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# Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

## Origami and Geometric Constructions

By Robert J. Lang
Russian translation by
Mark A. Sigalovsky
2008-2010

1
( )

. .

Introduction................................................................................................................. 3
Preliminaries and Definitions...................... 4
Binary Divisions ......................................................................................... 6
Binary Folding Algorithm ......................................... 6
Binary Approximations .............................................................. 10
Rational Fractions ................................................................................ 13
Crossing Diagonals ............................................................. 13
Fujimotos Construction ............................................................. 17
Nomas Method................................................................................................ 20
Hagas Construction ................................................................................ 22
Irrational Proportions ............................................................ 25
Continued Fractions...................................................................................... 25
Angle Divisions ............................................................................................ 35

## , (.., ) 1996 ; 2003 .

A Tribute to a Mathemagician.* 2003 ,
http://www.langorigami.com. (2010) :
, - , ;
7 . ,
2003 .
1

*(

. ).

1
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

Axiomatic Origami .................................................................... 42
Preliminaries ................................................................................................. 45
Folding .......................................................................................................... 47
Alignments ...................................................................................................... 48
( P P ) Bringing a point to a point .............................. 48
( P L ) Bringing a point onto a line ............................ 48
( L L ) Bringing one line to another line .... 49
Alignments by folding ......................................................... 50
Multiple Alignments ......................................................... 51
Constructability ............................................................................................ 52
6 Axiom 6 and Cubic Curves ......................................... 52
Approximation by Computer ........................................... 57
References .................................................................................................................... 62

2
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

Introduction

.
, .
, , ,
, - ,
.

,
; ( ,
).
,
, ,
.
,
. ,

,
. -
, .
, ,
. :
,
, -
.
- :
, .
,
, , .
,
,
.
- .
, . (
) ,
( ), ,
.
 ; .

3
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

, ,
.
, ,
,
,
.

## Preliminaries and Definitions

, , .
.
; . - -
, , .
, ,
, .
,
, .

, ,
(), , .
.1 2. 1
.
, . ,

. 1 .
( ).
, ,
, 3 .1.

4
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

. 2 ().
, :
(1) .
(2) .
(3) .
. ,

.2. .
( , ),
.
, , ,
. . 2,
.
.
,
- .
( ,
i ), ( ,
, 1/3 ). :
(1) () , .
(2) .
(3) .
(4) , , ( ),
.
(4), , ; ,
. ,
, , ,
5
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

. , ,
(4) .

Binary Divisions
-,
- N
, N . . 2
, . ,
; . ,
, . .
, () ,

. 3. 4-, 8- 16- .
.., . 3.
1/2, 1/4, 1/8, , 1/2 n
n. 1/2 n .
, , 1/2 n ,
.
m /2n m < 2 n . (
[0;1]).
2 n - , m .
2 n 1 , ,
.
,
. , 2,
;
.

## Binary Folding Algorithm

[1] [2].
,
, .
6
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

, 1 0; .
. ,
1 10 , . 1.
.

10

11

100

101

110

111

1000

1001

10

1010

. 1. 1 10.
m /2n - -
n ,
.
.
ii
10; ,

1043 = 1 10 + 0 10 + 4 10 + 3 10 = 1000 + 0 + 40 + 3 .
3

(1)

, ,
2 10, : 1 and 0. ,
1011
1011 = 1 23 + 0 2 2 + 1 21 + 1 2 0 = 8 + 0 + 2 + 1 = .

(2)

,
.
, ..
, .
,
(
). , , 0.753

## .753 = 7 101 + 5 102 + 3 103 =

7
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

753
,
1000

(3)

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

.111

7
.111= 1 21 +1 22 + 1 23 = .
8

(4)

## : 1/2 .1; 1/4 - .01,

3/4 .11. 5/8 .101, 23/32, , .10111.
, ,
.
, iii,
:
(1) .
(2) 2.
(3) (1 0) ,
.
(4) (2) (3) , ,
, 0.
, m /2n , m,
,
n .
, 2, ..
, ? , 1/3,
, ,
. ; , 1/3=0.010101
..
,
( ).
-
, . :
, ,
.
, ( ):
( = 1, .. )
.
, =1,
, ; =0,
, .
,
, . , , 0.11001 (25/32).
8
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

2 (
), (5).

0.11001 = 1 2 1 + 1 2 2 + 0 2 3 + 0 2 4 + 1 25

(5)

, (6).

0.11001 =

1
1
1
1
1
(1 + (1+ (0 + (0 + (1)))))
2
2
2
2
2

(6)

,
( ) ,
. ,
, :
(a) 0 1/2,
(b) 1 1/2.
- , . -
r ,
, , (1/2)r
. ,
(1/2)(1+r) . ,
,
(a) (b), .

9
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

. 4. () r
(r/2) . () r
((1+r)/2) .
,
(a) (b), .1
, ,
.

, , .
m /2n 2 n 1 ; - n.

Binary Approximations
, 2,
.
. - ,
, ( )
. . ,
1/3=0.3333 ( . ).
(0.3), 3/10, 1/3. (0.33),
33/100, 1/3; (0.333),
333/1000, .
. 1/3
, 0.01=1/4 1/3.
10
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

0.0101 5/16, 1/3, 0.010101 21/64, 1/3
, 1%. ,

,

:
;
;
,

.
, ,
2, .
,

.
- ,
.
, 1/3 .01, (..,
.01= .010101). , 01,
,
;
(
= ; , ).
-
,
1/3 and 2/3 ,
.5.

. 5. -

1/3.
1/5,
.0011.
:
, ;
,
. ..
.
,
.
11
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

; ,
, ; .
? .11000.
.
, d, d
. d=1,
,

.11000 =

11000
24
=
.
11111 binary 31 decimal

(7)

. , 01,
: .01 and .10 ,
. ,
,
. , , 011 (, ,
)

001 1 010 2
100 4
= ,
= ,
= .
111 7 111 7
111 7

(8)

.. , ,
,
.

.
, .
r , , ,

1
log 2 1 ,

(9)

- ( ).
,
- , (rank).
, .
m/p ( ), ,
, bin(m/p),

## rank(bin(m / p)) = log2 p .

12
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

(10)

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

,
.
(9) ,
( ,
) 9 .
, .
, .
,
, ;
.
;
.
, ,
, .
.

Rational Fractions
,
(box-pleating), , , ,
, .
12-, 16-, , 9-, 15- ,
78- [3].

: b ? ,
, , a/b
, a b - b 2.
m/p, p - 2.
, , ?
.

Crossing Diagonals
a/b . 6.
: ;
.

13
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

. 6.
.
, ,
. w
x , .
,
y. y z=1y,

y=

w
1 x
.
, z=
1+ w x
1+ w x

(11)

- ( ) ,
w x, , .., ,
, y ( z), (
a/b). , w x

m
n
, x ,
p
p

(12)

m n , p, p - 2.

y=

m
pn
, z=
.
p+mn
p+mn

y=a/b, :

14
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

(13)

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

p 2, ,
a ba.
m=a, n=(p+ab).
w=m/p, x=n/p ,
. .
.
a/b
(, , ).
.
- . a/b=1/3, p=4, m=1, n=2,
, .7.

. 7. 3-.
, .7, .
-,
[2], - ,
. 2
w x, ,
10. (, y=a/b z . 6 (ba)/b,
, 1/2).

15
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

y=a/b z=1y w

rank

1/3

2/3

1/2

1/5

4/5

1/4

1/6

5/6

1/8

3/8

1/7

6/7

1/8

1/4

2/7

5/7

1/4

3/8

3/7

4/7

3/4

1/9

8/9

1/8

2/9

7/9

1/4

1/8

4/9

5/9

1/2

3/8

1/10

9/10

1/16

7/16

10

3/10

7/10

3/8

1/8

.2. , .
.
,
. (
, 2,
). -. ,
,
, ,
, . 8. (
, , ,
- w x, ).

. 8. - .
,

16
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

y=

w
x
, z=
.
w+x
w+x

(14)

, w x ,

m
n
,x ,
p
p

(15)

m
n
, z=
.
m+ n
m +n

(16)

w
,

y=

a/b:
p 2, a b-a.
m=a, n=ba.
w=m/p, x=n/p ,
.
w x .
a/b
(, , ).
. 3 , . 2. ,
- .

y=a/b

z=1y w

rank

1/3

2/3

1/2

1/5

4/5

1/4

1/6

5/6

1/8

5/8

1/7

6/7

1/8

3/4

2/7

5/7

1/4

5/8

3/7

4/7

3/4

1/9

8/9

1/8

2/9

7/7

1/4

7/8

4/9

5/9

1/2

5/8

1/10

9/10

1/16

9/16

10

3/10

7/10

3/8

7/8

. 3. - .

Fujimotos Construction

[4],

17
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

[5].
, ,
. 9.

. 9. .
x, ,
, (1+x). , ,
, y, ,
(y1), , 1/(1+y1)=1/y.
a/b, x

m
.
p

(17)

, y

y=

p
.
m+ p

(18)

p 2, b, m=bp.
y=

p
,
b

(19)

b. .. p - 2,
, , (a/p),
:

z=

a
a p a
y= =
p
p b b.

18
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

(20)

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

p 2, b.
x=(bp)/p.
x ,
, . 9.

. (p/b)
, .
a/p,
.
.4.

1y

a/p

rank

1/3

2/3

1/2

1/2

1/5

4/5

1/4

1/4

1/6

5/6

1/2

1/4

1/7

6/7

3/4

1/4

2/7

5/7

3/4

1/2

3/7

4/7

3/4

3/4

1/9

8/9

1/8

1/8

2/9

7/9

1/8

1/4

4/9

5/9

1/8

1/2

1/10

9/10

1/4

1/8

3/10

7/10

1/4

1/4

.4. .
-,
, - ,
, , (
). ;
, , , - .
. 10. 11. .

19
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

. 10. 5- -.

. 11. 5- .
- ,
, . ,
,
,
?
,

.

Nomass Method
,
, ,
, . - :

(1) . ,
, ; ,
2k.
(2) .
( ),
. ,
, ,
, . 12.

20
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

- [6],
.

. 12. .
, ( . 12), ,

1 w 2 + x 2
y=
,
1 w

(21)

b
,
2p

(21a)

w = x = 1
y

y=

p
b

(22)

. :
p 2, b.
w=b/2p, x=b/2p , .
w x, ,
y=p/b.
a/p (
?).
a/b.
. 132.

, b/2p .

21
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

. 13. .
10
. 5.

1y

b/2p

a/p

rank

1/3

2/3

3/4

1/2

1/5

4/5

5/8

1/4

1/6

5/6

3/4

1/4

1/7

6/7

7/8

1/4

2/7

5/7

7/8

1/2

3/7

4/7

7/8

3/4

1/9

8/9

9/16

1/8

12

2/9

7/7

9/16

1/4

11

4/9

5/9

9/16

1/2

10

1/10

9/10

5/8

1/8

10

3/10

7/10

5/8

3/8

10

. 5. , .
- ; (
, ),
, , .

Hagas Construction
[79],
.
. , ,
5- ,
. .14.

22
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

. 14. 5- , .
, ,
.
. 15. ;

, ,
. 15.
( - ).

. 15. .
, -
.
.
x , . 15

z=

2x
x .
, w=
1+ x
1+ x

a/b:

23
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

(23)

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

p - 2, b.
m=pb.
x=m/p , .
x.
,
y=p/b.
y a/p, .
a/b.
.16.

. 16. , a/b .

(.. ,
).
,
2w;
, w. . 6
:

24
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

y=a/b 1y

m/p

a/p

rank

1/3

2/3

1/2

1/2

1/5

4/5

1/4

1/4

1/6

5/6

1/2

1/4

1/7

6/7

3/4

1/4

2/7

5/7

3/4

1/2

3/7

4/7

3/4

3/4

1/9

8/9

1/8

1/8

2/9

7/7

1/8

1/4

4/9

5/9

1/8

1/2

1/10

9/10

1/4

1/8

3/10

7/10

1/4

3/8

. 6. ,
.
, , , ,
, ,
.

Irrational Proportions
Continued Fractions
,
, ,
(, 1/) -
-; , ,
,
. ,
?,
?
, ,
. 0.5%
. ,
: , ..
, , .
; , 60
, (300600-900)-- .
: ,
, .17. ..

25
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

1:3:2 ,
1/3=0.577. ( ).
, .. 1/3.
, ,
- .
, ?

. 17. 60 - 1/3
.
(: ,
60, ,
).
:
, , 1/3=0.57735.
;

1
577
= 0.57735 0.577 =
.
3
1000

(24)

.
, ,
, . ,

1
591
= 0.1001001111
,
1024
3

(25)

( )
. .
, ,
? , ?
, ,
[10].

26
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

.
:

r = b0 +

1
b1 +

1
b2 +

(26)

1
b3 +

r , b0, b1 b2 .
- ;
. ; ,
,
. , {bn} ,
,
bn ,
. , 3/16
3
1
=0+
1
16
5+
3

(27)

. , 1/3

1
= 0.577 = 0 +
3
1+

(28)

1
1+

1
2+

1
1+

1
2+

1
1+

,
. r ,
, 3/16 .
( 1/3), .
,
- (
1 2 ),
- :
, , - , ,
() .
, .

27
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

,
. , ,
=3.1415926535. :

## (1) (.., 3, 0.14159).

(2) (.., 1/0.14159=7.06251).
(3) (1) (2) , 0,
( ).
.
= {3;7,15,1,293,10,3,},

= 3+

1
7+

(28)

15 +
1+

1
293 +

1
10+

, ,
. ,
. , ,

3 = 3.00,
1 22
3+ =
= 3.1428 ,
7
7
1
333
3+
=
= 3.141509,
1 106
7+
15

3+

3+

1
7+

1
15 +

1
15 +

(30)
(31)

(32)

1
1

1
7+

355
= 3.14159292 .
113

(29)

104,348
= 3.14159265
33,215

1
1+

1
293

(33)

, ,
, . , ,
, . (
355/113, ,
4- ).

28
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

,
, ,
.
, . 7.

3
0
1

15

293

1
0

. 7. , .
( ), , 0, 1
1, 0. ()
:
,

.
, . , 1-
( 3 ) 31+1=3. 30+1=1.
( 7): 73+1=22, - 71+0=7. ..
:

0
1

1
0

15

293

3
1

22
7

333
106

355
113

104,348
33,215

. 8. .
, ,

.
?;
?

;
. ..
, ,
. , 22/7 ,
106; 333/106 , 113; 355/113
, 33,215,
( , ).

29
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

, , .
, 22/7 0.001.
, ,
, .
, , 4 5
, , .
, , , .. ; ,
,
.
- , .

, , ,
. , ,
;
.
, ,
, .
,

.

, - :

1
a+b 2

(34)

a b , [2].
. ( ,
; .. , 1
). ,
. -
, ,
22.5, 1/16- .
a + b 2 . ,
- ,
.

30
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

.18. , .
, 22.5 - ,
: (454590) - (22.567.590) -
, , . 19.

. 19. , 22.5.
, (tiling),
[1115], ,
, .
, .
, 22.5, ,
, ,
1 2. ,
.
a + b 2 .
, . 20 , ,
:

31
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

. 20. .
x.
x.
. 2.
,
; , , ,
a x(4+2) : x(4+2) =a .
,

x=

1
.
4+ 2

(35)

, x
, .., x2, 2x, x(1+2) .
:
,
( - , , ).
, a + b 2 , ,
, . ,
. 21.

32
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

. 21. - .
y z, ,
w ,
w w
()
, .
y
z
,

1 1
w + .
y z

(36)

, .
20, x(4 + 2) . ,
w, x, y z, :

1 1
x (4 + 2 ) w + .
y z

(37)

- x=w.

(4 + 2 )= 1y + 1z .

(38)

(4 + 2 ) ,
, .
, .
, ; ,
.
:

1
,
(4 + 2 ) = (2) + (2 + 2 ) =
+
(1 / 2) (1 1 / 2 )

33
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

(39)

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

, y = 1 / 2,z = 1 1/ 2 ,
, . 21.
y=1/2 , z=11/2 .
, , ,
, . 22.

. 22. 11/2.
,
,
,
, . 23.

. 23. -
.
, - , ,
,
. , x(a + b 2 ) , x
, a, b ,
- , x.
, (a + b 2) . ,
(a + b 2)) ,
.
a , ..
, ,
. ,
b2.

34
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

, ,
. (kite - folding), ..
22.5. . 24 y, , ,
. ,
.

. 24. , ,
, ;
.
1/y, 2; ,
2? ; y b
, .
, (a + b 2) ,
, 2, -
.
, .

Angle Divisions
, , -
: , , .. . ,
, 2-, .
, ,
,
. ,
, .

35
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

, , , (
- , )v
,
, .
- :
.
- , ,
.
-
. .
, .
, , .
, , (
) .
: ,
; ; ,
, .
;
, 300 . ...
,
,
400 ...;
. ,
, , ,
.
, , ..
; , ,
, ,
, 3 2 .
,
. ( ,
) .
,
, .. 2200
. ,
, .
, , ( ,
) !

36
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

, - , ,
. , ,
, .. , 2.
, :
, . ,
,
,
.
3 2
, 3;
, , ,
, (),
, .
200 .

1995 . The
American Mathematical Monthly, ,
(Totally Real Origami and Impossible Paper
Folding), ,
[16, 17]. , ,
- , ,
, 1 + 2 ,
.
, ,
1 + 2 ,
. - ,
.
Monthly ,
.
, , ,
: .
, ,
,
. , , .
, ,
3 [18, 19], .254.

.
. - . - .
3

37
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

.25. .
- :

(1) .
PBC.
(2) , BC.
(3) BC EF.
(4) B , E BP, B
GH.
(5) G,
.
(6) .
(7) J B. BC BJ
.
(8) .
. 2 [20] ,
. (..
,
).

,
. ,
. , 4,
BJ, B B GH.
4

38
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

, . , .

.26. .
:

(1) -

(2) ZO XO.
(3) X X O.
(4) A A ZO ZO . O.
(5) , . A A XO YO
O .
(6)
. O.

, N- , N
n m
2 3 (
). , ,
2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, ..
N
- , [21
24], , 1890 [25].
N-, N
n m
2 3 +1 . - 3, 5, 7, 13, 17

39
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

,
2 j3k (2 n3m + 1), - .
,
. N, N20 - (N=11).

, tours de force , ,
;
, ,
: ,
.
, ,
, , . ,
, ,
.
. , The
Complete Book of Origami,
900 [26]. ,
( ,
, ),
,
.

.27. , 7- .
, : 7-
, , .
,
; , , , 4/7 ,
, 2/7 1/7,
.
40
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

,
, .. , ,
, , ;
, 28. ,
,

yi =

1
90
1+ tan
i ,
2
7

(40)

i , vi.

. 28. 7- .

, . , y1 = 0.101 1/10,
, . 29.

. 29. 900 7- .
(
) ,
41
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

, ,
. ,
, , ,
. 30.

. 30. ,
.
. 30 r,
(r:1r). , 1/3,

. , , 7- ,

1
= .001,
7

(41)

(, , ),
.

Axiomatic Origami
, ,
: ,
( ), .
1970-,
, ,
.
[2729],
, .. ,
, .
(Huzitas Axioms, HA),
, .
, ;
.
,
. ,
HA
42
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

,
. , HA
, ,
. ,
- ,
: ,
, [30], .
, HA , .
HA [31]. ,
, ,
, ,
. , , . 31.

43
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

. 31. .
44
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

, O1O5
. O6 ,
.
2003 . 7- [32], (O7).
. 32.

. 32. 7- .
, HA.
O7 (
).
5

, O7 ; 7
[37], ,
. , ,
, (, ,
).

(Huzita-Justin Axioms6, HJA), , vii;
,
.
7.

Preliminaries
, ,
. ,
, ..
.
: P (x, y) 2 , x [,] ,
y [,] .
5

2010 .

## - (Huzita-Hatori Axioms, HHA).

[38].

45
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## , 2 (degrees of freedom, DOF), ..,

, , , .
;
. O1,
. ..
,
( ) .
; .
,
: y = mx + b , m
b y, ..
(x, y) , . ,
, , DOF; m b ,
.
,
, y (
m, b ).
, ,
.
,
, :
: U( )

U( ) (cos,sin )  [0,180).

(42)

: L(d, ) - P,

(43)
(P dU( )) U( ) = 0 ,
d [,], [0,180), A B

A B. ,
(d, ). , (43)

P U( ) d = 0 .

(44)

L(d, ) :
: P = (x, y ), P

P (y, x ).
46
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

(45)

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

P P , 90

. (U ( ) ) U ( ) .

, P L(d, )

P = dU( ) + tU ( ) t [,].

(46)

## (46) . 33. dU( )

, ; tU ( ) dU( )
t, .

. 33. (44).
(44) (42), ; ,
.

Folding
, . viii
() - .
, - .
,
.
, (.. ),
, LF (dF , F ) .
.. , DOF (.., dF F ),
().
UF U( F ) .
LF (dF , F ) , P
P ,

47
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

P = P 2((P dU F ) U F )U F
= P + 2(dF P U F )U F

(47)

P F(P). ,

F(P) P + 2(dF P U F )U F .

(48)

:
P: F(F(P)) = P ,

(49)

,
.
, P LF (dF , F ) ,

F(P) = P ,

(50)

, .
.. , ,
,
.
. L
F(L) F(P) , (a) P
(44), (b) P .

Alignments
, , .
- , ..
. : .
, .

P P
P1 (x1, y1) P2 (x 2 , y 2 ) ,
. : P1 P2 . ..,

P1 P2 , x1 = x 2 y1 = y 2 .

(51)

.. ,
(DOF).

( P L )
P1 (x1, y1) is L(d, ) ,
, .., P1 (44). We
: P1 L(d, ) . ..,

48
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

P1 L(d, ) , P1 U( ) d = 0 .

(52)

.. ,
DOF.
, ; ..,
,

P1 L(d, ) , L(d, ) P1 .

(53)

( L L )
L1 (d1,1) L2 (d2 , 2 ) ,
L1 L2 , .
U1 U(1 ) , U2 U( 2 ) .
(46), L1 , .. P1
L1

P1 = dU1 + tU1 ,

(54)

(d,t) , , P1
(44), :

(d U
1

+ tU1 ) U 2 d 2 = 0 .

(55)

(d1(U1 U 2 ) d2 )+ t (U1 U 2 ) = 0 .

(56)

(56) t;
t, , 0.
:

d1 (U 1 U 2 ) d 2 = 0,

U1 U 2 = 0

(57)
.
(58)

, ,
DOF .
(57)-(58) , (58)
, (57) .
, ,
, (58).

49
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

Alignments by folding
: P P , P L ,
L L . , ,
.
, ,
, .
( )
, .
,
. ,
, , - ,
, .
,
, . 5
, . 9.

F(P1) P2

. P1 . P2

F(P1 ) L

. P1 L

F(L) P
F(L1) L2

L . P

L1 L2

F(L) L

. 9. 5 .
,
( (15) (16)),
,
; (16).
.
: , .
; .
,
.10.

P LF

. P LF

.10. .
50
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

,
.

Multiple Alignments
; ..,
, ( ,
dF F ). , ,
, : . ,
, . F(P1) P2 ( ), F(L1) L2 ( ).
, ;
O2 O3, , . 11.

F(P1) P2

O2

F(L1) L2

O3

. 11. , 2 (DOF) ,
.
4 ;
, ,
- . 10
(.. ix), .12.

F(P2 ) L2

F(L2 ) P2

F(L2 ) L2

F(P1) L1

O6

F(L1) P1

O6

O6

F(L1) L1

O7

O7

P1 LF

O5

O5

O4

P2 LF

O1

. 12. , ,
HJA.
, ( F(L1) L1, F(L2 ) L2 ) , L1 L2
, , L1 || L2 .
- .
, 2 DOF ( ,
), ,
HJA ( , 7-
), ....

51
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

Constructability

(dF , F ),
HJA ,
, .
, , ,

.
, O6 .
, ,
.
,
,
, , 3 2 .
[30],
.34. .
, P1 and P2 L1 ( ) L2
( ). ,
P1, .

. 34.

2 .

, O6 ,
.

## 6- Axiom 6 and Cubic Curves

, ,
, .
; ,
, , ..
. P1, P2

52
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

L1, L2 . ,
L1 x,

d1 = 0, U1 = (0,1).

(59)

, P1

P1 = (1,0).

(60)

, L1 , . P1 .
L f , d f a f ,

U f = a f , 1 a 2f .

(61)

P1 . P1 L f ,

P1 = F (P1 )
= P1 + 2(dF P1 U F )U F

(62)

, L f . P1 L1 , (44)
, ..,

P1 U1 d1 = 0 .

(63)

(5962) (63) d f

df =

2a 2f 1
2 1 a 2f

(64)

( a f ).
a f P2 P2 ,
. P2 a f
1 1 , . P2 .
P2 = (2,1.5) P2 = (2,+1.5) . 35.

53
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

. 35. , . P2 a f  1; 1
P2 .
, , . P2 L2 , ,
L2 , . P2. ,
.

P2 (a,b),

(65)

P2 (x, y ),

(66)

P2, ,
x = a 2aa +
2
f

## a f (2a 2f (1+ b) (1+ 2b))

1 a 2f

y = 2 aa f 1 a 2f + (2 a 2f 1)(1+ b) .

(67)
(68)

a f , P2:
y 3 + (1 b)y 2 + (x 2 b(2 + b) a 2 )y +

## (b3 + b2 + a2b a2 + 2ax x 2 bx 2 )= 0

(69)

(69) y , x - ,
3; - ,
.
. 35 ,
(69).

a f 1 , (,1+ b).

( .35);
P2 = (a,b).

54
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

L2 3- ; ..,
3 . P2 L2 . L2
, 1 ;
L2 , .

xx+a
yy+b

(70)

(71)

## b=1/2 , [33], a=0,

b=1/2 [34].
, L2 , . P2 ; ,
L2 , P1 P2 .
, , ,
; ,
.
, ( )
. (26)
,

y 3 + ry 2 + sy + t ,

(72)

, () a, b, x,
,
.

y 3 2 = 0,

(73)

P2 = (a,b) = (1,1), x = 2 .

(74)

2 P1 L1 P2 = (1,1)

x = 2 , . 36,
. y P2 .

55
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

. 36.

2.

, O6 .
? ,
n m
N-, N = 2 3 +1 - , .. [25].

z N 1 = 0 ,

(75)

z. ,
, .., -
42 1 000 000; , , (73)
,
. ,
(73) .
,
.
, --,
HJA , ,
, .
, ,
, , , :

.
, , . L f 1 ,
P1 L1 , L f 2 , . P2 L2 ;
, L f 1 . P3 ( L f 2 - P4 ) , P3 P4
, .37.
(26), ..
. , 5

56
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

. ;
, , .
, ,
.
7 ,
,
7- .
,
. , ,

.

. 37. , .

Approximation by Computer
,
. ,
; , x- y-
, ,
, .38 (3/8,5/8). ,
.

57
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

. 38. (3/8,5/8) .
, , .. ,
. ,
. ,
.005
.
18 .
x- y -
. , O2 ( , p1 p2 , p1 p2 ), ,
. ,
? , ?
:
, r ? ,
, ,
, .
; N ,
,
N 1/ 2 . , , 106
,
.001 (.. ,
.001 ).
, : ?
.

58
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

r=0, .., . 4 - ,
- . , ;
, .
, ; ,
. ,
- . , . , 4
, r=0.
r=1. O1 - O5
. 39. O6 and O7 ()
.

. 39. , 7 HJA.
, , .
. 39 , , HJA, 4
: , . ..
, 1.
5
: .
0- 1-; ..,
, 1. ,

59
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

1-; 2. 9
12 . 8 r1.
. 9
9 8 = 72 . O1 O2
; ,
9 153 . O3
, O4 -, ..
( ).
,
.
,
,
. ,

rp = rl1 + rl2 .

(76)

, (-,
- ..), 1 ( ):

rl f = 1+ rp i + rl j .
pi

(77)

lj

,
. ,
-, - ,
(

). ,
r

N ( r) = 1 + 2 r .

(78)

,
r, (
)

r
N(r) = 1+ 3 + 2 r ,

(79)

## N={4, 8, 17, 37, 81} r={0, 1, 2}.

7 HJA,
.
N={4 258, 154 800,

60
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

132 826 269}, 1000 .
,
, (,
, ).
.
x - , , -
- , ,
. , , (x,y),
,
.
;
x N N-
x,
.
HJA,
, .
,
, ,
.
, . .. 106
, .001,
, 106, ; ,
, ,
. , , ;
.
C++, ReferenceFinder, -
. , ,
,
. ReferenceFinder 300 000
6 ,
, , ,
.
,
N, N={4, 8, 65, 1033, 7009, 32 469, 277 546}.
277 546 6 , 1000 ,
,
. .13.

61
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

10

0.0004

20

0.0006

50

0.0013

80-

0.0024

0.0032

95-

0.0042

0.0081

90
99

. 13. 6-
277 546 ( 6).
, 0.005 1.2 . 25
. 97% 6-
, .
, 18 !
,
,
;
,
.

. -
,
,
. ,
ReferenceFinder, ,
. [3, 35, 36]

, ,
.

References
[1] James Brunton, Mathematical exercises in paper folding, Mathematics in School,
Longmans for the Mathematical Association, vol. 2, no. 4, July 1973, p. 25.
[2] Robert J. Lang, Four Problems III, British Origami, no. 132, October, 1988, pp. 711.
[3] Robert J. Lang, Western Pond Turtle, Origami Design Secrets, A K Peters, 2003.
[4] Shuzo Fujimoto and M. Nishiwaki, Sojo Suru Origami Asobi Eno Shotai (Invitation to
creative origami playing), Asahi Culture Centre, 1982.
[5] Jeannine Mosely, private comm.
[6] Masamichi Noma, Origami Tanteidan Newsletter, issue 14.
62
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

[7] Koji Husimi, Origami no kikagaku (Origami and Geometry), Nippon Hyoronsha, Tokyo
(1979).
[8] Kunihiko Kasahara and Toshie Takahama, Origami for the Connoisseur, Japan Publications,
1987, pp. 1819.
( , , )
[9] Kunihiko Kasahara, Origami Omnibus, Japan Publications, 1988, pp. 7677.
[10] Aleksandr Ia. Khinchin, Continued Fractions, Dover Publications, 1997.
( , )
[11] Peter Engel, Folding the Universe: Origami from Angelfish to Zen, New York, Vintage
Books, 1989.
[12] Jun Maekawa, Evolution of Origami Organisms, Symmetry: Culture and Science, vol. 5,
no. 2, 1994, pp. 167177.
[13] Kunihiko Kasahara, Viva! Origami, Tokyo, Sanrio, 1983.
[14] Robert J. Lang, Albert Joins the Fold, New Scientist, vol. 124, no. 1696/1697, December
23/30, pp. 3857, 1989.
[15] Robert J. Lang, Origami: Complexity Increasing, Engineering & Science, vol. 52, no. 2,
pp. 1623, 1989.
[16] David Auckly and John Cleveland, Totally Real Origami and Impossible Paper Folding,
American Mathematical Monthly, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 215226, March 1995.
[17] Thomas Hull, A Note on Impossible Paperfolding, The American Mathematical
Monthly, vol. 103, no. 3, March, 1996.
[18] Hisashi Abe, described in British Origami, no. 108, p. 9, 1984
[19] Koji Fusimi, Trisection of angle by Abe, Saiensu supplement, October, 1980, p. 8.
[20] Jacques Justin, described in British Origami, no. 107, pp. 1415, 1984.
[21] Robert Geretschlger, Euclidean Constructions and the Geometry of Origami,
Mathematics Magazine, vol. 68, no. 5, December, 1995, pp. 357371.
[22] Robert Geretschlger, Folding the Regular Triskaidekagon, presented at AMS Joint
Mathematics Meeting, Baltimore, MD., January 9, 1998.
[23] Robert Geretschlger, Folding the Regular 19-gon, presented at AMS Joint Mathematics
Meeting, Baltimore, MD., January 9, 1998.
[24] Robert Geretschlger, Solving Quartic Equations in Origami, presented at AMS Joint
Mathematics Meeting, Baltimore, MD., January 9, 1998.
[25] James Pierpont, On an undemonstrated theorem of the Disquisitiones Aritmeticae,
American Mathematical Monthly Bulletin, no. 2, 18951896, pp. 7783.
[26] Robert J. Lang, The Complete Book of Origami, New York, Dover Publications, 1988.
[27] Humiaki Huzita and Benedetto Scimemi, The Algebra of Paper-Folding (Origami),
Proceedings of the First International Meeting of Origami Science and Technology, H.
Huzita, ed., 1989, pp. 215222.
63
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

[28] Humiaki Huzita, Understanding Geometry through Origami Axioms, Proceedings of the
First International Conference on Origami in Education and Therapy (COET91), J. Smith
ed., British Origami Society, 1992, pp. 3770.
[29] Thomas Hull, Geometric Constructions via Origami, Proceedings of the Second
International Conference on Origami in Education and Therapy (COET95), VAnn
Cornelius, ed., Origami USA, 1995, pp. 3138.
[30] Peter Messer, Problem 1054, Crux Mathematigorum, vol. 12, no. 10, December, 1986.
[31] Thomas Hull, http://web.merrimack.edu/hullt/geoconst.html, 2003.
[33] http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Ophiuride.html, 2003.
[34] http://mathworld.wolfram.com/CissoidofDiocles.html, 2003.
[35] Robert J. Lang, Origami Insects II, Gallery Origami House, Tokyo, 2003 [in press].
[36] John Montroll, A Plethora of Polyhedra in Origami, Dover Publications, 2002.
[37] Jacques Justin, Resolution par le pliage de lequation du troisieme degre et applications
geometriques, Proceedings of the First International Meeting of Origami Science and
Technology, Humiaki Huzita, ed., 1989, pp. 251-261.
[38] Roger C. Alperin and Robert J. Lang, One, Two, and Multi-Fold Origami Axioms,
Origami4, Robert J. Lang, ed., A K Peters Ltd., 2009, pp. 371394.
*****

## This work of Dr. Robert J. Lang is well-known in

wide (but still quite narrow) circles of Englishspeaking mathematicians & origami artists
professionals and amateurs in both fields.
Meanwhile it worth of attention much wider
audience its all who encounter geometric
constructions in their everyday work.
Mathematicians could extract from it extremely
effective methods for constructive problems
solving both exact & approximative (which are
also exact with allowable error). Origami does
many things, which were impossible with
It allows constructing exactly any rational, and
even to construct irrationals & transcendentals like
3
2 and with any level of accuracy! Furthermore,
these methods are free of any instruments, and
provide constructions in fact by bare hands.
Besides of it, due to this work (and some others of
author) origami competently keeps the place

(
)
,
.

,

.
, ,
,
,
,
,

.

,
1969 2003

64
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

among branches of applied geometry, and math
generally. Using original parameterization of a line,
according to ways of line defining in origami, Lang
had proven completeness of origami axioms set
(which is analog of standard Euclidean axiomatic
on the plane), and it follows, complete formal
correctness of results being obtained by this
method of construction.
Artists, sculptors & even engineers, for example,
being working without necessary tools, also could
relatively easy obtain desired proportions & angles,
having only sheet of paper; and then to scale result
on their working subject.
Example of such using of origami methods of
tracing angles in optical systems, developed in1969
by Jon H. Myer, and in 2003 by Robert J. Lang &
Mats Hagberg, and commonly called Optigami.
And certainly, Constructions is of critical
significance for modern origami-designers. Its
the key to understanding basic working concepts of
computer-aided origami design with programs like
TreeMaker & ReferenceFinder; these also were
written by R. Lang and are used by many designers
around the world. Indeed, they are not doing all the
plenty of work; to start, designer must have at least
an idea of model. But they use might of
mathematics with power of computer to do for a
seconds routine work of many days, leaving you
much more time to real creation. Therefore, such
programs are the future of origami design.
Im sincerely grateful to Robert for his trust and
honor of translating his work. It integrates Math,
Art & everyday practice, and I think, this work will
be practically helpful for those who use
constructions every day, or just make them enjoy
intricate mathematical ideas.

,
Optigami.

,
,
. , ,
. ,

,
,
3 2 , .

,
.
, (
)
,
. .

,

, ,
,

.
,
.
-

3- ,
.

, ,

.

,
Mark A. Sigalovsky
TreeMaker ReferenceFinder,
-
.
,
;
. ,

,
,
, ,
.
.

65
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

-
. -
, , ,
,

,

.

. .
14.01.11

mathoriy@yandex.ru

Name Transcription
Transcript

Original

Robert J. Lang

Hisashi Abe

James Brunton

Jacques Justin

Hulme; Elias

Robert Geretschlger

Jeannine Mosely

Humiaki Huzita

Shuzo Fujimoto

Koshiro Hatori

Masamichi Noma

()

Diocles

Kazuo Haga

James Pierpont

## Koji Husimi (Fusimi)

Peter Messer

Terms
, ,
. , , .

(), CL

; ,

Compass-and-straightedge
Constructability
Reference point
Folding sequence
66

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

;

, ,
()

Bisector; trisector
Rank
Box-pleating
Tiling
Fold line
Percentile
Innermost
Double-binary

Footnotes
i

1. ( ) 2.
(. ., ) -- .

, .
; .
, ,
() 0 , (3)., (
), ( ) .
ii

.
, , 7=7/1, -231= -231/1, ..
: 0=0/1=0/2=
iii

(.)
CL, L .
vi
tan - . .. tan x= tg x. i (
).
iv
v

(.. , ), -
, (
). , ,
. ,
( !) - .
, ,
, .. -
, ; ,
, .. ( !),
. :
:
( ),
, .
, ..
; ..
, -
. ,
. , 7HJA ,
.
vii

67
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

## Lang, Origami and Geometric Constructions

, 7 -
, ,
.
,
( ); ,
.
. , ; -
, ; - , .
, .
viii

- ( ) ,
. , . ,
: .
: ,

!
. n k

, - 

ix

!
 !

, .. n k k! , . ,


 !

. : , n
, : , , (
).
x
A fly in the ointment - .

68
[] Sigalovsky, Russian translation

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