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. . . ( , ).
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. ,
( , ). .
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:
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108

1.

, .
X R f : X R.

. f x0 X, > 0 > 0 ,
x X (x0 , x0 + ), |f (x) f (x0 )| < .
. : f
x0 X , xx
lim f (x) = f (x0 ).
0
xX

. f Y X, f
x0 Y .

. f Y X, > 0 > 0
, x1 , x2 X, |x1 x2 | < , |f (x1 ) f (x2 )| < .

. .

1) f (x), g(x) x0 . f (x) + g(x), f (x) g(x), f (x) g(x)


x0 .
2) f (x) x0 . U (x0 ) ,
f (x) U (x0 ) X.
3) f (x) x0 , f (x0 ) > 0 (< 0). U (x0 )
, f (x) > 0 (< 0) U (x) X.
f (x)

g(x)
U (x0 ) X ( 3), x0 .

4) f (x), g(x) x0 , g(x0 ) 6= 0.

. , 1
4 , .
. X, Y, Z R, f : X Y x0 g : Y Z
y0 = f (x0 ). g f x0 .
.

> 0, > 0 , |y y0 | < |g(y) g(y0 )| < . > 0 ,


|x x0 | < |f (x) f (x0 )| < . , |x x0 | < , |(g f )(x) (g f )(x0 )| < .

. ( ). f : [a, b] R
[a, b]. , , f (a) < f (b). x [f (a), f (b)], c [a, b], , f (c) =
x.
.
ba
, [ak , bk ] [ak1 , bk1 ],
2k
f (ak ) 6 x 6 f (bk ). [a0 , b0 ] = [a, b]. , [ak1 , bk1 ] ,
ak1 + bk1
, [ak1 , ck1 ] [ck1 , bk1 ], x.
ck1 =
2
x, .
[ak , bk ] , bk ak =

,
T
[ak , bk ]. , f (ak ) 6 x, lim ak = c, lim f (ak ) = f (c),
c, {c} =
k

k=0

f (c) 6 x. f (bk ) f (c) x, f (c) = x.

. K R , . , {U }, A n
S
S
U , 1 , . . . , n A, K
, , K
Ui .
i=1

. ( ). [a, b] .

.
, {U }, A,
ba
. [ak , bk ] , bk ak =
,
2k
[ak , bk ] [ak1 , bk1 ], {U } [ak , bk ], .
ak1 + bk1
[a0 , b0 ] = [a, b]. , [ak1 , bk1 ] , ck1 =
,
2
[ak1 , ck1 ] [ck1 , bk1 ], . ,
, ,
.

T
, c , {c} =
[ak , bk ]. k=0

{U } [a, b], , c U .
U , , (c , c + ) U . , k , bk ak < .
c [ak , bk ], [bk , ak ] (c , c + ) U . , {U }, [ak , bk ].
.

, ,
. K R , f : K R, f K.
. ( ). , f K, , M > 0, |f (x)| < M x K.

2,
T x K U (x)
M (x) > 0, |f (y)| < M (x) y K U (x). U (x), x K, K, U (x1 ), . . . , U (xn ). M = max M (xi ),
i

x K, i , x U (xi ), |f (x)| < M (xi ) 6 M .

. ( ). , m

inf f (x),

xK

M = sup f (x). . xm , xM , f (xm ) = m, f (xM ) = M .


xK

.
xM , xm . , xM
1

, f (x) < M x K. , g(x) =
M f (x)
K ( 4). , g(x) > 0. , A > 0, g(x) < A, x K.
1
1
M f (x) > , f (x) < M , M 6= sup f (x). .
A
A
xK

. (). , f K.
.
> 0. , x K (x) ,

(x)
(x)
|y x| < (x), y K |f (y)f (x)| < . U (x) = x
, x+
2
2
2
K. , U (x1 ), . . . , U (xn ).
(xi )
= min
.
i
2
|y z| < , y, z K. i , y U (xi ), |y xi | < < (xi ).

, |zxi | < 2 6 (xi ). , |f (y)f (xi )| < , |f (z)f (xi )| < , |f (y)f (z)| < ,
2
2
.

2.

, .
. .
X Rn . f : X R . X
. x = (x1 , . . . , xn ).
f (
x)
0 x 0.
, f (
x) = o(
x), f (
x) 0,
k
xk
. f : X R x0 X, Lf (
x) x X
f (
x) f (
x0 ) = Lf (
x x0 ) + o(
x x0 )
Lf (
x) f (
x) x0 .
: Lf (
x) = f (
x0 )+Lf (
x x0 ) Rn+1 . f x0 ,
f x0 .
( : f (
x) g(
x)
f (
x) g(
x) = o(
x x0 ). , f (
x0 ) = g(
x0 ).)

x0 ,

Rn e1 , . . . , en . 1 , . . . , n , i (
ej ) = ij ,
n
P
L(
ei ) i .
L(
x) : L =
i=1

f
f (
x + x ei ) f (
x)
.
lim
i
x0
x x
x
.

f
f (
x + x ei ) f (
x) =
x + o(x ei ).
xi x

. f x,
n
X
f
f
,L=
i
xi x
xi x
i=1

, i,
lim

x0

f
L(ei ). :
xi x

f (
x + x ei ) f (
x)
L(x ei ) + o(x)
= lim
=
x0
x
x
xL(ei )
o(x)
= lim
+ lim
= L(ei )
x0
x0 x
x

. grad f =

n
X
i=1

f
ei .
xi x

f x, L(
y ) = hgrad f, yi.

. f (
x) x x, f x.
.
x y, y x =
x=
xn = y. , xk xk1 = xk ek .

n
P

i=1

f (
xk ) f (
xk1 ) =
k,

xi ei . xk = x +

f
xk + o(xk ek ).

xk xk1

k
P

i=1

xi ei . , x0 = x,

n
n
n
X
X
X
f
f
k
k
o(x

)
=
x) =
f (
y ) f (
x) =
x
+
xk + o(

k
k x
k x
x
x
k1
k1
k=1
k=1
k=1

,
,

f
f f
f
f

x).
,

x,

xk = o(
xk y xk y xk x
xk y xk x

n
X
f
f (
y ) f (
x) =
x) = hgrad f, y vxi + o(
x).
xk + o(
k
x x
k=1

3.

. .
.
. T [a, b] t0 , . . . , tn ,
a = t0 < < tn = b.

. d(T ) = max (tk tk1 ) T .


k=1...n

. T k [tk1 , tk ], k = 1, . . . , n, T .
> 0 T , d(T ) < .
. d(T ) 0.
f : [a, b] R.

. f T
(f, T ) =

n
X
k=1

f (k )(tk tk1 ).

. I = lim (f, T ), d(T )0

f [a, b],
I=

Zb

f (x) dx.

f (x) [a, b].


f (x) g(x) [a, b]. , .
1)

Rb

1 f (x) + 2 g(x)dx = 1

Rb

f (x)dx + 2

2) x [a, b], f (x) 6 g(x),


Rb
Rb

3) f (x)dx 6 |f (x)|dx.
a

Rb

g(x)dx.

Rb

f (x)dx 6

Rb

g(x)dx.

4) c ,

Rb
a

c dx = c(b a).

. f (x) [a, b], .


.
. > 0.
f (x) [a, b], ,


.
2(b a)
B = {T |d(T ) < } , . , , sup |(f, T1 )(f, T2 )| 6 . , T1 , T2 B
> 0, x, y [a, b], |x y| < , |f (x) f (y)| <
T1 ,T2 B

|(f, T1 ) (f, T2 )| 6 .

T = T 1 T 2 .
k = tk T , T .
n
m

X
X

f (i )(ti ti1 ) =
f (k )(t1k t1k1 )
|(f, T1 ) (f, T )| =
i=1

k=1

m T , n T . , T

T 1 T 2 . k(i)
P
(ti ti1 ) = tk tk1 .
[ti1 , ti ] [t1k(i)1 , t1k(i) ]. ,
i:k(i)=k

, i :
n
m

X
X
X

f (k(i) )(ti ti1 )


f (i )(ti ti1 ) =
=
i=1

k=1 i:k(i)=k

(f (k(i) ) f (i ))(ti ti1 ) 6


=
i=1

n
X
i=1

|f (k(i) ) f (i )|(ti ti1 ) 6

, |k(i) i | < , T 1 ,
,
6

n
X
i=1

(ti ti1 ) =
2(b a)
2

, |(f, T1 ) (f, T )| 6 , , , |(f, T1 ) (f, T2 )| 6 ,


2
.

. F (x) : [a, b] R f (x) : [a, b] R,


F (x) (a, b) F 0 (x) = f (x) x (a, b).
Rx
. f (x) [a, b]. F (x) = f (x) dx. F (x)
a

f (x).

.
x0 (a, b),
F (x0 + x) F (x0 ) =

x0Z+x

f (x) dx =

x0

= f (x0 )x +

x0Z+x

f (x) + f (x0 ) f (x0 ) dx =

x0

x0Z+x

(f (x) f (x0 )) dx.

x0

> 0. f x0 , , |xx0 | <


|f (x) f (x0 )| < . x < , |x x0 | < x
. ,
x0Z+x

F (x + x) F (x )

0
0
f (x0 ) =
(f (x) f (x0 )) dx 6

x
x
x0

1
6
x

x0Z+x

1
|f (x) f (x0 )| dx 6
x

x0

x0Z+x

dx = .

x0

F (x + x) F (x )

0
0
f (x0 ) 6 , .
, x < ,
x
lim

x0

F (x0 + x) F (x0 )
= f (x0 ),
x

F 0 (x0 ) = f (x0 ).

10

4.

. ,
.
. ( ). F (x1 , . . . , xn , u)
U (x10 , . . . , xn0 , u0 ),
u x1 , . . . , xn ,
F (x10 , . . . , xn0 , u0 ) = 0.
V (x10 , . . . , xn0 ), (x1 , . . . , xn ),
,
1) F (x1 , . . . , xn , (x1 , . . . , xn )) = 0, (x1 , . . . , xn ) V ;

2) (x10 , . . . , xn0 ) = u0 ;

3) V .
.
> 0 , I = [u0 , u0 + ] , {(x10 , . . . , xn0 )} I U . F (x10 , . . . , xn0 , u)
u I, F (x10 , . . . , xn0 , u0 ) < 0, F (x10 , . . . , xn0 , u0 + ) > 0.
F , V (x10 , . . . , xn0 ) ,
F (x1 , . . . , xn , u0 ) < 0, F (x1 , . . . , xn , u0 + ) > 0 (x1 , . . . , xn ) V . V ,
V I U . (x1 , . . . , xn ) V , F (x1 , . . . , xn , u)
I u , u = (x1 , . . . , xn ) I,
F (x1 , . . . , xn , u) = 0. , , 1.
(x1 , . . . , xn ) V , F (x1 , . . . , xn , u) u I,
u I , F (x1 , . . . , xn , u) = 0. . ,
(x1 , . . . , xn ) = (x10 , . . . , xn0 ), u = u0 , 2.
, , (x1 , . . . , xn ) I
x1 , . . . , xn V , , |(x1 , . . . , xn ) (x10 , . . . , xn0 )| 6 . 0 < , 0 V 0 . D = V V 0 ,
D = 0 , , |(x1 , . . . , xn ) (x10 , . . . , xn0 )| 6 0 D. 0
, (x10 , . . . , xn0 ).
x1 , . . . , xn V , u = (x1 , . . . , xn ).
(x1 , . . . , xn , u), U , ( "" (x1 , . . . , xn , u)). , V 0
x1 , . . . , xn 0 V 0 , , , x1 , . . . , xn !
V 0 V , , , 0 = V 0 , , x1 , . . . , xn .
x1 , . . . , xn , V .

. ( ).
F (x1 , . . . , xn , u)
(x10 , . . . , xn0 , u0 ). x10 , . . . , xn0 ,
xi (x10 , . . . , xn0 ) =

Fxi (x10 , . . . , xn0 , u0 )


Fu (x10 , . . . , xn0 , u0 )

11

.
(x1 , . . . , xn ), u = (x10 +x1 , . . . , xn0 +xn )(x1 , . . . , xn )
( , V ).
0 = F (x10 + x1 , . . . , xn0 + xn , u0 + u) F (x10 , . . . , xn0 , u0 ) =
= (Fx1 (x10 , . . . , xn0 , u0 ) + 1 )x1 + + (Fxn (x10 , . . . , xn0 , u0 ) + n )xn +
+(Fu (x10 , . . . , xn0 , u0 ) + )u

, F
(x10 , . . . , xn0 , u0 ). 1 , . . . , n , (x1 , . . . , xn , u),
.
i (x1 , . . . , xn ), u (x1 , . . . , xn ),
( ).
(Fx1 (x10 , . . . , xn0 , u0 ) + 1 )x1 + + (Fxn (x10 , . . . , xn0 , u0 ) + n )xn
Fu (x10 , . . . , xn0 , u0 ) +

1
= C1 + o(1) , , C+o(1)

Fx1 (x10 , . . . , xn0 , u0 ) 1
Fxn (x10 , . . . , xn0 , u0 ) n
u =
x

x +
Fu (x10 , . . . , xn0 , u0 )
Fu (x10 , . . . , xn0 , u0 )
u =

+o(x1 , . . . , xn )
.

: F U , Fu
U , F (x10 , . . . , xn0 , u0 ) = 0, Fu (x10 , . . . , xn0 , u0 ) > 0. Fu , Fu > 0
(, , U ) (x10 , . . . , xn0 , u0 ), U . F
u ( , , ),
. , V ,
.
, , .
. o(x) 2, x 0.

F : Rm Rn . n m F1 , . . . , Fn ,

F (x1 , . . . , xm ) = F1 (x1 , . . . , xm ), . . . , Fn (x1 , . . . , xm )


F = (F1 , . . . , Fn ).

. F x Rm ,
U (x) x, A : Rm Rn ,
h Rm , x + h U (x)
F (x + h) = F (x) + Ah + (h)

12

(h) = o(h) ( ||(h)|| = o(h), Rm


Rn ).
= (1 , . . . , n ). , (h) = o(h) i (h) = o(h), i = 1, . . . , n. A = ||aij || :
Fi (x + h) = Fi (x) +

m
X

aij hj + i (h),

i = o(h),

i = 1, . . . , n

j=1

, Fi x,
Fi
. A.
aij = x
j
. A F , F .
. ( ).
F (x1 , . . . , xm , u1 , . . . , un ) : Rm+n Rn 1
n
U (M ) M = (x10 , . . . , xm
0 , u0 , . . . , u0 ) F (M ) = 0.

F11 Fn1
u
u
..
..
...
.
.
Fn
F
n
1
u
un

1 ,...,Fn )
1 ,...,Fn )
D(F
. D(F
6= 0. V
D(u1 ,...,un )
D(u1 ,...,un )
M

1
m
m
n
(x10 , . . . , xm
0 ), (x , . . . , x ) : R R , ,

1) F (x1 , . . . , xm , 1 (x1 , . . . , xm ), . . . , n (x1 , . . . , xm )) = 0 (x1 , . . . , xm ) V ;


n
1
2) (x10 , . . . , xm
0 ) = (u0 , . . . , u0 );

3) V .
.
n. , (n = 1)
. .

D(F1 ,...,Fn )
D(u1 ,...,un )

F11
u

...
= ...
Fn
1
u

F1
un

..
.

Fn
un

k ,
=

Fk
un

, |M 6= 0, k, k |M 6= 0
Fi , k = n.

13

Fk
|
un M

6= 0.

1 ,...,Fn1 )
. n |M 6= 0 , n = D(F
D(u1 ,...,un1 )
n
, V1 M1 = (x10 , . . . , xm
0 , u0 ),
(x1 , . . . , xm , un ) : Rm+1 Rn1 , ,

1) Fi (x1 , . . . , xm , 1 (x1 , . . . , xm , un ), . . . , n1 (x1 , . . . , xm , un ), un ) = 0 (x1 , . . . , xm , un )


V1 i = 1, . . . , n 1.
n1
1
n
);
2) (x10 , . . . , xm
0 , u0 ) = (u0 , . . . , u0

3) V1 .
1 un ,
n1
X
Fi k
Fi
0=
+ n
k
n
u u
u
k=1

i = 1, . . . , n 1.
(x1 , . . . , xm , un ) = Fn (x1 , . . . , xm , 1 (x1 , . . . , xm , un ), . . . , n1 (x1 , . . . , xm , un ), un ).
, V1 ,
n1

X Fn k Fn

=
+ n
k un
un
u
u
k=1
i = n ( 0).
i = 1, . . . , n i ,
n
n
n1
X
X

Fi k X Fi

=
+

i n =
n
i
k un
un
u
u
i=1
i=1
k=1

,
=

n
n1
X
k X
k=1

un

i=1

Fi
+ = ,
uk

i 0 (
.. ;
0, , 0).

|M 6= 0 , u
n |M1 6= 0. (M1 ) = Fn (M ) = 0 (
, 2 ), ( n = 1). , V
1
m
m
(x10 , . . . , xm
0 ), (x , . . . , x ) : R R ,

1) (x1 , . . . , xm , (x1 , . . . , xm )) = 0 (x1 , . . . , xm ) V ;


n
2) (x10 , . . . , xm
0 ) = u0 ;

14

3) V .
n = , i (x1 , . . . , xm ) = i (x1 , . . . , xm , (x1 , . . . , xm )) i = 1, . . . , n.
, V . ,
1,2: 1 1, . . . , n 1
, n 1 . 2 2
.

15

5.

. . . .
.

xk

(1)

k=1

xk R.

. (1)
Sn =

n
X

xk

k=1

. (1) ,
S = lim Sn
n

S (1), :
S=

xk

k=1

. ( ). (1) ,
N , m, n > N

n
X

xk

k=m

.
,

n
P

k=m

xk = Sn Sm1 .

Sn .

. ( ). (1) , lim xk = 0.
k

.
, lim Sn = lim Sn1 . , lim xn = lim (Sn Sn1 ) = 0.
n

. (1) , k, xk 0.

. , Sn
.

16

.
, Sn . , Sn+1 Sn =
xn+1 0, Sn .
.

P
P
. ( ).
xk
yk , k, yk xk 0. ,

yk ,

k=1

k=1

k=1

xk .

k=1

yk xk , Sky Skx ( ). ,
Sky , Skx ,

xk .

yk ,

k=1

k=1

. ( ). (1), , n, xn 6= 0.
. , r > 1, , r < 1,
r = lim xxn+1
n
n
.
.
r > 1, , n,
.

xn+1
,
xn >1

.. xn+1 xn , xn 0,

< q, xn+k q n xk . , Sn+k


r < 1, k, q < 1 , n > k, xxn+1
n
n
P r
n+1
xk
q xk = Sk1 + xk 1q
Sk1 +
Sk1 + 1q
. .
1q
r=0

. ( ). f (x) : (0, ) R

R
P
.
f (k) .
1

k=1

n
P

f (k) = f (1) +

k=2 k1

k=1

f (x)) =

Rk

f (x)dx

n Rk
P

f (k)dx f (1) +

n Rk
P

f (x)dx = ( -

k=2 k1

f (x)dx ( f (x)).

.
, , . ,
n Rk
Rn
Rx
P
f (x)dx
F (x) = f (t)dt f (t)dt = ( n > x, f (x)) =
1

n Rk
P

k=2 k1

k=2 k1

f (k 1)dx =

n
P

k=2

f (k 1) =

n1
P

f (k) = Sk1 . F (x) . -

k=1

f (x), , ( ).

17

. ( ). n 0

P
P
an , Sn .
n an n .
k=1
k=1
.
.
|Sn | < M n. (
):
m
m

X
X

k ak =
k (Sk Sk1 ) =

k=n
k=n
m
m

m
m1
X
X

X
X

=
k Sk
k Sk1 =
k Sk
k+1 Sk =

k=n
k=n
k=n
k=n1

m1
X

Sk (k k+1 ) n Sn1 + m Sm
=

k=n

m1
X
k=n

|Sk ||k k+1 | + |n ||Sn1 | + |m ||Sm |


m1
X

M(

k=n

(k k+1 ) + |n | + |m | =

= M (n m + |n | + |m |) 4M n 0
n .

. (1) , xn+1 xn
n.
. ( ). (1).
|xn | 0, .
.

, x1 > 0, xn = (1)n+1 |xn |. n = |xn |, an =


(1)n+1 . ,
.

. ( ). (1) , n

P
k xk .
.
k=1

lim n = A, n = n + A, n 0. , ,
n

P
P
P
Axk .
k xk +
k xk =
( n ).
k=1

18

k=1

k=1


P
(
xk , ),
k=1
.

19

6.

. .
.
.

xk ,

k=1

k=1

. , .

|xk |.

.
ak = |xk | + xk , bk = |xk | xk .

ak

k=1

k=1

bk , ak < |xk |, bk <

|xk |, . , xk =

P

xk .

ak bk
,
2

k=1

. , , .
. .
.

P
P
xk = S. . xk ,

k=1

k=1

> 0. , N ,
m
P
m n > N ,
|xk | < . ( ). , K, (1) < K, . . . , (N ) < K.
k=n

m n > K, M , 1 (n) < M, . . . , 1 (m) < M ,


M
m
P
P
|xk | ( ,
|x(k) |

k=N +1

k=n

). , .


n
N
N

P
P
P
P
P

, n > K, S
x(k) = S
xk
xk S
xk +
|xk |

k=1
k=1
k=1
k=N +1
k=1..n,(k)>N
n
P
2, lim
x(k) = S.
n k=1

. (
), .

k=1

ak

bk . () -

k=1

apk bqk . ,

k=1

.
.

P
P
bk , ak
. ().
k=1

k=1

, .

20

.

m
P

k=n

|ak | <

m
P

k=n

|bk | <

k=1

apk bqk . > 0 N , m n > 0,

( ). K > 0, k > K pk > N

qk > N . m n > K. M , M > pk , M > qk k = n, . . . , m.


M
M
m
P
P
P
|bk | < . c, , .
|ak |
|apk ||bpk |
k=n

k=N

k=N

. (a1 b1 ) + (a2 b1 + a2 b2 +
a1 b2 )+. . . . n2 Sn2 = Sna Snb S a S b
. ,
.

21

7.

. . . ( , ).
fk (x) : X R, k = 1, . . . . X
( ).

P
P
fk (x)
fk (x). S(x) =
.
k=1

k=1

. , , .

P
.
fk (x) , > 0 N , x X,
k=1

n > N , |Sn (x) S(x)| < . Sn (x) , , .

P
. ( ).
ck , ,
fk (x) < ck x X, k,

k=1

fk (x) x.

k=1

-, fk (x) x .

P
ck < .
. > 0, N , n > N ,
k=n

P
P
ck < .
fk (x)
n > N, x X, |Sn (x) S(x)| =
k=n

k=n

B X.
. k lim fk (x),
B

lim
B

X
k=1

fk (x) =

X
k=1

k=1

fk (x) x X,

lim fk (x)
B

.
.

fk (x) Sn (x), S(x), lim fk (x) = ck .


B

k=1

ck . > 0, N , x X, n N , |Sn (x)

fk (x) = |Sm (x) Sn1 (x)| .


S(x)| < 2 . , x X, m n > N ,
k=n
m

P
P
ck < ,
ck
, B. ,
k=n
k=1
.

k=1

22

ck an , A.

k=1

> 0. N , x X, n > N , |Sn (x) S(x)| < 3 . n > N ,

|an A| < 3 . , B B, k n, |fk (x)lim fk (x)| < 3k


, |Sn (x)an | < 3 .
B

, |S(x) A| < x B, ..
lim S(x) = A.
B

P
. X R, fk (x) X.
fk (x)
k=1

X. S(x) X.

.
x0 X, x0 . B = X 3 x x0 .

P
lim fk (x) = S(x0 ). , ,
lim fk (x) = fk (x0 ) ( ),
k=1 B

lim S(x) = S(x0 ).


B

. uk (x) [a, b],

uk (x) .

k=1

Zb X

Z
X

uk (x)dx =

k=1

uk (x)dx

k=1 a

.
.
X [a, b], B

P
d(T ) 0, fk (T ) = (uk (x), T ). ,
fk (T )
k=1
.
, T X, fk (x). S(T ),
(T ).

n Sn

P
P
P

.
fk (x) < (ba)

fk (x), > 0 N , x X, n > N , fk (x)
k=1
k=1
m k=1

n
P P

n > N , T X, T = (t0 , . . . , tm ), (1 , . . . , m ), |S(x) Sn (x)| = ( fk (r )


fk (r ))(tr tr1 )
r=1 k=1
k=1
m
P

(t tr1 ) = .
ba r

r=1

. X = (a, b), fk (x) X,


(a, b). S(x) =

k=1

fk0 (x) -

fk (x) . S(x)

k=1

(a, b), (a, b),

23

S (x) =

fk0 (x)

k=1

.

> 0, N > 0, x X,
,
m
m
P 0
P
fk (x). x0 X. , fk (x) < . F (x) =
m n > N ,
k=n
k=n

P
F (x)F (x0 )
f
(x)f
(x
)
0
0
0
k
k
, xx0 = |F (c)| =
uk (x) < ,
, ,
fk (x) < . uk (x) =
xx0

k=n

k=n

uk (x) ( ). ,

P
P
P

uk (x) < ,
uk (x) =
m , uk (x)
k=n
k=1
k=1
.

P
P
P
fk (x0 ),
uk (x) (x x0 ) +
fk (x) =
x0 , .

k=1

k=1

k=1

k=1

, S(x) x.
x0 X.

S(x)S(x0 )
xx0

uk (x) x.

k=1

B = x x0 , .

24

8.

. , ( , ).
.
.

ck xk , ck -

k=1

. x R x C.

. x0 ,
|x| |x0 | .

.
k

P


ck xk0 , ck xk0 M . |ck xk | = |ck xk0 | xx0
k=1
k

k
x
. ,
M x0 M |x|x0 |
0|
.

p
1
. ( -). 1r = lim n |cn |. 10 =
= 0.
n

|x| < r |x| > r.

, lim

p
n

|cn xn | =

|x|
.
r

|x| > r, nk , |cnk xnk | >

1,
. |x| < r, N
p
n
q < 1, n > N
|cn xn | < q, |cn xn | < q n . M > 0,

P
|cn xn | < M q n n, .
|cn xn |

k=1

cn x .

k=1

, r0 < r.
, c0k = ck+1 (k + 1). .
:
. S(x) |x| < r,
0

S (x) =

k 0

(ck x ) =

k=1

kck xk1

k=1

. S(x) [a, b] (r, r),

Zb
a

S(x)dx =

Z
X
k=1 a

X
ck
(bk+1 ak+1 )
ck x dx =
k+1
k=1
k

25

:
x

e =

X
xk
k=1

sin x =

k!

X
(1)k+1 x2k1

(2k 1)!

k=1

cos x =

X
(1)k x2k

(2k)!

k=1

ln(1 + x) =

X
(1)k xk+1
k=1

k+1

R, |x| < 1 ( x =
1). ,
1
.
x+1

26

9.

. , . .
. f [a, b],

Rb

f (x)dx = lim

tb0 a

Rt

f (x)dx.

, [a, b], f (x) < M .


b
b

Z
Z

Zt

f (x)dx f (x)dx = f (x)dx M (b t) 0, t a.

. f (x) : [a, b) R [a, t] [a, b).


f [a, b)
Zb

f (x)dx = lim

tb0

Zt

f (x)dx

. . b , .

, ,
.

(a, b].
.
. :
Zb
a

f (x)dx =

Zt

f (x)dx +

Zb

f (x)dx.

.
"" (a, b)
(a, t] [t, b), t (a, b) ( t
).
.
, .
X Y , D = X Y f (x, y) : D R , B
X.
. f (x, y) y Y ( Y ) g(y)
B, > 0, U B , x U , y Y , |f (x, y) g(y)| .

27

. ( ). f (x, y) y Y y
B , > 0 U B ,
x1 , x2 U |f (x1 , y) f (x2 , y)| .
.

y, , g(y) y. |f (x1 , y)f (x2 , y)| <


x2 B, |f (x1 , y) g(y)| < .

. ( ). D = X Y , BX
X BY Y , f (x, y) : D R, f (x, y) Y (y)
BX f (x, y) (x) BY ( ).
lim (x) = lim lim f (x, y) = lim lim f (x, y) = lim (y)
BX

BX BY

BY BX

BY

.
.
> 0. , U BX , x, x0 U, y Y ,
|f (x, y) f (x0 , y)| /3. y BY , |(x)
(x0 )| /3, x, x0 U . ,
lim (x) = A. x0 BX , |(x) A| /3,
BX

x U . , |f (x, y) f (x0 , y)| /3 x0 ,


|f (x, y) (y)| /3, x U, y Y . x U . lim f (x, y) = (x),
BY

V BY , y V , |f (x, y) (x)| /3. y V |(y) A|


|(y) f (x, y)| + |f (x, y) (x)| + |psi(x) A| 3/3 = , lim (y) = A, .
BY

X = [a, b), b R b = . X t b 0,
(t, b), t [a, b]. Y - .
. , f (x, y) x [a, t] [a, b)
Rt
y Y , F (t, y) = f (x, y)dx. ( a

, )
I(y) =

Zb

f (x, y)dx

(1)

Y , F (t, y) Y I(y) t b 0.
, . ""
( Y ,
y).

28

. ( ). (1) ,

Rt2

> 0 t, t1 , t2 , t < t1 < t2 < b f (x, y)dx <

t1
.
.

, F (t2 , y) F (t1 , y), F .

t
R2
, f (x, y) , |f (x, y)| < M b < , f (x, y)dx < M (t2
t1

t1 ) < M (b t) 0 t b 0, ,
.

. ( ). g(x) : [a, b) R, x [a, b), y Y , |f (x, y)| <


Rb
g(x), g(x) [a, t), g(x)dx .
a

Rb

f (x, y)dx Y .

.
g(x)
,
> 0, t [a, b) , b > t2

Rt2

t
t
2
2
Rt2
R

R
t1 > t, g(x)dx < . , f (x, y)dx |f (x, y)|dx g(x)dx < . ,
t1
t1
t1
t1
.

. ( . ). f (x)
[a, b], g(x) [a, b]. [a, b],
Zb

f (x)g(x)dx = g(a)

f (x)dx + g(b)

Zb

f (x)dx

. ( ). F (t, y) D, g(x, y)
D, x [a, b) y Y 0 x b y Y .
Rb
f (x, y)g(x, y)dx Y .
a

t, t < t1 < t2 < b


Z 2
Zt2
Z

f (x, y)g(x, y)dx = g(t1 , y) f (x, y)dx + g(t2 , y) f (x, y)dx =

t1

t1

[t1 , t2 ]

= |g(t1 , y)(F (, y) F (t1 , y)) + g(t2 , y)(F (t2 , y) F (, y))|

29

F (t, y) < M D,
|g(t1 , y)| 2M + |g(t2 , y)| 2M 4M |g(t, y)| 0
t b 0. , .
. ( ).

Rb

f (x, y)dx Y ,

g(x, y) D, x [a, b) y Y .
Rb
f (x, y)g(x, y)dx Y .
a

g(x, y) < M D. > 0.

Rb

f (x, y)dx ,

Rt2

t, t1 , t2 , t < t1 < t2 < b f (x, y)dx <

t1
/2M .
a


Z 2
Z
Zt2

f (x, y)g(x, y)dx = g(t1 , y) f (x, y)dx + g(t2 , y) f (x, y)dx

t1

t1

[t1 , t2 ]

Z 2

M f (x, y)dx + M f (x, y)dx M


+M
=
2M
2M

t1

, .

.
. ( ). t [a, b].
f (x, y) x y Y , B
(x) [a, t].
Zt
Zt
Zt
lim f (x, y)dx = lim f (x, y)dx = (x)dx
B

.
.
X [a, b], BX
d(T ) 0 (. 2). g(y, T ) = (f (x, y), T ) f (x, y)
x y, T . g(y, T ) X
Rt
lim g(y, T ) = f (x, y)dx.

d(T )0

30

> 0. U B , x [a, b], y U , |f (x, y) (x)| < /(b a).


T , y U ,

|g(y, T ) ((x), T )| = (f (k , y) (k ))(tk tk1 )

k=1

n
X

|f (k , y) (k )|(tk tk1 )
(b a) =
(tk tk1 ) =
b

a
b

a
k=1
k=1

, g(y, T ) T ((x), T ) B. ( ,
BX , BY , , ),
lim lim g(y, T ) = lim lim g(y, T ) = lim (f (x, y), T ) =
B d(T )0

d(T )0 B

d(T )0

Zt

(x)dx

. ( ). (1) , f (x, y) B (x) [a, t] [a, b).


lim I(y) =
B

Zb

(x)dx

.
.
Rt
Rt
, t lim F (t, y) = lim f (x, y)dx = (x)dx.
B

B a

, F (t, y) I(y).
Rt
, lim lim F (t, y) = lim lim F (t, y) = lim (x)dx,
B tb0

tb0 B

tb0 a

. .

Y = [c, d] , D = [a, b)[c, d]. t [a, b], Dt = [a, t][c, d].

. ( ). g(x, y) D (
) (1) y Y ,
I(y) Y .
.
y0 Y I(y) y0 .
t [a, b), Dt , , , f
D1 . , > 0, > 0, y (y0 , y0 + ), x [a, t], |f (x, y) f (x, y0 )| < . ,
f (x, y) x [a, t] f (x, y0 ) B = y y0 .
,
lim I(y) = lim

yy0

Zb

f (x, y)dx =

Zb
a

31

f (x, y0 )dx = I(y0 )


f
y

. ( ). f (x, y) g(x, y) =
Rb
Rb
dx
D, f (x)dx , G(y) = f
y
a

. I(y) [c, d], I 0 (y) = G(y).

.
y0 [c, d],
h(x, y) =

f (x, y) f (x, y0 )
y y0

(2)

y 6= y0 . , h(x, y) = g(x, )
y0 y.
t [a, b), Dt , , , g
D1 . , > 0, > 0, y (y0 , y0 + ), x [a, t], |g(x, y)
g(x, y0 )| < . , y (y0 , y0 + ), (y0 , y0 + ), |h(x, y) g(x, y0 )| =
|g(x, ) g(x, y0 )| < . , h(x, y) x [a, t] g(x, y0 )
B = y y0 .
t1 , t2 [a, b] :
Zt2
Zt2
lim h(x, y)dx = g(x, y0 )dx
B

t1

t1

A(y) =

Rt2

f (x, y)dx, , (2),

t1

A(y)A(y0 )
,
yy0


A
=
y y0

Zt2

g(x, y0 )dx

(3)

t1

, , . , (3) t1 , t2
y0 .
y0 > 0. g(x, y) ,
t, t1 , t2 , t < t1 < t2 < b

Rt2

g(x, y)dx < , y Y .

t1
t

Z 2

Zt2

A(y) A(y0 ) A

h(x, y)dx =

A A0 = y = g(x, )dx <

t1

t1

(3)
y0 = . , , h(x, y)

32

y 6= y0 . ,
Zb

lim
B

h(x, y)dx =

Zb

g(x, y0 )dx = G(y0 )

0)
. B, , I(y)I(y
yy0
0
0
I (y0 ), I (y0 ) = G(y0 ), y0 [c, d].

Rb
, , f (x, y) [a, b] [c, d], f (x, y)dx, -

,
( ), .
.
.
. ( ). f (x, y) D
(1) D, I(y) [c, d],
Z

f (x, y)dxdy =

Z bZ
a

f (x, y)dydx

.
t [a, b]
Z

f (x, y)dxdy =

Z tZ
a

f (x, y)dydx

(4)

, . , f (x, y)
Rt
x, , , [a, t], f (x, y)dx = F (t, y) y (
a

). .

, (4) a = t. .
f (x, y)dy ( ). c
Rd
c F (t, y), F (t, y) t, f (x, y), Dt . ,

, Rd
, c f (x, y)dy. G(t) , G(a) = 0 G0 (t) = 0, t.
t0 G(t0 ) 6= 0, 0 6= (G(t0 )G(t)) = G0 ()(t0 t) = 0
. , G(t) = 0, (4) .
Rd

, F (t, y) I(y). ,

Z d
Z d
lim
I(y)dy
F (t, y)dy =
tb0

33

. , (4).
, ,
Z bZ d
Z tZ d
Z d
f (x, y)dydx
f (x, y)dydx =
I(y)dy = lim
c

tb0

34

10.

. .
f : [, ] R, f () = f (). f
2- R. , f .
. f
ak =
bk =

f (x) cos kx dx

k = 0, 1, . . .

f (x) sin kx dx

k = 1, 2, . . .

. f

a0 X
S(x, f ) =
+
ak cos kx + bk sin kx
2
k=1
.
T (x) = 0 +

n
X

k cos kx + k sin kx

k=1

Sn (x, f ).
0 = a0 /2, k = ak , k = bk .
k- , k > 0, :
1
ak cos kx + bk sin kx =

1
f (t) cos kt dt cos kx +

1
=

f (t) sin kt dt sin kx =

1
f (t)(cos kt cos kx + sin kt sin kx)dt =

f (t) cos k(t x) dt

d = (d0 , . . . , dn ), d0 = 1/2,
Td (x, f ) = d0 a0 +

n
X

dk (ak cos kt + bk sin kt ) =

k=1

(1) a0 ,
1
= d0

n
X

1
f (t)dt +
dk

k=1

35

f (t) cos k(t x) dt =

(1)

1
=

n
X

1
f (t) d0 +
dk cos k(t x) dt =

k=1

x
Z

f (x + y)Kd (y)dy =

y = t x, Kd (y)
1
=

1
f (x + y)Kd (y)dy +

x
Z
f (x + y)Kd (y)dy =

y y + 2,
( f , , Kd
)
1
=

1
f (x + y)Kd (y)dy +

x
Z
Z
1
f (x + y)Kd (y)dy =
f (x + y)Kd (y)dy

,
1

1
Kd (y)dy =

d0 dy = 2d0 = 1,

cos kx [, ] 0, d0 = 1/2.
S, S
Td :
1
Td (x, f ) S =

(f (x + y) S)Kd (y)dy

(2)

Sn (x, f ). Td
d = (1/2, 1, . . . , 1). Kd Dn .

!
n
n
y
y 1 X
y X
y
2 sin Dn (y) = 2 sin
+
cos ky = sin +
2 cos ky sin =
2
2 2 k=1
2 k=1
2

n
1
1
1
y X
sin k +
y sin k
y = sin n +
y
= sin +
2 k=1
2
2
2

2 sin y2 ,

sin n + 12 y
Dn (y) =
2 sin y2

(3)

. f (x) [a, b], Rb


a |f (x)|dx :

1) ( , f (x) [a, b]);

36

2) ;
3) [a, b] ,
.
. ( ). f (x) [a, b],
g(x) [a, b], f (x)g(x) [a, b].
. ( ). f (x) [a, b].
lim

f (x) cos nx dx = 0

( , cos nx [a, b]).


.
( ).
> 0. , d > 0, T , d(T ) < d
Rb
| a f (x) (f, T )| < /2. T = (t0 , . . . , tn ), a = t0 < < tn = b
d(T ) < d. k = [tk1 , tk ], mk = inf k f (x),
S=

n
X
k=1

mk (tk+1 tk )

, S = inf (f, T ), , T ( ). ,
Rb
| a f (x) S| /2.

Z b
X
Z

f (x) cos nx dx =

k=1

f (x) cos nx dx

tk1
tk

f (x) k- mk ,

n Z tk
n Z tk
X

(f (x) mk ) cos nx dx +
mk cos nx dx

tk1

tk1

k=1

k=1

;
n
n Z tk
tk
X
X
mk

|f (x) mk | dx +

n sin nxtk1
k=1
k=1 tk1

, f (x) mk [tk1 , tk ]. ;

n Z
X
k=1

tk

tk1

f (x) dx

n Z
X
k=1

1X
2|mk | =
mk dx +
n k=1
tk1
tk

37

n, n
/2.

n
X

mk (tk+1 tk ) + =
f (x) dx
2
k=1

f (x) dx S +


+ =
2
2 2

.
. , ( , [c, a]).
Z

f (x) cos nx dx =

f (x) cos nx dx +

,
|I1 |

f (x) cos nx dx = I1 + I2

|f (x)|| cos nx|dx

|f (x)|dx

f (x) ,
c. , c I2 ,
n .
, ( ).

. ( ). f (x)
[, ], f () = f (). x [, ] S R. (t) = 12 (f (x + t) + f (x t)) S.
h > 0 (t)/t [0, h], S(x, f ) = S.
.
(2),
1
Sn (x, f ) S =

(f (x + y) S)Dn (y)dy =

(f (x + y) S)Dn (y)dy +

(f (x + y) S)Dn (y)dy =

y y
=

(f (x y) S)Dn (y)dy +

(f (x + y) S)Dn (y)dy =

Dn (y) = Dn (y)
1
=

1
(f (x + y) + f (x y) 2S)Dn (y)dy =

Z
0

38

2(y)Dn (y)dy =

(3), y
2
=

Z
0

1
(y) y2
sin n +
y dy = In
y sin y2
2

(y) [h, ] ( f R , R ).
1
[h, ], (y)
[h, ]. y
y
[0, h] , [0, ]. ,
y
sin2 y [0, ] ( 0 , 1),
2

2
(y)
[0, ]. In 0
y sin y2
n . , lim Sn (x, f ) S = 0 .
n

. f (x) [a, b].


f (t) = sup |f (x1 ) f (x2 )|
|x1 x2 |t

, t. ,
, f (t1 + t2 ) f (t1 ) + f (t2 ). , f (nt) nf (t),
, m ([ ] ):

1
tm
f (t) f
f ([tm] + 1)

m
m


1
1
(tm + 1)f
(4)
([tm] + 1)f
m
m
. f [, ], f () = f () h > 0
f (t)/t [0, h]. x [, ], S(x, f ) = f (x).
, S = f (x) |f (x t) S| f (t),
|(t)| f (t).

(
f (t) Ctp , C, p > 0; p = 1),
Rh
0 tp1 dt p > 0.
, , . , [, ] f , . , ,

. ( ). f [, ] f () =
f (). , f [, ].
.

n
2
n
! n
!
X

X
X
1
1

eikx
eilx =
un (x) =
eikx =

2(n + 1) k=0
2(n + 1) k=0
l=0

39

n
n
n
X
X
X
X
1
n + 1 |r| irx
1
ikx ilx
irx
e e
=
e =
e =
=
2(n + 1) k,l=0
2(n + 1) r=n k+l=r
2(n + 1)
r=n

s = 0 s s:
n

1 Xn+1r
1 X n + 1 r irx
e + eirx = +
cos rx
= +
2 r=1 2(n + 1)
2 r=1 n + 1
d d0 = 1/2, dk = n+1r
k > 0. Dd (x) = un (x). ,
n+1
Td (x, f ) ( )
f [, ].
(2) S = f (x)

|Tn (x, f ) f (x)| =


(f (x + y) f (x))un (y)dy

un (y) , .
,
1

|f (x + y) f (x)|un (y)dy

f (y), (4)
1

1
f (y)un (y)dy

f (1/m)(m|y| + 1)un (y)dy =

1
= f (1/m)

1
un (y)dy + mf (1/m)

|y|un (y)dy

> 0. ( ).
f , (1/m) 0 m , m,
/2. m ,
n, /2. (,
x, Td (x, f ) f (x)).
1

|y|un (y)dy =

y

dy
2

2 z < sin z z [0, 2 ] ( sin ,


) z = |y/2|,

y
sin un (y)dy =
2

Z
p

yp
sin
un (y)
un (y) dy
2

40

- ( f g

qR

f2

g 2 ):

v
v
uZ
uZ
Z
u 1 cos y
u
y
u
u
2
un (y)dy =
t sin un (y)dy un (y)dy = t
2
2

. ( 1/2).
!

Z
Z
Z
n
1 X
+
(1 cos y)un (y)dy = un (y)dy cos y
dk cos ky dy =
2 k=1


1
=
2

cos y dy

n
X

dk

k=1

cos y cos ky dy =

0 ( ). , cos y cos ky = 21 (cos(k + 1)y + cos(k 1)y),


[, ] 0, k = 1, cos(k 1)y = cos 0y = 1.

n+11
1
= d1
=
dy = d1 = 1
2
n+1
n+1

0 n , .

41

11.

.
.

R,

R3 , u
=
(x, y, z),
D:
L(x, y, z)(h, l, k) = P (x, y, z)h + Q(x, y, z)l + R(x, y, z)k,
(1)
P (x, y, z), Q(x, y, z), R(x, y, z) , D.
, :
1) F (x, y, z) D, dF (x, y, z)(h, l, k) = Fx0 (x, y, z)h +
Fy0 (x, y, z)l + Fz0 (x, y, z)k;
2) F (x, y, z) = x, dF (x, y, z)(h, l, k) = dx(x, y, z)(h, l, k) = h; F (x, y, z) = y,
dF (x, y, z)(h, l, k) = dy(x, y, z)(h, l, k) = l; F (x, y, z) = z, dF (x, y, z)(h, l, k) = dz(x, y, z)(h, l, k) = k.
h, l, k (1),
L(x, y, z) = P (x, y, z)dx + Q(x, y, z)dy + R(x, y, z)dz.

(2)

. : [0, 1] D.

. : [0, 1] D , (t) [0, 1] ( ) 0 (t) 6= 0, t [0, 1].

L(x, y, z)

R3

f
:
[a, b]

R3 ,
f = (f 1 , f 2 , f 3 ). P [a, b] d(T ) 0
P. T P : a = t0 < < tn = b (1 , . . . , n ), k [tk1 , tk ], k = 1, n.
(3):
f (L; T ) =

n
X

[P (k , k , k )xk + Q(k , k , k )yk + R(k , k , k )zk ] ,

k=1

k = f 1 (k ), k = f 2 (k ), k = f 3 (k ), xk = f 1 (tk ) f 1 (tk1 ), yk = f 2 (tk ) f 2 (tk1 ), zk =


f 3 (tk ) f 3 (tk1 ).

. lim f (L; T ) = I, I d(T )0

L.
: (4) I =

(2)
R

P dx + Qdy + Rdz (

L).
. ( ) P (x, y, z), Q(x, y, z),
R(x, y, z) L
f : [a, b] D f = (f1 , f2 , f3 ),

42

L = P dx + Qdy + Rdz L,
Z
P dx + Qdy + Rdz =
L

#
Zb "

P f1 (t), f2 (t), f3 (t) f10 (t) + Q f1 (t), f2 (t), f3 (t) f20 (t) + R f1 (t), f2 (t), f3 (t) f30 (t) dt.
a

. L D.
. D ( ) R3 ,
D ~r = ~r(u, v),
.
. , ~r D
L = D ( "" ), ~r
L (
D0 D).
R3 e~1 = (1, 0, 0), e~2 = (0, 1, 0), e~3 =
(0, 0, 1).
~r = ~r(u, v) ,

e~1 e~2 e~3

~
, =~ne~1 , =~ne~2 , =~ne~3 .
= r~u r~v = xu yu zu ~n =
|~ |
xv yv zv
~n = (cos , cos , cos ).
~a = (P, Q, R),
P = P (x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)),

Q = Q(x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)),

R = R(x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)).

RR

~ads RR
+ ~a
~a ~nds.

RR

~ads

RR

(P dydz + Qdzdx + Rdxdy) .

. -
m RR
P

i=1

+
i

RR

~ads =

~ads, = {i }m
i=1 , i .
n

3
. V ROxyz
. V = vk , vk
k=1

, ]vk [ ]vj [ = , k 6= j, T V . vk = vk , k =
1, n, d(T ) = max (diam vk ) T , vk T .
1kn

i = (i , i , i ) vi , i1, n, w = {i }
T . B = {T , d(T ) < }, > 0, B P
. d(T ) 0.

43

. f (x, y, z) V , T n
P
f (k , k , k )vk
V . (5) (f ; T ) =
k=1

f T .
f : P R, f (T ) = (f ; T ).

. l = lim f ( ) d(T )0
RRR
f (x, y, z) V
f (x, y, z)dxdydz = lim (f ; T ) (6).
d(T )0

f V .

. ( ) D , L = D - . P (x, y) Q(x, y)
Q
.
D P
y
x

I
ZZ
Q P
P dx + Qdy =
dxdy,

x
y
L

L .
.

P dx =

RR
D

P
dxdy.
y

Qdy =

RR
D

Q
dxdy
x

.
[a, b] D Ox. (a, 0) (b, 0)
x = a x = b. D L = D
: L1 L3 , x = a x = b (
), L2 L4 , R
R .
L1 L3 x , P dx P dx = 0.
L1

L3

x = x0 x0 (a, b) L2 L4 (
D). 1 (x0 ) 2 (x0 ) , L2 y1 (x),
L4 y = 2 (x).
, L 1 (x) 2 (x).

Rb
R
Rb
R
R
P (x, y)dx =
P (x, y)dx = P (x, 2 (x))dx.
P (x, 1 (x))dx
P (x, y)dx =

L2
Rb
a

L4

(P (x, 1 (x)) P (x, 2 (x))) dx = H.

P
y

L2 L4

D, -

R
R
2 (x)
2 (x)
Rb
RR P
P
P
dx
dy.
,
H
=

dy
dxdy.
P (x, 1 (x)) P (x, 2 (x)) =
y
y
y
a
D
1 (x)
1 (x)
H
R
R
, P dx = P dx = 0, H = P dx. .
L1

L3

. ( ) D ( )
R3 , D0 ~r = ~r(u, v),
.
L - D, - D0 . ~r. P, Q, R
D. :

44

P dx + Qdy + Rdz =

ZZ

R Q

y
z

ZZ

(dP ) dx + (dQ) dy + (dR) dz

dy dz +

R
P

z
x

dz dx +

Q P

x
y

dx dy.

.
K =

I
ZZ
ZZ
K = P dx =
(dP ) dx =
Pz0 dz dx Py0 dx dy = S.
L

P dx,

~r(u, v) = (x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)) D, (u, v) D0 .


, D0 - (u, v) = (u(t), v(t)), t I =
[0, 1], (u(0), v(0)) = (u(1), v(1)), L ~r(u(t), v(t)).
:
I
Z1
K = P dx = P (~r(u(t), v(t)))dx(u(t), v(t)).
L


I
I
K = P (~r(u, v))dx(u, v) = P (~r(u, v))(x0u du + x0v dv).

K .
I
ZZ
(dP (~r(u, v))) dx(u, v).
K = P (~r(u, v))dx(u, v) =

D0


x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v).
dP (~r(u, v)) = Px0 dx(u, v) + Py0 dy(u, v) + Pz0 dz(u, v).
,
K=

ZZ

Pz0 dz(u, v) dx(u, v) Py0 dx(u, v) dy(u, v) = S1 .

D0

S1 D0 . ~r~r(u, v) S S1 . ,
, dz(u, v)dx(u, v) dx(u, v)dy(u, v),
, dx(u, v)x0u du + x0v dv ..
, S S1
ZZ
S = S1 =
(Pz0 B Py0 C)dudv,
D0

0
xu yu0
zu x0u

, C = 0
B = 0
xv yv0 . K = S, ...
zv x0v

45

. ( - )
1) V R3 ;
2) V = S ( ) - ;
3) V P = P (x, y, z), Q = Q(x, y, z), RR(x, y, z).

ZZZ
ZZ
P dy dz + Qdz dx + Rdx dy =
(Px0 + Q0y + Rz0 )dxdydz.
S+

, S + , V .
.
P 0, Q 0 ( ). S xOy D. V
, Oz D, V . (x, y) D,
(x, y, 1 (x, y)),
(x, y, 2 (x, y)). = D D. D
- : S1 = {(x, y, z)|(x, y D, z = 1 (x, y))}, S2 = {(x, y, z)|(x, y D, z = 2 (x, y))},
S3 = {(x, y, z)|(x, y , (x, y, z 6 S1 S2 )}.
S1 , S2
, , , S3 , S, ,
Oz D.
:
ZZ
ZZ
R cos(~n, e~3 )ds = 0,
Rdx dy =
S3

S3

cos(~n, e~3 ) = 0. ,
ZZ
ZZ
ZZ
R cos(~n, e~3 )ds
R(x, y, 1 (x, y))dxdy,
Rdx dy =
D

S1

S1

ZZ

Rdx dy =

ZZ

R cos(~n, e~3 )ds

R(x, y, 2 (x, y))dxdy.

S2

S2

ZZ

- (x, y)
R(x, y, 2 (x, y)) R(x, y, 1 (x, y)) =

Z
2 (x,y)

R(x, y, z)
dz.
z

1 (x,y)

,
Z
2 (x,y)
ZZ
ZZ
ZZZ
ZZ
ZZ
R(x, y, z)
R(x, y, z)
Rdxdy =
dz
dxdydz.
Rdxdy
Rdxdy =
dxdy
z
z
S

S2

S1

1 (x,y)

. h(~u) : V R3 , V ,
,
~ (~u) V R3 V .
h(~u)
~ (~u) , .

46

, h(~u)
~ (~u) .

h h h
. A(~u) = x , y , z = grad h(~u)
h(~u).
. l h(~u) u~0
h
h(u~0 + t~l) h(u~0 )
=
, ~l , l.
lim
t0
t
l
, h
= (grad h(~u), ~l).
l
+ Q
+ R
= div
~
.
~ (~r) = (P, Q, R) . P
x
y
z

Q
, P R
, Q P
, R
= rot
~
~.
y
z z
x x
y

, y
, z
),
"", = ( x
div
~ = (,
~ ), rot
~ = [,
~ ], grad h = h.
H
. I0 I0 = P dx + Qdy + Rdz -
L

L
~ = (P, Q, R) L.

~ I L, -

I0 I0 =

(~
, ~ )dl, dl L.

. S

ZZ
I=
P dy dz + Qdz dx + Rdx dy
S


~ = (P, Q, R) S.
~n ZS,
Z , I
S I =
(~
, ~n)ds. S,
S

~n, , ~ (
L).
- .
. ( )
~ - L -
S rot
~ :
I
ZZ
(~
, ~ )dl =
(rot
~ , ~n)ds.
L

. ( - )
~ - S
V
~ V ,
ZZ
ZZZ
(~
, ~n)ds =

div
~ dv,

~n S.

47

12.

, . . . . .
. . -.
. M F , M
+ : M M M : F M M ,
:
1) a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c, a, b, c M .
2) e M , a + e = e + a = a a M . e 0.
3) a M , b M , a + b = b + a = 0. b a.
4) a + b = b + a, a, b M .
5) , F , a M , (a) = (a) = ()a.
6) 1 a = a a M .
7) , F , a M , ( + )a = (a) + (a).
8) F , a, b M , (a + b) = (a) + (b).
. M N M ,
+ .
. a1 , . . . , an M 1 , . . . , n F

n
X

i ai

(1)

i=1

. a1 , . . . , an ,
(1) 1 = 0, . . . , n = 0.
. a1 , . . . , an , a .
a1 , . . . , an , a1 , . . . , an , a
.
.
1
P
nci ai , c1 a1 + + cn an + (1)a = 0 .
a =
k=i

1
P

k=i

, c1 a1 + + cn an + ca = 0 . c = 0,
1
P
n cc i ai .
nci ai = 0, . c 6= 0, a =
k=i

48

. a1 , . . . , an ,
a F (1) .
. M ,
.

.
e1 , . . . , en , f1 , . . . , fm .
m > n.
m > n. fi ej ,
. ,

fi =

1
X

naji ej

k=j


1
X
k=i

mi fi =

1
X
k=i

mi

1
X

naji ej =

1
X
k=j

k=j

1
X

mi aji

k=i

ej

, 1 , . . . , n , j = 1, . . . , n
1
X

mi aji

(2)

k=i

fi , .
: , .
, (2) A = ||aji ||. , , rkA n < m. ,
m ( ),
, (2) 0, .

. M
( , ).
. .
. F n
(a1 , . . . , an ), ai F , F .
, mn
F m.

. A . rk A.

49

k k . "" k k, k. ,
k .
, . ,
0 (
, , ).
. A 0 .
.
r1 = rk A, r2 0 .
-, r > r1 .
( ). , , ,
( ). ,
, 0. ,
r > r1 0, r2 r1 .

r1 .
, . ,
, . ,
"", r1 . , r2 r1 , r2 = r1 .

. ( ).
0 .
.
A r1 , r2 ,
0 r3 , 0 At r4 .
, r1 = r2 = r3 = r4 .
, r1 = r3 . , r2 = r4 , A At ,
. r3 r4 , 0 A 0 At . , r3 r4 , r3 = r4 .

1
P

k=j

1
1 n
1 1

a1 x + . . . + an x = b
..
..
..
...
.
.
.

am x 1 + . . . + am x n = b m
1
n

(3)

naij xj = bi i = 1, . . . , m. A = ||aij || ,

A b , Aext . ,
b = 0, .
, x1 , . . . , xn
. ,

50

, rk A < n. , m < n,
rk A m.
. ,
.

, , b
A.
. (-). , rk A = rk Aext .
.
r1 = rk A, r2 = rk Aext . , r1 r2 .

. , r1 < r2 . Aext
E r2 . b, A, r1 . , E = E 0 {b}, E 0 A,
, |E 0 | r1 .
, |E 0 | = r2 1 r1 , |E 0 | = r1 , E 0
. , A E 0 (,
,
). b E 0 ( ).
E .

. E 0
A. b E 0 ( ),
E 0 . E = E 0 {b}
Aext r1 + 1 , r2 > r1 .

x1 x2 , x1 + x2 , x1 ( ). F n ,
V .
. .
. , dim V =
n rk A ( A , ).
, x1 x2 , x1 x2 . ,
x1 , x2 , x1 + x2 .
, , x1 , x1 + V
F n .

51

13.

(). .
V F .
. f (x, y) : V V F (),
1) f (1 x1 + 2 x2 , y) = 1 f (x1 , y) + 2 f (x2 , y) x1 , x2 , y V, 1 , 2 F .
2) f (x, 1 y1 + 2 y2 ) = 1 f (x, y1 ) + 2 f (x, y2 ) x, y1 , y2 V, 1 , 2 F .
V e1 , . . . , en . x, y V , x =
1
P

ny j ej . f (x, y),

1
P

nxi ei , y =

k=i

k=j
1
1
1
1
X
X
X
X
i j
f (x, y) =
n
nx y f (ei , ej ) =
n
nxi y j gij
k=i

k=j

k=i

(1)

k=j

gij = f (ei , ej ). G = ||gij || . ,


G (1) . ,
( ).
f1 , . . . , fn , fi =

1
P

k=j

gij0

ncji ej , C = ||cji || .

1
1
X
X
k
= f (fi , fj ) = f (
nci ek ,
nclj el ) =
k=k

k=l

1
1
1
1
X
X
X
X
k l
=
n
nci cj f (ek , el ) =
n
ncki gkl clj
k=k

k=l

k=k

k=l

, , G0 = C t GC.
. , x, y V , f (x, y) = f (y, x).

, f (ei , ej ) = f (ej , ei ), ,
G .
. () f : V F , e1 , . . . , en
1
1
1
X
X
X
f(
nxi ei ) =
n
nxi xj qij
k=i

k=i

k=j

Q = ||qij || .

. , . , ,
(Q1 Q2 = Q, Qt = Q). , Q .

52

G = Q . :
f g g(x) = f (x, x). ,
f (x, y) = 12 (g(x + y) g(x) g(y)). , ( Q),
, Q0 = C t QC.
. char F 6= 2. (
) , .
.
, dim V = 1
. dim V = n > 1.
f = 0, f , . f 6= 0.

f 6= 0, a, b V , f (a, b) 6= 0. t F , f (a + tb, a + tb) = t2 f (b, b) +


2tf (a, b) + f (b, b) F (char F 6= 2),
. F ( char F 6= 2, 0, 1 1 + 1 ), t,
0. , u = a + tb, f (u, u) 6= 0. , u 6= 0.

e1 = u (
: ,
, .
, ,
). , e1 , e2 , . . . , en .
f1 = e1 , fi = ei

f (ei ,e1 )
e
f (e1 ,e1 ) 1

i > 1. , f1 , . . . , fn - -

(ei ,e1 )
, , . , f (f1 , fi ) = f (e1 , ei ) f (e1 , e1 ) ff (e
= 0 i > 1.
1 ,e1 )
W f2 , . . . , fn , w W , f (f1 , w) = 0, f1
/ W.

W h2 , . . . , hn , f (hi , hj ) = 0
i 6= j. h1 = f1 . f (hi , h1 ) = 0 i > 1, hi W . , h1
/ W,
h1 , . . . , hn V . .

F = R, , 0, 1 1. ,
p
p
6= 0, ei ||,

1
0
e0k = ek / ||. , gkk
f (ek , ek ) = ||
= 1.
= f (e0k , e0k ) = ||
F = C, 0 1.
. , .
R, , 1 , .
. ( ). R, 0, 1 1
.
.
- . z1 , . . . , zk , 0 , p1 , . . . , ps 1, q1 , . . . , qt 1.
, f (qi , qj ) = ij f (pi , pj ) = ij . , V1 =< z1 , . . . , zk >, V2 =< p1 , . . . , ps >,

53

V3 =< q1 , . . . , qt > . f V = V1 V2 V3 .

V1 V1 = {x|y V, f (x, y) = 0 ( , V1
). , V1
. , ( ), dim V1 = k
, k .
V = V1 V2 V3 V =
V1 V20 V30 ( , V1 ). dim V1 = k, dim V2 = s, dim V3 = t,
dim V20 = s0 dim V30 = t0 . , k + s + t = k + s0 + t0 = n. , s = s0 t = t0 .
, s 6= s0 , , s > s0 . s + t0 > s0 + t0 = n k,
s + t0 + k > n.
z1 , . . . , zk V1 , p1 , . . . , ps V2 , q1 , . . . , qt0 V3 ( ). V ,
. , , 0:

S=

1
X

ki zi +

1
X
k=i

k=i

si pi +

1
X

t0 i qi = z + p + q = 0

k=i

z, p q , , 0. ,
0.
1
1
P
P
p 6= 0, f (p, p) =
k
ki j f (pi , pj ) = ( , f (pi , pj ) = ij
k=i

) =

1
P

k=i

k=j

ki2 > 0. , F = R. , q 6= 0, f (q, q) < 0.

q = 0, p = z, f (p, p) > 0, f (z, z) = 0 . q 6= 0, q = p z.


0 > f (q, q) = f (p z, p z) = f (p + z, p + z) = f (p, p) + f (p, z) + f (z, p) + f (z, z) = ( z V1 ,
f (x, z) = 0 x V ) = f (p, p) 0 . , s = s0 ,
t = t0 .

C ( ) 0.
: k , F = R.

54

14.

, . . , .
V F .
. f (x) : V V ,
f (1 x1 + 2 x2 ) = 1 f (x1 ) + 2 f (x2 ) x1 , x2 V, 1 , 2 F
V e1 , . . . , en . x V , x =
f (ei ) =

1
P

k=j

naji ej .

f (x) = f

1
X

nxi ei

k=i

1
X

nxi

k=i

1
X

naji ej =

1
X
k=j

k=j

1
X

nxi ei . ,

k=i

nxi f (ei ) =

k=i

1
P

1
X

naji xi

k=i

ej

(1)

A = ||aji || . (1) , .
, X x, X 0 f (x), , , X 0 = AX.
f1 , . . . , fn , fi =

1
P

k=j

D=

||dji ||

ncji ej , C = ||cji || . , ei =

. , D = C

1
P

k=j

ndji fj ,

1
1
1
1
X
X
X
X
f (fi ) = f (
ncji ej ) =
ncji f (ej ) =
ncji
nakj ek =
k=j

1
X
k=j

ncji

1
X

nakj

k=k

k=j

1
X
k=l

ndlk fl =

k=j

1
X
k=l

k=k

1
1
X
X
n
n
ndlk akj cji
k=j

k=k

fl

, , A0 = C 1 AC.
. 0 6= v V f ,
F , f (v) = v. f .
f (v) = v Av = v, (A E)v = 0.
, , rk(A
E) < n. , AE n, det(AE) = 0.
, A ,

55

det(A E) = 0
det(A E) n A E,
aii aij . , det(A E) n .

. .
.

, . , F , , , , .
. , ,
.
.
1 , . . . , m f , v1 , . . . , vm . . ,
, v1 , . . . , vm1 , vn .
1
1
P
P
,
m 1ci vi = vm . f ,
m 1ci i vi = m vm =
k=i

1
P

k=i

m 1ci m vi . ,

k=i

1
P

k=i

m 1ci (i m )vi = 0, , vi , i, ci (i m ) =

0, ci = 0 i .
.

1
P

k=i

m 1ci vi = vm , vm = 0,

56

15.

. . .
. .
V R.
. ,
0 6= x V , f (x, x) > 0 .

. . . x, y V
< x, y >.
, ,
, 0, 1 1. ,
0 1 , , .

. , , .

. x x1 , . . . , xn
y y 1 , . . . , y n ,
< x, y >=

1
X

nxi y i

(1)

k=i

, , < ei , ei >= 1. , .
. .
. C , C t = C 1 .
.
B1 , B2 , C . B1 ,
B1 E. C
, B2 , , B2
E. B2 C t EC = C t C. , C
, C t C = E, C t = C 1 .

. C , x, y V , < Cx, Cy >=<


x, y > .
.
(1) < x, y >= xt y. < Cx, Cy >= (Cx)t Cy = xt C t Cy.
C C = E, . : G = C t C, x = ei , y = ej ,
< x, y >= ij , xt Gy = gij .

. f , x, y
V , < f (x), y >=< x, f (y) >.

57

. , A = At .
.
e1 , . . . , en . f A = ||aji ||.
1
1
1
1
1
1
P
P
P
P
P
P
< f (x), y >=
n
naji xi y j , < x, f (y) >=
n
naji y i xj =
n
naij xi y j . aij = aji ,
k=j

k=i

k=j

k=i

k=j

k=i

. , x = ek , y = el . < f (x), y >= alk , < x, f (y) >= akl .

g(x, y) =< x, f (y) >. . 1


1
P
P
G A , g(x, y) =
n
naji y i xj . k=j

k=i

, , g(x, y) =< x, f (y) >,


f , g
. , .
.
, .
.
, , f
. ,
f . . dim V = 1
. dim V = n.
- , f A =
||aij ||. , C . B = (A E)
, 0 6= u C n , Bu = 0. u = (u1 , . . . , un ). , Au = u,
1
P

naji ui = uj .
k=i

S =

1
P

k=i

1
P

k=j

naji ui uj , . (,

A ), S =

1
P

k=i

S R. , S =

1
P

k=i

1
P

k=j

naji ui uj =

1
P

k=i

1
P

k=j

naij ui uj =

1
P

k=i

1
P

k=j

naji ui uj = S. ,

nui ui = W , W R, W > 0. , R.

, R, f V

e 6= 0. e , < e, e >= 1 ( e < e, e >, , <


e, e > ). W W = {x| < x, e >= 0}. < x, e >= 0
x, W V .
n 1, "" e 6= 0, ,
1.
x W , < f (x), e >=< x, f (e) >=< x, e >= < x, e >= 0, f (x) W W f -.
, f W , (e1 , . . . , en1 ) W
.

58

e1 , . . . , en1 , e V . e =

1
P

k=i
1
P

k=i

n 1ci ei , < e, e >=

n 1ci < ei , e >= 0, ei W . , e1 , . . . , en1 , e V . , ,

ei , e < e, e >= 1
. , f (, ei , e
).

,
1
X

ni x2i

(1)

k=i

. ,
f , , i , i
f , . ,
(1) i ).

59

16.

, , . . ,
-. .
. G : G G G ,
:
1) a(bc) = (ab)c a, b, c G.
2) e G , a G, ae = ea = a. e
.
3) a G, b G, ab = ba = e. b a1 a.
. G G |G|.

. H G , .
. H e = aa1 a H.

. H g G, gH = {gh|h H}
g H.
Hg.
. g1 H g2 H , .
.
x g1 H g2 H. y g1 H, , y g2 H. hi H.

1
1
x = g1 h1 = g2 h2 g1 = g2 h2 h1
1 , y = g1 h3 = g2 h2 h1 h3 g2 H, h2 h1 h3
H, H .

. g1 H = g2 H , g1 = g2 h h H.

. g G, gH = Hg, H , H / G .

. (). G , H G. G H,
, H.

.
-, H = eH S. S() g1 H, . . . , gk H,
. gi H 6= G, g G gi H, gH. gH
i

, . g
( g = ge gH), g. , .
H, gh h H,
( gh1 = gh2 h1 = h2 g 1 ).
S
G gi H , G, .
i

60

. G H (G : H).
, (G : H) |H| = |G|, H G.
g k = g g k. k, g k = (g 1 )k ,
| {z }

g 0 = e.

. g k+m = g k g m .
.

k m 0, g k e = g k , eg m = g m . k m
, ( k + m
). k m , |k m| gg 1 g 1 g "",
.

, , g k = (g k )1 .
, , H =< g >= {g k |k} .

. , g.
. k, g k = e. k g. g .
. G , k, g k = e. ,
e, g, g 2 , . . . . , m 6= n, g m = g n . m > n,
g mn = g m (g n )1 = e.
, , g k, < g >= {e, g, g 2 , . . . , g k1 },
. , | < g > | = k. ,

. .
. G , g G , G =< g >.

g G G, | < g > | = |G|,


< g >= G, G .
G H. G/H =
{gH}, g G, g1 H g2 H = (g1 g2 )H.
. .
.
hi H. g1 H = g10 H, g2 H = g20 H. g10 = g1 h1 , g20 = g2 h2 . h1 g2 Hg2 = g2 H,
, h3 , h1 g2 = g2 h3 . g10 g20 = g1 h1 g2 h2 = g1 g2 h3 h2 , , (g10 g20 )H =
(g1 g2 )H.

, eH gH = gH eH = gH, (g 1 )H gH = gH g 1 H = eH = H. , G/H
.

61

. G H.
. G, H . f : G H ,
g1 , g2 G, f (g1 g2 ) = f (g1 )f (g2 ).
, f (g)f (e) = f (ge) = f (g) ( ), f (e) H. ,
f (g 1 )f (g) = f (g 1 g) = f (e) ( ), f (g 1 ) = (f (g))1 .
. f , f .
. Ker f = {g G|f (g) = e} f . Im f = {f (g)|g G} H
G f .
, e Ker f .

. f , Ker f = e
Im f = H.
.
, Im f = H . , f , g 6= h G, f (g) = f (h), f (g 1 h) = e, e 6= g 1 h Ker f . , e 6= g Ker f ,
f (g) = e = f (e).

. ( ). f G H, Ker f G, Im f H, G/ Ker f Im f . ,
.
.
h1 , h2 Im f , h1 = f (g1 ), h2 = f (g2 ), h1 h2 = f (g1 g2 ) Im f .
f (g 1 ) = (f (g))1 . , Im f .
g1 , g2 Ker f , f (g1 ) = e = f (g2 ). f (g1 g2 ) = e, g1 g2 Ker f . , f (g11 ) = f (g11 )e =
f (g11 )f (g1 ) = f (e) = e, , g11 Ker f . , Ker f , N .

g G, gN = N g. , h N g, hg 1 N , f (hg 1 ) = e.
f (h)1 = f (g 1 ), f (g 1 h) = f (g 1 )f (h) = e. , g 1 h N , h gN . , N g gN ,
.
w : G/N Im f gN f (g). -, : g1 N =
g2 N , g1 = g2 h, h N , , g1 g21 N = Ker f ,
f (g1 g21 ) = f (g1 )f (g2 )1 = e, f (g1 ) = f (g2 ). , w . ,
w , f (g) Im f gN . , w .
, w(g1 H g2 H) = w((g1 g2 )H) = f (g1 g2 ) = f (g1 )f (g2 ) = w(g1 H)w(g2 H), w ,
, , .
, H G. f : G G/H
f (g) = gH. , . , h Ker f
, gH = eH, g = eh H. , Ker f = H,
. , .

62

17.

.
.
. Rn ,

1
1
1
X
X
X
Q(x) =
n
naij xi xj +
nbi xi + c
k=i

k=j

k=i

aij , bi , c R.

, .

. , .
. ,
( ), .
. ( ). Rn , :
1) x21 + +x2k x2k+1 x2k+l = 0, k l.
.
2) x21 + + x2k x2k+1 x2k+l = 1, k > 0, l 0.
, . : k = 0
.
3) x21 + +x2k x2k+1 x2k+l = xk+l+1 , k l 0, k > 0.
.
.
, ,
Q(x). :
1
X

k(x2i

k=i

+ bi xi )

k+1
X

k+

l(x2i

+ bi xi ) +

k=i

k+l+1
X

nbi xi + c = 0

k=i

, x2 + bx = y 2 b4 , y = x + 2b . , yi = xi + b2i . ,
k+l+1
k+l+1
P
P
nbi xi + c.
nbi xi + c , yk+l+1 =

k=i

k=i

, ( ,
, ,
, ), :
1)

1
P

k=i

kyi2

k+1
P
k=i

k + lyi2 = 0.

63

2)

1
P

k=i

3)

1
P

k=i

kyi2
kyi2

k+1
P
k=i

k+1
P
k=i

k + lyi2 = c, c 6= 0.
k + lyi2 = byk+l+1 , b 6= 0.

b < 0 c < 0, 1, . ,
a = c, a = b, yi0 = yia (a > 0). ,
b = 1 c = 1, .
, k < l, 1 0
. yk+l+1
= yk+l+1 .

, k = 0 x1 = 0.
x21 = 0 .

R2 R3 .
R2 , 1.
1) k = 2, l = 0 .
2) k = 1, l = 1 .
3) k = 1, l = 0 .
4) k = 0, l = 0 .
R2 , 2.
1) k = 2, l = 0 .
2) k = 1, l = 1 .
3) k = 1, l = 0 .
R2 , 3.
1) k = 1, l = 0 .
R3 , 1.
1) k = 3, l = 0 .
2) k = 2, l = 1 .
3) k = 2, l = 0 .
4) k = 1, l = 1 .
5) k = 1, l = 0 .

64

6) k = 0, l = 0 .
R3 , 2.
1) k = 3, l = 0 .
2) k = 2, l = 1 .
3) k = 2, l = 0 .
4) k = 1, l = 2 .
5) k = 1, l = 1 .
6) k = 1, l = 0 .
R3 , 3.
1) k = 2, l = 0 .
2) k = 1, l = 1 .
3) k = 1, l = 0 .
.
, . [a,b,c] Ra
b c .
-, : [2,1,1], [2,1,3], [2,1,4],
[3,1,1], [3,1,3], [3,1,5], [3,1,6]. ,
, . (, , , , ,
).
, , ( 3), , ( 1,2), .
R2 3 [2,3,1], . R3 3: [3,3,1], [3,3,2],
[3,3,3]. , [3,3,1] [3,3,3]
, .
, [3,3,2] . , [3,3,3] , [3, 3, 1].
, 1 2 . , . [2,1,2], [2,2,1], [3,1,2], [3,1,4], [3,2,1], [3,2,2], [3,2,3],
[3,2,4], [3,2,5], [3,2,6], [2,2,2], [2,2,3].
, , , . [2,1,2], [3,1,4], [2,2,3], [3,2,6]. ,
.
R2 [2,2,1] [2,2,2], .

65

R3 : [3,2,4]
[3,2,5], , , .
, R3 : [3,2,1], ,
, [3,1,2], , ,
[3,2,2] [3,2,3].
, .
. ,
.
. , . , .
. , ,
.
. ( ). Rn , :
1)

1
P

k=i

2)

1
P

k=i

3)

1
P

k=i

ki x2i = 0
ki x2i = 1
ki x2i = xk+1

i 6= 0, i = 1, . . . , k.

.
, ,
1
X
k=i

ki (x2i

+ bi xi ) +

k+1
X

nbi xi + c = 0

k=i

, , bi = 0 i 6= 0. ,
, xk+1 , . . . , xn ,
, bxk+1 . b 6= 0, c. , b 6= 0
c 6= 0, (b -1,
). .

, . , ,
.

66

,
, .
. R3 , , . RP 2 .
. ,
R3 .
, .
, R2 RP 2 : (x, y) (x, y, 1).

1
X

3aij xi xj = 0

k=i

. , ( ), .
. ( ). Rn
:
1) (, );
2) ;
3) ;
4) .
.
R3
1
X

3aij xi xj

k=i

. , 1, 1
0. ,

1) x21 + x22 + x23 = 0;


2) x21 + x22 x23 = 0;
3) x21 x22 x23 = 0;

67

4) x21 x22 x23 = 0;


5) x21 + x22 = 0;
6) x21 x22 = 0;
7) x21 x22 = 0;
8) x21 = 0;
9) x21 = 0;
, 1 : 1 4, 2
3, 5 7, 8 9. 1 ,
(0, 0, 0), RP 2 . :
1) x21 + x22 x23 = 0;
2) x21 + x22 = 0;
3) x21 x22 = 0;
4) x21 = 0;
, . , . , ,
.

68

18.

. .
.
x = v(x, t)

(1)

x Rn , t R, v : Rn+1 Rn , t.

.
(1) (t) : (a, b) Rn ,

d
(a, b) R, , t (a, b), dt t = v((t), t).

. x(t0 ) = x0 , t0 (a, b),


x0 Rn , (t0 ) = x0 .
.
. A : M M M , x, y M (Ax, Ay) q(x, y) q < 1.

. ( ). A M ( , Ax = x).
.
x0 xn xn = Axn1 .
(xn , xn+1 ) q(xn1 , xn ) q n (x0 , x1 )
m > n
(xn , xm ) =

m1
X
k=n

(xk , xk+1 )

m1
X
k=n

q k (x0 , x1 ) q n

(x0 , x1 )
1q

n , xn . x. Ax = A lim An x0 = lim An+1 x0 = x, , x


.
x y , (x, y) = (Ax, Ay) q(x, y), (x, y) = 0, x = y.

. ( ). v(x, t)
U (x0 , t0 ). (a, b) 3 t0
(1), (t0 ) = x0 .
.
1: . U 0 = {(x, t) | |t t0 | , |x x0 | },
, U 0 U . U 0 v vx (vx
: v(x + x, t) = v(x, t) + vx x + o(x)) . U 0 ,
C = max
|v|, L = max
|vx |.
0
0
U

K = {(x, t) | |t t0 | 0 , |x x0 | C|t t0 |} (x0 , t0 ), 0


, 0 , C0 < , L0 < 1. , , K U 0 .

69

= [t0 0 , t0 +0 ] C() "". . M C() ,


h(t) C|t t0 |. ( ) , , . , M C(), .
, M (x0 + h(t), t) K t , h M .
2. . A : C() C()
(Ah)(t) =

Zt

v(x0 + h(t), t)dt

t0

, h = Ah h(t0 ) = 0 h = v(x0 + h(t), t) ( ,


h ).
, (t) (1) (t0 ) = x0
, h(t) = (t) x0 Ah = h.

, , Ah = h, h M . , t, h(t) > C|t t0 |.


t1 = sup{t | h(t) C|tt0 |}. , h(t1 ) C|tt0 | < .
> 0, h(t) < t (t1 , t1 + ). t (t0 , t1 + ) v(x0 + h(t), t) < C,
t h(t) < C|t t0 |. t1 .
, Ah = h M .

3. . , A M M .
, h M , t h(t) C|t t0 |, (x0 + h(t), t) K U 0 .
C, |(Ah)(t)| C|t t0 |, , Ah M .
c . (x, t), (y, t) K (t !), ,
r(s) = x + s(y x),
1

||v(y, t) v(x, t)|| = ||v(r(1), t) v(r(0), t)|| =


v(r(s), t)ds
ds

v(r(s), t) = ||vx rs || L ||y x||


ds

, ||v(y, t) v(x, t)|| L||y x||. , h1 , h2 M , ||v(x0 + h2 (t), t) v(x0 +


h1 (t), t)|| L||h2 (t) h1 (t)||. ,
|(Ah2 Ah1 )(t)| |t t0 | ||v(x0 + h2 (t), t) v(x0 + h1 (t), t)||
|t t0 | L||h2 h1 || 0 L||h2 h1 ||

L0 < 1 ( 0 ), A M . ( M ), M ,
( ) (1).

70

19.

n- . . . . - . .
, < a, b >. ,
, .
. n-
y (n) + an1 (x)y (n1) + + a1 (x)y 0 + a0 (x)y = f (x)

(1)

y(x) , ai (x) , .
. (1) , f (x) = 0.

.
. y1 (x) y2 (x) (1), y1 (x) y2 (x) . y1 (x) , y2 (x) , y1 (x) + y2 (x) . , y1 (x) y2 (x)
, , , y1 (x) + y2 (x) .
.

(1), (1) y(x).

,
. (1) :
.
z i (x) = y (i) (x). (1)
0
z 0 (x)

..
.
0

z n2 (x)

n1 0
z
(x)

= z 1 (x)
.
= ..
= z n1 (x)
= an1 (x)z n1 (x) + + a0 (x)z 0 (x)

, , x0
y (i) (x0 ) = z i (x0 ).
. < a, b > ai (x) . A

||z(x)|| ||z(x0 )||eA|xx0 | ,
x x0 < a, b >.

71

.
x0 , z(x0 ) = 0, z(x) = 0 x0
( x0 ). z(x) = 0 , x0 ,
. 0 , . ,
z(x) 0.
x > x0 , . ai (x) ,
A, ||z 0 || A||z||. ,
p
0
2(z 0 , z)
||z 0 ||||z||
||z|| =
= ||z 0 ||
(z, z) = p

||z||
2 (z, z)
0

, ||z||0 A||z||. (ln ||z||)0 = ||z||


A, x0 x, ln ||z(x)||
||z||
ln ||z(x0 )|| A(x x0 ), .

Rn+1 x, z 1 , . . . , z n , x0 , z0 ,
{(x, z)|x [c, d], ||z|| ||z0 ||(1 + eA(xx0 ) )}. Rn+1 , , x0 , z0 . ,
||z|| = ||z0 ||(1 + eA(xx0 ) . , x [c, d],
[c, d] < a, b >. , < a, b >. ,

. x0 < a, b >, y(x0 ) = y00 , . . . , y (n1) (x0 ) = y0n1 ,


(1) ,
< a, b >.

. y1 (x), . . . , yp (x) , c1 y1 (x) + +


cp yp (x) = 0 c1 = 0, . . . , cp = 0.
. y1 (x), . . . , yp (x) ,
x

y1 (x) . . . yp (x)
0
y1 (x) . . . yp0 (x)

W (x) = ..
..
...
.
.
(p1)
(p1)
y1
. . . yp

. y1 (x), . . . , yp (x) x0 ,
x0 0.
.
c1 y1 (x) + + cp yp (x) = 0, k x, x0 . k,
(k)
(k)
c1 y1 (x0 ) + + cp yp (x0 ) = 0, ,

0.

. (1) n .

72

.
Rn n , v1 , . . . , vn , vi = (vi0 , . . . , vin1 ).
x0 . , i = 1, . . . , n yi (x)
(j)
yi (x0 ) = vij , j = 0, . . . , n 1.
yi (x) x0 vi , . , W (x0 ) 6= 0,
yi (x) .

. y1 (x), . . . , yn (x) (1).


x0 0.
.
, x0 , W (x0 ) 0. x0 (k)
(k)
. c1 y1 (x0 ) + + cn yn (x0 ) = 0, k = 0, . . . , n 1. y(x) =
c1 y1 (x) + + cn yn (x) y (k) (x0 ) = 0, k = 0, . . . , n 1. , 0
(1), , . , y(x) = 0. , c1 y1 (x) + + cn yn (x) = 0,
.

. y1 (x), . . . , yn (x) (1), .


.
.
, .
y(x) (1), x0 .
(k)
(k)
c1 y1 (x0 ) + + cn yn (x0 ) = y (k) (x0 ).
, 0. , c1 , . . . , cn . z(x) = c1 y1 (x) +
+ cn yn (x), z (k) (x0 ) = y (k) (x0 ) k = 0, . . . , n 1. ,
y(x) = z(x). , y(x) = c1 y1 (x) + + cn yn (x).

. (1).
. , n-.
,
c1 y1 (x) + + cn yn (x)
. n-
(1).

.
- (1) (
). .

73

y(x) = c1 (x)y1 (x) + + cn (x)yn (x), y1 (x), . . . , yn (x) . ,


(k)

c01 (x)y1 (x) + + c0n (x)yn(k) (x) = 0

(2)

k = 0, . . . , n 2. , , k = 0, . . . , n 2,
(k)

y (k) = c1 (x)y1 (x) + + cn (x)yn(k) (x)

(n)

y (n) (x) = c1 (x)y1 (x) + + cn (x)yn(n) (x)+


(n1)

+c01 (x)y1

(x) + + c0n (x)yn(n1) (x)

(1),

n
X
i=1

ci (x)

(n)

(x) +

n1
X

ak (x)y (k) (x) =

k=0

(n)
yi

n1
X

(k)
ak (x)yi (x)

k=0

n
X

(n1)

ci (x)yi

(x)

i=1

yi (x) (1), 0. , (1)



0
c1 (x)y1 (x)
+ ...

...
..
.
(n2)

(x) + . . .
c01 (x)y1

0
(n1)
(x) + . . .
c1 (x)y1

+ c0n (x)yn (x)


..
.

= 0
..
.

(n2)

+ c0n (x)yn
(x) = 0
(n1)
0
(x) = f (x)
+ cn (x)yn

x , 0.
,

= f1 (x)
c1 (x)
..
..
.
.

c0 (x) = f (x)
n1
n1

ci (x) . ,
.
, W 0 (x) (1). , (

74

). , , ,
, 0. ,

W 0 (x) =

y1 (x) . . . yn (x)
y10 (x) . . . yn0 (x)
..
..
...
.
.
(n2)
(n2)
y1
. . . yn
(n)
(n)
y1
. . . yn

yi (x) (1),

n1

=
ai (x)

i=0

y1 (x) . . . yn (x)
y10 (x) . . . yn0 (x)
..
..
...
.
.
(n2)
(n2)
y1
. . . yn
(i)
(i)
y1
...
yn

, 0,

= an1 (x)

y1 (x) . . . yn (x)
y10 (x) . . . yn0 (x)
..
..
...
.
.
(n2)
(n2)
y1
. . . yn
(n1)
(n1)
. . . yn
y1

= an1 (x)W (x)

, W 0 (x) = an1 (x)W (x). ,

. ( -).

W (x) = W (x0 )e

75

Rx

x0

an1 (t)dt

20.

:
.

y (n) + an1 y (n1) + + a1 y 0 + a0 y = f (x)

(1)

ai R, y = y(x) , f (x) . 0,
.
.
. (1). (1) ;
n.
D , Dy = y 0 , I .
L:
L = Dn + an1 Dn1 + + a1 D + a0 I
(1) Ly = f (x).
P (t)
P (t) = tn + an1 tn1 + + a1 t + a0
L = P (D).
, P C
P (t) = (t 1 )k1 (t p )kp
1 , . . . , p () P (t) = 0,
. k1 , . . . , kp . , (1).
,
L = P (D) = (D 1 I)k1 (D p I)kp
y = fs, (x) = xs ex , s 0, C.
D = (D I):
(D I)(xs ex ) = sxs1 ex + xs ex xs ex = sxs1 ex + xs ex ( )
: = , s > 0 fs, f(s1),
, f0, 0. 6= , fs, (
), fr, , r < s.

76

Pr, fs, s r. , Pr, q(x)ex ,


q(x) r. ,

D Pr,

6=
Pr,
Pr1, = , r > 0
=

0
= , r = 0

Dk Pr,

6=
Pr,
Prk, = , r k
=

0
= , r < k

L = Dk11 Dpp :
. (2).
LPr,


/ {1 , . . . , p }
Pr,
Prki , = i , r ki
=

0
= i , r < ki

. fj, j, .
.

, . :
p
ki
X
X

ci,j fj,i = 0

i=1 j=0

, , ci,ki 6= 0. p.
p = 1

k
P

j=0

cj fj, = 0, ck 6= 0. Dk ,

cf0, = cex , c 6= 0. , 0, 0,
cex = 0, .
k +1

p > 1, Dpp . fj,p 0, fj,i


i < p j. ,
p1 ki
X
X

di,j fj,i = 0

i=1 j=0

di,ki 6= 0. .

, 2 , Pki 1,i i = 1, . . . , p 0
L. ,
PL = Pk1 1,1 Pkp 1,p

77

L 0. , Ly = 0, , (1). , PL
(1), PL V .

, dim PL = k1 + + kp = n, , n. , dim V = n ( 1). , dim PL = dim V ,


PL = V .
PL , PL Pki 1,i , fs,i s < ki . ,
. (1)
p ki 1
X
X

ci,j fj,i =

p ki 1
X
X

ci,j xj ei x

i=1 j=0

i=1 j=0

n (1) ( cij ).
. (1).
,
.
, fs,i s < ki (1).
. 1,
. f (x) ,
, (. 19). ,
, .
. f (x) f (x) = c1 f1 (x) + + cr fr (x),
fi (x) yi (x), Lyi (x) = fi (x), y(x) = c1 y1 (x)+ +cr yr (x)
Ly(x) = f (x) L ( 1). , y(x) (1).
f (x) = q(x)ex C
q(x). , ,
.
. (1), f (x) = q(x)ex . s = deg q. k = s,
i , k = s + ki = i . (1)
Pk, .
.
2, k LPk, = Ps, . , y Pk, , Ly =
q(x)ex Ps, .

, Pk, . , (1)

k
X

ci xi ex

i=0

78

ci .
, ,
1, .
, (1) (1) .
ai (1) ,
. , PL
Pk,a+bi Pk,abi
, , xs e(abi)x , s k. , ,
xs eax cos bx xs eax sin bx. , e(abi)x = eax ebix ,
2 cos bx = ebix + ebix , 2i sin bx = ebix ebix .
, R ,
.
.
q(x)eax cos bx q(x)eax sin bx, q(x) s.
Ps,a+bi Ps,abi . k ,
, Pk,a+bi Pk,abi . ,
xr eax cos bx xr eax sin bx, r k. , , ,
,
.

79

21.

. -. .
, .
R2 , (x1 , y1 ) (x2 , y2 ) = (x1 x2
y1 y2 , x1 y2 + x2 y1 ). , C.
, (x, 0) , R, x. (0, 1) i, (x, y) = (x, 0) + (y, 0)(0, 1) = x + yi.
i i2 = 1. , C R2 . , xn + iyn x + iy ,p xn x yn y. ,
(x, y) |x + iy| = x2 + y 2 , (x, y)
, , , arg(x + iy).
, . ,
2. , z = x + iy z = x iy.
. f : C C .
. z0
f 0 (z0 ) = lim

zz0

f (z) f (z0 )
z z0

f (z) z0 , C (, ) .
f . F :
R2 R2 . : F (x, y) = (u(x, y), v(x, y)). ,
f (z) = u(x + iy) + iv(x + iy).
dz = (dx, dy). f
o(1), 0 dz 0, o(dz),
f /|dz| 0 dz 0. ,
f /|dz| 0 f /dz 0 (dz/|dz| = 1). , o(1) dz = o(dz),
o(dz)/dz = o(1).
F z0 = (x0 , y0 ) ( f R). ,
F (z0 + dz) = F (x0 + dx, y0 + dy) =

dx
ux uy
+ o(dz) =
= F (x0 , y0 ) +
dy
vx vy

ux
uy
= F (x0 , y0 ) +
dx +
dy + o(dz)
vx
vy
fx = ux + ivx , fy = uy + ivy ,
f (z0 + dz) = f (z0 ) + fx dx + fy dy + o(dz) =
1
1
= f (z0 ) + (fx ify )(dx + idy) + (fx + ify )(dx idy) + o(dz) =
2
2

80

= f (z0 ) + fz dz + fzdz + o(dz)


fz = 12 (fx ify ), fz = 12 (fx + ify ).
. fz = 0 -
. u v :

ux = v y
uy = vx
. f 0 (z0 ) , f (z) R-
z0 , -. ,
f 0 (z0 ) = fz (z0 ).
.
. fz = 0, ,
f (z0 + dz) f (z0 )
= fz + o(1)
dz
,
f 0 (z0 ) = lim

zz0

f (z) f (z0 )
= fz
z z0

. .
f (z0 + dz) f (z0 )
= f 0 (z0 ) + o(1)
dz
f (z0 + dz) f (z0 ) = f 0 (z0 )dz + o(dz)
, R-
f (z0 + dz) f (z0 ) = fz dz + fzdz + o(dz)
( , fx = fz + fz fy = (fz fz )/i).

, C- R-, fz = 0.

. F : R2 R2 z0 , ,
0 .
,

cos sin
k cos k sin
J =k
=
sin cos
k sin k cos
,
J=

ux uy
vx vy

81

, ux = vy , uy = vx , , f - z0 ,
C- . k 6= 0 f 0 (z0 ) 6= 0.
,
. F z0 , f
z0 , f 0 (z0 ) 6= 0.
, fz = 0 , ify = fx , fz = 21 (fx ify ) = 12 (fx + fx ) = fx = ux + ivx .

, k
ux = k cos ,

vx = k sin

, (ux , vx ), fz = f 0 (z0 ).
,
k = |f 0 (z0 )|,

= arg f 0 (z0 )

82

22.

. . .
f
f
z.
dz +
z
z
. f : C C z0 ,
df (z0 ) C C, .
f C - , R - C, df =

. f z0 f C -
z0 f 0 (z0 ) 6= 0.
. g(z) = f ( z1 ) 0.
f (z0 ) = .

1
. z0 6= , z0 F (z) = f (z)

z0 .
1
z0 = , F (z) = f (1/z)
0.


10 ( ). ,
.
20 ( ). .
az + b
,
. - w(z) =
cz + d
a, b, c, d C : ad bc 6= 0.
.
10 ad bc 6= 0 w(z)
20 c = 0 w(z) = Az + B + .

w(z) z = dc z = , w( dc ) =
, w() = ac ( c = 0 w() = .)

. - ( - ) C C.
.
1) . c = 0 . c 6= 0. z 6= dc z 6= ,
dw b
- z(w) =
, z(w) = ac , .
cw + a
z( ac ) = z() = dc .

2) . z 6= dc , z(w), z = dc ,
.
w
3) . z 6= dc , (
= 0),
z

ad bc
dw
=
6= 0 (C - w0 6= 0). dz
(cz + d)2
1
cz + d
z = dc : W (z) =
=
z = dc .
w
az + b

83

dW (z)
bc ad
=

dz z= d
(az + b)2

z= dc

6= 0.


z = :
0
a + bz dZ(z)
bc ad
6= 0.
.
Z(z) =
=
c + dz
dz z=0 (c + dz)2 z=0

. - C .
.
,
.

-
C

SL2 (C)


2 2 det = 1.

. C ( C) . ,
, .
. - .
.
az + b
B
w(z) =
= w(z) = A +
, A, B, C C:
cz + d
z+C

a ad/c b
a z + d/c d/c b/a
az + b
=
=

,
cz + d
c z + d/c
z + d/c
c
cz + d
- , z 7 1/z.
, z 7 1/z .
C A(x2 + y 2 ) + B1 x + B2 y + C = 0, A, B1 , B2 , C
0 , A 6= 0 C (B1 = B2 = C = 0),
A = 0 C (B1 = B2 = 0, C 6= 0). :
1
2
2
Azz +Bz +Bz +C = 0, z = x+iy, B = B1 iB
A+Bw+Bw+Cww = 0.
, B = B1 +iB
. z 7 w =
2
2
z
w(z) C ,
.

. z z
{|z z0 | = R}, , z0 |z z0 | |z z0 | = R2 .

. ( ). z z
, z z , .

84


R2
R2

=
z

z
=
.
0
|z z0 | ei arg(zz0 )
z z0
2. : z z0 z
, . z0 z
z .
3. z0 , ,
.
1. z z0 = |z z0 | ei arg(z

0)

. - w(z) z z ,
, w w , w().
.
, z z , w(z) ,
w w w().

az + b
, ad bc 6= 0. . ( ). : w(z) =
cz + d
z1 , z2 , z3 , w1 , w2 , w3 C -
: (zi ) = wi , i = 1, 2, 3.
.
, z1 , z2 , z3 6= w1 , w2 , w3 6= . - 1 : w1 (z) =
z z1 z3 z2
z w1 w3 w2

z1 , z2 , z3 0, , 1. , 2 : w2 (z) =

z z2 z3 z1
z w2 w3 w1
w1 , w2 , w3 0, , 1. , - 1
2 1 :
(z1 , z2 , z3 ) (w1 , w2 , w3 ).
. - .
: (z1 , z2 , z3 ) 7 (w1 , w2 , w3 )
1
2
(0, , 1) 7 (0, , 1)

= - := 2 1
1 : (0, , 1) 7 (0, , 1). () =
, = az + b. (0) = 0 b = 0; (1) = 1 a = 1, (z) z = 1
2 1 ,
.

. B B C - .
.
B B .
z1 , z2 , z3 w1 , w2 , w3 . z1 z2 z3 w1 w2 w3
( ), : B B .
R2
).
( , ze z0 =
z z0

- .
1 . - C - .
0

85

20 . - C - .
za
30 . - w(z) = ei
,
1 az
R, |a| < 1.
.

a 0 w. a = a1
za
za
= 0
, 0 C. |w(1)| = 1,
w . w(z) =
z 1/a
1 az
za
w |0 | = 1, 0 = ei w(z) = ei
.
1 az
, .

az
+
b
,
40 . - H w(z) =
cz + d
a, b, c, d R ad bc > 0.
.

- w : H H
x1 , x2 , x3 , w 0, 1,
z x1 x 2 x3
az + b
ad bc
w(z) =

=
a, b, c, d. w(i) > 0 w(i) = 2
> 0.
z x3 x 2 x1
cz + d
c + d2

.
dw
dw
1) w = z n O(C), n .
= nz n1 n > 1,
= 0 z = 0 n >
dz
dz
1 w(z) C \ {0}. : z = r ei , w = ei = (rn ) ei(n)
w(z) n z = 0.
2
z1 = r ei z2 = r ei+ n w(z) "" w. n > 1 w(z)
C.
D = {0 < arg w < 2}.

z n
. , z = x + iy.
2) w(z) = ez = lim 1 +
n
n

n/2

z n
2x x2 + y 2

+
,
1+
= 1+
n
n
n2
z n
y/n
arg 1 +
= n arctg
n
1 + x/n

( n 1 + nz , arg(1 + nz ) arctg
( 2 , 2 )).

z n
z n

= y. ex+iy = ex (cos y +i sin y),

lim 1 +
= ex , lim arg 1 +
n
n
n
n
, |ez | = eRe z , arg ez = Im z.
10 . ez O(C). ez = u + iv, u = ex cos y, v = ex sin y u, v
C C - .

(ex cos y + iex sin y) = ez . |ez | = ex > 0, (ez )0 6= 0 w(z)


20 . (ez )0 = x
C.

86

30 . ez T = 2i. w = ez D ,
D z1 , z2 : z1 z2 = 2ni, n = 1, 2, . . . , D =
{0 < Im z < 2}. z = x + iy, w = ex eiy . {y = y0 } 7 { = y0 }
, {x = x0 , 0 < y < 2} 7
{ = ex0 , 0 < < 2}. D 7 D = {0 < arg w < 2}.
.

. F = (U, f ) , U = {|z a| < R}


f , U . a , R .
F = (U, f ) G = (V, g) , U = V , f g U = V .

. F , U
f a.
. F = (U, f ) () G = (V, g), U V 6= f g U V .

.
1) . F = (U, f ) G = (V, g) , b
G U \ {a}. g ( b)

P
f ( a) b, f (z) =
cn (z a)n
g(z) =

X
f (n) (b)

n=0

(z b)n .

n!
2) . G = (U, g) F = (U, f ), H = (W, h)
G = (V, g), U V W 6= , H F .
3) . F = (U, f )
G = (V, g), , F = G.
n=0

. G = (V, g) F = (U, f )
, F = (U , f ), = 0, . . . , n + 1,
,
1) F0 = F, Fn+1 = G;
2) F+1 F = 0, . . . , n.
. : [0, 1] C a b.
G = (V, g) b
F = (U, f ) a ,
Ft = (Ut , ft ) t [0, 1], :
1) F0 = F, F1 = G;
2) Ut at = (t) R(t) > 0;
3) t0 [0, 1] u(t0 ), t0 [0,1] , (u(t0 )) Ut0 ,
t u(t0 ) Ft Ft0 .

. ( ). F = (U, f ) ,
Ft , , F1 G1 F , F1 = G1 .

. R(t) Ft , F , +, t [0,1].

87

. G = (U, f ) G F .
.
1) 0 , 1 : [0, 1] D ( 0 (0) = 1 (0) = a, 0 (1) = 1 (1) = b)
D, : I I D
, (t, 0) = 0 (t) (t, 1) = 1 (t) t I; (0, s) = a, (1, s) = b, s I.
2) 0 , 1 : I D ( 0 (0) = 0 (1), 1 (0) = 1 (1)) D, : I I D ( ) ,
(t, 0) = 0 (t), (t, 1) = 1 (t), t I, (0, s) = (1, s), s I.
:
I D. , D .

. ( ) 0 , 1 : [0, 1] C , s : [0, 1]
C, 0 s 1, s (0) = a, s (1) = b. , F = (U, f )
a s .
F 0 1 .
. (2- ) F = (U, f ) D, U D,
, D, z D
F2 = (U2 , t2 ), F z , F z.
. () D F F , F0 = (U0 , f0 )
U0 D, , D ( ) F0 . D ,
.
. F D = U , U
.
. G D = D(F)
F, F |G F ,
F0 = (U0 , f0 ) F U0 G
, G.
. F |G f , f
F G.

. F (D, f ),
D D(f ), f F D. G = (E, g)
F = (D, f ), D E 6= f g
D E.

n z.

: D0 = C \ R = {z = r ei , < < , z > 0}, f0 =

1
n
z ei/n , z = r ei , < < , f00 (z) = n(f0 (z))
n1 , f0 D0 .

n
z (D0 , f0 ) C,
z = 0 (D , f ), R, D = { + <

88

< + }, f (z) =
D = D = C \ {z = 0}.

z ei/n , + < < + .

U =

X
1
1 1 1
1/n
1
k + 1 (z 1)k .
{|z 1| < 1}, g0 (z) = (1 + (z 1)) =
k!
n
n
n
k=0

+2k
z D n n z. , n z = n r ei n , k =
0, . . . , n 1. n z D, ,
z = 0.
Ln z.
D0 = {z = r ei , r > 0, < < }, f0 (z) = ln z = ln r + i,
z = r ei . Ln z (D , f ), D = {z =
r ei , + < < + }. f = ln r + i, + < < +
D = D(Ln z) = C setminus{0} z
Ln z.
Ln z = ln r + i( + 2k), k . Ln z D,
, z = 0.
.
. a F,
V = {0 < |z a| < R} F0 = (U0 , f0 )
U0 V , F0 U .
0 ( - ) V F0

2 .
1) F0 0 a .
2) F0 0 a ,
.
) |n| - F0 , ,
|n|, , .
) n , a .

89

23.

. . .
: [a, b] C () C, f (z) [] = ([a, b]).
. T [a, b] t0 , . . . , tn , a =
t0 < < tn = b.

. d(T ) = max (tk tk1 ) T .


k=1...n

. T k [tk1 , tk ], k = 1, . . . , n, T .
> 0 T , d(T ) < .
. d(T ) 0.

T = (t0 , . . . , tn , 1 , . . . , n ) [a, b],

n
X
(f, , T ) =
f ((k ))((tk ) (tk1 ))
k=1

. lim (f, , T ), f ,
d(T )0
R
f (z)dz.

. .
.

: [a, b] C 0 : [a0 , b0 ] C , , :
[a, b] [a0 , b0 ] , = 0 .
T [a, b] (T ) [a0 , b0 ] t0k = (tk ) k0 = (k ).
, .
(x) [a, b], [a, b], > 0 > 0
, |x1 x2 | < |(x1 )(x2 )| < . , d(T ) < d((T )) < .
, 1 . ,
, d(T ) 0 d((T )) 0 .
, (f, , T ) = (f, 0 , (T ).
,
Z
Z
0
0
f (z)dz = lim (f, , (T ) = lim (f, , (T ) = f (z)dz
d(T )0

d((T ))0

. : [a, b] C. T [a, b]
n
P
(, T ) =
|(tk ) (tk1 )| lim (, T ) = L(), d(T )0

k=1

, .

. f (z) .
f .

90

.
> 0 B = d(T ) 0.
(, T ) B, , , B. , U1 B, M >
0, , T U1 , (, T ) < M . g = f [a, b],
, > 0, x, y [a, b], |x y| < , |f (x) f (y)| <
/(2M ). U2 = {T |d(T ) < } B, U = U1 U2 .
T1 , T2 U , T = T 1 T 2 "" .
k = tk T , T . , T U ,
.
|(f, , T1 ) (f, , T )| =

m
n
X

1
1
g(k )((tk ) (tk1 ))
g(i )((ti ) (ti1 )) =
=

i=1

k=1

m T 1 , n T . ,
T T 1 T 2 . k(i) [ti1 , ti ]
[t1k(i)1 , t1k(i) ],

n
X
X
m

g(k )
((ti ) (ti1 ))
=
g(i )((ti ) (ti1 )) =
k=1

i=1
i:k(i)=k

= (g(k(i) ) g(i ))((ti ) (ti1 ))

i=1

, |k(i) i | < , T 1 ,
, |g(k(i) ) g(i )| /(2M ),
n
X

|(ti ) (ti1 )| =
(, T )
M=
2M i=1
2M
2M
2

(, T ) < M T U U1 .

, |(f, , T2 ) (f, , T )| 2 , , , |(f, , T1 )


(f, , T2 )| , T1 , T2 U . , .

,
.
:
1) (). f, g a, b
Z
Z
Z
(af (z) + bg(z))dz = af (z)dz + bg(z)dz

91

2) ( ). |f (z)| < M , f (z)dz < M L().

3) , , .
4) 1 2 , ,
Z
Z
Z
f (z)dz = f (z)dz + f (z)dz
1 2

, .
|(f, , T )| < M (, T ) d(T ) 0. , ,
.
. 1 : [a, b] C, 2 : [b, c] C, 1 (b) = 2 (c).
> 0 T1 [a, b] T2 [b, c] .
T [a, c], , d(T ) < . ,
(f, 1 2 , Tx i) = (f, 1 , T1 ) + (f, 2 , T2 ). 0
, .
,
.
.
Z
a
z2
a
a

(az + b)dz = z22 + bz2 z12 bz1 =


z 2 + bz
2
2
2
z1
[z1 ,z2 ]

.
z(t) = z1 + t(z2 z1 ), t [0, 1],
n
X
(a(z1 + k (z2 z1 )) + b)(z1 + tk (z2 z1 ) (z1 + tk1 (z2 z1 ))) =
(f, T ) =
k=1

n
n
X
X
2
= (az1 + b)(z2 z1 )
(tk tk1 ) + a(z2 z1 )
k (tk tk1 )
k=1

k=1


R 1 1, ()
0 x dx = 0.5. d(T ) 0,
Z
(az + b)dz = (az1 + b)(z2 z1 ) + 0.5a(z2 z1 )2
[z1 ,z2 ]

, .

92

, .
: .
. (). f D, B D
B D.
Z
f (z)dz = 0
B

.
, .
1. B . , f B
M > 0. B ( ) p.
, .
p2 . ,
. , M4 .
B1 .
B1 , B2 , .
Bn 2pn , 4Mn .
Bn
, ( ). ,
Bn z0 . B D, z0 .
, f (z) = f (z0 ) + f 0 (z0 )(z z0) + o(z z0 ). = M
. o,
p2
z0 , (z z0). Bn , . Bn , |z z0| < 2pn (
). , Bn
|o(z z0 )| < 2pn .

f (z) . 0
(. ). ,
Z
Z
I=
o(z z0) dz
f (z) dz =
Bn

Bn

p p
p2
M
|I| < n n = n = n
2
2
4
4
, |I| 4Mn Bn . , M = 0.

2. B , . B . B
, 0.

93


R 3. B , = B : [a, b] C ,
I =
f (z) dz. > 0. (, T ) d(T ) 0,
B

, . , 1 > 0, M > 0, ,
T , d(T ) < 1 , (, T ) M . , 2 , T , d(T ) < 2 ,
|(f, , T ) I| < /2.

D , > 0, V =

z t, |z (t)| D ( , (t) > 0


(t), D. [a, b],
> 0). V , f ,
0 < 0 < , x, y V , |x y| < 0 , |f (x) f (y)| < /2M .
, [a, b]. ,
3 , T , d(T ) < 3 , |(tk ) (tk1 )| < 0 .

T = (t0 , . . . , tn ) , d(T ) < min(1 , 2 , 3 ), k = tk . T . 0 (tk ),


. I 0 f 0 . 0 ,
.
0, I 0 = 0. k = [(tk1 ), (tk )] .

X
n
n Z
X

f ((k ))((tk ) (tk1 ))


f (z) dz =
|(f, T , ) I | =

k=1
k=1
k


. k ,
, :

n Z
n Z
n Z
X
X
X

|f ((k )) f (z)| dz
f ((k )) dz
f (z) dz
=

k=1
k=1
k=1
k

, z k , k = tk . ,
|(k ) z| < |k | = |(tk ) (tk1 )| < 0 . , (k ) z V ( ,
< 0 < ). , |f ((k )) f (z)| < /(2M ),
n
X

|(tk ) (tk1 )| =
(, T )
M=
2M
2M
2M
2
k=1

I 0 = 0, |(f, T , )| < /2, |(f, T , ) I| < /2, |I| < .


, , I = 0.
4. B . B
. B
, .

. (1). f D
D
R a D.
R
B1 B2 , B1 D, B2 B1 , a B2 .
f (z)dz =
f (z)dz.
B1

94

B2

.
f B = B1 B2 D {a} B. ,
Z
Z
Z
f (z)dz
f (z)dz
0 = f (z)dz =
B

B2

B1

. 1/(z a) = z |z a| = r , r > 0, 2i.

z = a + reit , t [0, 2]. 1/(z a) = eit /r.


n T : tk = 2k/n, k = 0, . . . , n, k = tk1 , k = 1, . . . n.

1
, , T
(z a)

n
n
X
i(t t )

X
eitk1 itk
e k k1 1 =
re reitk1 =
r
k=1
k=1

r . , tk tk1 = 2/n, ,
,

e2i/n 1
eh 1
= e2i/n 1 n = 2i
= 2i
2i/n
h

h = 2i/n. n , h 0,
ez , 1, 2i. ,
d(T ) = |h| 0, .

. ( ). f D, B D B D. z B,
Z
f ()
1
d
f (z) =
2i
z
B

.
() r > 0. U r z. B
, r B. , r .
R
(z)
g() = f ()f

z.

(1),
g()d =
z
B
R
g()d. , r.

, f z, g() z,

, |g(z)| < M U r. ,

g()d M L(U ) = 2rM , r, ,

U
r 0. , 0.

95


Z
Z
Z
f () f (z)
f ()
1
0=
d =
d f (z)
d
z
z
z
U

2i ,
Z
Z
f ()
f ()
d =
d
2if (z) =
z
z
B

(1). 2i, .

, , . :
. ,
. ,
.
. ( ). D r a, f
D.

X
(z a)k f (k) (a)
f (z) =
k!
k=1
D.

.
z D,
r > > |za|. B a,

B = | a| = f () .
.
,

X
1
=
xk
1 x k=1
x. ,
|x| = c < 1. ,
k

X
1
1
1
1
za
1
=
=
=

z
( a) (z a)
a 1 za
a k=1 a
a



= |za|
= const < 1). B ( za
a

f () (
):
Z

f ()
d =
z

X
X
f ()
(z a)k
k
(z a)
f ()
d =
d
k+1
( a)
( a)k+1
k=1
k=1
B

96

2i, f (z) . ,
f (z) =

X
k=1

(z a) ck ,

1
ck =
2i

f ()
d
( a)k+1

B, . ,
, , f (z) . , f (k) (a) = k! ck ,
f (z) =

X
(z a)k f (k) (a)

k!

k=1

, , z D.

(k)

k!
(a) = k! ck =
2i

|a|=

f ()
d
( a)k+1

(2)

( (0, r) ),
. ( ). f D. f D, z D,
Z
f ()
n!
(n)
d
f (z) =
2i
( z)n+1
B

B , B D z B.

(1), ,
f

(n)

n!
(z) =
2i

f ()
d
( z)n+1

U z. (2)
a = z, k = n.

97

24.

. . .
f : C C .

. f D = {z | 0 < |z a| < }. 0 < s <

Zf
(dxz)dz
|za|=s

s.
.

0 < s1 < s2 < , B = {z | s1 < |z a| < s2 }. f D B,


:
0=

f (z)dz =

Zf

(dxz)dz

Zf

(dxz)dz

|za|=s1

|za|=s2

, .

. a C f ,
> 0 , f D = {z | 0 < |z a| < }.

. ( ). a f , f D = {z | 0 < |z a| < }. ck C
f (z) =

k=

ck (z a)k

D.
.
z D, r, R , 0 < r < |z a| < R < .



= { | | a| = R} f () . , za
=
a

|za|
R

= const < 1. ,

k

X
1
1
za
1
1
1
=
=
=

z
( a) (z a)
a 1 za
a k=1 a
a

. f ()
( ):
f ()

Zz

ddx =

Zf

(dx)

X
k=1

(z a)
d =
( a)k+1

98

X
k=1

f ()
(a)k+1

(z a)

ddx

= { | | a| = r}, f () .

a = r = const < 1,
za
|za|
k

X
1
1
1
1
a
1
=
=
=

a
z
( a) (z a)
z a 1 za
z a k=1 z a

. f ()
:
f ()

Zz

ddx =

Zf

X
X
( a)k
k1
(z a)
(dx)( a)k d
d =
(dx)
k+1
(z

a)
k=1
k=1

,
f ()

f ()

Zz

ddx

k=1

f ()
(a)k+1

(z a)

ddx +

k=1

X
k=1

k1

(z a)

(z a)

Zf

(dx)( a)k d

f ()
(a)k+1

ddx =

Zz

ddx +

1
X

f ()
(a)k+1

(z a)

k=

ddx

, . , "" | a| = s,
.
f ()
(a)k+1

f ()

f ()

Zz

ddx

Zz

ddx =

(z a)

k=

ddx

|a|=s

, B = {z | r < |z a| < R},


f ()

Zz

f ()

ddx

Zz

ddx =

f (
d = 2if (z)
z

, D B f
z B. D
f (z) =

k=

f ()
(a)k+1

ck (z a) ,

1
ck =
2i

|a|=s

99

ddx


f a. k 0
, k < 0 .
, ,
Zf

1
2i

(dx)d = c1

|a|=s

s ( s).
. f a, res f (z).
a

. (). f D a1 , . . . , an ,
D {a1 , . . . , an }. B , {a1 , . . . , an } B B D.
Z

f (z)dz = 2i

k
X
k=1

res f (z)
ak

.
n, ak k ,
Bk = {z | 0 < |z ak | < k } , Bk B. ,
Z
f (z)dz = 2i res f (z)
ak

Bk

U = B
,

S
k

Bk . U , U D {a1 , . . . , an }, .

0=

f (z)dz =

f (z)dz

k Z
X

k=1 B

f (z)dz =

f (z)dz 2i

k
X
k=1

res f (z)
ak

, .

a f , D
a.
. 3 :
1) D . A z a, f (a) = A
D a ( ).
2) z a
( 0) .

100

3) D, z a
. A C ( A = ), zn a,
f (zn ) A ( ).
.
1. D, k < 0
f ()
(a)k+1

1
ck =
2i

ddx

|a|=s

D, , 2i, 0 s 0. s, 0, ck = 0 k < 0,
. D

X
f (z) =
ck (z a)k
k=1

a,
( f D). , f a
A, a A.

2. f (z) z a, g(z) =
, g ,

g(z) =

k=1

1
f (z)

0 z a.

dk (z a)k

, dk 0, d0 = 0, . . . , dn1 = 0, dn 6= 0,
g(z) = (z a)n

X
k=1

dkn (z a)k = (z a)n h(z)

1
=
h(z) D {a}, h(a) = dn 6= 0. f (z) = g(z)
1
n
f (z)(z a) = h(z) D {a}. :

f (z)(z a)n =

X
k=1

ck (z a)k

f (z) =

X
k=1

ck (z a)kn

, .
, ,
f (z) =

k=n

cn 6= 0.
n

f (z)(z a) =

X
k=1

ck (z a)k

nckn (z a)k = g(z)

101

1
(z
h(z)

a)n ,

g(z) ( ), g(a) = cn 6= 0. ,
f (z) =

g(z)
(z a)n

a , ,
.
3. , . A =
. A C,
g(z) =

1
f (z) A

A, g(z) D,
, , D {a}.
f (z) =

1
+A
g(z)

a ( g(a) 6= 0) ( g(a) = 0).

. a ,
.
. a ,
. .
. a ,
.
, res f (z) = c1 , , .
a
p :
1
(f (z)(z a)p )(p1)
za (p 1)!

res f (z) = lim


a

102

25.

.
. U Rn , r : U Rm ,
:
1) r ;
2) r (.., r U r(U ));
3) r n U
r(U ) n- Rm .
. M Rm () n- Rm ,
P M V (P ) Rm , M V (P )
Rm .
. Q V (P ) M r1 (Q) U
n Rn U . Q, Rm M , M
P , r.
, ,
. , . ,

. M Rm , P M . :
1) V (P ) Rm , M V (P ) n Rm ;
2) V (P ) Rm , M V (P ) () "
" : V (P ) Rmn ( , M V (P ) = {Q V (P )|(Q) = 0});
, , ()
m n.
3) V (P ) Rm , M V (P ) ""
: U Rmn , U Rn ( , M V (P ) = {(x, (x))
Rn |x U } ).
.
2 3. .
P m n, n n.
n "x", "u".
.
3 1. r(x) = (x, f (x)) : Rn Rm . n , n n,
. n. .

103

1 2. Jr r n, , ,
n n. , , "". ,
Jr0 r0 : Rn Rn , n r, .
f : Rm Rm , :

ri (x1 , . . . , xn )
i = 1, . . . , n
1
n
n+1
m
fi (x , . . . , x , x , . . . , x ) =
1
n
i
ri (x , . . . , x ) + x i = n + 1, . . . , m
f
Jf =

Jr 0 0
J E

m + (n m) m + (n m), Jr . J
, E . , Jf . , ,
Fi (x1 , . . . , xm , y 1 , . . . , y m ) = fi (x1 , . . . , xm ) y i : R2m Rm . F , xi , Jf , .
, , g(y 1 , . . . , y m ) : Rm Rm ,
F (g1 (y 1 , . . . , y m ), . . . , gm (y 1 , . . . , y m ), y 1 , . . . , y m ) = 0, , , f (g(
y )) = y. Jg
g. () f (g(
y )) = y , Jf Jg = E , Jg
. , g(f (
x)) = x, ,
g f .
, f (x1 , . . . , xm , 0, . . . , 0) = r(x1 , . . . , xm ). , f (U 0) = M V (P ). ,
g(M V (P )) = U 0, g i = 0, i = m + 1, . . . , n, M V (P ).
: Rn Rnm , i = g i+m i = 1, . . . , n, , n m
( Jg , n m ;
n, ; Jg ,
).

= [a, b] 3 0, : U . = r : U
Rm , . P = (0). P

n
X
r d i
d
=
dt 0
ui P dt 0
i=1

P TP M .
1 < i < n, xi = t, xj = 0 j 6= i. ( )

r
vi =
ui P

, TP M . ,
i
, ( ddt(0)
), , TP M . r

104

, vi , dim TP M = n, vi
( ).
(t) = r , t [a, b]. Rm ,

Z b
Z b s
d(t)
d(t) d(t)

,
l() =
dt =
dt dt =
dt
dt
a
a
v

n
!
Z bu
n
u X
d i X
d j
r
r
t

,
dt =
=

i
j
u
dt
u
dt
a
(t)
(t)
t j=1
t
i=1

P U

Z b uX
n
i d j
u n X
d

t
=
dt gij ((t))dt
dt
a
t
t
i=1 j=1
gij (P ) =


r r
,
= (vi , vj )
uj P ui P

, gij (P ) P
( vi ). ,
TP M . ,

( , Rm ,
).
. M .
gij . ,
P r0 (v1 , . . . , v n ) : V Rm . v 1 , . . . , v n
u1 , . . . , un r0 r1 .
n

X r v t
dr
=
dui
v t ui
t=1

gij (u) =

n
X

t,s=1

gts (v)

v t v s
ui uj

, . ,
Rm ( ).
. 2(x, y) = (x + y, x + y) (x, x) (y, y), . ,
.

105

26.

. - . .
.
.
, n
n + 1 ().
M n- Rn+1 . P M . U Rn , r(u1 , . . . , un ) :
U Rn+1 P .
TP M

r
M P . TP M vi = u
i . gij (P )
P
P , .
P Rn+1 , TP M
. N , TP M Rn+1 ( 2), M P . , ,
v1 , . . . , vn , N Rn+1 ,
M .

qij (P ) =

2 r
, N (P )
ui uj P

, qij ( ):

r ui
r
,N =
,N =
v k v s
v s ui v k
2
2 i

r ui
u r
=
,N +
,N =
ui v s v k
v k v s ui

r
, u
i N ; ,

2
2
uj ui
uj ui
r
r uj ui
,
N
=
,
N
=
qij
=
ui uj v s v k
v s v k ui uj
v s v k

, qij , gij ,
TP M .
. M .
, , ( ).
, P = (0). , , ( , (t)

1).
(t)
((,
)
= 1, , 2(,
)
= 0). :
(t)
= k(s) n(s),

k(s) > 0,

106

||n(s)|| = 1

. n(s) , k(s)
. ,
n
(r )
X r i
(t)
=
=
=
t t
t i=1 ui t
n
X

2 r i j X r 2 i
=
+
ui uj t t
ui 2 t
i,j=1
i=1

N . 0,
2r
r
u
i n. ui uj N ,
qij . ,
n
X
i j
qij
= ((t),

N ) = (k(s)n(s), N ) = k(s) cos


t
t
i,j=1
n N . , q(,
),

q(,
)
= k(s) cos
, 1. , ( ). ( ).
, , , . ,

q(,
)

q(,
)

=
,
=
k(s) cos = q
||||
||||

||||
2
g(,
)

, g
Rn+1 .

. ( ).
k(s) =

q(,
)

1
g(,
)
cos

, n = N ,
q(,
)

g(,
)

kn (s) =
.

. , ,
,
n = N .
, , N .

. ().
k=

kn
cos

107

27.

. .

.
.
M , P M TP M M P .
- G Q,
G , . , G
, , . Q ,
, Q , Q = diag{1 , . . . , n }. e1 , . . . , en . v v = v 1 e1 + + v n en ,
v, k(v),
n
P

i (v i )2 X
n
q(v, v)
i=1
=
k(v) =
= P
i cos2 i
n
g(v, v)
i=1
(v i )2
i=1

cos i = r

v ei ( ).

vi
n
P
(v i )2

i=1

. i , ei .
. .
.
ei
det(Q G) = 0 (Q i G)ei = 0

, .
.
Q = C t Q0 C

G = C t G0 C

e = C 1 e0

v
C u
j .
TP M . ,

vi =

r
r v j
=
= vi0 C
ui
v j ui

C , C 1 .
, ,
.

k(v). 2 = /2 1 ( v1 v2 ),

108

k = 1 cos2 1 + 2 cos2 2 = 1 cos2 1 + 2 sin2 1 = ()


.

() = 1 (1 sin2 1 ) + 2 sin2 1 = 1 + (2 1 ) sin2 1
, 1 2 .
. ,
.

109


[1] .. . . I. .
[2] .. . . II. .
[3] .. . . III. .
[4] .. .
[5] .. .
[6] .. .
[7] .. .
[8] .. .
[9] .. , . 1, 2, 3.
[10] .. .
[11] .. .
[12] .. .
[13] .. .
[14] .. .
[15] .. .
[16] .. .
[17] .. .
[18] .. .
[19] .. .
[20] .., .., .. .
[21] .. .
[22] .. .

110