).

, M,
(5.3),
.

M (3.1).

,
(, ).
:
partial class Customer
{
string name;
public string Name {
get { return name; }
set {
OnNameChanging(value);
name = value;
OnNameChanged();
}
}
partial void OnNameChanging(string newName);
}

partial void OnNameChanged();

- ,
,
.
class Customer
{
string name;
public string Name {
get { return name; }

set { name = value; }

, ,
:

partial class Customer


{
partial void OnNameChanging(string newName)
{
Console.WriteLine( + name + + newName);
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

297

partial void OnNameChanged()


{
Console.WriteLine( + name);
}
}

:
class Customer
{
string name;
public string Name {
get { return name; }
set {
OnNameChanging(value);
name = value;
OnNameChanged();
}
}
void OnNameChanging(string newName)
{
Console.WriteLine( + name + + newName);
}

void OnNameChanged()
{
Console.WriteLine( + name);
}

10.2.8 .
,
, .
using (9.4).
(7.5.2) using
, .
.
namespace N
{
using List = System.Collections.ArrayList;

partial class A
{
List x;
}

// x System.Collections.ArrayList

namespace N
{
using List = Widgets.LinkedList;

}
298

partial class A
{
List y;
}

// y Widgets.LinkedList

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

10.3 .
, __ ,
.
__:
__
__ __
__:
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
__
_
.

, , (10.4).

, (10.5).

, , (10.6).

, ,
(10.7).

, , (10.8).

, (
) (10.9).

, ,
(10.9).

, ,
(10.10)

, ,
(10.11).

, ,
(10.12)

, (10.3.8).

, , .
, , , , ,
, .

_ (3.3), __,
_,
. __ .

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

299

,
. ,
.

, , , ,
.

, ,
. , (3.6) ,
, , , ,
ref out.


, , ,
, , ref out.

,
.

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.

(10.3.3) .
,
( ).
10.3.1 .
(4.4.3) .
(4.4)
,
. ,
, , . . .
this , .
.
.
class A<T>
{
class B {}
}

// : A<T>
// : A<T>.B

class C<U> {}

class D {}

// : A<T>.C<U>
// : D

10.3.2 .

.

.
,
class Gen<T,U>
{
public T[,] a;
public void G(int i, T t, Gen<U,T> gt) {...}
300

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
public U Prop { get {...} set {...} }
}

public int H(double d) {...}

Gen<int[],IComparable<string>>
public int[,][] a;
public void G(int i, int[] t, Gen<IComparable<string>,int[]> gt) {...}
public IComparable<string> Prop { get {...} set {...} }
public int H(double d) {...}

a Gen T,
a int,
int[,][].
this (10.3.1)
.

.
(4.4.2) ,
, . :
class C<V>
{
public V f1;
public C<V> f2 = null;
public C(V x) {
this.f1 = x;
this.f2 = this;
}
}
class Application
{
static void Main() {
C<int> x1 = new C<int>(1);
Console.WriteLine(x1.f1);

// 1

C<double> x2 = new C<double>(3.1415);


Console.WriteLine(x2.f1);
// 3.1415
}

10.3.3 .
. ,
, ,
.
.
. C B, B A, C
, B, , A.

.
, .

, ,
, , (3.5). ,

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

301

,
.

(3.7.1.2)
. ,
, ,
.

,
, (6.1.6)
. ,
- .

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.
, , ,
, .


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__.
, _
____.
class B<U>
{
public U F(long index) {...}
}
class D<T>: B<T[]>
{
public T G(string s) {...}
}

D<int> public int


G(string s), int T. D<int>
B.
B<int[]> D<int> int T
B<T[]>. B int[] U
public U F(long index), public int[] F(long index).
10.3.4 new.
__
. .
,
. ,
new ,
. 3.7.1.2.
new , ,
.
new.
10.3.5 .
__
(3.5.1): public, protected internal, protected, internal private. protected
internal, .
302

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

__ - ,
private.
10.3.6 .
, , .
, , , ,
, ,
. , (3.5.4).
10.3.7 .
, .
, ,
( ).
, , , ,
static, . ,
. .

M _ (7.5.4) E.M, E
, M. E .


.
.

(, , , )
, this
.

, , , , ,
static, . (
.) .

M _ (7.5.4) E.M, E
- M. E .

(, , , )
, this
(7.5.7).

:
class Test
{
int x;
static int y;
void F() {
x = 1;
y = 1;
}

// O, this.x = 1
// O, Test.y = 1

static void G() {


x = 1;
// , this.x
y = 1;
// O, Test.y = 1
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

303

static void Main() {


Test t = new Test();
t.x = 1;
// O
t.y = 1;
// ,

Test.x = 1;
// ,
Test.y = 1;
// O
}
}

F , _ (7.5.2)
. G ,
_ .
Main , _ (7.5.4) ,
.
10.3.8 .
, , . ,
, .
:
using System;
class A
{
class B
{
static void F() {
Console.WriteLine("A.B.F");
}
}
}

B , A, A
, .
.
(3.8.1) S.N, S ,
N.

public internal,
internal. ,
, , -
:

, ,
(public, protected internal, protected, internal private) , ,
private;

, ,
(public, internal private) , ,
private.

304

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
public class List
{
//
private class Node
{
public object Data;
public Node Next;
public Node(object data, Node next) {
this.Data = data;
this.Next = next;
}
}
private Node first = null;
private Node last = null;
//
public void AddToFront(object o) {...}
public void AddToBack(object o) {...}
public object RemoveFromFront() {...}
public object RemoveFromBack() {...}
}

public int Count { get {...} }

Node.

(3.7.1) .
new, .
using System;
class Base
{
public static void M() {
Console.WriteLine("Base.M");
}
}
class Derived: Base
{
new public class M
{
public static void F() {
Console.WriteLine("Derived.M.F");
}
}
}
class Test
{
static void Main() {
Derived.M.F();
}
}

M, M, Base.
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

305

this
- _this (7.5.7). ,
this -.
-,
this -
.
using System;
class C
{
int i = 123;
public void F() {
Nested n = new Nested(this);
n.G();
}
public class Nested
{
C this_c;
public Nested(C c) {
this_c = c;
}
public void G() {
Console.WriteLine(this_c.i);
}
}

class Test
{
static void Main() {
C c = new C();
c.F();
}
}

. C Nested this
Nested, C.
-
, -,
- private protected.
using System;
class C
{
private static void F() {
Console.WriteLine("C.F");
}

306

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

public class Nested


{
public static void G() {
F();
}
}

class Test
{
static void Main() {
C.Nested.G();
}
}

C, Nested. Nested G
F, C, F .
,
-.
using System;
class Base
{
protected void F() {
Console.WriteLine("Base.F");
}
}
class Derived: Base
{
public class Nested
{
public void G() {
Derived d = new Derived();
d.F();
//
}
}
}
class Test
{
static void Main() {
Derived.Nested n = new Derived.Nested();
n.G();
}
}

Derived.Nested F, Base,
Derived, Derived.

.
.
, .

, ,
. , ,
-, .
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

307

;
.
, Inner;
:
class Outer<T>
{
class Inner<U>
{
public static void F(T t, U u) {...}
}
static void F(T t) {
Outer<T>.Inner<string>.F(t, "abc");
Inner<string>.F(t, "abc");

//
//

Outer<int>.Inner<string>.F(3, "abc"); //
Outer.Inner<string>.F(t, "abc");

// , Outer

}
}

,
, :
class Outer<T>
{
class Inner<T>
{
public T t;
}
}

// , T Outer
// T Inner

10.3.9
C#
, , ,
, .
, ,
,
.
, .
, ,
(10.3.3) new (10.3.4).
:


C#;

,
C#;

, , ,
,
C#.

(10.13) (10.3.9.1).

308

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

,
P (10.7) T :
T get_P();
void set_P(T value);

, .

using System;
class A
{
public int P {
get { return 123; }
}
}
class B: A
{
new public int get_P() {
return 456;
}

new public void set_P(int value) {


}

class Test
{
static void Main() {
B b = new B();
A a = b;
Console.WriteLine(a.P);
Console.WriteLine(b.P);
Console.WriteLine(b.get_P());
}
}

A P , get_P
set_P. B A .
:
123
123
456

,
E (10.8) T :
void add_E(T handler);
void remove_E(T handler);

,
(10.9) T L :
T get_Item(L);
void set_Item(L, T value);

, .
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

309

,
, (10.13), :
void Finalize();

10.4
, : ,
. _
.
_:
_ const _ ;
_:
_
_ _
_:
public
protected
internal
private

_:
_
_ , _
_:
= _
_ (17), new (10.3.4)
(10.3.5).
, _.
, _ static.
.
_ , .
_, . _
, , =,
_ (7.18), .
, , sbyte, byte, short, ushort, int, uint, long,
ulong, char, float, double, decimal, bool, string, _ _.
_ ,
(6.1).
, (3.5.4).
_ (7.5.2) __
(7.5.4).
_. ,
, _.
case, goto case, enum,
.
7.18, _ ,
. null
_, string, new, new
310

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

, ,
string, null.
,
,
_, readonly (10.5.2).
, ,
, .
class A
{
public const double X = 1.0, Y = 2.0, Z = 3.0;
}

class A
{
public const double X = 1.0;
public const double Y = 2.0;
public const double Z = 3.0;
}

,
.
.
class A
{
public const int X = B.Z + 1;
public const int Y = 10;
}
class B
{
public const int Z = A.Y + 1;
}

A.Y, B.Z A.X, 10, 11 12.


,
. : A B ,
A.X B.Z, B.Z A.Y.

10.5
, , . _
.
_:
_ _ ;

_:
_
_ _

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

311

_:
new
public
protected
internal
private
static
readonly
volatile

_:
_
_ , _
_:

= _
_:

_
_ (17), new (10.3.4),
(10.3.5) static (10.5.1). ,
_ readonly (10.5.2) volatile (10.5.3), .
, _.
.
_ , .
_, . _
, , =
_ (10.5.5), .
, (3.5.4).
_ (7.5.2) __
(7.5.4). (7.16).
,
(7.5.9)
(7.6.5).
, ,
, .
class A
{
public static int X = 1, Y, Z = 100;
}

class A
{
public static int X = 1;
public static int Y;
public static int Z = 100;
}

312

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

10.5.1
static, , ,
. static,
. (5),
C#, ,
.
,
(4.4.2). , ,
.
.
class C<V>
{
static int count = 0;
public C() {
count++;
}
public static int Count {
get { return count; }
}
}
class Application
{
static void Main() {
C<int> x1 = new C<int>();
Console.WriteLine(C<int>.Count);

// 1

C<double> x2 = new C<double>();


Console.WriteLine(C<int>.Count);

// 1

C<int> x3 = new C<int>();


Console.WriteLine(C<int>.Count);

// 2

. ,
.
__ (7.5.4) E.M, M ,
E , M, M , E
, M.
10.3.7.
10.5.2
_ readonly, , ,
.
, ,
. ( .)
, readonly :

_, (
_);

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

313

, ;
, .
, readonly
out ref.

readonly out ref


.

static readonly , ,
const,
.
public class Color
{
public static readonly
public static readonly
public static readonly
public static readonly
public static readonly

Color
Color
Color
Color
Color

Black = new Color(0, 0, 0);


White = new Color(255, 255, 255);
Red = new Color(255, 0, 0);
Green = new Color(0, 255, 0);
Blue = new Color(0, 0, 255);

private byte red, green, blue;


public Color(byte r, byte g, byte b) {
red = r;
green = g;
blue = b;
}
}

Black, White, Red, Green Blue const,


. static readonly
.

.
, ,
,
. , :
using System;
namespace Program1
{
public class Utils
{
public static readonly int X = 1;
}
}
namespace Program2
{
class Test
{
static void Main() {
Console.WriteLine(Program1.Utils.X);
}
}
}
314

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Program1 Program2 , .
Program1.Utils.X ,
Console.WriteLine , .
, X Program1 , Console.WriteLine
, Program2 . X , X
Program2 Program1
Program2.
10.5.3 volatile
_ volatile, , ,
c volatile.
, , -volatile
,
, _ (8.12).
, . volatile
:

volatile volatile. volatile ,


, ,
;

volatile volatile. volatile


, , ,
.

, volatile,
, , .
volatile,
. volatile :

_;

byte, sbyte, short, ushort, int, uint, char, float, bool, System.IntPtr System.UintPtr;

_, byte, sbyte, short, ushort, int uint.

using System;
using System.Threading;
class Test
{
public static int result;
public static volatile bool finished;
static void Thread2() {
result = 143;
finished = true;
}
static void Main() {
finished = false;

// Thread2()
new Thread(new ThreadStart(Thread2)).Start();

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

315

// , Thread2 result
// finished true.
for (;;) {
if (finished) {
Console.WriteLine("result = {0}", result);
return;
}
}

:
result = 143

Main , Thread2.
-volatile result, true volatile finished.
, finished true, result.
finished volatile, 143 result.
finished volatile, result
finished, 0 result.
finished volatile .
10.5.4
, , ,
(5.2) . ,
.
using System;
class Test
{
static bool b;
int i;

static void Main() {


Test t = new Test();
Console.WriteLine("b = {0}, i = {1}", b, t.i);
}


b = False, i = 0

b, i .
10.5.5
_.
,
.
, .

using System;

316

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
class Test
{
static double x = Math.Sqrt(2.0);
int i = 100;
string s = "Hello";
static void Main() {
Test a = new Test();
Console.WriteLine("x = {0}, i = {1}, s = {2}", x, a.i, a.s);
}
}


x = 1.4142135623731, i = 100, s = Hello

x ,
i s .
, 10.5.4, , ,
. , ,
,
. , ,
,
.

. .
using System;
class Test
{
static int a = b + 1;
static int b = a + 1;

static void Main() {


Console.WriteLine("a = {0}, b = {1}", a, b);
}

. a b, .

a = 1, b = 2

a b 0 ( int)
. a, b ,
a 1. b, a 1,
b 2.


, , .
(10.12),
.

.

using System;

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

317

class Test
{
static void Main() {
Console.WriteLine("{0} {1}", B.Y, A.X);
}

public static int F(string s) {


Console.WriteLine(s);
return 1;
}

class A
{
public static int X = Test.F("Init A");
}
class B
{
public static int Y = Test.F("Init B");
}

:
Init A
Init B
11

:
Init B
Init A
11

X Y ;
. :
using System;
class Test
{
static void Main() {
Console.WriteLine("{0} {1}", B.Y, A.X);
}

public static int F(string s) {


Console.WriteLine(s);
return 1;
}
class A
{
static A() {}
}

public static int X = Test.F("Init A");

class B
{
static B() {}
public static int Y = Test.F("Init B");
}
318

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

:
Init B
Init A
11

( 10.12) ,
B ( B)
A.


,
(10.11.1) . ,
.
10.11.
.
, this ,
_, .

class A
{
int x = 1;
int y = x + 1;
}

// , this

y ,
.

10.6
, ,
. _:
_:
_ _
_:
_ partial __
_ __
( __ )
___

_:
_
_ _

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

319

_:
new
public
protected
internal
private
static
virtual
sealed
override
abstract
extern

__:

void

_:

_ .
_:

_ (17)
(10.3.5), new (10.3.4), static (10.6.2), virtual (10.6.3),
override (10.6.4), sealed (10.6.5), abstract (10.6.6) extern (10.6.7).
, :

(10.3.5);

: static, virtual override;

: new override;

abstract,
: static, virtual, sealed extern;

private,
: virtual, override abstract;

sealed,
override;

partial,
: new, public, protected, internal, private, virtual, sealed, override, abstract
extern.

__ ,
. , __
void. partial, void.
_ .
(13.4.1), _ . _
_, . .

320

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

__ (10.1.3).
, .
extern, __ .
__ (10.6.1).
___
(10.1.5)
__, override.
__ __
, (3.5.4).
abstract extern _ . partial
_ , .
_ , .
, (3.6)
. , , ,
. ,
, ,
.
, .
-, .
, ,
, , , ,
ref out.
_ _
__, _
___, .
.
10.6.1
, , __ .
__:
_
_ , _
_
_:
_
_ , _
_:
_
_:
ref
out
this

_:
params _

, ,
_.
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

321

_ (17),
ref, out this, . _
. this
.
10.6.9.
_ (17), params,
_ .
. _
(12.1).
, .
10.6.1.4.
,
.
, .
.

.
(7.5.5.1)
,
.
_ (7.5.2).
:

, ;

, ref;

, out;

, params.

3.6, ref out , params


.

, , .
,
, .
,
, (6.1) .
.
,
, .

, ref, .
, .
, ,
.
,
ref, __ (5.3.3)
322

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

, . ,
.
.
, (10.14), .

using System;
class Test
{
static void Swap(ref int x, ref int y) {
int temp = x;
x = y;
y = temp;
}

static void Main() {


int i = 1, j = 2;
Swap(ref i, ref j);
Console.WriteLine("i = {0}, j = {1}", i, j);
}


i = 2, j = 1

Swap Main x i, y j. ,
i j.
, ,
.
class A
{
string s;
void F(ref string a, ref string b) {
s = "One";
a = "Two";
b = "Three";
}

void G() {
F(ref s, ref s);
}

F G s a, b. , s, a b
, s.

, out, .
, .
, ,
.

,
out, __
(5.3.3) , .
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

323

, , ,
,
.
, , ,
, .
.
, (10.2.7) (10.14),
.
, .
.
using System;
class Test
{
static void SplitPath(string path, out string dir, out string name) {
int i = path.Length;
while (i > 0) {
char ch = path[i 1];
if (ch == '\\' || ch == '/' || ch == ':') break;
i--;
}
dir = path.Substring(0, i);
name = path.Substring(i);
}
static void Main() {
string dir, name;
SplitPath("c:\\Windows\\System\\hello.txt", out dir, out name);
Console.WriteLine(dir);
Console.WriteLine(name);
}
}

:
c:\Windows\System\
hello.txt

, dir name
SplitPath, .

, params, .
,
. , string[] string[][]
, string[,] . params
ref out.
:

, , ,
(6.1) .
, ;

,
, (6.1)

324

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

. ,
,

.
,
(10.6.1.1) .

using System;
class Test
{
static void F(params int[] args) {
Console.Write(" {0} :", args.Length);
foreach (int i in args)
Console.Write(" {0}", i);
Console.WriteLine();
}

static void Main() {


int[] arr = {1, 2, 3};
F(arr);
F(10, 20, 30, 40);
F();
}


3 : 1 2 3
4 : 10 20 30 40
0 :

F a . F
int[]
. , F
int[] .
:
F(new int[] {10, 20, 30, 40});
F(new int[] {});


, (7.4.3.1).
, ,
.

using System;
class Test
{
static void F(params object[] a) {
Console.WriteLine("F(object[])");
}

static void F() {


Console.WriteLine("F()");
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

325

static void F(object a0, object a1) {


Console.WriteLine("F(object,object)");
}
static void Main() {
F();
F(1);
F(1, 2);
F(1, 2, 3);
F(1, 2, 3, 4);
}
}


F();
F(object[]);
F(object,object);
F(object[]);
F(object[]);


.
, .
,
.
, .
object[],
object.
, object[] object.

.

using System;
class Test
{
static void F(params object[] args) {
foreach (object o in args) {
Console.Write(o.GetType().FullName);
Console.Write(" ");
}
Console.WriteLine();
}
static void Main() {
object[] a = {1, "", 123.456};
object o = a;
F(a);
F((object)a);
F(o);
F((object[])o);
}
}

326

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
System.Int32 System.String System.Double
System.Object[]
System.Object[]
System.Int32 System.String System.Double

F F,
( object[]). ,
F,
. F ,
( object
object[]).
F, .
object[], ,
( object[]).
10.6.2
static. static ,
.
.
this .
,
this (7.5.7).
__ (7.5.4) E.M M
E , M, M ,
M.
10.3.7.
10.6.3
virtual,
. virtual , .
,
, , .
, .

(10.6.4).
,
, .
. ,
N A , C
R ( R C C ),
.
C, N A M
, C. 7.5.5.1.

, M , M.

M ,
M R.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

327

, ,
.
M R .

R virtual M,
M.

, R override M,
M.

M R
M R.

:
using System;
class A
{
public void F() { Console.WriteLine("A.F"); }
public virtual void G() { Console.WriteLine("A.G"); }
}
class B: A
{
new public void F() { Console.WriteLine("B.F"); }
}

public override void G() { Console.WriteLine("B.G"); }

class Test
{
static void Main() {
B b = new B();
A a = b;
a.F();
b.F();
a.G();
b.G();
}
}

A F G. B
F, F,
G. :
A.F
B.F
B.G
B.G

, a.G() B.G, A.G. ,


( B),
(A).
,
. ,
.
using System;

328

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
class A
{
public virtual void F() { Console.WriteLine("A.F"); }
}
class B: A
{
public override void F() { Console.WriteLine("B.F"); }
}
class C: B
{
new public virtual void F() { Console.WriteLine("C.F"); }
}
class D: C
{
public override void F() { Console.WriteLine("D.F"); }
}
class Test
{
static void Main() {
D d = new D();
A a = d;
B b = d;
C c = d;
a.F();
b.F();
c.F();
d.F();
}
}

C D ,
A, C. , C, ,
A. , D ,
C. D ,
A. :
B.F
B.F
D.F
D.F

,
D , .
10.6.4
override,
.
. .
,
.

, override,
. M, C,
C .
C
. , ,
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

329

M, .
, public, protected,
protected internal internal , C.
,
.

(. ).

.
, ,
.

, .
,
.


. ,
. protected internal
, , ,
protected.

, .
.

:
abstract class C<T>
{
public virtual T F() {...}
public virtual C<T> G() {...}
}

public virtual void H(C<T> x) {...}

class D: C<string>
{
public override string F() {...}

//

public override C<string> G() {...}


public override void H(C<T> x) {...}
C<string>
}
class E<T,U>: C<U>
{
public override U F() {...}

//
// .

//

public override C<U> G() {...}

//

public override void H(C<T> x) {...}

// . C<U>


_ (7.5.8).
330

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
class A
{
int x;

public virtual void PrintFields() {


Console.WriteLine("x = {0}", x);
}

class B: A
{
int y;

public override void PrintFields() {


base.PrintFields();
Console.WriteLine("y = {0}", y);
}

base.PrintFields() B PrintFields, A.
_ ,
. B ((A)this).PrintFields(),
PrintFields, B, A.
, PrintFields , ((A)this)
B.
override.
, ,
.
class A
{
public virtual void F() {}
}
class B: A
{
public virtual void F() {}
F()
}

// .

F B override , , F
A. F B A, ,
new.

class A
{
public virtual void F() {}
}
class B: A
{
new private void F() {}
}

class C: B
{
public override void F() {}
}

// A.F B

// . A.F

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

331

F B F, A.
F B private,
B C. , F C
, F A.
10.6.5
sealed,
. sealed,
override. sealed
.

using System;
class A
{
public virtual void F() {
Console.WriteLine("A.F");
}
public virtual void G() {
Console.WriteLine("A.G");
}
}
class B: A
{
sealed override public void F() {
Console.WriteLine("B.F");
}

override public void G() {


Console.WriteLine("B.G");
}

class C: B
{
override public void G() {
Console.WriteLine("C.G");
}
}

B : F sealed G
. sealed B
F C.
10.6.6
abstract,
. ,
virtual.
,
. ,
.
, __
.

332

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

(10.1.1.1).

public abstract class Shape
{
public abstract void Paint(Graphics g, Rectangle r);
}
public class Ellipse: Shape
{
public override void Paint(Graphics g, Rectangle r) {
g.DrawEllipse(r);
}
}
public class Box: Shape
{
public override void Paint(Graphics g, Rectangle r) {
g.DrawRect(r);
}
}

Shape
. Paint ,
. Ellipse Box Shape.
, Paint
.
_ (7.5.8)
.
abstract class A
{
public abstract void F();
}
class B: A
{
public override void F() {
base.F();
}
}

// . base.F

base.F() ,
.
.
.
.
using System;

class A
{
public virtual void F() {
Console.WriteLine("A.F");
}
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

333

abstract class B: A
{
public abstract override void F();
}
class C: B
{
public override void F() {
Console.WriteLine("C.F");
}
}

A , B .
C .
10.6.7
extern, .
, C#.
, __
. .
extern DllImport (17.5),
(DLL).
.
DllImport,
static. extern
DllImport:
using System.Text;
using System.Security.Permissions;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;
class Path
{
[DllImport("kernel32", SetLastError=true)]
static extern bool CreateDirectory(string name, SecurityAttribute sa);
[DllImport("kernel32", SetLastError=true)]
static extern bool RemoveDirectory(string name);
[DllImport("kernel32", SetLastError=true)]
static extern int GetCurrentDirectory(int bufSize, StringBuilder buf);

[DllImport("kernel32", SetLastError=true)]
static extern bool SetCurrentDirectory(string name);

10.6.8
partial, .
(10.2).
.
. 10.2.7.
10.6.9
this,
. ,
.
this .
334

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

, :
public static class Extensions
{
public static int ToInt32(this string s) {
return Int32.Parse(s);
}
public static T[] Slice<T>(this T[] source, int index, int count) {
if (index < 0 || count < 0 || source.Length index < count)
throw new ArgumentException();
T[] result = new T[count];
Array.Copy(source, index, result, 0, count);
return result;
}
}

. ,

(7.5.5.2). .
:
static class Program
{
static void Main() {
string[] strings = { "1", "22", "333", "4444" };
foreach (string s in strings.Slice(1, 2)) {
Console.WriteLine(s.ToInt32());
}
}
}

Slice string[], ToInt32 string,


. ,
:
static class Program
{
static void Main() {
string[] strings = { "1", "22", "333", "4444" };
foreach (string s in Extensions.Slice(strings, 1, 2)) {
Console.WriteLine(Extensions.ToInt32(s));
}
}
}

10.6.10
_ .
,
. (8.2),
, .

, void,
return (8.9.4) . , void,
( ),
.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

335

void, return
, .
, , . ,
, , .

class A
{
public int F() {}

// .

public int G() {


return 1;
}
public int H(bool b) {
if (b) {
return 1;
}
else {
return 0;
}
}
}

F, , ,
. G H ,
return,
.
10.6.11
7.4.2.

10.7
, .
: , , . .
. , ,
. ,
. , ,
. , ,
. ,
.
_:
_:
_ _
{ __ }
_:
_
_ _

336

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

_:
new
public
protected
internal
private
static
virtual
sealed
override
abstract
extern

_:

_ .
_ (17),
(10.3.5), new (10.3.4), static (10.6.2), virtual (10.6.3),
override (10.6.4), sealed (10.6.5), abstract (10.6.6) extern (10.6.7).

, (10.6).
. _ .
, _
. (13.4.1) _
_, . ( ).
, (3.5.4).
__ { }
(10.7.2) . ,
.
,
. ,
ref out.
extern, .
,
__ .
10.7.1
static, .
static , .
.
this .
,
this (7.5.7) .
__ (7.5.4) E.M
M E , M, M
, M.

10.3.7.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

337

10.7.2
__ ,
.
__:
___get ___set
___set ___get
___get:
__ get __
___set:
__ set __
__:
protected
internal
private
protected internal
internal protected

__:

___get,
___set .
get set, __
__.
__ .

__
.

, override,
__ ,
(get set), .

, override,
__
.

__ ,
. :
o

public,
__.

protected internal,
__ internal, protected private.

internal protected,
__ private.

private,
__ .

abstract extern __
. , ,
. (get set),
338

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

(10.7.3). __ ,
, , ,
.
get ,
. ,
, get
(7.1.1). get
, 10.6.10. , return
get ,
. , get .
set void
, . set
value. (7.16)
++ -- (7.5.9, 7.6.5), set (
+
+ --), (7.16.1). set
void , 10.6.10. ,
return set . set
value,
.
get set
.

, (get set), .

, get, .

.

, set, .

.
.


public class Button: Control
{
private string caption;
public string Caption {
get {
return caption;
}
set {
if (caption != value) {
caption = value;
Repaint();
}
}
}

public override void Paint(Graphics g, Rectangle r) {


//
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

339

Button Caption. get Caption


, caption. set
, , , .
. get ,
, set ,
.
Caption Button:
Button okButton = new Button();
okButton.Caption = "";
// set
string s = okButton.Caption;
// get

set ,
get .
get set
.
.
class A
{
private string name;

public string Name {


get { return name; }
}

// .

public string Name {


set { name = value; }
}

// .

.
, ,
. , , ,
.
,

.
class A
{
public int P {
set {...}
}
}
class B: A
{
new public int P {
get {...}
}
}

P B P A .
,
B b = new B();
b.P = 1;
// . B.P
((A)b).P = 1; // . A.P
340

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

b.P ,
P B P A. ,
P .

. :
class Label
{
private int x, y;
private string caption;
public Label(int x, int y, string caption) {
this.x = x;
this.y = y;
this.caption = caption;
}
public int X {
get { return x; }
}
public int Y {
get { return y; }
}
public Point Location {
get { return new Point(x, y); }
}

public string Caption {


get { return caption; }
}

Label int (x y)
. X Y,
Location Point. Label
Point, ,
:
class Label
{
private Point location;
private string caption;
public Label(int x, int y, string caption) {
this.location = new Point(x, y);
this.caption = caption;
}
public int X {
get { return location.x; }
}
public int Y {
get { return location.y; }
}

public Point Location {


get { return location; }
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

341

public string Caption {


get { return caption; }
}
}

x y public , Label
.
,
. ,
,
.
,
.
get ,
, get
.
class Counter
{
private int next;
public int Next {
get { return next++; }
}
}

Next . ,
,
.
get ,
get , .
get
.
get ,
.
,
. :
using System.IO;
public class Console
{
private static TextReader reader;
private static TextWriter writer;
private static TextWriter error;
public static TextReader In {
get {
if (reader == null) {
reader = new StreamReader(Console.OpenStandardInput());
}
return reader;
}
}

342

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
public static TextWriter Out {
get {
if (writer == null) {
writer = new StreamWriter(Console.OpenStandardOutput());
}
return writer;
}
}

public static TextWriter Error {


get {
if (error == null) {
error = new StreamWriter(Console.OpenStandardError());
}
return error;
}
}

Console (In, Out Error),


, .
Console .
, Out,
Console.Out.WriteLine("!");

TextWriter .
In Error, .
10.7.3
, ,
, .
:
public class Point {
public int X { get; set; } //
public int Y { get; set; } //
}

:
public class Point {
private int x;
private int y;
public int X { get { return x; } set { x = value; } }
public int Y { get { return y; } set { y = value; } }
}

,
. ,
.
. ,
:

public class ReadOnlyPoint {


public int X { get; private set; }
public int Y { get; private set; }
public ReadOnlyPoint(int x, int y) { X = x; Y = y; }
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

343

,
,
. ,
.
10.7.4
__, (3.5.2)
__.
__,
.
__ (7.3)
(7.4.3).
.

.

(7.1.1)
get.

(7.16.1)
set.

(7.16.2)
++ -- (7.5.9, 7.6.5)
(get set).

A.Text B.Text ,
set. , B.Count M,
A.Count.
class A
{
public string Text {
get { return "!"; }
set { }
}

public int Count {


get { return 5; }
set { }
}

class B: A
{
private string text = "!";
private int count = 0;
new public string Text {
get { return text; }
protected set { text = value; }
}
new protected int Count {
get { return count; }
set { count = value; }
}
}
344

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
class M
{
static void Main() {
B b = new B();
b.Count = 12;
// set A.Count
int i = b.Count;
// get A.Count
b.Text = " ?";
// . set B.Text

string s = b.Text;
// get B.Text
}
}

, ,
__.
, __:
public interface I
{
string Prop { get; }
}
public class C: I
{
public Prop {
get { return ""; }
//
internal set {...}
// , I.Prop
set
}
}

10.7.5 , ,
virtual , .
virtual .
.
abstract , ,
.
,
.
, __ .
, abstract override, ,
.
.
(10.1.1.1).
,
, override.
. .
.

,
, .
( ),
.
( ),
.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

345

sealed.
.
.
, , ,
,
, . , ,
10.6.3, 10.6.4, 10.6.5 10.6.6,
.

get ,
, .

set void,
, , , .


abstract class A
{
int y;
public virtual int X {
get { return 0; }
}
public virtual int Y {
get { return y; }
set { y = value; }
}
}

public abstract int Z { get; set; }

X , Y , Z
. Z ,
A .

, A:
class B: A
{
int z;
public override int X {
get { return base.X + 1; }
}
public override int Y {
set { base.Y = value < 0? 0: value; }
}

public override int Z {


get { return z; }
set { z = value; }
}

X, Y Z
. , ,
. get X set
Y base .
Z . , B
346

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

, B
.
override,
. ,

. :
public class B
{
public virtual int P {
protected set {...}
get {...}
}
}
public class D: B
{
public override int P {
protected set {...}
get {...}
}
}

// protected
//

10.8
, .
.
_:
_:
_ event
;
_ event _
{ ___ }
_:
_
_ _
_:
new
public
protected
internal
private
static
virtual
sealed
override
abstract
extern

__ :
___add ___remove
___remove ___add

___add:
add
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

347

___remove:
remove
_ (17),
(10.3.5), new (10.3.4), static (10.6.2), virtual (10.6.3),
override (10.6.4), sealed (10.6.5), abstract (10.6.6) extern (10.6.7).

, (10.6).
_ (4.2) ,
(3.5.4).
___.
, , ,
(10.8.1).
.
, ___,
_.
, _.
_ abstract
___, .
extern, .
,
extern ___ .
+= -= (7.16.3).

. ,
.
+= -= ,
.
, .
x += y x -= y ( x ,
x) void ( x x
).
.
Button:
public delegate void EventHandler(object sender, EventArgs e);
public class Button: Control
{
public event EventHandler Click;
}
public class LoginDialog: Form
{
Button OkButton;
Button CancelButton;

348

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
public LoginDialog() {
OkButton = new Button(...);
OkButton.Click += new EventHandler(OkButtonClick);
CancelButton = new Button(...);
CancelButton.Click += new EventHandler(CancelButtonClick);
}
void OkButtonClick(object sender, EventArgs e) {
// OkButton.Click
}

void CancelButtonClick(object sender, EventArgs e) {


// CancelButton.Click
}

LoginDialog
Button Click.
10.8.1 ,
, ,
. abstract extern
____.
, . (15),
, .
, null.

public delegate void EventHandler(object sender, EventArgs e);
public class Button: Control
{
public event EventHandler Click;
protected void OnClick(EventArgs e) {
if (Click != null) Click(this, e);
}
public void Reset() {
Click = null;
}
}

Click Button. ,
, . OnClick Button
"" Click. ,
,
. , , null.
Button Click +=
=,
b.Click += new EventHandler();

Click,
b.Click = new EventHandler();

Click.

, ,
,
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

349

. ,
(8.12) (7.5.10.6)
.
, :
class X
{
public event D Ev;
}

, :
class X
{
private D __Ev; //
public event D Ev {
add {
lock(this) { __Ev = __Ev + value; }
}
remove {
lock(this) { __Ev = __Ev - value; }
}
}

X Ev __Ev. "__Ev"
; .
:
class X
{
public static event D Ev;
}

, :
class X
{
private static D __Ev; //
public static event D Ev {
add {
lock(typeof(X)) { __Ev = __Ev + value; }
}
remove {
lock(typeof(X)) { __Ev = __Ev - value; }
}
}

10.8.2
___,
Button. ,
.
____
.

350

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

____ ,
.
___add
___remove. add
remove, . , ___add,
, , ,
___remove, ,
.
___add ___remove
void.
value. ,
. ,
+=, add, -=,
remove.
. ___add
___remove void,
10.6.10. , return .
value,

.

class Control: Component
{
//
static readonly object mouseDownEventKey = new object();
static readonly object mouseUpEventKey = new object();
// ,
protected Delegate GetEventHandler(object key) {...}
// ,
protected void AddEventHandler(object key, Delegate handler) {...}
// ,
protected void RemoveEventHandler(object key, Delegate handler) {...}
// MouseDown
public event MouseEventHandler MouseDown {
add { AddEventHandler(mouseDownEventKey, value); }
remove { RemoveEventHandler(mouseDownEventKey, value); }
}
// MouseUp
public event MouseEventHandler MouseUp {
add { AddEventHandler(mouseUpEventKey, value); }
remove { RemoveEventHandler(mouseUpEventKey, value); }
}
// MouseUp
protected void OnMouseUp(MouseEventArgs args) {
MouseEventHandler handler;
handler = (MouseEventHandler)GetEventHandler(mouseUpEventKey);
if (handler != null)
handler(this, args);
}

}
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

351

Control . AddEventHandler
, GetEventHandler ,
, RemoveEventHandler
. , ,
null ,
.
10.8.3
static, .
static, .
, this
.
,
this (7.5.7) .
__ (7.5.4) E.M, M
, E , M, M , E
, M.
10.3.7.
10.8.4 , ,
virtual , .
virtual .
abstract , ,
.

.
,
____.
, abstract override, ,
.
.
(10.1.1.1).

, override.
.
.
.
,
, .
sealed.
.
.
new
.
, , ,
, ,
, . , , 10.6.3,
352

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

10.6.4, 10.6.5 10.6.6, ,


. -
, void , .

10.9
, , .
_:
_:
_ _
{ __ }
_:
_
_ _
_:
new
public
protected
internal
private
virtual
sealed
override
abstract
extern

_:
this [ __ ]
_ . this [ -- ]
_ (17)
(10.3.5) new (10.3.4), virtual (10.6.3), override (10.6.4),
sealed (10.6.5), abstract (10.6.6) extern (10.6.7).
, (10.6),
, static
.
virtual, override abstract , .
abstract override ,
.
, .
,
this.
_, . this. ,
, .
__ .
(10.6.1), ,
, ref out .

, __
, (3.5.4).

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

353

__ (10.7.2), {" "},


. ,
.
, ,
. ,
ref out.
(3.6) . ,
.
.
,
.
, :

, ;

_ (7.5.2) __ (7.5.4),
__ (7.5.6.2);

static , ;

get , get
, ;

set value,
set ,
, value;

,
, ;


base.P, P .
base[E], E
, .

, , 10.7.2 10.7.3,
, .
extern,
. ,
__ .
BitArray,
.
using System;
class BitArray
{
int[] bits;
int length;
public BitArray(int length) {
if (length < 0) throw new ArgumentException();
bits = new int[((length - 1) >> 5) + 1];
this.length = length;
}

354

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
public int Length {
get { return length; }
}

public bool this[int index] {


get {
if (index < 0 || index >= length) {
throw new IndexOutOfRangeException();
}
return (bits[index >> 5] & 1 << index) != 0;
}
set {
if (index < 0 || index >= length) {
throw new IndexOutOfRangeException();
}
if (value) {
bits[index >> 5] |= 1 << index;
}
else {
bits[index >> 5] &= ~(1 << index);
}
}
}

BitArray , bool[] (
, ),
, bool[].
CountPrimes BitArray
1 :
class CountPrimes
{
static int Count(int max) {
BitArray flags = new BitArray(max + 1);
int count = 1;
for (int i = 2; i <= max; i++) {
if (!flags[i]) {
for (int j = i * 2; j <= max; j += i) flags[j] = true;
count++;
}
}
return count;
}

static void Main(string[] args) {


int max = int.Parse(args[0]);
int count = Count(max);
Console.WriteLine(" {0} 1 {1}", count, max);
}

, BitArray , bool[].
26 10 .
AZ,
09.

using System;

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

355

class Grid
{
const int NumRows = 26;
const int NumCols = 10;
int[,] cells = new int[NumRows, NumCols];
public int this[char c, int col] {
get {
c = Char.ToUpper(c);
if (c < 'A' || c > 'Z') {
throw new ArgumentException();
}
if (col < 0 || col >= NumCols) {
throw new IndexOutOfRangeException();
}
return cells[c - 'A', col];
}

set {
c = Char.ToUpper(c);
if (c < 'A' || c > 'Z') {
throw new ArgumentException();
}
if (col < 0 || col >= NumCols) {
throw new IndexOutOfRangeException();
}
cells[c - 'A', col] = value;
}

10.9.1
7.4.2.

10.10
, ,
. _:
_:
_ _ _
_:
_
_ _
_:
public
static
extern

_:
__
__
__
__:
operator __ ( )

356

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

__:
+ - ! ~ ++ -- true false
__:
operator __ ( ,
)
__:
+
*
/
%
&
|
^
<<

right_shift
==
!=
>
<
>=
<=

__:
implicit operator ( )
explicit operator ( )
_:

: (10.10.1),
(10.10.2) (10.10.3).
extern, .
, _
. _ ,
, .
, , 10.6.10.
:

: public static;

-.
ref out ;

(10.10.1, 10.10.2, 10.10.3)


, ;

, ,
, (3.5.4);

,
.
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

357

, , ,
. ,
, , , ,
, . , new
.
7.2.
6.4.
10.10.1
, T
, :

+, -, ! ~ T T?
;

++ T T?
, ;

true false T T?
bool.

(+, -, !, ~, ++, --, true false)


.
, .
true false .
, . true
false 7.11.2 7.19.
operator ++
:
public class IntVector
{
public IntVector(int length) {...}
public int Length {...}
public int this[int index] {...}

//
// -

public static IntVector operator ++(IntVector iv) {


IntVector temp = new IntVector(iv.Length);
for (int i = 0; i < iv.Length; i++)
temp[i] = iv[i] + 1;
return temp;
}
}
class Test
{
static void Main() {
IntVector iv1 = new IntVector(4);
IntVector iv2;

// 4 x 0

iv2 = iv1++; // iv2 4 x 0, iv1 4 x 1


iv2 = ++iv1; // iv2 4 x 2, iv1 4 x 2
}
}

358

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

, , 1 ,
, (7.6.5)
(7.5.9). C++,
.
.
10.10.2
, T
, :

- ,
T T?, ;

<< >> ,
T T?, int int?, .

( +, -, *, /, %, &, |, ^, <<, >>, ==, !=, >, <,


>= <=) .
.
.
.
,
. :

operator == operator !=

operator > operator <

operator >= operator <=

10.10.3
, (6.4),
.
, implicit,
, .
, , .
6.1.
, explicit,
, .
, 6.2.
,
, , .
S T, S T ,
, S0 T0 , S0 T0 S
T . S
T, :
S0 T0 ;

S0, T0 ,
;

S0, T0 _;

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

359

, , S T T
S.

, S T,
, ,
.

class C<T> {...}
class D<T>: C<T>
{
public static implicit operator C<int>(D<T> value) {...}

//

public static implicit operator C<string>(D<T> value) {...} //


public static implicit operator C<T>(D<T> value) {...}

//

, , 10.9.3, T int string


. ,
C<T> D<T>.
, ,
, . , C
C int int C, int bool.
. ,
object,
object . ,
,
.
,
, .
struct Convertible<T>
{
public static implicit operator Convertible<T>(T value) {...}
public static explicit operator T(Convertible<T> value) {...}
}

object T, ,
( , ,
object).
, ,
, , . :

(6.1) S T,
( ) S T ;

(6.2) S T,
S T .
S T .

, object, , Convertible<T> ,
. .

360

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
void F(int i, Convertible<int> n) {
i = n;
//
i = (int)n;
//

n = i;
//

n = (Convertible<int>)i;
//

object
, :
void F(object o, Convertible<object> n) {
o = n;
//
o = (object)n;
//
n = o;
//

n = (Convertible<object>)o;//
}

_.
, -
_, _
, _.
. ( ,
, .)
implicit explicit .
, implicit explicit
.
, ,
.
(,
) (, ),
.

using System;
public struct Digit
{
byte value;
public Digit(byte value) {
if (value < 0 || value > 9) throw new ArgumentException();
this.value = value;
}
public static implicit operator byte(Digit d) {
return d.value;
}
public static explicit operator Digit(byte b) {
return new Digit(b);
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

361

Digit byte ,
, byte Digit , Digit
byte.

10.11
, ,
. _:
_:
_ _
_
_:
_
_ _
_:
public
protected
internal
private
extern

_:
( __ )
_
_:
: base ( _ )
: this ( _ )
_:

_ (17),
(10.3.5) extern (10.6.7).
.
_ ,
. , .
__
, __ (10.6).
(3.6) ,
(7.4.2) .
, __ ,
, (3.5.4).
_
, _ .
10.11.1.
extern,
.
, _ .
_ ,
.
void (10.6.10).
362

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

. , ,
, .
,
(10.11.4).
__ (7.5.10.1)
_.
10.11.1
( object)
_. ,
, _:

base(_)
.
_ 7.4.3.
,
, (10.11.4),
.
, ;

this(_)
.
_ 7.4.3.
, .

, .
, ,
.

,
base(). ,
C(...) {...}


C(...): base() {...}

, _
, . ,
. .
class A
{
public A(int x, int y) {}
}
class B: A
{
public B(int x, int y): base(x + y, x - y) {}
}

.
this ,
_,
.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

363

10.11.2

base(...), ,
_ , .
,
.
.
10.11.3
,
.
-
, .

using System;
class A
{
public A() {
PrintFields();
}
public virtual void PrintFields() {}
}
class B: A
{
int x = 1;
int y;
public B() {
y = -1;
}
public override void PrintFields() {
Console.WriteLine("x = {0}, y = {1}", x, y);
}
}

new B() B, :
x = 1, y = 0

x 1,
. y 0 ( int),
y .
,
_.
using System;
using System.Collections;
class A
{
int x = 1, y = -1, count;
public A() {
count = 0;
}
364

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
public A(int n) {
count = n;
}
}
class B: A
{
double sqrt2 = Math.Sqrt(2.0);
ArrayList items = new ArrayList(100);
int max;
public B(): this(100) {
items.Add("default");
}
public B(int n): base(n 1) {
max = n;
}
}

,
(base this). , ,
(,
, ).
using System.Collections;
class A
{
int x, y, count;
public A() {
x = 1;
y = -1;
object();
count = 0;
}
public A(int n) {
x = 1;
y = -1;
object();
count = n;
}

//
//
// object()

//
//
// object()

}
class B: A
{
double sqrt2;
ArrayList items;
int max;

public B(): this(100) {


B(100);
items.Add("default");
}

// B(int)

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

365

public B(int n): base(n 1) {


sqrt2 = Math.Sqrt(2.0);
//
items = new ArrayList(100); //
A(n 1);
// A(int)
max = n;
}

10.11.4
,
.
.
, , .
, .
. ,

protected C(): base() {}

public C(): base() {}

C .

class Message
{
object sender;
string text;
}

,
. ,
class Message
{
object sender;
string text;
}

public Message(): base() {}

10.11.5
T ,
T T T. ,
,
. :
public class Trig
{
private Trig() {}

//

public const double PI = 3.14159265358979323846;


public static double Sin(double x) {...}
public static double Cos(double x) {...}
public static double Tan(double x) {...}
}

366

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Trig , .
.
,
.
10.11.6
this(...)
.
class Text
{
public Text(): this(0, 0, null) {}
public Text(int x, int y): this(x, y, null) {}

public Text(int x, int y, string s) {


//
}


. this(...)
, .
:
Text t1 = new Text();
Text t2 = new Text(5, 10);
Text t3 = new Text(5, 20, "Hello");

// , Text(0, 0, null)
// , Text(5, 10, null)

10.12
, ,
.
__:
__:
__ ( )
__
__:
extern static
static extern
__:

__ (17)
extern (10.6.7).
__ ,
. ,
.

extern,
.
, __
.
__ , ,

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

367

, . _
void (10.6.10).
.

.
, :

Main (3.1), ,
Main.

(10.5.1) .
(5.2). (10.4.5.1)
. .

using System;
class Test
{
static void Main() {
A.F();
B.F();
}
}
class A
{
static A() {
Console.WriteLine("Init A");
}
public static void F() {
Console.WriteLine("A.F");
}
}
class B
{
static B() {
Console.WriteLine("Init B");
}
public static void F() {
Console.WriteLine("B.F");
}
}

:
Init A
A.F
Init B
B.F

368

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

A A.F,
B B.F.
,
.

using System;
class A
{
public static int X;

static A() {
X = B.Y + 1;
}

class B
{
public static int Y = A.X + 1;
static B() {}

static void Main() {


Console.WriteLine("X = {0}, Y = {1}", A.X, B.Y);
}


X = 1, Y = 2

Main B.Y,
B. Y A,
A.X. A
X Y, . A.X
1. A
,
Y, 2.

,
-,
(10.1.5). , ,
:
class Gen<T> where T: struct
{
static Gen() {
if (!typeof(T).IsEnum) {
throw new ArgumentException("T enum");
}
}
}

10.13

, ,
. _:

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

369

_:
extern ~ ( ) _
_:

_ (17).
_ ,
. , .
extern,
.
, _ .
_ , .
_ _
void (10.6.10).
. , , ,
.
, ,
.
, .
, .
,
. ,
, .
. , ,
, . 3.9.

using System;
class A
{
~A() {
Console.WriteLine(" A");
}
}
class B: A
{
~B() {
Console.WriteLine(" B");
}
}
class Test
{
static void Main() {
B b = new B();
b = null;
GC.Collect();
GC.WaitForPendingFinalizers();
}
}

370

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
B
A

,
.
Finalize System.Object.
C# ( )
. ,
class A
{
override protected void Finalize() {}
public void F() {
this.Finalize();
}

//
//

.
, .
, :
class A
{
void Finalize() {}
}

//

, Finalize System.Object.
, , . 16.3.

10.14
(7.4), (8.2), .
,
(10.14.1)
(10.14.2). _, _
__, , ,
.
, ref out
.
10.14.1
System.Collections.IEnumerator
System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerator<T>.
IEnumerator IEnumerator<T>
.
10.14.2

System.Collections.IEnumerable
System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<T>.
IEnumerable IEnumerable<T>
.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

371

10.14.3 yield
. yield
.

, IEnumerator IEnumerable, object.

, IEnumerator<T> IEnumerable<T>, T.

10.14.4
, ,
, .
. ,
, ,
MoveNext . :

IEnumerator IEnumerator<T>, T yield .

System.IDisposable.

( ) ,
.

, before, running, suspended after,


before.

,
,
. , ,
, , , ,
(2.4.2).
, .
MoveNext, Current Dispose
IEnumerable IEnumerable<T>, .
, IEnumerator.Reset.
System.NotSupportedException.
MoveNext
MoveNext .
MoveNext Current
. , MoveNext,
MoveNext:

before, MoveNext:
o

running;

( this)
, ;

, (
).

running, MoveNext .

suspended, MoveNext:

372

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

running;

( this)
, .
, , ,
MoveNext;

,
yield return, , ,
( ).

after, MoveNext false.

MoveNext , :
yield return, yield break,
, .

yield return (8.14):


o

, , , yield
Current ;

.
( this) , yield return.
yield return try, finally
;

suspended;

MoveNext true , ,
.

yield break (8.14):


o

yield break try,


finally ;

after;

MoveNext false , , .

:
o

after;

MoveNext false , , .

:
o

finally
;

after;

MoveNext.

Current
Current yield return .

suspended, Current ,
MoveNext.
before, running after, Current .
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

373

, object, Current
IEnumerable Current
IEnumerator<T> object.
Dispose
Dispose
after.

before, Dispose after.

running, Dispose .

suspended, Dispose:
o

running;

finally, yield return


yield break.
, after,
Dispose;

after.

after, Dispose .

10.14.5
, ,
, .
. GetEnumerator
, , ,
MoveNext .
:

IEnumerable IEnumerable<T>, T .

( ) ,
.

,
,
. , ,
, , , ,
(2.4.2).
, . ,
IEnumerator IEnumerator<T>,
, .
GetEnumerator .
GetEnumerator , ,
. ,
.
GetEnumerator
GetEnumerator IEnumerable
IEnumerable<T>. GetEnumerator ,
.
374

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

,
, , 10.14.4.
10.14.6

C#. , , ,
Microsoft C#, .
Stack<T> GetEnumerator .
.
using System;
using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;
class Stack<T>: IEnumerable<T>
{
T[] items;
int count;
public void Push(T item) {
if (items == null) {
items = new T[4];
}
else if (items.Length == count) {
T[] newItems = new T[count * 2];
Array.Copy(items, 0, newItems, 0, count);
items = newItems;
}
items[count++] = item;
}
public T Pop() {
T result = items[--count];
items[count] = default(T);
return result;
}

public IEnumerator<T> GetEnumerator() {


for (int i = count - 1; i >= 0; --i) yield return items[i];
}

GetEnumerator ,
, .
class Stack<T>: IEnumerable<T>
{
...
public IEnumerator<T> GetEnumerator() {
return new __Enumerator1(this);
}

class __Enumerator1: IEnumerator<T>, IEnumerator


{
int __state;
T __current;
Stack<T> __this;
int i;

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

375

public __Enumerator1(Stack<T> __this) {


this.__this = __this;
}
public T Current {
get { return __current; }
}
object IEnumerator.Current {
get { return __current; }
}
public bool MoveNext() {
switch (__state) {
case 1: goto __state1;
case 2: goto __state2;
}
i = __this.count - 1;
__loop:
if (i < 0) goto __state2;
__current = __this.items[i];
__state = 1;
return true;
__state1:
--i;
goto __loop;
__state2:
__state = 2;
return false;
}
public void Dispose() {
__state = 2;
}
void IEnumerator.Reset() {
throw new NotSupportedException();
}
}


MoveNext . , i
, MoveNext.
1 10.
FromTo .
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
class Test
{
static IEnumerable<int> FromTo(int from, int to) {
while (from <= to) yield return from++;
}

376

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
static void Main() {
IEnumerable<int> e = FromTo(1, 10);
foreach (int x in e) {
foreach (int y in e) {
Console.Write("{0,3} ", x * y);
}
Console.WriteLine();
}
}
}

FromTo ,
, .
using
using
using
using

System;
System.Threading;
System.Collections;
System.Collections.Generic;

class Test
{
...
static IEnumerable<int> FromTo(int from, int to) {
return new __Enumerable1(from, to);
}
class __Enumerable1:
IEnumerable<int>, IEnumerable,
IEnumerator<int>, IEnumerator
{
int __state;
int __current;
int __from;
int from;
int to;
int i;
public __Enumerable1(int __from, int to) {
this.__from = __from;
this.to = to;
}
public IEnumerator<int> GetEnumerator() {
__Enumerable1 result = this;
if (Interlocked.CompareExchange(ref __state, 1, 0) != 0) {
result = new __Enumerable1(__from, to);
result.__state = 1;
}
result.from = result.__from;
return result;
}
IEnumerator IEnumerable.GetEnumerator() {
return (IEnumerator)GetEnumerator();
}

public int Current {


get { return __current; }
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

377

object IEnumerator.Current {
get { return __current; }
}
public bool MoveNext() {
switch (__state) {
case 1:
if (from > to) goto case 2;
__current = from++;
__state = 1;
return true;
case 2:
__state = 2;
return false;
default:
throw new InvalidOperationException();
}
}
public void Dispose() {
__state = 2;
}
void IEnumerator.Reset() {
throw new NotSupportedException();
}
}

, ,
, .
GetEnumerator . GetEnumerator
, , .
, ,
. Interlocked.CompareExchange
.
from to . from
, __from,
, from .
MoveNext InvalidOperationException,
__state 0.
GetEnumerator.
. Tree<T> GetEnumerator
. .
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
class Tree<T>: IEnumerable<T>
{
T value;
Tree<T> left;
Tree<T> right;

378

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
public Tree(T value, Tree<T> left, Tree<T> right) {
this.value = value;
this.left = left;
this.right = right;
}

public IEnumerator<T> GetEnumerator() {


if (left != null) foreach (T x in left) yield x;
yield value;
if (right != null) foreach (T x in right) yield x;
}

class Program
{
static Tree<T> MakeTree<T>(T[] items, int left, int right) {
if (left > right) return null;
int i = (left + right) / 2;
return new Tree<T>(items[i],
MakeTree(items, left, i - 1),
MakeTree(items, i + 1, right));
}
static Tree<T> MakeTree<T>(params T[] items) {
return MakeTree(items, 0, items.Length - 1);
}
// :
// 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
// C
static void Main() {
Tree<int> ints = MakeTree(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9);
foreach (int i in ints) Console.Write("{0} ", i);
Console.WriteLine();

Tree<string> strings = MakeTree(


"", "", "", "", "", "", "");
foreach (string s in strings) Console.Write("{0} ", s);
Console.WriteLine();

GetEnumerator ,
, .
class Tree<T>: IEnumerable<T>
{
...
public IEnumerator<T> GetEnumerator() {
return new __Enumerator1(this);
}

class __Enumerator1 : IEnumerator<T>, IEnumerator


{
Node<T> __this;
IEnumerator<T> __left, __right;
int __state;
T __current;

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

379

public __Enumerator1(Node<T> __this) {


this.__this = __this;
}
public T Current {
get { return __current; }
}
object IEnumerator.Current {
get { return __current; }
}
public bool MoveNext() {
try {
switch (__state) {
case 0:
__state = -1;
if (__this.left == null) goto __yield_value;
__left = __this.left.GetEnumerator();
goto case 1;
case 1:
__state = -2;
if (!__left.MoveNext()) goto __left_dispose;
__current = __left.Current;
__state = 1;
return true;
__left_dispose:
__state = -1;
__left.Dispose();
__yield_value:
__current = __this.value;
__state = 2;
return true;
case 2:
__state = -1;
if (__this.right == null) goto __end;
__right = __this.right.GetEnumerator();
goto case 3;
case 3:
__state = -3;
if (!__right.MoveNext()) goto __right_dispose;
__current = __right.Current;
__state = 3;
return true;
__right_dispose:
__state = -1;
__right.Dispose();
__end:
__state = 4;
break;

380

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

}
}
finally {
if (__state < 0) Dispose();
}
return false;

public void Dispose() {


try {
switch (__state) {
case 1:
case -2:
__left.Dispose();
break;
case 3:
case -3:
__right.Dispose();
break;
}
}
finally {
__state = 4;
}
}
void IEnumerator.Reset() {
throw new NotSupportedException();
}
}

, foreach,
__left __right . __state ,
Dispose().
, foreach .

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

381

11.
, , .
, . , ,
.
,
, .
, .
, .
-,
,
, .
4.1.4, C# , int, double bool,
. , , C#
.
().

11.1
_ _ (), :
_:
(/) _ (/) partial (/) struct
__ (/)
_ (/) ____
(/) _ ;(/)
_ (17),
_ (11.1.1), partial,
struct, , ,
__ (10.1.3),
_ (11.1.2) ),
____ (10.1.5), _ (11.1.4)
().
11.1.1
_ :
_:
_
_ _
_:
new
public
protected
internal
private

382

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .


.
,
(10.1).
11.1.2 partial
partial , _ .

, 10.2.
11.1.3
_,
, .
_:
: __
13.4.
11.1.4
_ .
_:
{ __ (/) }

11.2
, __ ,
System.ValueType.
__:
__
__ __
__:
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
__
_
, 11.3, , 10.13
10.14, .

11.3
:
(11.3.1).

System.ValueType (11.3.2).

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

383


(11.3.3).

,
,
null (11.3.4).


object (11.3.5).

this (7.5.7).


(11.3.7).

(11.3.8).

(11.3.9).

11.3.1
(4.1) . ,
(4.2) .
,
, . B
A, , A B
. X Y
, X Y.
, ,
. ,
struct Node
{
int data;
Node next; // , Node
}

, Node .
.
struct A { B b; }
struct B { C c; }
struct C { A a; }

, A, B C .
,
, .
( ref out)
. ,
, null.

struct Point
{
public int x, y;

384

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

public Point(int x, int y) {


this.x = x;
this.y = y;
}


Point a = new Point(10, 10);
Point b = a;
a.x = 100;
System.Console.WriteLine(b.x);

10. a b
, b a.x.
Point , 100, a b
.
11.3.2
System.ValueType, ,
, object.
, .
.
abstract sealed.
,
protected protected internal.
- abstract virtual,
override ,
System.ValueType.
11.3.3

.
, , .

- .
- ref out.
,
,
. , .
7.16.1.
11.3.4
5.2,
.
null. ,
null, ,

, null.
Point

Point[] a = new Point[100];


(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

385

Point ,
x y (0) .
,
(4.1.2). , ,
.
, ,
,
null.
,
.
using System;
struct KeyValuePair
{
string key;
string value;

public KeyValuePair(string key, string value) {


if (key == null || value == null) throw new ArgumentException();
this.key = key;
this.value = value;
}


. , KeyValuePair , key
value null, .
11.3.5
object ,
, .
object
(, ).
, . object ,
, .
object
. ,

. , ,
, .
, System.Object
(, Equals, GetHashCode ToString),
. ,
.
:
using System;
struct Counter
{
int value;

386

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

public override string ToString() {


value++;
return value.ToString();
}

class Program
{
static void Test<T>() where T: new() {
T x = new T();
Console.WriteLine(x.ToString());
Console.WriteLine(x.ToString());
Console.WriteLine(x.ToString());
}

static void Main() {


Test<Counter>();
}

:
1
2
3

, ToString
, , x.ToString()
.

-. , , ICounter Increment,
. ICounter ,
Increment ,
Increment, .
using System;
interface ICounter
{
void Increment();
}
struct Counter: ICounter
{
int value;
public override string ToString() {
return value.ToString();
}
void ICounter.Increment() {
value++;
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

387

class Program
{
static void Test<T>() where T: ICounter, new() {
T x = new T();
Console.WriteLine(x);
x.Increment();
// x
Console.WriteLine(x);
((ICounter)x).Increment();
// x
Console.WriteLine(x);
}
static void Main() {
Test<Counter>();
}
}

Increment x.
Increment, x. ,
:
0
1
1

. 4.3.
11.3.6 this
- this
. , this
, -, this
- .
this out ,
- this ref
. this , ,
-, this this
ref out.
11.3.7
11.3.4, ,
,
null.
.
. .
,
struct Point
{
public int x = 1; // ,
public int y = 1; // ,
}

, .
11.3.8
, .
,
388

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

,
, null (4.1.2).
. :
struct Point
{
int x, y;

public Point(int x, int y) {


this.x = x;
this.y = y;
}


Point p1 = new Point();
Point p2 = new Point(0, 0);

Point, x y .
base(...).
, this
out , , out, this
(5.3) .
, this ref
, ref, this
. :
struct Point
{
int x, y;
public int X {
set { x = value; }
}
public int Y {
set { y = value; }
}
public Point(int x, int y) {
X = x;
// , this

Y = y;
// , this

}
}

- ( set X Y)
, . ,
Point , , .
11.3.9

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

389

11.3.10
,
.
:

- .

(11.3.4)
. .

11.4
struct ,
, .
11.4.1
DBInt integer,
int, , .
.
using System;
public struct DBInt
{
// Null DBInt.
public static readonly DBInt Null = new DBInt();
// true, DBInt
,
// .
false,
// DBInt ,
0.
int value;
bool defined;
// . DBInt
.
DBInt(int value) {
this.value = value;
this.defined = true;
}
// IsNull true, DBInt
.
public bool IsNull { get { return !defined; } }
// Value DBInt 0,

// DBInt .
public int Value { get { return value; } }
// int DBInt.

390

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
public static implicit operator DBInt(int x) {
return new DBInt(x);
}
// DBInt int. ,
// DBInt .
public static explicit operator int(DBInt x) {
if (!x.defined) throw new InvalidOperationException();
return x.value;
}
public static DBInt operator +(DBInt x) {
return x;
}
public static DBInt operator -(DBInt x) {
return x.defined ? -x.value : Null;
}
public static DBInt operator +(DBInt x, DBInt y) {
return x.defined && y.defined? x.value + y.value: Null;
}
public static DBInt operator -(DBInt x, DBInt y) {
return x.defined && y.defined? x.value - y.value: Null;
}
public static DBInt operator *(DBInt x, DBInt y) {
return x.defined && y.defined? x.value * y.value: Null;
}
public static DBInt operator /(DBInt x, DBInt y) {
return x.defined && y.defined? x.value / y.value: Null;
}
public static DBInt operator %(DBInt x, DBInt y) {
return x.defined && y.defined? x.value % y.value: Null;
}
public static DBBool operator ==(DBInt x, DBInt y) {
return x.defined && y.defined? x.value == y.value: DBBool.Null;
}
public static DBBool operator !=(DBInt x, DBInt y) {
return x.defined && y.defined? x.value != y.value: DBBool.Null;
}
public static DBBool operator >(DBInt x, DBInt y) {
return x.defined && y.defined? x.value > y.value: DBBool.Null;
}
public static DBBool operator <(DBInt x, DBInt y) {
return x.defined && y.defined? x.value < y.value: DBBool.Null;
}
public static DBBool operator >=(DBInt x, DBInt y) {
return x.defined && y.defined? x.value >= y.value: DBBool.Null;
}

public static DBBool operator <=(DBInt x, DBInt y) {


return x.defined && y.defined? x.value <= y.value: DBBool.Null;
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

391

public override bool Equals(object obj) {


if (!(obj is DBInt)) return false;
DBInt x = (DBInt)obj;
return value == x.value && defined == x.defined;
}
public override int GetHashCode() {
return value;
}
public override string ToString() {
return defined? value.ToString(): DBInt.Null;
}
}

11.4.2
DBBool .
DBBool.True, DBBool.False DBBool.Null, Null
.
.
using System;
public struct DBBool
{
// DBBool.
public static readonly DBBool Null = new DBBool(0);
public static readonly DBBool False = new DBBool(-1);
public static readonly DBBool True = new DBBool(1);
// , 1, 0 1 False, Null True.
sbyte value;
// . 1,
0 1.
DBBool(int value) {
this.value = (sbyte)value;
}
// DBBool. true,

// DBBool , false.
public bool IsNull { get { return value == 0; } }
public bool IsFalse { get { return value < 0; } }
public bool IsTrue { get { return value > 0; } }
// bool DBBool. True
DBBool.True,
// false DBBool.False.
public static implicit operator DBBool(bool x) {
return x? True: False;
}
// DBBool bool. ,
// DBBool Null,
true false.

392

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
public static explicit operator bool(DBBool x) {
if (x.value == 0) throw new InvalidOperationException();
return x.value > 0;
}
// . Null, Null,

// True False.
public static DBBool operator ==(DBBool x, DBBool y) {
if (x.value == 0 || y.value == 0) return Null;
return x.value == y.value? True: False;
}
// . Null, Null,

// True False.
public static DBBool operator !=(DBBool x, DBBool y) {
if (x.value == 0 || y.value == 0) return Null;
return x.value != y.value? True: False;
}
// . True,
False, Null,
// Null, False,
True.
public static DBBool operator !(DBBool x) {
return new DBBool(-x.value);
}
// AND. False,
False,
// Null, Null,
True.
public static DBBool operator &(DBBool x, DBBool y) {
return new DBBool(x.value < y.value? x.value: y.value);
}
// OR. True,
True,
// Null, Null,
False.
public static DBBool operator |(DBBool x, DBBool y) {
return new DBBool(x.value > y.value? x.value: y.value);
}
// . True,
True,
// False.
public static bool operator true(DBBool x) {
return x.value > 0;
}
// . True,
False,
// False.

public static bool operator false(DBBool x) {


return x.value < 0;
}
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

393

public override bool Equals(object obj) {


if (!(obj is DBBool)) return false;
return value == ((DBBool)obj).value;
}
public override int GetHashCode() {
return value;
}

394

public override string ToString() {


if (value > 0) return "DBBool.True";
if (value < 0) return "DBBool.False";
return "DBBool.Null";
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

12.
, ,
. , ,
, ,
.
, , .
, . , ,
.
. ,
.
,
. ,
.
: N
0 N 1 .
.
, .
, .

12.1
__, _:
_:
__ _
__:

_:
_
_ _
_:
[ _ (/) ]
_:
,

_ ,
__ , _.
_ _: _ ,
, , .
,
_:

T[R] R (__) T.

T[R][R1]...[RN] R T[R1]...[RN].

_
__ . int[][,,][,]
int.
null
.
12.1.1 System.Array
System.Array .
(6.1.6) System.Array,
(6.2.4) System.Array . , System.Array
_. _,
_.
System.Array null
.
12.1.2 IList
T[] System.Collections.Generic.IList<T> (
IList<T>) . T[]
IList<T> .
S T S[] IList<T>
S[] IList<T> (6.1.6).
S T S[] IList<T> (6.2.4).
:
using System.Collections.Generic;
class Test
{
static void Main() {
string[] sa = new string[5];
object[] oa1 = new object[5];
object[] oa2 = sa;

IList<string> lst1 = sa;


IList<string> lst2 = oa1;

//
// ,

IList<object> lst3 = sa;


IList<object> lst4 = oa1;

//
//

IList<string> lst5 = (IList<string>)oa1;//


IList<string> lst6 = (IList<string>)oa2;//
}

lst2 = oa1 , object[]


IList<string> .
(IList<string>)oa1 , oa1
object[], string[]. (IList<string>)oa2
, oa2 string[].
S[] IList<T>
IList<T> S[] (6.2.4).
S[] IList<T>,
.
.
396

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

12.2
__ (7.5.10.4)
, _ (12.6).

. ,
.
. System.Array ,
.
, __,
(5.2).

12.3
__ (7.5.6.1)
A[I1, I2, ..., IN], A , IX
int, uint, long, ulong ,
. ,
, .
foreach (8.8.4).

12.4
, System.Array.

12.5
A B (6.1.6)
(6.2.4) A B, A[R]
B[R], R _ ( ).
. ,
A[R] B[R] ,
B A.

, ,
(7.16.1). :
class Test
{
static void Fill(object[] array, int index, int count, object value) {
for (int i = index; i < index + count; i++) array[i] = value;
}

static void Main() {


string[] strings = new string[100];
Fill(strings, 0, 100, "Undefined");
Fill(strings, 0, 10, null);
Fill(strings, 90, 10, 0);
}

array[i] Fill ,
, , value, null
, array. Main
Fill ,
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

397

System.ArrayTypeMismatchException
array[i]. , int
string.
__. ,
int[] object[] .

12.6
(10.5),
(8.5.1) (7.5.10.4):
_:
{ __ (/) }
{ __ , }
__:
_
__ , _
_:

_
,
{ } ,.
( ) .
.

.
.
,
int[] a = {0, 2, 4, 6, 8};


int[] a = new int[] {0, 2, 4, 6, 8};

,
.
, .
. ,
int[] 5,
:
a[0] = 0; a[1] = 2; a[2] = 4; a[3] = 6; a[4] = 8;

,
. ,
, .

.
. ,

int[,] b = {{0, 1}, {2, 3}, {4, 5}, {6, 7}, {8, 9}};


int[,] b = new int[5, 2];
398

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

:
b[0,
b[1,
b[2,
b[3,
b[4,

0]
0]
0]
0]
0]

=
=
=
=
=

0;
2;
4;
6;
8;

b[0,
b[1,
b[2,
b[3,
b[4,

1]
1]
1]
1]
1]

=
=
=
=
=

1;
3;
5;
7;
9;

,
, ,
. :
int i = 3;
int[] x = new int[3] {0, 1, 2};
//
int[] y = new int[i] {0, 1, 2};
// , i
int[] z = new int[3] {0, 1, 2, 3}; // ,

y ,
. z
,
.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

399

13.
. , ,
.
, .
, , .
. ,
, .

13.1
_ _ (9.6), .
_:
(/) _ (/) partial (/) interface
__ (/)
_ (/) ___ (/)
_ ;(/)
_ (17),
_ (13.1.1), partial,
interface , ,
__ (10.1.3), _ (13.1.2),
___ (10.1.5)
_ (13.1.4), .
13.1.1
_ :
_:
_
_ _
_:
new
public
protected
internal
private


.
new , .
, (. 10.3.4).
public, protected, internal private .
(3.5.1).

13.1.2 partial
partial , _
.
,
10.2.
13.1.3
,
.
,
, .
_::
: __

_
_ .

(3.5.4). , private
internal _ public
.

.

. ,
, .
.
interface IControl
{
void Paint();
}
interface ITextBox: IControl
{
void SetText(string text);
}
interface IListBox: IControl
{
void SetItems(string[] items);
}
interface IComboBox: ITextBox, IListBox {}

IComboBox IControl, ITextBox


IListBox.
, IComboBox SetText SetItems, Paint.
, ,
.
13.1.4
_ .
402

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

_:
{ __ (/) }

13.2
, , ,
.
__:
__
__ __
__:
__
__
__
__
, .
, , .
, , , , ,
.
public.
. ,
abstract, public, protected, internal, private,
virtual, override static.
,
public delegate void StringListEvent(IStringList sender);
public interface IStringList
{
void Add(string s);
int Count { get; }
event StringListEvent Changed;
}

string this[int index] { get; set; }

, : ,
, .
_ (3.3), __,
_,
. __ :
, .
(3.6) ,
, , ,
, ref out.

,
.

,
.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

403

.
, .
, .
,
. ,
new, ,
. 3.7.1.2.
new , ,
. ,
new.
, object , , -
(13.2). , object
(7.3.1).
13.2.1
__:
__:
(/) new (/)
__
( __ (/) )
____ (/) ;
, __,
__ , (10.6).
,
.
13.2.2
__:
__:
(/) new (/) { ___ }
___:
(/) get ;
(/) set ;
(/) get ; (/) set ;
(/) set ; (/) get ;
,
(10.7).

(10.7.2) ,
. , , :
, .
13.2.3
__:
__:
(/) new (/) event ... ;

404

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

,
(10.8).
13.2.4
__:
__:
(/) new (/) this [ __ ]
{ ___ }
, __
, (10.9).

(10.9) ,
. , , :
, .
13.2.5
(7.5.4)
(7.5.6.2) I.M I[A], I , M ,
, A .
, (
),
(7.3), (7.5.6.2) (7.5.5.1)
:
.
, ( )
.
.
.

interface IList
{
int Count { get; set; }
}
interface ICounter
{
void Count(int i);
}
interface IListCounter: IList, ICounter {}
class C
{
void Test(IListCounter x) {
x.Count(1);
x.Count = 1;
((IList)x).Count = 1;
((ICounter)x).Count(1);
}
}

//
//
// , IList.Count.set
// , ICounter.Count

,
(7.3) Count IListCounter .
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

405

, x
.
,
.

interface IInteger
{
void Add(int i);
}
interface IDouble
{
void Add(double d);
}
interface INumber: IInteger, IDouble {}
class C
{
void Test(INumber n) {
n.Add(1);
// IInteger.Add
n.Add(1.0);
// IDouble.Add
((IInteger)n).Add(1); // IInteger.Add
((IDouble)n).Add(1);
// IDouble.Add
}
}

n.Add(1) IInteger.Add
, 7.4.3. n.Add(1.0)
IDouble.Add. ,
, .

interface IBase
{
void F(int i);
}
interface ILeft: IBase
{
new void F(int i);
}
interface IRight: IBase
{
void G();
}
interface IDerived: ILeft, IRight {}
class A
{
void Test(IDerived d) {
d.F(1);
// ILeft.F
((IBase)d).F(1);
// IBase.F
((ILeft)d).F(1);
// ILeft.F
((IRight)d).F(1);
// IBase.F
}
}
406

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

IBase.F ILeft.F. d.F(1) ILeft.F


, IBase.F ,
IRight.
:
, .
IDerived ILeft IBase IBase.F ,
IDerived IRight IBase.

13.3
.
, , .
, . ,
interface IControl
{
void Paint();
}
interface ITextBox: IControl
{
void SetText(string text);
}

Paint IControl.Paint, SetText


ITextBox.SetText.
Paint ITextBox.Paint.
,
. :
namespace System
{
public interface ICloneable
{
object Clone();
}
}

Clone System.ICloneable.Clone.

13.4
. ,
,
. :
interface ICloneable
{
object Clone();
}
interface IComparable
{
int CompareTo(object other);
}

class ListEntry: ICloneable, IComparable


{
public object Clone() {...}
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

407

public int CompareTo(object other) {...}


}

, ,
. ,
. :
interface IControl
{
void Paint();
}
interface ITextBox: IControl
{
void SetText(string text);
}
class TextBox: ITextBox
{
public void Paint() {...}
public void SetText(string text) {...}
}

TextBox IControl, ITextBox.


, ,
(4.4). ,
, .
:
class C<U,V> {}
interface I1<V> {}
class D: C<string,int>, I1<string> {}
class E<T>: C<int,T>, I1<T> {}

,
13.4.2.
13.4.1

. , ,
, . :
interface IList<T>
{
T[] GetElements();
}
interface IDictionary<K,V>
{
V this[K key];
void Add(K key, V value);
}
class List<T>: IList<T>, IDictionary<int,T>
{
T[] IList<T>.GetElements() {...}
T IDictionary<int,T>.this[int index] {...}
408

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
void IDictionary<int,T>.Add(int index, T value) {...}
}

IDictionary<int,T>.this IDictionary<int,T>.Add
.
.
.
, , , -
Close,
Dispose IDisposable :
interface IDisposable
{
void Dispose();
}
class MyFile: IDisposable
{
void IDisposable.Dispose() {
Close();
}
public void Close() {
//
System.GC.SuppressFinalize(this);
}
}


, .
,
.
,
abstract, virtual, override static, .

.
,
. , ,
.
:


,
. ,
, ,
.


.
,

.

,
, , ,

. ,
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

409

class Shape: ICloneable


{
object ICloneable.Clone() {...}
int IComparable.CompareTo(object other) {...} //
}

IComparable.CompareTo ,
IComparable Shape
ICloneable.
class Shape: ICloneable
{
object ICloneable.Clone() {...}
}
class Ellipse: Shape
{
object ICloneable.Clone() {...}
}

//

ICloneable.Clone Ellipse ,
ICloneable Ellipse.
, . ,

interface IControl
{
void Paint();
}
interface ITextBox: IControl
{
void SetText(string text);
}
class TextBox: ITextBox
{
void IControl.Paint() {...}
}

void ITextBox.SetText(string text) {...}

Paint IControl.Paint.
13.4.2
, ,
. ,
. , ,
:
interface I<T>
{
void F();
}

410

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
class X<U,V>: I<U>, I<V>

{
void I<U>.F() {...}
void I<V>.F() {...}
}

//: I<U> I<V>

, :
I<int> x = new X<int,int>();
x.F();

, ,
:

L , ,
C.

L , L.

C L
L , C .
.

X L I<U> I<V>.
, , U V
, .
, :
interface I<T>
{
void F();
}
class Base<U>: I<U>
{
void I<U>.F() {}
}
class Derived<U,V>: Base<U>, I<V> //
void I<V>.F() {}
}

, , Derived<U,V>
I<U>, I<V>.
I<int> x = new Derived<int,int>();
x.F();

Derived, Derived<int,int> I<int>


(13.4.6).
13.4.3

, ,
, (
),
.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

411

, ,
.
interface I<A,B,C>
{
void F<T>(T t) where T: A;
void G<T>(T t) where T: B;
void H<T>(T t) where T: C;
}
class C: I<object,C,string>
{
public void F<T>(T t) {...}
//
public void G<T>(T t) where T: C {...}
//
public void H<T>(T t) where T: string {...} //
}

C.F<T> I<object,C,string>.F<T>. C.F<T>


( ) T: object, object
. C.G<T>
I<object,C,string>.G<T>,
.
C.H<T> , ( string)
. ,
. ,
I<object,C,string>.H<T> .
:
class C: I<object,C,string>
{
...
public void H<U>(U u) where U: class {...}

void I<object,C,string>.H<T>(T t) {
string s = t; //
H<T>(t);
}


. , t s , T
T: string, .
13.4.4
,
.
.
C
, C. I.M,
I , M,
S, C C
:

412

S , I M,
I.M.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

, S , ,
M, I.M .
, I.M.
, S ,
, , ,
.

,
C, . ,
, .
A B
.

A B , A B , .

A B , A B , A , B
(A ,

).

A B , A B .

A B , A B , A
, B (A ,

).
:

, ,
.

,
.


interface ICloneable
{
object Clone();
}
class C: ICloneable
{
object ICloneable.Clone() {...}
public object Clone() {...}
}

Clone ICloneable ICloneable.Clone C,


.
,
, ,
. :

interface IControl
{
void Paint();
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

413

interface IForm
{
void Paint();
}
class Page: IControl, IForm
{
public void Paint() {...}
}

Paint Page Paint IControl,


IForm. ,
.
, ,
. :
interface IBase
{
int P { get; }
}
interface IDerived: IBase
{
new int P();
}



class C: IDerived
{
int IBase.P { get {...} }
int IDerived.P() {...}
}
class C: IDerived
{
public int P { get {...} }
}

int IDerived.P() {...}

class C: IDerived
{
int IBase.P { get {...} }
public int P() {...}
}

,
.
interface IControl
{
void Paint();
}
interface ITextBox: IControl
{
void SetText(string text);
}

414

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
interface IListBox: IControl
{
void SetItems(string[] items);
}
class ComboBox: IControl, ITextBox, IListBox
{
void IControl.Paint() {...}
void ITextBox.SetText(string text) {...}
void IListBox.SetItems(string[] items) {...}
}

IControl, ,
IControl, ITextBox, IControl,
IListBox. . ,
ITextBox IListBox
IControl, ComboBox : IControl, ITextBox
IListBox.
.
interface Interface1
{
void F();
}
class Class1
{
public void F() {}
public void G() {}
}
class Class2: Class1, Interface1
{
new public void G() {}
}

F Class1 Interface1 Class2.


13.4.5
, .
,
, . ,
interface IControl
{
void Paint();
}
class Control: IControl
{
public void Paint() {...}
}

class TextBox: Control


{
new public void Paint() {...}
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

415

Paint TextBox Paint Control,


Control.Paint IControl.Paint, Paint

Control c = new Control();
TextBox t = new TextBox();
IControl ic = c;
IControl it = t;
c.Paint();
//
t.Paint();
//
ic.Paint();
//
it.Paint();
//

Control.Paint();
TextBox.Paint();
Control.Paint();
Control.Paint();

,
.
,
interface IControl
{
void Paint();
}
class Control: IControl
{
public virtual void Paint() {...}
}
class TextBox: Control
{
public override void Paint() {...}
}


Control c = new Control();
TextBox t = new TextBox();
IControl ic = c;
IControl it = t;
c.Paint();
//
t.Paint();
//
ic.Paint();
//
it.Paint();
//

Control.Paint();
TextBox.Paint();
Control.Paint();
TextBox.Paint();

,
.
, ,
. :
interface IControl
{
void Paint();
}
class Control: IControl
{
void IControl.Paint() { PaintControl(); }
protected virtual void PaintControl() {...}
}

416

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
class TextBox: Control
{
protected override void PaintControl() {...}
}

, Control,
IControl.Paint PaintControl.
13.4.6
, ,
.
,
. ,
, .
,
interface IControl
{
void Paint();
}
class Control: IControl
{
void IControl.Paint() {...}
}
class MyControl: Control, IControl
{
public void Paint() {}
}

, Control IControl.Paint Control.IControl.Paint,


MyControl, IControl.Paint
MyControl.Paint.

. :
interface IMethods
{
void F();
void G();
void H();
void I();
}
class Base: IMethods
{
void IMethods.F() {}
void IMethods.G() {}
public void H() {}
public void I() {}
}

class Derived: Base, IMethods


{
public void F() {}
void IMethods.H() {}
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

417

IMethods Derived
Derived.F, Base.IMethods.G, Derived.IMethods.H Base.I.

.
. :
interface IBase
{
void F();
}
interface IDerived: IBase
{
void G();
}
class C: IDerived
{
void IBase.F() {...}
void IDerived.G() {...}
}
class D: C, IDerived
{
public void F() {...}
}

public void G() {...}

IDerived IBase,
IBase.F D.F.
13.4.7
, , ,
, . ,
. :
interface IMethods
{
void F();
void G();
}
abstract class C: IMethods
{
public abstract void F();
public abstract void G();
}

IMethods F G ,
C , .
, ,
. :
interface IMethods
{
void F();
void G();
}
418

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
abstract class C: IMethods
{
void IMethods.F() { FF(); }
void IMethods.G() { GG(); }
protected abstract void FF();
}

protected abstract void GG();

C , ,
FF GG, IMethods.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

419

14.
(4.1),
.
:
enum Color
{
Red,
Green,
Blue
}

Color, Red, Green Blue.

14.1
.
enum , ,
.
_:
_ enum
_ _ ;
_:
: _
_:
{ __ }
{ __ , }
,
. ,
. byte,
sbyte, short, ushort, int, uint, long ulong. , char
. ,
, int.
:
enum Color: long
{
Red,
Green,
Blue
}

long.
long, , ,
long, int,
.

14.2
_ , ,
:
_:
_
_ _
_:
new
public
protected
internal
private
,
.
,
(10.1.1). ,
abstract sealed.
.

14.3
,
. .
__:
__
__ , __
__:

= _
.
.
. :
enum Color: uint
{
Red = -1,
Green = -2,
Blue = -3
}

, -1, -2 -3
uint.
.
:
enum Color
{
Red,
Green,
Blue,
Max = Blue
}
422

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

, Blue Max
.
.
_, ,
,
. ,
:

,
, ;


.
, ,
.

:
using System;
enum Color
{
Red,
Green = 10,
Blue
}
class Test
{
static void Main() {
Console.WriteLine(StringFromColor(Color.Red));
Console.WriteLine(StringFromColor(Color.Green));
Console.WriteLine(StringFromColor(Color.Blue));
}
static string StringFromColor(Color c) {
switch (c) {
case Color.Red:
return String.Format("Red = {0}", (int) c);
case Color.Green:
return String.Format("Green = {0}", (int) c);
case Color.Blue:
return String.Format("Blue = {0}", (int) c);
default:
return " ";
}
}
}

. :
Red = 0
Green = 10
Blue = 11

Red (
);
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

423

Green 10;

Blue , ,
.

, ,
. ,

, .
,
.
:
enum Circular
{
A = B,
B
}

, A B . A
B , B A .
.
.
.
.
- ,
.

14.4 System.Enum
System.Enum (
), , System.Enum,
. (4.3.1)
System.Enum, (4.3.2) System.Enum
.
, System.Enum _. , _,
_. System.Enum
System.ValueType (4.1.1), , , object.
System.Enum null
.

14.5
;
(6.2.2), ,
. , ,
. ,
,
.
( ,
: . 14.3). ,
E v, (E)v.

424

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

: ==, !=, <, >, <=,


>= (7.9.5), + (7.7.4), - (7.7.5), ^, &, | (7.10.2), ~ (7.6.4), ++, -- (7.5.9 7.6.5)
sizeof (18.5.4).

System.Enum (
System.ValueType object). ,
.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

425

15.
, , C++, Pascal Modula
. C++,
-, C++, , .
, System.Delegate.
, ,
, . , ,
. ,
, .
.
,
, ; (15.1)
. .

15.1
_ _ (9.6), .
_:
_ delegate __
__
( __ )
___ ;
_:
_
_ _
_:
new
public
protected
internal
private
,
.
new , ;
, ,
10.3.4.
public, protected, internal private .
, ,
(3.5.1).
.
__ ,
__ .

__ .
C# , . ,

. ,
(7.9.8).
:
delegate int D1(int i, double d);
class A
{
public static int M1(int a, double b) {...}
}
class B
{
delegate int D2(int c, double d);
public static int M1(int f, double g) {...}
public static void M2(int k, double l) {...}
public static int M3(int g) {...}
}

public static void M4(int g) {...}

D1 D2 A.M1 B.M1,
;
, . D1 D2
B.M2, B.M3 B.M4,
.
,
.

.
,
. :
delegate bool Predicate<T>(T value);
class X
{
static bool F(int i) {...}
static bool G(string s) {...}
}

Predicate<int> X.F, Predicate<string>


X.G.
_ .
, System.Delegate. sealed,
.
System.Delegate. , System.Delegate
; , .
C# .
, ,
, , .
428

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

, System.Delegate
.
, , .
(15.2) , ,
. , ,
: ,
, .
+ (7.7.4) += (7.16.2).
- (7.7.5) -= (7.16.2).
(7.9.8).

:
delegate void D(int x);
class C
{
public static void M1(int i) {...}
public static void M2(int i) {...}
}
class Test
{
static void Main() {
D cd1 = new D(C.M1);
D cd2 = new D(C.M2);
D cd3 = cd1 + cd2;
D cd4 = cd3 + cd1;
D cd5 = cd4 + cd3;
}

//
//
// M1
// M1
// M1

M1
M2
+ M2
+ M2 + M1
+ M2 + M1 + M1 + M2

cd1 cd2 .
cd3 , M1 M2, .
cd4 M1, M2 M1, . , cd5
M1, M2, M1, M1 M2, . (
) . 15.4.

15.2
M D, :
D M , D
ref out, M;

( ref out)
(6.1.1) (6.1.6)
D M;

ref out D , M;


M D.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

429

15.3
__ (7.5.10.5)
. :

, __,

( null) ,
__,

:
delegate void D(int x);
class C
{
public static void M1(int i) {...}
public void M2(int i) {...}
}
class Test
{
static void Main() {
D cd1 = new D(C.M1);
C t = new C();
D cd2 = new D(t.M2);
D cd3 = new D(cd2);
}
}

//
//
//

.
, ,
;
.

15.4
C# .
, ,
, , , ,
. ( . 7.5.5.3).
, ,
, ,
, .
, ,
, , .
, .
(10.6.1.2),
; , ,
, .
,
.
,
, ,
, , , .

430

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

, null,
System.NullReferenceException.
, , , :
using System;
delegate void D(int x);
class C
{
public static void M1(int i) {
Console.WriteLine("C.M1: " + i);
}
public static void M2(int i) {
Console.WriteLine("C.M2: " + i);
}
public void M3(int i) {
Console.WriteLine("C.M3: " + i);
}
}
class Test
{
static void Main() {
D cd1 = new D(C.M1);
cd1(-1);
// M1
D cd2 = new D(C.M2);
cd2(-2);
// M2
D cd3 = cd1 + cd2;
cd3(10);
// M1, M2
cd3 += cd1;
cd3(20);

// M1, M2, M1

C c = new C();
D cd4 = new D(c.M3);
cd3 += cd4;
cd3(30);
// M1, M2, M1, M3
cd3 -= cd1;
cd3(40);

// M1
// M1, M2, M3

cd3 -= cd4;
cd3(50);

// M1, M2

cd3 -= cd2;
cd3(60);

// M1

cd3 -= cd2;
cd3(60);

//
// M1

cd3 -= cd1;

// , cd3 null

//

// System.NullReferenceException

cd3(70);

cd3 -= cd1;

//

}
}

cd3 += cd1;, .
. , ,
.
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

431

, cd3 -= cd1;, cd3


. (
) .
:
C.M1:
C.M2:
C.M1:
C.M2:
C.M1:
C.M2:
C.M1:
C.M1:
C.M2:
C.M1:
C.M3:
C.M1:
C.M2:
C.M3:
C.M1:
C.M2:
C.M1:
C.M1:

432

-1
-2
10
10
20
20
20
30
30
30
30
40
40
40
50
50
60
60

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

16.
C# ,
, , .
C# C++, :

C# ,
System.Exception. C++
;

C# finally (8.10) ,
, .
C++ ;

C# , ,
null,
.

16.1
.

throw (8.9.5) .
, throw.

,
C#, ,
. , (7.7.2)
System.DivideByZeroException, . ,
, . 16.4.

16.2 System.Exception
System.Exception .
, :

Message , string,

InnerException , Exception. NULL,

, ,
catch InnerException. , NULL,
, .
, , .
System.Exception.

16.3
try (8.10).
, catch,
, .
try, catch

try . , , ,
try, .
, catch,
,
. catch, ,
.
catch ,
catch. catch,
finally try
, , .
catch , :

catch (10.12)
, System.TypeInitializationException
, .
System.TypeInitializationException , ;

catch ,
, . .

, , .
,
( ).
( object) , .

16.4
C#.

434

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
System.ArithmeticException

,
,
System.DivideByZeroException
System.OverflowException.

System.ArrayTypeMismatchException

,


.

System.DivideByZeroException

System.IndexOutOfRangeException

System.InvalidCastException

System.NullReferenceException

,
, ,
.

System.OutOfMemoryException


( new).

System.OverflowException



checked.

System.StackOverflowException


-
;
.

System.TypeInitializationException

,
catch
.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

435

17.
C# ,
. ,
_ public, protected, internal private.
C# ,
.
. ,
HelpAttribute, (
),
.
(17.1),
(17.1.2). C#
(17.2)
(17.3).

17.1
, System.Attribute,
. ,
. Attribute.
, .
17.1.1
AttributeUsage (17.4.1) , .
AttributeUsage (17.1.2),
, . :
using System;
[AttributeUsage(AttributeTargets.Class | AttributeTargets.Interface)]
public class SimpleAttribute: Attribute
{
...
}

SimpleAttribute,
_ _. :
[Simple] class Class1 {...}
[Simple] interface Interface1 {...}

Simple.
SimpleAttribute, Attribute,
Simple. ,
:
[SimpleAttribute] class Class1 {...}
[SimpleAttribute] interface Interface1 {...}

AttributeUsage (17.1.2), AllowMultiple,


, .
AllowMultiple True,
.
AllowMultiple False,

.
:
using System;
[AttributeUsage(AttributeTargets.Class, AllowMultiple = true)]
public class AuthorAttribute: Attribute
{
private string name;
public AuthorAttribute(string name) {
this.name = name;
}
public string Name {
get { return name; }
}
}

AuthorAttribute. :
[Author("Brian Kernighan"), Author("Dennis Ritchie")]
class Class1
{
...
}

Author.
AttributeUsage , Inherited,
, ,
. Inherited True,
. Inherited False,
. , True.
X, AttributeUsage, :
using System;
class X: Attribute {...}

:
using System;
[AttributeUsage(
AttributeTargets.All,
AllowMultiple = false,
Inherited = true)
]
class X: Attribute {...}

17.1.2
.

. , ,
438

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .


.
:
using System;
[AttributeUsage(AttributeTargets.Class)]
public class HelpAttribute: Attribute
{
public HelpAttribute(string url) {
...
}
public string Topic {
get {...}
set {...}
}

//

//

public string Url {


get {...}
}
}

HelpAttribute, url
Topic. Url ,
, .
:
[Help("http://www.mycompany.com/.../Class1.htm")]
class Class1
{
...
}
[Help("http://www.mycompany.com/.../Misc.htm", Topic = "Class2")]
class Class2
{
...
}

17.1.3

, :
: bool, byte, char, double, float, int, long, sbyte, short, string, uint,
ulong ushort;

object;

System.Type;

, , , (
), (17.2);

, ,
.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

439

17.2
.
, .
(
) _ (9.6), __ (10.1.5),
__ (13.2), __ (11.2),
__ (14.3), __ (10.7.2),
____ (10.8.1) __ (10.6.1).
. ,
, .
,
, . , [A][B], [B][A], [A, B] [B, A]
.
_:
__
__:
__
__ __
__:
[ ____ _ ]
[ ____ _ , ]
____:
___ :
___:
assembly
module
:
_
_:
_
_ _
_:
[ ___ _ ]
[ ___ _ , ]
___:
__ :
__:
field
event
method
param
property
return
type
_:

_ ,
440

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

:
_ _
_:
_
_:
( __ )
( __ , __ )
( __ )
__:
_
__ , _
_:
__
__:
_
__ , _
_:
= __
__:

_
. ( ) .
__;
, , __,
, .
.
_ . _ _,
. . :
class Class1 {}
[Class1] class Class2 {} //

, Class1
, Class1 .
.
___.
,
____.
, ___

(
). , ___
, .
:

, , ,
. ,
___.
___ assembly ,
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

441

; ___ module ,
;

, , ,
. ___
. ___ type ,
; ___ return
, ;

, , ,
. ___
. ___ method ,
; ___ return ,
;

, , ,
. ___
. ___ method
, ; ___
return , ;

, , ,
, ( )
add remove. ___
. ___ event
, ; ___
field , ;
___ method , ;

, get ,
, .
___ .
___ method , ;
___ return ,
;

, set ,
, .
___ .
___ method , ;
___ param ,
; ___ return ,
;

, add remove ,
, .
___ .
___ method , ;
___ param ,
; ___ return ,
.

___ , .
, , type:
[type: Author("Brian Kernighan")]
class Class1 {}
442

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
[Author("Dennis Ritchie")]
class Class2 {}

___. ,
param :
[param: Author("Brian Kernighan")]
class Class1 {}

//

Attribute. _ _
, . ,
, . _
,
(2.4.2), ,
. :
using System;
[AttributeUsage(AttributeTargets.All)]
public class X: Attribute
{}
[AttributeUsage(AttributeTargets.All)]
public class XAttribute: Attribute
{}
[X]
class Class1 {}

// :

[XAttribute]
class Class2 {}

// XAttribute

[@X]
class Class3 {}
[@XAttribute]
class Class4 {}

// X
// XAttribute

X XAttribute. [X] ,
X, XAttribute.
. [XAttribute]
( , XAttributeAttribute).
X,
XAttribute, :
using System;
[AttributeUsage(AttributeTargets.All)]
public class XAttribute: Attribute
{}
[X]
class Class1 {}

// XAttribute

[XAttribute]
class Class2 {}

// XAttribute

[@X]
class Class3 {}

// : "X"


. :

using System;

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

443

[AttributeUsage(AttributeTargets.Class)]
public class HelpStringAttribute: Attribute
{
string value;
public HelpStringAttribute(string value) {
this.value = value;
}
public string Value {
get {...}
}
}
[HelpString(" Class1")]
[HelpString(" Class1")]
public class Class1 {}

,
HelpString, ,
Class1.
E __, :

E (17.1.3);

E :
o

System.Type;

__.

:
using System;
[AttributeUsage(AttributeTargets.Class)]
public class TestAttribute: Attribute
{
public int P1 {
get {...}
set {...}
}
public Type P2 {
get {...}
set {...}
}
public object P3 {
get {...}
set {...}
}
}
[Test(P1 = 1234, P3 = new int[] {1, 3, 5}, P2 = typeof(float))]
class MyClass {}

_typeof (7.5.11), ,
, ,
.
.
444

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
class A: Attribute
{
public A(Type t) {...}
}
class G<T>
{
[A(typeof(T))] T t;
}
class X
{
[A(typeof(List<int>))] int x;
[A(typeof(List<>))] int y;
}

// ,

// ,
// ,

17.3
, .
, .
,
.
,
, .
17.3.1
T, __ P
__ N :

__
new T(P). ,
C T, ;

C , ;

_ Arg N:

Name _ Arg;

Name
T. T , .

:
T, C T, __ P
__ N.

17.3.2
T, C T,
__ P __ N. ,
:
__
new T(P) C, .
, O T;

_ Arg N :

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

445

Name _ Arg. Name


, , O,
;

Value __ Arg;

Name O, Value;

Name O. Value;

O, T,
__ P __ N.

17.4
. :

System.AttributeUsageAttribute (17.4.1), ,

System.Diagnostics.ConditionalAttribute (17.4.2),

System.ObsoleteAttribute (17.4.3), .

17.4.1 AttributeUsage
AttributeUsage .
, AttributeUsage, System.Attribute,
. .
namespace System
{
[AttributeUsage(AttributeTargets.Class)]
public class AttributeUsageAttribute: Attribute
{
public AttributeUsageAttribute(AttributeTargets validOn) {...}
public virtual bool AllowMultiple { get {...} set {...} }
public virtual bool Inherited { get {...} set {...} }
public virtual AttributeTargets ValidOn { get {...} }
}
public enum AttributeTargets
{
Assembly = 0x0001,
Module
= 0x0002,
Class
= 0x0004,
Struct
= 0x0008,
Enum
= 0x0010,
Constructor = 0x0020,
Method
= 0x0040,
Property = 0x0080,
Field
= 0x0100,
Event
= 0x0200,
Interface = 0x0400,
Parameter
= 0x0800,
Delegate = 0x1000,
ReturnValue = 0x2000,
446

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
All = Assembly | Module | Class | Struct | Enum | Constructor |
Method | Property | Field | Event | Interface | Parameter |
Delegate | ReturnValue
}
}

17.4.2 Conditional
Conditional
.
namespace System.Diagnostics
{
[AttributeUsage(AttributeTargets.Method | AttributeTargets.Class,
AllowMultiple = true)]
public class ConditionalAttribute: Attribute
{
public ConditionalAttribute(string conditionString) {...}
public string ConditionString { get {...} }
}
}


, Conditional, . Conditional
.
, , , .
, ; ( ) .
:

_ _.
Conditional ,
;

void;

override.
virtual.
Conditional;

.
.

, ,
__. :
#define DEBUG
using System;
using System.Diagnostics;

class Class1
{
[Conditional("DEBUG")]
public static void M() {
Console.WriteLine("Executed Class1.M");
}
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

447

class Class2
{
public static void Test() {
Class1.M();
}
}

Class1.M . Test Class2 .


DEBUG , Class2.Test, M.
DEBUG , Class2.Test Class1.M.
,
. :
class1.cs:
using System.Diagnostics;
class Class1
{
[Conditional("DEBUG")]
public static void F() {
Console.WriteLine(" Class1.F");
}
}

class2.cs:
#define DEBUG
class Class2
{
public static void G() {
Class1.F();
}
}

// F

class3.cs:
#undef DEBUG
class Class3
{
public static void H() {
Class1.F();
}
}

// F

Class2 Class3 Class1.F,


, DEBUG. Class2,
Class3, F Class2 , F Class3 .
.
base base.M
. :
class1.cs:
using System;
using System.Diagnostics;

448

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
class Class1
{
[Conditional("DEBUG")]
public virtual void M() {
Console.WriteLine("Class1.M ");
}
}

class2.cs:
using System;
class Class2: Class1
{
public override void M() {
Console.WriteLine("Class2.M ");
base.M();
// base.M !
}
}

class3.cs:
#define DEBUG
using System;
class Class3
{
public static void Test() {
Class2 c = new Class2();
c.M();
}
}

// M

Class2 M, . ,
, DEBUG,
. , Class2.M .
_ .

(17.1), Conditional,
. ,
, Conditional. :
using System;
using System.Diagnostics;
[Conditional("ALPHA")]
[Conditional("BETA")]
public class TestAttribute : Attribute {}

TestAttribute ,
ALPHA BETA.
(17.2) ,
,
.
,
. :

test.cs:
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

449

using System;
using System.Diagnostics;
[Conditional(DEBUG)]
public class TestAttribute : Attribute {}

class1.cs:
#define DEBUG
[Test]

// TestAttribute

class Class1 {}

class2.cs:
#undef DEBUG
[Test]

// TestAttribute

class Class2 {}

Class1 Class2 Test,


, DEBUG. Class1,
Class2, Test Class1 ,
Test Class2 .
17.4.3 Obsolete
Obsolete ,
.
namespace System
{
[AttributeUsage(
AttributeTargets.Class |
AttributeTargets.Struct |
AttributeTargets.Enum |
AttributeTargets.Interface |
AttributeTargets.Delegate |
AttributeTargets.Method |
AttributeTargets.Constructor |
AttributeTargets.Property |
AttributeTargets.Field |
AttributeTargets.Event,
Inherited = false)
]
public class ObsoleteAttribute: Attribute
{
public ObsoleteAttribute() {...}
public ObsoleteAttribute(string message) {...}
public ObsoleteAttribute(string message, bool error) {...}
public string Message { get {...} }
public bool IsError { get {...} }
}
}

, Obsolete,
. , ,

450

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

false.
, true.
:
[Obsolete(" ; B")]
class A
{
public void F() {}
}
class B
{
public void F() {}
}
class Test
{
static void Main() {
A a = new A();
a.F();
}
}

//

A Obsolete. A Main
, ;
B.

17.5
. Microsoft .NET C#.
17.5.1 COM Win32
.NET , C#
, COM DLL
Win32. , DllImport static extern, ,
DLL Win32.
System.Runtime.InteropServices,
.NET.
.NET IndexerName
.NET
.NET. IndexerName ,
Item. IndexerName
.
namespace System.Runtime.CompilerServices.CSharp
{
[AttributeUsage(AttributeTargets.Property)]
public class IndexerNameAttribute: Attribute
{
public IndexerNameAttribute(string indexerName) {...}
public string Value { get {...} }

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

451

18.
C#, , C C++ ,
. C#
, .
C# , C C++. C#
, ,
. ,
C C++.
C C++
C#, .
, , , ,

. C#
.
,
, .
C
C#.

, .
unsafe, ,
.

18.1
C# .
unsafe ,
_:

, , unsafe,
( ,
) ;

, , , , , , ,
unsafe,
;

_ .
.

. (...)
, .
_:
...
unsafe

_:
...
unsafe

_:
...
unsafe

_:
...
unsafe

_:
...
unsafe

_:
...
unsafe

_:
...
unsafe

_:
...
unsafe

_:
...
unsafe

_:
...
unsafe

_:
...
unsafe

_:
extern unsafe ~ ( ) _
unsafe extern ~ ( ) _
__:
extern unsafe static
unsafe extern static
extern static unsafe
unsafe static extern
static extern unsafe
static unsafe extern
_:
...
_
_:
unsafe

public unsafe struct Node
{
public int Value;
public Node* Left;
public Node* Right;
}
454

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

unsafe, ,
. Left Right
. :
public struct Node
{
public int Value;
public unsafe Node* Left;
public unsafe Node* Right;
}

unsafe .
, ,
unsafe .
public class A
{
public unsafe virtual void F() {
char* p;
...
}
}
public class B: A
{
public override void F() {
base.F();
...
}
}

unsafe F A F
, . F
B unsafe, , , F
B .
,
public unsafe class A
{
public virtual void F(char* p) {...}
}
public class B: A
{
public unsafe override void F(char* p) {...}
}

, F ,
. ,
A, unsafe , B.

18.2
(4) _, _
_. _ typeof (7.5.10.6)
, .

:
...
_
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

455

_ _ void
*:
_:
_ *
void *

_:

, * , _ .
, .
( ),
, .
, ,
_.
_ , _
_ . , _
:

sbyte, byte, short, ushort, int, uint, long, ulong, char, float, double, decimal bool;

_;

_;

_,
_.

: ()
, .
:

byte*

byte

char*

char

int**

int

int*[]

int

void*

.
C C++, , C# *
,
. :
int* pi, pj; // NOT int *pi, *pj;

, T* T.
* (18.5.1) . ,

P int*, *P int, ,
P.
456

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

, null.
null . null
.
void* . ,
void*,
. void* (
).
. ,
object object.
, (4.3) .
.
18.4.
_ volatile (10.5.3).
ref out,
,
, ,
, , . .
using System;
class Test
{
static int value = 20;
unsafe static void F(out int* pi1, ref int* pi2) {
int i = 10;
pi1 = &i;

fixed (int* pj = &value) {


// ...
pi2 = pj;
}

static void Main() {


int i = 10;
unsafe {
int* px1;
int* px2 = &i;
F(out px1, ref px2);
Console.WriteLine("*px1 = {0}, *px2 = {1}",
*px1, *px2); //
}

, . ,
int,
int,
, , null:

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

457

unsafe static int* Find(int* pi, int size, int value) {


for (int i = 0; i < size; ++i) {
if (*pi == value)
return pi;
++pi;
}
return null;
}

* (18.5.1);

-> (18.5.2);

[] (18.5.3);

& (18.5.4);

++ (18.5.5);

+
(18.5.6);

==, !=, <, >, <= => (18.5.7);

stackalloc (18.7);

fixed ,
(18.6).

18.3
(18.5.4) fixed (18.6) :
.
,
. ( ,
, .)
, .
( .)
& (18.5.4) .
,
fixed (18.6),
fixed.
, :

, _ (7.5.2),
,
;

, __ (7.5.4) V.I, V
_;

, ____ (18.5.1)
*P, ____ (18.5.2) P->I
____ (18.5.3) P[E].

.
458

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

, .
, ref out ,
, , . ,
, , ,
.

18.4
(6.1)
:

_ void*.

null _.

, (6.2)
:

_ _;

sbyte, byte, short, ushort, int, uint, long ulong _;

_ sbyte, byte, short, ushort, int, uint, long ulong.

, (6.3.1)
:

_ void*.

.
, ,
.
,
, , .
, : A
B, C,
A C.
,
:
char c = 'A';
char* pc = &c;
void* pv = pc;
int* pi = (int*)pv;
int i = *pi;
//
*pi = 123456;
//


.
. ,
double :

using System;

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

459

class Test
{
unsafe static void Main() {
double d = 123.456e23;
unsafe {
byte* pb = (byte*)&d;
for (int i = 0; i < sizeof(double); ++i)
Console.Write("{0:X2} ", *pb++);
Console.WriteLine();
}
}
}

, .
. 32-
64-
, uint
ulong .

18.5
,
. ,
, _
(7.5.2), __ (7.5.4), _ (7.5.5) __ (7.5.6)
.
____ (7.5)
_ (7.6) :
____:
...
____
____
_sizeof
_:
...
____
_
.
.
18.5.1
____ (*)
_.
____:
* _
*
, . *P, P
T*, T. * void*
.
* null .
, ,
System.NullReferenceException.
460

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

, *
. *
(. 18.4)
.
,
*P, (5.3.1).
18.5.2
____ _, "->"
.
____:
_ ->
P->I, P ,
void*, I , P.
P->I , (*P).I.
(*) . 18.5.1. ( .) .
7.5.4.

using System;
struct Point
{
public int x;
public int y;
public override string ToString() {
return "(" + x + "," + y + ")";
}
}
class Test
{
static void Main() {
Point point;
unsafe {
Point* p = &point;
p->x = 10;
p->y = 20;
Console.WriteLine(p->ToString());
}
}
}

-> .
P->I (*P).I, Main :

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

461

class Test
{
static void Main() {
Point point;
unsafe {
Point* p = &point;
(*p).x = 10;
(*p).y = 20;
Console.WriteLine((*p).ToString());
}
}
}

18.5.3
____ ____,
, [" "].
____:
____ [ ]
P[E], P ,
void*, E , int,
uint, long ulong.
P[E] , *(P + E).
(*) . 18.5.1. (+)
. 18.5.6.

class Test
{
static void Main() {
unsafe {
char* p = stackalloc char[256];
for (int i = 0; i < 256; i++) p[i] = (char)i;
}
}
}

for.
P[E] *(P + E), :
class Test
{
static void Main() {
unsafe {
char* p = stackalloc char[256];
for (int i = 0; i < 256; i++) *(p + i) = (char)i;
}
}
}

,
. , C C++.
18.5.4
_ (&), _.

462

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

_:
& _
E T (18.3),
&E , E. T*,
. , E
, E E
. fixed
(18.6), . 7.5.4,
,
readonly, , . , , .
.
& , , &
, ,
, .
, .

using System;
class Test
{
static void Main() {
int i;
unsafe {
int* p = &i;
*p = 123;
}
Console.WriteLine(i);
}
}
i &i, p.
*p i,

, , .
& ,
. , API
, API. API
,
.
18.5.5
++ -- (7.5.9 7.6.5)
, void*. , T*
:
T* ++(T* x);
T* --(T* x);

, x + 1 x - 1, (18.5.6). ,
T* ++ sizeof(T) ,
, -- sizeof(T) , .

,
, .
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

463

18.5.6
+ - (7.7.4 7.7.5)
, void*. , T* :
T*
T*
T*
T*

+(T*
+(T*
+(T*
+(T*

x,
x,
x,
x,

T*
T*
T*
T*

+(int x, T* y);
+(uint x, T* y);
+(long x, T* y);
+(ulong x, T* y);

T*
T*
T*
T*

(T*
(T*
(T*
(T*

x,
x,
x,
x,

int y);
uint y);
long y);
ulong y);

int y);
uint y);
long y);
ulong y);

long (T* x, T* y);

P T* N int, uint, long ulong, P


+ N N + P T*, N * sizeof(T)
, P. P - N T*,
N * sizeof(T) , P.
, P Q, T*, P Q ,
P Q, sizeof(T). long. , P - Q
((long)(P) - (long)(Q)) / sizeof(T).
:
using System;
class Test
{

static void Main() {


unsafe {
int* values = stackalloc int[20];
int* p = &values[1];
int* q = &values[15];
Console.WriteLine("p - q = {0}", p - q);
Console.WriteLine("q - p = {0}", q - p);
}
}

:
p - q = -14
q - p = 14

,
, , .
18.5.7
==, !=, <, >, <= => (7.9)
. :
bool ==(void* x, void* y);
bool !=(void* x, void* y);
464

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
bool <(void* x, void* y);
bool >(void* x, void* y);
bool <=(void* x, void* y);
bool >=(void* x, void* y);

void*,
.
, , .
18.5.8 sizeof
sizeof , . ,
sizeof, _ (18.2).
_sizeof:
sizeof ( _ )
sizeof int.
sizeof , .

sizeof(sbyte)

sizeof(byte)

sizeof(short)

sizeof(ushort)

sizeof(int)

sizeof(uint)

sizeof(long)

sizeof(ulong)

sizeof(char)

sizeof(float)

sizeof(double)

sizeof(bool)

sizeof
, .
.
, .
, , .
, ,
, .

18.6 fixed

_ (8)
, fixed, ,
.
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

465

_:
...
_fixed
_fixed:
fixed ( _ __fixed ) _
__fixed:
__fixed
__fixed , __fixed
__fixed:
= __fixed
__fixed:
& __

__fixed _
,
__fixed. , fixed,
__fixed, ,
_ fixed. , fixed,
. ,
( ++ --)
ref out.
__fixed :

&, __ (5.3.3)
(18.3) T , T*
, fixed.

fixed;

_ T , T*
, fixed.
,
fixed. fixed
, null ;

string , char*
, fixed.
,
fixed. fixed ,
null;

_ __,
, ,
, fixed.
(18.7.2),

fixed.

, __fixed, fixed ,
, ,
fixed. , ,
__fixed, ,

466

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

fixed ,
.
, , fixed,
. , ,
fixed, API, ,
API .
( ).

.

class Test
{
static int x;
int y;
unsafe static void F(int* p) {
*p = 1;
}
static void Main() {
Test t = new Test();
int[] a = new int[10];
unsafe {
fixed (int* p = &x) F(p);
fixed (int* p = &t.y) F(p);
fixed (int* p = &a[0]) F(p);
fixed (int* p = a) F(p);
}
}
}

fixed.
, ,
.
&, .
fixed .
, a &a[0] fixed ,
a.
fixed string:
class Test
{
static string name = "xx";
unsafe static void F(char* p) {
for (int i = 0; p[i] != '\0'; ++i)
Console.WriteLine(p[i]);
}
static void Main() {
unsafe {
fixed (char* p = name) F(p);
fixed (char* p = "xx") F(p);
}
}

}
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

467


, 0 Length 1.
, ,
. fixed, p a,
p p + a.Length - 1 .
p[0] p[a.Length - 1] .

.
:
using System;
class Test
{
static void Main() {
int[,,] a = new int[2,3,4];
unsafe {
fixed (int* p = a) {
for (int i = 0; i < a.Length; ++i) //
p[i] = i;
}
}

for (int i = 0; i < 2; ++i)


for (int j = 0; j < 3; ++j) {
for (int k = 0; k < 4; ++k)
Console.Write("[{0},{1},{2}] = {3,2} ", i, j, k, a[i,j,k]);
Console.WriteLine();
}

:
[0,0,0]
[0,1,0]
[0,2,0]
[1,0,0]
[1,1,0]
[1,2,0]

=
=
=
=
=
=

0 [0,0,1] =
4 [0,1,1] =
8 [0,2,1] =
12 [1,0,1] =
16 [1,1,1] =
20 [1,2,1] =

1 [0,0,2] = 2 [0,0,3] = 3
5 [0,1,2] = 6 [0,1,3] = 7
9 [0,2,2] = 10 [0,2,3] = 11
13 [1,0,2] = 14 [1,0,3] = 15
17 [1,1,2] = 18 [1,1,3] = 19
21 [1,2,2] = 22 [1,2,3] = 23


class Test
{
unsafe static void Fill(int* p, int count, int value) {
for (; count != 0; count--) *p++ = value;
}
static void Main() {
int[] a = new int[100];
unsafe {
fixed (int* p = a) Fill(p, 100, -1);
}
}
}

fixed , ,
.
:
468

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
unsafe struct Font
{
public int ;
public fixed char name[32];
}
class Test
{
unsafe static void PutString(string s, char* buffer, int bufSize) {
int len = s.Length;
if (len > bufSize) len = bufSize;
for (int i = 0; i < len; i++) buffer[i] = s[i];
for (int i = len; i < bufSize; i++) buffer[i] = (char)0;
}
Font f;

unsafe static void Main()


{
Test test = new Test();
test.f.size = 10;
fixed (char* p = test.f.name) {
PutString("Times New Roman", p, 32);
}
}

fixed , ,
.
char*, , ,
null. fixed, p s,
p p + s.Length - 1 ,
p + s.Length null ( '\0').

. , ,
, ,
, .
null API,
C. , , null.
null , ,
null char*.

18.7
C
, API.
18.7.1

,
.
.

(18.1).

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

469

__:

___
___:
___ fixed
__
--- ;

___:
___
___
___
___:
new
public
protected
internal
private
unsafe

__:

___:
___
___
___
___:
[ _ ]
(17), new
(10.2.2), (10.2.3) unsafe
(18.1). ,
. ,
.
static.
(-),
. sbyte,
byte, short, ushort, int, uint, long, ulong, char, float, double bool.
,
. ,
, , [ ].
,
. int,
.
.
,
,
. ,

470

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
unsafe struct A
{
public fixed int x[5], y[10], z[100];
}

unsafe struct A
{
public fixed int x[5];
public fixed int y[10];
public fixed int z[100];
}

18.7.2
(7.3) , .
_ (7.5.2)
__ (7.5.4).
,
this.I, I .
E.I E I
, E.I
:

E.I ,
;

E , ;

, E (18.3), E.I
__fixed (18.6), ;

E ,
I E. S*, S
I, .


. ,
.
,
.
unsafe struct Font
{
public int size;
public fixed char name[32];
}

class Test
{
unsafe static void PutString(string s, char* buffer, int bufSize) {
int len = s.Length;
if (len > bufSize) len = bufSize;
for (int i = 0; i < len; i++) buffer[i] = s[i];
for (int i = len; i < bufSize; i++) buffer[i] = (char)0;
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

471

unsafe static void Main()


{
Font f;
f.size = 10;
PutString("Times New Roman", f.name, 32);
}

18.7.3
(5.3),

.
, ,
, ,

(5.2).
.

18.8
(8.5.1)
, .
__:

_stackalloc
_stackalloc:
stackalloc _ [ ]
_ , ,
.
. ,
, _,
.
stackalloc T[E] , T
(18.2), E int. E * sizeof(T)
( T*) . E ,
. E , ,
. ,
System.StackOverflowException.
.
catch finally (8.10).
, stackalloc.
, ,
. alloca, ,
C C++.

using System;

472

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
class Test
{
static string IntToString(int value) {
int n = value >= 0? value: -value;
unsafe {
char* buffer = stackalloc char[16];
char* p = buffer + 16;
do {
*--p = (char)(n % 10 + '0');
n /= 10;
} while (n != 0);
if (value < 0) *--p = '-';
return new string(p, 0, (int)(buffer + 16 - p));
}
}
static void Main() {
Console.WriteLine(IntToString(12345));
Console.WriteLine(IntToString(-999));
}
}

stackalloc IntToString 16
. .

18.9
stackalloc, C#
, .
.
Memory,
C#:
using System;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;
public unsafe class Memory
{
// .
// API HeapXXX .
static int ph = GetProcessHeap();
// Private .
private Memory() {}
// .
// .
public static void* Alloc(int size) {
void* result = HeapAlloc(ph, HEAP_ZERO_MEMORY, size);
if (result == null) throw new OutOfMemoryException();
return result;
}

// src dst.
// .

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

473

public static void Copy(void* src, void* dst, int count) {


byte* ps = (byte*)src;
byte* pd = (byte*)dst;
if (ps > pd) {
for (; count != 0; count--) *pd++ = *ps++;
}
else if (ps < pd) {
for (ps += count, pd += count; count != 0; count--) *--pd = *--ps;
}
}
// .
public static void Free(void* block) {
if (!HeapFree(ph, 0, block)) throw new InvalidOperationException();
}
// .
// ,
// .
public static void* ReAlloc(void* block, int size) {
void* result = HeapReAlloc(ph, HEAP_ZERO_MEMORY, block, size);
if (result == null) throw new OutOfMemoryException();
return result;
}
// .
public static int SizeOf(void* block) {
int result = HeapSize(ph, 0, block);
if (result == -1) throw new InvalidOperationException();
return result;
}
// API
const int HEAP_ZERO_MEMORY = 0x00000008;
// API
[DllImport("kernel32")]
static extern int GetProcessHeap();
[DllImport("kernel32")]
static extern void* HeapAlloc(int hHeap, int flags, int size);
[DllImport("kernel32")]
static extern bool HeapFree(int hHeap, int flags, void* block);
[DllImport("kernel32")]
static extern void* HeapReAlloc(int hHeap, int flags,
void* block, int size);

[DllImport("kernel32")]
static extern int HeapSize(int hHeap, int flags, void* block);

Memory:

474

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

2
class Test
{
static void Main() {
unsafe {
byte* buffer = (byte*)Memory.Alloc(256);
try {
for (int i = 0; i < 256; i++) buffer[i] = (byte)i;
byte[] array = new byte[256];
fixed (byte* p = array) Memory.Copy(buffer, p, 256);
}
finally {
Memory.Free(buffer);
}
for (int i = 0; i < 256; i++) Console.WriteLine(array[i]);
}
}
}

256 Memory.Alloc
, 0 255. 256
Memory.Copy . ,
Memory.Free
.

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

475

A.
C#
XML-. ,
, XML
, . ,
, .
( , ) (
, , ). XML
. ( , , C#.)
.
,
.
,
, ,
XML.

A.1
, ,
XML , .
, ( ///),
, ( /**).
( , )
( , , ), .
(17.2) ,
, .
:
___:
/// _
____:
/** ___ */
___ _
/// ___,
___, _
XML-.
____ ,
_, ,
_
____,
XML-. _ ,
.

.
/// <summary> <c>Point</c>
/// .</summary>
///
public class Point
{
/// <summary> <c>draw</c> .</summary>
void draw() {}
}

XML
(http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml). XML
, .
,
A.2. :

<param> . ,
,
. ,
.

, .
, . ,
. , cref,

using, .
(. . " List<T>"),
XML. (. . "List{T}") escape-
XML (. . "List&lt;T&gt;").

<summary>
.

<include> XML-.

,
(, ).

.

A.2
, XML.

. (, .)

478

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Appendix A

<c>

A.2.1

<code>

A.2.2

<example>

A.2.3

<exception>

A.2.4

<include>

A.2.5

XML

<list>

A.2.6

<para>

A.2.7

<param>

A.2.8

<paramref>

A.2.9

<permission>

A.2.10

<summary>

A.2.11

<returns>

A.2.12

<see>

A.2.13

<seealso>

A.2.14

See Also

<summary>

A.2.15

<value>

A.2.16

<typeparam>

<typeparamref
>

A.2.1 <c>
,
, .
<code> (A.2.2).
:
<c></c>

.
/// <summary> <c>Point</c>
/// .</summary>

public class Point


{
// ...
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

479

A.2.2 <code>

. <c> (A.2.1).
:
<code> </code>

.
///
///
///
///
///
///
///
///
///
///

<summary>
x y.
<example>:
<code>
Point p = new Point(3,5);
p.Translate(-1,3);
</code>
<c>p</c> (2,8).
</example>
</summary>

public void Translate(int xor, int yor) {


X += xor;
Y += yor;
}

A.2.3 <example>
, ,
. <code> (A.2.2).
:
<example></example>

.
. <code> (A.2.2).
A.2.4 <exception>
, .
:
<exception cref=""></exception>

cref=""

. , ,
.

, .
.

480

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Appendix A
public class DataBaseOperations
{
/// <exception cref="MasterFileFormatCorruptException"></exception>
/// <exception cref="MasterFileLockedOpenException"></exception>
public static void ReadRecord(int flag) {
if (flag == 1)
throw new MasterFileFormatCorruptException();
else if (flag == 2)
throw new MasterFileLockedOpenException();
//
}
}

A.2.5 <include>
XML- .
XML-, XPath
, XML . <include>
XML .
:
<include file="_" path="xpath" />

file="_"

XML-. ,
.
path="xpath"

Xpath, XML XML-.


.
:
/// <include file="docs.xml" path='extradoc/class[@name="IntList"]/*' />
public class IntList { }

"docs.xml" :
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<extradoc>
<class name="IntList">
<summary>
.
</summary>
</class>
<class name="StringList">
<summary>
.
</summary>
</class>
</extradoc>

, :

/// <summary>
/// .
/// </summary>
public class IntList { }
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

481

A.2.6 <list>
.
<listheader> . (
.)
<item>.
, . ,
.
:
<list type="bullet" | "number" | "table">
<listheader>
<term></term>
<description></description>
</listheader>
<item>
<term></term>
<description></description>
</item>

<item>
<term></term>
<description></description>
</item>
</list>

, .

, .
.
public class MyClass
{
/// <summary> :
/// <list type="bullet">
/// <item>
/// <description> 1.</description>
/// </item>
/// <item>
/// <description> 2.</description>
/// </item>
/// </list>
/// </summary>
public static void Main () {
// ...
}
}

A.2.7 <para>
, <summary> (A.2.11) <returns>
(A.2.12), .
:
482

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Appendix A
<para></para>

.
.
/// <summary> Point.
/// <para>
///
/// Point.</para></summary>
public static void Main() {
// ...
}

A.2.8 <param>
, .
:
<param name=""></param>

.
.
/// <summary>
/// .</summary>
/// <param name="xor"> x.</param>
/// <param name="yor"> y.</param>
public void Move(int xor, int yor) {
X = xor;
Y = yor;
}

A.2.9 <paramref>
, .
, .
:
<paramref name=""/>

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

483

///
///
///
///

<summary> Point
(<paramref name="xor"/>,<paramref name="yor"/>).</summary>
<param name="xor"> x .</param>
<param name="yor"> y .</param>

public Point(int xor, int yor) {


X = xor;
Y = yor;
}

A.2.10 <permission>
.
:
<permission cref=""></permission>

cref=""

. , ,
.

.
.
/// <permission cref="System.Security.PermissionSet">
/// .</permission>
public static void Test() {
// ...
}

A.2.11 <summary>
. ( <summary> (A.2.15)
.)
:
<summary></summary>

.
.
/// <summary> <c>Point</c>
/// .</summary>
///
public class Point
{
// ...
}

A.2.12 <returns>
.
484

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Appendix A

:
<returns></returns>

.
.
/// <summary> .</summary>
/// <returns>, (x,y),
/// , .</returns>
public override string ToString() {
return "(" + X + "," + Y + ")";
}

A.2.13 <see>
. <seealso> (A.2.14)
, See Also.
:
<see cref=""/>

cref=""

. , ,
.
.
/// <summary>
/// .</summary>
/// <see cref="Translate"/>
public void Move(int xor, int yor) {
X = xor;
Y = yor;
}
/// <summary>
/// x y.
/// </summary>
/// <see cref="Move"/>
public void Translate(int xor, int yor) {
X += xor;
Y += yor;
}

A.2.14 <seealso>
See Also. <see> (A.2.13)
.
:
<seealso cref=""/>

cref=""
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

485

. , ,
.
.
/// <summary> ,
/// .</summary>
/// <seealso cref="operator=="/>
/// <seealso cref="operator!="/>
public override bool Equals(object o) {
// ...
}

A.2.15 <summary>
. <summary> (A.2.11)
.
:
<summary></summary>

.
.
/// <summary> Point
(0,0).</summary>
public Point() : this(0,0) {
}

A.2.16 <value>
.
:
<value> </value>

.
.
/// <value> <c>X</c> x .</value>
public int X
{
get { return x; }
set { x = value; }
}

A.2.17 <typeparam>
, , ,
.
:
<typeparam name=""></typeparam>
486

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Appendix A

.
.
/// <summary> .</summary>
/// <typeparam name="T">, .</typeparam>
public class MyList<T> {
...
}

A.2.18 <typeparamref>
, .
, .
:
<typeparamref name=""/>

.
.
/// <summary> <typeparamref
name=T> />> .</summary>
/// <param name="string"> </param>
public List<T> FetchData<T>(string query) {
...
}

A.3
,
.
.
,
.
, , ,
.
A.3.1
:
;

,
. :

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

487

( , )

( )

( , , ,
)

;
. ,
,
.

, .
, .
, # (U+0023). (,
);

, .
, . .
, CLI, :
o

, ,
:
, , ,
;
out ref @. ,
params, ;
, , [ _ : , ,
_ : ], ,
, , .
, .
, , : .
[] :
, , void, *
. void System.Void;
, , ,
`,
;
, , ,
`` `, ;
, ,
, {,
}.

488

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Appendix A

A.3.2
C# ,
, :

, :
enum Color { Red, Blue, Green }
namespace Acme
{
interface IProcess {...}
struct ValueType {...}
class Widget: IProcess
{
public class NestedClass {...}
public interface IMenuItem {...}
public delegate void Del(int i);
public enum Direction { North, South, East, West }
}

class MyList<T>
{
class Helper<U,V> {...}
}

"T:Color"
"T:Acme.IProcess"
"T:Acme.ValueType"
"T:Acme.Widget"
"T:Acme.Widget.NestedClass"
"T:Acme.Widget.IMenuItem"
"T:Acme.Widget.Del"
"T:Acme.Widget.Direction"
T:Acme.MyList`1
T:Acme.MyList`1.Helper`2

:
namespace Acme
{
struct ValueType
{
private int total;
}

class Widget: IProcess


{
public class NestedClass
{
private int value;
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

489

private string message;


private static Color defaultColor;
private const double PI = 3.14159;
protected readonly double monthlyAverage;
private long[] array1;
private Widget[,] array2;
private unsafe int *pCount;
private unsafe float **ppValues;

}
"F:Acme.ValueType.total"
"F:Acme.Widget.NestedClass.value"
"F:Acme.Widget.message"
"F:Acme.Widget.defaultColor"
"F:Acme.Widget.PI"
"F:Acme.Widget.monthlyAverage"
"F:Acme.Widget.array1"
"F:Acme.Widget.array2"
"F:Acme.Widget.pCount"
"F:Acme.Widget.ppValues"

;
namespace Acme
{
class Widget: IProcess
{
static Widget() {...}
public Widget() {...}
}

public Widget(string s) {...}

}
"M:Acme.Widget.#cctor"
"M:Acme.Widget.#ctor"
"M:Acme.Widget.#ctor(System.String)"

;
namespace Acme
{
class Widget: IProcess
{
~Widget() {...}
}
}
"M:Acme.Widget.Finalize"

;
namespace Acme
{
struct ValueType
{
public void M(int i) {...}
}

490

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Appendix A
class Widget: IProcess
{
public class NestedClass
{
public void M(int i) {...}
}
public
public
public
public
public
public
public

static void M0() {...}


void M1(char c, out float f, ref ValueType v) {...}
void M2(short[] x1, int[,] x2, long[][] x3) {...}
void M3(long[][] x3, Widget[][,,] x4) {...}
unsafe void M4(char *pc, Color **pf) {...}
unsafe void M5(void *pv, double *[][,] pd) {...}
void M6(int i, params object[] args) {...}

}
class MyList<T>
{
public void Test(T t) { }
}
class UseList
{
public void Process(MyList<int> list) { }
public MyList<T> GetValues<T>(T inputValue) { return null; }
}
}
"M:Acme.ValueType.M(System.Int32)"
"M:Acme.Widget.NestedClass.M(System.Int32)"
"M:Acme.Widget.M0"
"M:Acme.Widget.M1(System.Char,System.Single@,Acme.ValueType@)"
"M:Acme.Widget.M2(System.Int16[],System.Int32[0:,0:],System.Int64[][])"
"M:Acme.Widget.M3(System.Int64[][],Acme.Widget[0:,0:,0:][])"
"M:Acme.Widget.M4(System.Char*,Color**)"
"M:Acme.Widget.M5(System.Void*,System.Double*[0:,0:][])"
"M:Acme.Widget.M6(System.Int32,System.Object[])"
M:Acme.MyList`1.Test(`0)
M:Acme.UseList.Process(Acme.MyList{System.Int32})
M:Acme.UseList.GetValues``(``0)

;
namespace Acme
{
class Widget: IProcess
{
public int Width { get {...} set {...} }
public int this[int i] { get {...} set {...} }
public int this[string s, int i] { get {...} set {...} }
}
}
"P:Acme.Widget.Width"
"P:Acme.Widget.Item(System.Int32)"
"P:Acme.Widget.Item(System.String,System.Int32)"

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

491

namespace Acme
{
class Widget: IProcess
{
public event Del AnEvent;
}
}
"E:Acme.Widget.AnEvent"

;
namespace Acme
{
class Widget: IProcess
{
public static Widget operator+(Widget x) {...}
}
}
"M:Acme.Widget.op_UnaryPlus(Acme.Widget)"

: op_UnaryPlus, op_UnaryNegation,
op_LogicalNot, op_OnesComplement, op_Increment, op_Decrement, op_True op_False.

;
namespace Acme
{
class Widget: IProcess
{
public static Widget operator+(Widget x1, Widget x2) {...}
}
}
"M:Acme.Widget.op_Addition(Acme.Widget,Acme.Widget)"

: op_Addition, op_Subtraction,
op_Multiply, op_Division, op_Modulus, op_BitwiseAnd, op_BitwiseOr, op_ExclusiveOr,
op_LeftShift, op_RightShift, op_Equality, op_Inequality, op_LessThan, op_LessThanOrEqual,
op_GreaterThan op_GreaterThanOrEqual.

"~",
;
namespace Acme
{
class Widget: IProcess
{
public static explicit operator int(Widget x) {...}
public static implicit operator long(Widget x) {...}
}
}
"M:Acme.Widget.op_Explicit(Acme.Widget)~System.Int32"
"M:Acme.Widget.op_Implicit(Acme.Widget)~System.Int64"

A.4
A.4.1 C#
Point:
492

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Appendix A
namespace Graphics
{
/// <summary> <c>Point</c> .
/// </summary>
public class Point
{
/// <summary> <c>x</c>
/// x .</summary>
private int x;
/// <summary> <c>y</c>
/// y .</summary>
private int y;
/// <value> <c>X</c> x .</value>
public int X
{
get { return x; }
set { x = value; }
}
/// <value> <c>Y</c> y .</value>
public int Y
{
get { return y; }
set { y = value; }
}
/// <summary> Point
/// (0,0).</summary>
public Point() : this(0,0) {}
/// <summary> Point
/// (<paramref name="xor"/>,<paramref name="yor"/>).</summary>
/// <param><c>xor</c> x Point.</param>
/// <param><c>xor</c> y Point.</param>
public Point(int xor, int yor) {
X = xor;
Y = yor;
}

/// <summary>
/// .</summary>
/// <param><c>xor</c> x.</param>
/// <param><c>yor</c> y.</param>
/// <see cref="Translate"/>
public void Move(int xor, int yor) {
X = xor;
Y = yor;
}

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

493

/// <summary>
/// x y.
/// <example>:
/// <code>
/// Point p = new Point(3,5);
/// p.Translate(-1,3);
/// </code>
/// <c>p</c> (2,8).
/// </example>
/// </summary>
/// <param><c>xor</c> x.</param>
/// <param><c>yor</c> y.</param>
/// <see cref="Move"/>
public void Translate(int xor, int yor) {
X += xor;
Y += yor;
}
/// <summary> , Point
/// .</summary>
/// <param><c>o</c> ,
.
/// </param>
/// <returns>True, Point
/// ; False.</returns>
/// <seealso cref="operator=="/>
/// <seealso cref="operator!="/>
public override bool Equals(object o) {
if (o == null) {
return false;
}
if (this == o) {
return true;
}

if (GetType() == o.GetType()) {
Point p = (Point)o;
return (X == p.X) && (Y == p.Y);
}
return false;

/// <summary> .</summary>


/// <returns>, (x,y),
/// , .</returns>
public override string ToString() {
return "(" + X + "," + Y + ")";
}

494

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Appendix A
/// <summary> , Point
/// .</summary>
/// <param><c>p1</c> Point.</param>
/// <param><c>p2</c> Point.</param>
/// <returns>True, Point
/// ; False.</returns>
/// <seealso cref="Equals"/>
/// <seealso cref="operator!="/>
public static bool operator==(Point p1, Point p2) {
if ((object)p1 == null || (object)p2 == null) {
return false;
}
if (p1.GetType() == p2.GetType()) {
return (p1.X == p2.X) && (p1.Y == p2.Y);
}
}

return false;

/// <summary> , Point


/// .</summary>
/// <param><c>p1</c> Point.</param>
/// <param><c>p2</c> Point.</param>
/// <returns>True, Point
/// ; False.</returns>
/// <seealso cref="Equals"/>
/// <seealso cref="operator=="/>
public static bool operator!=(Point p1, Point p2) {
return !(p1 == p2);
}

}
}

/// <summary> Point


/// .
/// <para>
/// ,
/// Point.</para></summary>
public static void Main () {
//
}

A.4.2 XML
,
Point:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<doc>
<assembly>
<name>Point</name>
</assembly>
<members>
<member name="T:Graphics.Point">
<summary> <c>Point</c>
.
</summary>
</member>
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

495

<member name="F:Graphics.Point.x">
<summary> <c>x</c>
x .</summary>
</member>
<member name="F:Graphics.Point.y">
<summary> <c>y</c>
y .</summary>
</member>
<member name="M:Graphics.Point.#ctor">
<summary> Point
(0,0).</summary>
</member>
<member name="M:Graphics.Point.#ctor(System.Int32,System.Int32)">
<summary> Point
(<paramref name="xor"/>,<paramref name="yor"/>).</summary>
<param><c>xor</c> x Point.</param>
<param><c>yor</c> y Point.</param>
</member>
<member name="M:Graphics.Point.Move(System.Int32,System.Int32)">
<summary>
.</summary>
<param><c>xor</c> x.</param>
<param><c>yor</c> y.</param>
<see cref="M:Graphics.Point.Translate(System.Int32,System.Int32)"/>
</member>
<member
name="M:Graphics.Point.Translate(System.Int32,System.Int32)">
<summary>
x y.
<example>:
<code>
Point p = new Point(3,5);
p.Translate(-1,3);
</code>
<c>p</c> (2,8).
</example>
</summary>
<param><c>xor</c> x.</param>
<param><c>yor</c> y.</param>
<see cref="M:Graphics.Point.Move(System.Int32,System.Int32)"/>
</member>
<member name="M:Graphics.Point.Equals(System.Object)">
<summary> , Point
.</summary>
<param><c>o</c> ,
.
</param>
<returns>True, Point
; False.</returns>
<seealso
cref="M:Graphics.Point.op_Equality(Graphics.Point,Graphics.Point)"/>
<seealso
cref="M:Graphics.Point.op_Inequality(Graphics.Point,Graphics.Point)"/>
</member>
496

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Appendix A
<member name="M:Graphics.Point.ToString">
<summary> .</summary>
<returns>,
(x,y),
, .</returns>
</member>
<member
name="M:Graphics.Point.op_Equality(Graphics.Point,Graphics.Point)">
<summary> , Point

.</summary>
<param><c>p1</c> Point.</param>
<param><c>p2</c> Point.</param>
<returns>True, Point
; False.</returns>
<seealso cref="M:Graphics.Point.Equals(System.Object)"/>
<seealso
cref="M:Graphics.Point.op_Inequality(Graphics.Point,Graphics.Point)"/>
</member>
<member
name="M:Graphics.Point.op_Inequality(Graphics.Point,Graphics.Point)">
<summary> , Point

.</summary>
<param><c>p1</c> Point.</param>
<param><c>p2</c> Point.</param>
<returns>True, Point
; False.</returns>
<seealso cref="M:Graphics.Point.Equals(System.Object)"/>
<seealso
cref="M:Graphics.Point.op_Equality(Graphics.Point,Graphics.Point)"/>
</member>
<member name="M:Graphics.Point.Main">
<summary> Point.
<para> ,

Point.</para></summary>
</member>
<member name="P:Graphics.Point.X">
<value> <c>X</c>
x .</value>
</member>

<member name="P:Graphics.Point.Y">
<value> <c>Y</c>
y .</value>
</member>
</members>
</doc>

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

497

B.
,
, .
, .

B.1
:
_
_:
__
_ __
__:
_ _
__
_:
_
_ _
_:

B.1.1
_:
(U+000D)
(U+000A)
(U+000D), (U+000A)
(U+0085)
(U+2028)
(U+2029)
B.1.2
:
_
__
_:
// _
_:
_
_ _
_:
__

__:
(U+000D)
(U+000A)
(U+0085)
(U+2028)
(U+2029)
__:
/* ___ /
___:
___
___ ___
___:
/

_____
:
*

*
_____:
(/) (*)
B.1.3
:
Zs
(U+0009)
(U+000B)
(U+000C)
B.1.4
:

_
_
_
_
_
___
B.1.5
__:
\u _ _ _
_
\U _ _ _
_ _ _
_ _
B.1.6
:
_
@ ___
500

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Appendix C

_:
___, _
___:
__ __
__:

_ ( , U+005F)
__:
__
__ __
__:

_
__
:
Lu, Ll, Lt, Lm, Lo Nl
__, Lu, Ll, Lt,
Lm, Lo Nl
_:
Mn Mc
__, Mn Mc
_:
Nd
__, Nd
:
Pc
__, Pc

__:
Cf
__, Cf

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

501

B.1.7
_: :
abstract
byte
class
delegate
event
fixed
if
internal
new
override
readonly
short
struct
try
unsafe
volatile

as
base
bool
break
case
catch
char
checked
const
continue
decimal
default
do
double
else
enum
explicit
extern
false
finally
float
for
foreach
goto
implicit
in
int
interface
is
lock
long
namespace
null
object
operator
out
params
private
protected public
ref
return
sbyte
sealed
sizeof
stackalloc static
string
switch
this
throw
true
typeof
uint
ulong
unchecked
ushort
using
virtual
void
while

B.1.8
:
_
_
_
_
_
_null
_:
true
false

_:
__
__
__:
_ __
_:
_
_ _
_: :
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

__: :
U u L l UL Ul uL ul LU Lu lU lu

__:
0x _ __
0X _ __
_:
_
_ _

502

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Appendix C

_: :
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F a b c d e f

_:
_ . _ _
__
. _ _ __
_ _ __
_ __
_:
e _
E _
: :
+ -

__: :
F f D d M m

_:
' '
:
_
__
__
__
_:
(') (U+0027), (\) (U+005C)
__
__: :
\' \" \\ \0 \a \b \f \n \r \t \v

__:
\x _ _
_ _
_:
__
__
__:
" ___ "
___:
___
___ ___
___:
____
__
__
__

____:
(") (U+0022), (\) (U+005C)
__

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

503

__:
@" ___ "
___:
___
___ ___
___:
____
__
____:
"
__:
""

_null:
null

B.1.9
___: :
{
+
=
->
&=

}
<
==
|=

[
*
>
!=
^=

]
/
?
<=
<<

(
%
??
>=
<<=

)
&
::
+=
=>

.
|
++
-=

,
^
-*=

:
!
&&
/=

;
~
||
%=

_:
>|>
__:
>|>=
B.1.10
_:
_
__
_
_
_
_pragma
_:
___ true false
_:
__
__:
__
__ || __
__:
__
__ && __

504

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Appendix C

__:
__
__ ==
__
__ !=
__
__:
__
! __
__:
true
false

_
( _ )
_:
# define _ __
# undef _ __
__:
_ _
__:
__if __elif __else _endif
__if:
# if _ __
__
__elif:
__elif
__elif __elif
__elif:
# elif _ __
__
__else:
# else __
__
_endif:
# endif __
__:
_
_
_:
__
__
__:
_ _
_

_:
__ _

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

505

__:
_ (#)
_:
# error _
# warning _
_:
_
_ _
_:
__ __ __
__:
# region _
__:
# endregion _
_:
# line _ __
_:
_ _
_
default
hidden

_:
" __ "
__:
__
__ __
__:
_ "
_pragma:
# pragma __pragma
__
__pragma:
___pragma
___pragma:
warning _
warning _ _
_:
disable
restore

_:
_
_ , _

506

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Appendix C

B.2
B.2.1
__:
____
_:
____
____:
__
____ . __
__
B.2.2
:
_
_
_
_:
_struct
_
_struct:
_
_
_
_:
_
bool

_:
_
___
decimal

_:
sbyte
byte
short
ushort
int
uint
long
ulong
char

___:
float
double

_:
non-nullable-value-type ?

___:

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

507

_:
_
_:
_
_
_
_
_:
_
object
string

_:
_
_:
__ _
__:

_:
_
_ _
_:
[ _ ]
_:
,

_ ,
_:
_
__:
< _ >
_:
_
_ , _
_:

_:

B.2.3
_:

B.2.4
_:

_ ,

508

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Appendix C

ref _
out _
_:
primary-no-array-creation-expression
array-creation-expression
____:

_
__
___
_
___
__this
___
__
__
__
__
___
_typeof
_checked
_unchecked
___
__
_:
__
__:
( )
___:
_ . __
_ __
__
: :
bool
byte
object sbyte

char
short

decimal
string uint

double float
ulong

int
ushort

long

_:
_ ( _ )
___:
____ [ _ ]
_:

_ ,
__this:
this

___:
base .
base [ _ ]
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

509

__:
_ ++
__:
_ -__:
new ( _ )
___
new ___
___:
_
_
_:
{ __ }
{ __ , }
__:
_
__ , _
_:
= _
_:

___
_:
{ __ }
{ __ , }
__:
_
__ , _
_:
__
{ _ }
__:
new __ [ _ ] _
_
new _ _
new _ _
__:
new _ ( )
___:
new __
__:
{ __ }
{ __ , }
__:
_
__ , _
510

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Appendix C

_:
_
___
=
_typeof:
typeof ( )
typeof ( __ )
typeof ( void )

__:
__
:: __
__ .
__
__:
< >
:
,

,
_checked:
checked ( )
_unchecked:
unchecked ( )
___:
default ( )
_:
_
+ _
- _
! _
~ _
__
__
___
__:
++ _
__:
-- _
___:
( ) _
_:
_
_ * _
_ / _
_ % _

_:
_
_ + _
_ _
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

511

_:
_
_ << _
_ _ _
_:
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

< _
> _
<= _
>= _
is
as

_:
_
_ == _
_ != _
_:
_
_ & _
__:
_
__ ^ _
__:
__
__ | __
__:
__
__ && __
__:
__
__ || __
___null:
__
__ ?? ___null
_:
___null
___null ? :
_:
__ => __
__:
delegate ___
__:
___
___
___:
( ____ )

512

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Appendix C

____
___
____ , ___
___:
___
___:
ref
out

___:
( ____ )
___
____
___
____ ,
___
___:

__:

_:
_from _
_from:
from in
_:
__ _select__group
_
__:
__
__ __
__:
_from
_let
_where
_join
_join-into
_orderby
_let:
let =
_where:
where _
_join:
join in on equals

_join-into:
join in on equals
into
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

513

_orderby:
orderby
:

,
:
_
_:
ascending
descending

_select__group:
_select
_group
_select:
select
_group:
group by
_:
into _
:
_ _
_:
=
+=
-=
*=
/=
%=
&=
|=
^=
<<=

___
:
__

__:
_
_
_
_:

_:

514

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Appendix C

B.2.5
:
_
_
_
_:

_
_
_
_
_
_try
_checked
_unchecked
_lock
_using
_yield
:
{ _ }

_:

_
_:
;

_:
:
_:
__ ;
__ ;
__:
__ __
__:

var

__:
__
__ , __
__:

= __
__:

__:
const _

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

515

_:
_
_ , _
_:
= _
_:
_ ;
_:
_
__

__
__
__
__
_:
_if
_switch
_if:
if ( _ ) _
if ( _ ) _ else _
_switch:
switch ( ) _switch
_switch:
{ _switch }
_switch:
_switch
_switch _switch
_switch
_switch _
_switch:
_switch
_switch _switch
_switch:
case _ :
default :

_:
_while
_do
_for
_foreach
_while:
while ( _ ) _
_do:
do _ while ( _ ) ;

516

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Appendix C

_for:
for ( _for ; _for ; _for )
_
_for:
__
__
_for:

_for:
__
__:
_
__ , _
_foreach:
foreach ( __ in )
_
_jump:
_break
_continue
_goto
_return
_throw
_break:
break ;

_continue:
continue ;

_goto:
goto ;
goto case _ ;
goto default ;

_return:
return ;
_throw:
throw ;
_try:
try _catch
try _finally
try _catch _ finally
_catch:
__catch __catch
__catch __catch
__catch:
__catch
__catch __catch

__catch:
catch ( _ )
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

517

__catch:
catch
_finally:
finally
_checked:
checked
_unchecked:
unchecked
_lock:
lock ( ) _
_using:
using ( _ ) _
_:
__

_yield:
yield return ;
yield break ;

B.2.6
_:
__ _using
_
___
__:
namespace _ __ ;
_:

_ .
__:
{ __ _using
___ }
__:
__
__ __
__:
extern alias ;
_using:
_using
_using _using
_using:
_using__
_using___
_using___:
using = ____ ;

518

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Appendix C

_using___:
using __ ;
___:
___
___ ___
___:
__
_
_:
_
_
_
_
_
__:
:: __
B.2.7
_:
_ partial class
__
_ ___
_ ;
_:
_
_ _
_:
new
public
protected
internal
private
abstract
sealed
static

__:
< _ >
_:
_
_ , _
_:

_:
: _
: __
: _ , __

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

519

__:
_
__ , _
___:
___
___
___
___:
where _ : __
__:
_
_
__
_ , _
_ , __
_ , __
_ , _ , __
_:
_
class
struct

_:
_
_
_ , _
_ , _
__:
new ( )

_:
{ __ }
__:
__
__ __
__:
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
__
_
_:
_ const
_ ;

520

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Appendix C

_:
_
_ _
_:
new
public
protected
internal
private

_:
_
_ , _
_:
= _
_:
_ _ ;
_:
_
_ _
_:
new
public
protected
internal
private
static
readonly
volatile

_:
_
_ , _
_:

= _
_:

_
_:
_ _
_:
_ partial
__ _ __
( __ )
___

_:
_
_ _

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

521

_:
new
public
protected
internal
private
static
virtual
sealed
override
abstract
extern

__:

void

_:

_ .
_:

__:
_
_ , _
_
_:
_
_ , _
_:
_
_:
ref
out
this

_:
params _
_:
_ _
{ __ }
_:
_
_ _

522

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Appendix C

_:
new
public
protected
internal
private
static
virtual
sealed
override
abstract
extern

_:

_ .
__:
___get ___set
___set ___get
___get:
__ get __
___set:
__ set __
__:
protected
internal
private
protected internal
internal protected

__:

_:
_ event
_ ;
_ event _
{ ____ }

_:
_
_ _

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

523

_:
new
public
protected
internal
private
static
virtual
sealed
override
abstract
extern

____:
___add ___remove
___remove ___add
___add:
add
___remove:
remove
_:
_ _
{ __ }
_:
_
_ _
_:
new
public
protected
internal
private
virtual
sealed
override
abstract
extern

_:
this [ __ ]
_ . this [ __ ]
_:
_ _ _
_:
_
_ _
_:
public
static
extern

524

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Appendix C

_:
__
__
__
__:
operator __ ( )
__:
+ - ! ~ ++ -- true false

__:
operator __ ( ,
)
__:
+
*
/
%
&
|
^
<<

_
==
!=
>
<
>=
<=

__:
implicit operator ( )
explicit operator ( )
_:

_:
_ _
_
_:
_
_ _
_:
public
protected
internal
private
extern

_:
( __ )
_
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

525

_:
: base ( _ )
: this ( _ )
_:

__:
__ ( )
__
__:
extern static
static extern

__:

_:
extern ~ ( ) _
_:

B.2.8
_:
_ partial struct
__
_
___ _ ;
_:
_
_ _
_:
new
public
protected
internal
private

_:
: __
_:
{ __ }
__:
__
__ __

526

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Appendix C

__:
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
__
_
B.2.9
_:
__ _
__:

_:
_
_ _
_:
[ _ ]
_:
,

_ ,
_:
{ __ }
{ __ , }
__:
_
__ , _
_:

_
B.2.10
_:
_ partial interface
__
_ ___
_ ;

_:
_
_ _

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

527

_:
new
public
protected
internal
private

_:
: __
_:
{ __ }
__:
__
__ __
__:
__
__
__
__
__:
new __
__
( __ )
___ ;
__:
new
{ ___ }
___:
get ;
set ;
get ; set ;
set ; get ;
__:
new event ;
__:
new this [ __ ]
{ ___ }
B.2.11
_:
_ enum
_ _ ;
_:
: _
_:
{ __ }
{ __ , }

528

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Appendix C

_:
_
_ _
_:
new
public
protected
internal
private

__:
__
__ __
__:

= _
B.2.12
_:
_ delegate
__ __
( __ )
___ ;
_:
_
_ _
_:
new
public
protected
internal
private

B.2.13
_:
__
__:
__
__ __
__:
[ ___ _ ]
[ ___ _ , ]
___:
__ :
__:
assembly
module

:
_
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

529

_:
_
_ _
_:
[ __ _ ]
[ __ _ , ]
__:
_ :
_:
field
event
method
param
property
return
type

_:

_ ,
:
_ _
_:
_
_:
( ___ )
( ___ , __ )
( __ )
___:
__
___ , __
__:
__
__:
_
__ , _
_:
= __
__:

B.3
_:
...
unsafe

_:
...
unsafe
530

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Appendix C

_:
...
unsafe

_:
...
unsafe

_:
...
unsafe

_:
...
unsafe

_:
...
unsafe

_:
...
unsafe

_:
...
unsafe

_:
...
unsafe

_:
...
unsafe

_:
extern unsafe ~ ( )
_
unsafe extern ~ ( )
_
__:
extern unsafe static
unsafe extern static
extern static unsafe
unsafe static extern
static extern unsafe
static unsafe extern

_:
...
_unsafe
_unsafe:
unsafe

:
...
_
(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

531

_:
_ *
void *

_:

____:
...
____
____
_sizeof
_:
...
____
____:
* _
____:
_ ->
____:
____ [ ]
_addressof:
& _
_sizeof:
sizeof ( _ )
_:
...
_
_:
fixed ( _ __ )
_
__:
__
__ , __
__:
= __
__:
& __

__:

___
___:
___ fixed
__
___ ;

532

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

Appendix C

___:
___
___
___
___:
new
public
protected
internal
private
unsafe

__:

___:
___
___
___
___:
[ _ ]
__:

_stackalloc

_stackalloc:
stackalloc _ [ ]

(Microsoft Corp.), 1999-2007. .

533

C.
. The Unicode Standard, Version 3.0. Addison-Wesley, Reading,
Massachusetts, 2000, ISBN 0-201-616335-5.
IEEE. IEEE .
ANSI/IEEE 754-1985. - http://www.ieee.org.
ISO/IEC. C++. ANSI/ISO/IEC 14882:1998.