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. .

2.1

1.0
. ,
.
,
20032004 .
, , .
, , :
, ,
, ,
.
, , , 20032004 .
, ,

. .
. epsgam@yandex.ru.
.
,
2004

2.0
, , . ,
, . ,
. .
2.1 .
,
2006



,
. .
,
. ,
, . , , .
XX
, ,
. , , , .

(. . 1)
2 .
34 , 12 .
, , 1011
1417 .
6 4

, 55 C . ,
, ,
, , . , .
.

100

80

60

40

20

0
200

250

300

. 1

1


1.1.
,
z = z . p
. = (T, p), ,
.

p = RT .
(1)
R = 8,31 /() .
S,
z = z . z > z . , z z + z,
p(z + z)S Szhgi. p(z)S.
,
p(z + z)S + Szhgi = p(z)S ,

p(z + z) p(z)
= hgi .
z
hgi , ,
7

. ,
p
= g .
z

(2)

, g = const. (1) (2)


1 p
g 1
=
,
p z
R T (z)

p(z) = p exp

g
R

Zz

ds
.
T (s)

,
T [z , z] .

1.2. .
.
, .

1.3.

OXY Z Oxyz
, Z = z, Oxyz OZ .
w = x + iy Oxy.
W = X + iY OXY , W = (cos t + i sin t)w = eit w.
:





X

W
W
F~ = m~a = m Y = m
=m
.
(3)
z
Z

Z
F~ = {FX , FY , FZ } = {FW , FZ }
8

f~ = {fx , fy , fz } = {fw , fz }, FZ = fz .
, FW = eit fw , (3)

 it

e fw = mW
fz
= m
z.
= (w + 2i w 2 w)eit , ,
W = eit w, W


w 2 w+ 2i w
~
f =m
,
z






x
w
w

2
m y = f~ + m
2im
.
0
0
z

(4)

(4) .

1.4.
:
2im

w
0

x
y
= 2im y = 2m x .
0
0



x
0

2m y

0 ,
z

1.5. .

,
~ , . m , V
~ . ? ,
mV
9

( ), , , , , ,
, . . ,

. 1 , ,
. ,
~ ~ ], U
mg~n, 2m[V
grad p, ~n ,
, ~ , p
, U .

~ ~ ] 1
V~ = g~n + 2[V
grad p .

(5)

(5) (
).
. ,
. ,
( )
, . .

, (5)
. , ;
; , . ,
(1),
. , (5) ,
~ , , T , p ,
(V
). .

(, 1920). ,
10

,
. , , .

1.6. .

,
: ~n ,
, ~2 , ~1 . ~1 , ~2 , ~n
. ~ ,
~ = ( cos )~2 + ( sin )~n, ~ ~2 , = |~ |.
l = 2 sin ( ) b
l = 2 cos .
(5) :
~ = u~1 + v~2 + w~n ,
V
p
p
p
~1 + ~2 + ~n ,
grad p =
x
y
z
~ ~ ] = (lv b
2[V
lw)~1 + (lu)~2 + (b
lu)~n .

~
V
:
~ = u~
V
1 + v~
2 + w~
n.
(5)

1 p

u =
lv b
lw

1 p
v =

lu

1 p

b
w = g +
lu

.
z

(6)

,
g, l, b
l ( ), g = const, l = l(y),
(y) = l (y) ( ).
11

1.7.

(6) . w b
lu (6) (2).
w b
lu,
b
lw, (6)

1 p

+ lv

1 p
(7)
v =
lu

=
g .
z
, , b
l .

1.8.

, u = v = 0. (7)

1 p

0 =
+ lv
x
1 p

0 =
lu ,
y
~g = ug ~1 + vg ~2 ,
V
ug =

1 p
,
l y

vg =

1 p
.
l x

(8)

. .

12

2
()

2.1.
f = f (X), X
(x, y, z, t). z = z(), z . ,

z = h(x, y; ; t) f (X) = fb x, y, h(x, y; ; t), t . x, y, , t. f
. (...)x ,
f

(...). fb =
h ,
x
z
h 6= 0,
fb
f
= .
(9)
z
h
f
df

= . ,
dz
h

f
f
f
f
f
f
fbx =
xx +
yx +
hx +
tx =
+
h ,
x
y
z
t
x z x

(9)

fb
f


b
fx =
+ hx ,
x
h
13

h
f
= fbx x fb .
x
h

(10)

f
f

. ,
y
z
= const .

2.2. .

= / 2 ,
, = / 2 . : I = / 2 , = / 2 = 10 I .
: = 9,81 , = / 2 . 1013 760

. p0 = 1000 .
,

p
=
.
p0
, z,
Zz
= g dz = (x, y; ; t) ,
0

. , g = const (. .
) = gh(x, y; ; t).

2.3.

(1), (2)
p
gp0
= g =
,
z
RT
14

, (9) ,
p
g(p0 )
p
gp0
= =
= .

z
h
gh

,
+ RT = 0 .

(11)

2.4.

1 p

u =
+ lv
x
1 p

v =
lu
y

(12)

(7) : x, y,
u, v, u,
v .
1 p
1 (p0 )
p0
=
=
=

,
g z
g h

(10)
h

p
= (p0 )x x (p0 ) = x p0 .
x
h

p
,
y
1 p
= x ,
x

1 p
= y ,
y

(12)

u = lv x
v = lu y .
15

(13)

(14)

2.5.
1 dp
=
.
p0 dt

d
x
y

w = z = h(x, y; ; t) = hx
+ hy
+ h
+ ht ,
dt
t
t
t
(11)
gw =

ux

vy

 RT 

+ t ,
+

=
t + (ux + vy ) gw .
RT

(15)

2.6.
(14)

lv + = 0
ut + uux + vuy + u
x

+ lu + = 0 .
vt + uvx + vvy + v
y

y x , . D = ux + vy , = vx uy

+ v u + lD = 0 .
t + ux + vy + ux + vy +

x
y
u,
v, , , , , l = const
. ,
a = + l,


da
x y
+ a D + det
= 0.
(16)
u v
dt

16

2.7.
:
z(x, y),
, = f (s), s . ,
, ,
2f
2f
+
= F (x, y) .
x2
y 2
h (, ,

) (m, n) : m, n = 0, N .
1
(zm+1,n 2zm,n + zm1,n + zm,n+1 2zm,n + zm,n1 ) = Fm,n ,
h2

1
2
zm,0 = fm
, zm,N = fm
, z0,n = fn3 , zN,n = fn4 .

2.8.

q = t . (13)
(8),
1
ug = y ,
l

1
vg = x .
l

(17)

g = (vg )x (ug )y
Dg = (ug )x + (vg )y . (17)
g =

 1
1
xx + yy = ,
l
l

Dg =


1
yx + xy = 0,
l
17

. (16)
, D .
(g )t + ug (g )x + vg (g )y = 0 ,



1
1  1
1  1
t + y
x + y
x = 0 .
l
l
l
l
l

q = F ,

1
F = det
l

()x ()y
x
y

(18)

2.9.
.
h
, = .
1. t = t0 .
= 1 (, 0,5 , 500 ).
2. (x, y; 1 ; t0 ) , ,
x y .
3. (x .) , ,
F (xm , yn ; 1; t0 ).


4. q = 0

(18).

5.






+ q t , tk+1 = tk + t , k = 0, 1, . . . . tk +t

tk

tk

= 1 , t = t0 , t1 , . . . .
1
1
6. , u ug = y , v vg = x .
l
l
7. ,
() (u, v),
.

18

3
.

.

3.1.
, . ,
, , , .
0,5 . 600800 , . 1015 .

3.2.
, . .
: . , ,
.

19

. ,
. .
0,51 .

3.3.
, , , ,

. , . ,
, .

3.4.

( ) , , (8) .
,
. 1 . .

3.5.

(18) : 1) ; 2)
; 3) ; 4)
; 5) ; 6) ; 7)
; 8) q . , (18) , .
, .
20

h = 300 , t = 1 .
0,5 1200
.

21

4


4.1.
m = 1
U . t
Q,
A , p . A = Sp l,
S , l . Sl = U , U
, A = pU . ,
Q = U + pU ,
, t 0 ,
dQ = dU + p dU .

(19)

4.2.
1
U = , (1)

U=

RT
.
p

22

(20)


U=

RT
,
1

(21)

1 < < 2 . (20)


(21) .
.

cU =

dU
R
=
,
dT
1

dU = 0 .



 
dQ
d
RT
dU
R
R
=
+p
=
+R=
,
cp =

dT p=const dT 1
dT
1
1
cp
(1) (20). =
> 1.
cU

4.3. .

dQ = 0 .
(19)(21)




RT
RT
R
RT
dT
dp ,
0=d
+ pd
=
1
p
1
p

, RT ,

cp dT
dp

= 0.
R T
p
R
1
=
,
p . k =
cp

dT
d
k
= 0.
T

d ln(T k ) = 0 . , = T k
. .
23

4.4. .


dT
a = dz
.
, (9) (11),



T g k gk k1 kgT g




= .
a = =
=
=

h gh RT cp

a =

g
.
cp

(22)

, a , , g. :
1) T ( );
2) T , , a ( );
3) T a ( = const);
4) T , a ( ).

, , .
a 10 . 1 , , ,
, 1 . , ,
, .
1 ,
, H , T
, T
, H =
a
.
H H (H
,
e [1]). H , M . p = RT . Mg = p
24

M = H , (22)
h=

RT
RT
1 T
=
=
= kH.
g
cp a
a

4.5.

. Mj , j , j . , p T .
(1)
1
R0 T
=
,
j
j p
R0 = Rj .

Mj
UMj =
,
j
T
j UMj = R0 Mj .
p
j.

P
P
Mc = Mj . , Uc = UMj .
j

Uc

X
j

T
j j = R0 Mc ,
p

UMj
j =
. Uc

p=
P

R0
T,

(23)

Uc
.
Mc
( ) : 78 %, 21 %, 1 %, 1 %.
80 .

j j , =

25

( ) 1,40. .

4.6.
: W , J , .
L = + J . ,
b . ,
0 H

b , .
p = p , H

p
=
. (2) dp = g dz .
p0

W =

ZHb 
0


ZHb
Z
1 2
1
p0
V dz =
V 2 dp =
V 2 d .
2
2g
2g
0

ZHb

(gz) dz =

ZHb

z dp =

R
g

ZHb

p dz = R

p0 T d =

Rp0
g

ZHb

T dz =

T d ,

, (1), . , (21),
J=

ZHb

U dz =

ZHb
0

RT
R
dz =
1
g( 1)

ZHb

T dp =

,
p0
L=
g( 1)
26

Z
0

RT d .

Rp0
g( 1)

Z
0

T d .

a (. [2])

RT = a .

L=

p0
g( 1)

a2 d .

,


W
g( 1) p0 hV 2 i
1 hV 2 i
=
=
.
L
p0
2g ha2 i
2 ha2 i

7
, ,
5
W
1 hV 2 i
=
.
L
5 ha2 i

V 20 / , a 300 /, ,
.

4.7.
, , , .
, . (1220 ). ,
T , T ,

. , cT 4 . ,
c (T )4 ,
2cT 4 , .
, c c ,
T = T 21/4 .
27

, ,
, T 20 C , T 50 60 C . , , ,
20 C . , T
.

4.8.
(19)(21), , ,
dQ = dU + pdU =

R
RT
d
dT
dp = cp dT RT
.
1
p

dQ
E =
.
dt



d
d
dT
RT
E=
cp dT RT
= cp

.
(24)
dt

dt

T = k ,

R k
k d
k1
E = cp
+ cp k
,
dt


d
1
= k E .
dt
cp

4.9.

(11) (24)
dT
+ .
(25)
dt
dT
+ T . T = T (x, y; ; t) ,
= uTx + vTy + T
x
t
dt

dT
=
,
dz
E = cp

28

, T = . ,

h
g
(22),
(9) =

Tt =

1
E
(uTx + vTy ) (a ) .
cp
g

29

(26)

5


5.1.
= 0 . (11) t . ,

2q = RTt .
, |Tt | .
, 0 ,


lim 2q = 0 .
(27)
0

5.2.

(26).
ug , vg u v . (17) ,


1
ug Tx + vg Ty =
y Tx + x Ty .
l

30

Tx Ty (11)
1
1
x, y : Tx = x , Ty = y . ,
R
R
ug Tx + vg Ty =

1
fT {} = det
l

fT {} ,
R
x y
x y

(11) Tt = q . R
(26)
q =
,

R
R
E fT {} (a ) ,
cp
g

R
= k,
cp
q + fT {} +

R
(a ) = kE .
g

(28)

5.3.
(a ) . ,
a = a(),
R
(a ) a() .
g
(28)


1
kE + q fT {} .

a()

(29)

5.4.
e } ,
, E E{T
. Tj
e } = Eei {T , T1 , T2 , . . .} , i ,
, E{T
E.
31

5.5.

1
= 1 . . , a()
= 1 , a(1) = a1 . :
w = 0 = 1 .
w=

d
1
dz
)
= h(x, y; ; t) = (t + ux + vy +

dt
dt
g

u ug , v vg , (17). ,

1
.
w
q +

(11), , w = 0 :



q
= .
(30)
=1

=1

(29)





q
=

=1


e
k E

=1




1


e
=
kE
+ q
fT {}
.
=1
a1
=1
=1
=1


+ fT {}
= f . ,
=1

T .
q + a1 q = f ,

= 1.

(31)

5.6.
, , :
ux + vy + = 0 ,

= D .
32

(32)

5.7.
(16)
D , ,
,

l = const.
t + ux + vy + lD = 0 .
u ug , v vg (17)
1
1
g = t q .
l
l


1
x y
2
q + l D det
,
x
y
l
(32)
q

l2

1
det
l

x y
x
y

(33)

l ,
. , :
1 , 50 /, 15 /.
|| 5
|l| .

5.8.
R
1
(a )RT 2 . g
l
m2 . m .
m 800 .

R
(a )RT l2 m2 .
g

33

(34)

5.9.
(28)
q + fT {} +

R
e,
(a ) k E
g

() , (11) (34)
e.
2 q + l2 m2 = 2fT {} k E

(35)

e + F {} ,
m2 q + ( 2 q ) = k( E)

(36)

(33) m2 , (35)
:

F {} . (36) = 0 . .
= 0 ( ), = 1 ( ) . (36), (27), (31)


(37)
q = 0 .

1. t = t0 .
2. p ; T .
3. q , (36),(31),(27),(37)
t = t0 .





5. q
+ q t , tk+1 = tk + t .
tk +t

tk

tk

1
(11)
= q ,

R







T
T
q t , tk+1 = tk + t .
R tk
tk +t
tk
7. (36) f .
8. ,
(x, y) . T (t) p(t) . ,
.
6.

Tt

34

x = y = 250 , t 40 . 3 ( , T , , ).
.
1960 .

35

6

6.1.
p , T , U . = (p, T ) (, (1)),
U(p, T ) = 1 .
(38)
(p, T, U) .
, , Q . , .
. , (
),
.
, , ( ).

.
T (p, U) . O A (. . 2)
( T = T1 ),
B C ( T = T2 ).
AB CO ,
. Q ,
36

O
A

B
U

. 2

e , .
, Q

6.2.

,
( ) , .
e
QQ
.
=
Q
0 .
1. () T1 T2
. .
. , ,
> 0 . : . , , .
, .

37

6.3. 0
.
= T k .
=

RT
RT
p
=
=
,
p0
p0
p0 U


=T

RT
p0 U

k

, T 1k Uk ( T U1 ,
1 k = 1 ) . , AB:
T1 (U(A))k1 = T2 (U(B))k1 ,
CO:

T1 (U(O))k1 = T2 (U(C))k1 ,


U(C)
U(O)

k1

T1
=
=
T2

U(B)
U(A)

k1

(39)

, , OA . :
Z
Z
A
RT1

AOA =
p dU =
dU = RT1 ln U .
U
O
OA

OA

U = 0 , (19) Q = U + A , , OA
U(A)
RT1 ln
= Q.
(O)
, BC
RT2 ln

U(B)
e.
=Q
(C)

(39)

k1 
k1
U(A)
U(B)
=
,
U(O)
U(C)
38

O
p

A
C
B
U
U

. 3

T2
Q
=
.
e
T1
Q

,
0 =

e
Q
QQ
T1 T2
A
=
=
=
.
Q
Q
Q
T1

(40)

6.4.
, (. . 3).
Z
Z
A=
p dU
p dU = p U .
OAB

BCO

, (40)
A = 0 Q =

T
Q ,
T

T
Q = p U .
T

39

(41)

T U . p = p(T, U) , U = U(T, U) ,
p =

p
T ,
T

(19)
Q = U +

p dU U + p U =


U
+ p U .
U

(41)


p
T U
+ p U =
T U ,
T
U
T

U
p
=T
p
U
T

(42)

U = U(U, T ) .

6.5.
2. (38)
dQ
.
T
. (19)
dQ = dU + p dU .

dQ
1
=
T
T




U
U
1 U
1 U
dT +
dU + p dU =
dT +
+ p dU .
T
U
T T
T U

dQ

T U,
T



 


1 U

1 U
=
+p
.
U T T
T T U
40

(42):
 

1
p
2p

T
=
.
T T
T
T 2

1 U
T T

1 2U
.
T UT

, U(U, T ) , ,
, (42)


1 2U
1
p
2p
=
T
p =
.
T T U
T T
T
T 2
, . .

Z
dQ
S=
,
T

. ,
S . ( ) , S 0 T 0 .

6.6.

,
(, ). p1 , U1 . ,
.
1. . A1 = p1 U1 .
2. Q ,
. Q = U + A , A = A2 .
3. . A3 = p2 U2 .
Ac = A1 + A2 + A3 , A2 = Q U ,
U = U(p2 , U2 ) U(p1 , U1 ) .
Ac = p1 U1 + Q U(p2 , U2 ) + U(p1 , U1 ) p2 U2 .
41

H = U + pU , ().
Ac = Q H ,
H = H(p2 , U2 ) H(p1 , U1 ) .

6.7. (p, T )
(42) (U, T ) . (19):
dQ = dU + p dU = dU + p dU + U dp U dp = dH U dp .

dQ
1
1
dS =
= (dH U dp) =
T
T
T


H
1 H
U dp +
dT .
p
T T

,
 




1 H

1 H
U
=
.
T T p
p T T

1
2
T


H
1 2H
1 U
1 2H
U +

=
.
p
T T p T T
T pT

H ,
1 H
U
1 U
2+
= 0,
2
T p
T
T T

U =

+ T2
p
T

 
U
= 0.
T

1
, :

 
H
1
2
= T
.
p
T T
42

(43)

6.8.

p, T (p0 , T0 ) , H0 = H(p0 , T0 ) ,
S0 = S(p0 , T0 ) , H0 = U(p0 , T0 ) + p0 U(p0 , T0 ) . H S (p, T ) . ,
U(p, T ) cp (p, T ) .
dQ = dH U dp ,
cp =
, (43)
H(p, T ) = H0 +

ZT

dQ
H
=
.

dT p=const
T

dp .


H
1 H
U dp +
dT .
p
T T

p0

T0

Zp

p0

T0

cp (p0 , T ) dT T

H
dp =
p

H
dT +
T

dH = H0 +

Zp

ZT

U(p, T )
T

,
dQ
dH U dp
1
dS =
=
=
T
T
T

(43) ,




S
1 H
1
U
U
=
U =
T
=
,
p
T p
T
T
T

1 H
cp
S
=
= ,
T
T T
T

p = const .

,
S(p, T ) = S0 +

ZT

cp (p0 , T )
dT
T

T0

43

Zp

p0

U
dp .

T T =const

6.9.

e , . (p e) .
, e 6 E(T ) . T0
p0 , , , 1000 . ,
E(T ) = E(T0 ) exp

(T T0 )c1
T

E(T ) , ,

(T T0 )c0
E(T ) = E(T0 ) exp
T T1

( ). c0 , c1 , T1 38 K ,
E(T0 ) = 6,1 .
.
e
. E(T )
1.
E(T )
. ,
1% . .
2.
( , e < E(T )).
3. ,
.
4. ( ) . /3 .
(1) (23)
p e = Rd d T =

44

R0
d T ,

(p e)

ew
. w
.
R0 T
R0 T
w
e


29 , w = 18 . =
= 0,622 . . . , w
,

R0 T

(p e + e)

(p (1 )e)
= d + w =
=
.
R0 T
R0 T

d =

e
E(T )
E(T )
w
=

=
.

(p e) + e
p
p0

(44)

E(T ) p ,
E(T )
.
p (1 )E(T )

6.10.

.
, , (44).
t , t .
.

6.11.
, , , . ,
~ = (1 , . . . , n ) , (23)
Tv =

.
R0 (p, T, ~)

. ,
~ = 1 = e . Tv T (1), (11) .
45

6.12. p, S
, p , T , U ,
S , H , S = S(p, T ) ~ = 1 ,
~ = (1 , 2 ) , 1 + 2 (1 , 2 ). , S = S(p, T, ~)
S
cp
T ,
= , cp > 0 . ,
T
T
T p , S , ~ , T .

6.13.
.
= (p, S, ~ ) , T = T (p, S, ~) .
dT
.
wa =
dz S=const
(2)
dp T
T (p, S, ~ )
wa =
= (p, S, ~)g
.
dz p
p
, , ~ = 1 . , , wa < a
.
, , , , . ,
12 C .
, ,
, .

6.14.
, . . ,
46

, , . ,
.
, , ,
(
). , , , .

47

7

.

7.1.

,


z z 2 z 2 z 2 z
F x, y, z, , , 2 ,
,
= 0,
x y x xy y 2
, . z = z(x, y) .
F(x, y, z, p, q, r, s, t) ,
 1 
F
F
D = det 1 r 2 s
F
Ft
2 s
:
1) D > 0 , ;
2) D < 0 , ;
3) D = 0 , ;
4) D > 0 (D < 0) , , D = 0 ,
() ;
48

5) D , .
, F z, p, q, r, s, t , F r, s, t . ,
A

2z
2z
2z
+
2B
+
C
+F = 0,
x2
xy
y 2

A, B, C, F x, y, z, p, q .

!
2z
2z
2z
2z
2z
x2
xy
+
A
+
2B
+
C
+F =0
det
2z
2z
2
2
x
xy
y
2
xy
y
.

7.2.

3. f = f (x)
[a, b] , (a, b) f (a) = f (b) , (a, b) , f () = 0 ,
. , |f (a) f (b)| <

, , |f ()| <
.
ba

7.3.

(32) , D + = 0 . ,
, ||
, . , , 0 ( D 0)
= . ,
, , 0,5 0,7 .

49

7.4.
D = 0 . v dx u dy .

Z
Z (u)x vx = D = 0

(32). ,

v dx u dy =

d = + const .

, v = x , u = y .

7.5.
l = l(y) , (y) = ly .
(14)

lv + = 0
ut + uux + vuy + u
x

+ lu + = 0 .
vt + uvx + vvy + v
y

x y :
+
Dt + ux ux + 2uy vx + vy vy + uDx + vDy + D

+x u + y v + l(vx + uy ) + u + = 0 .
, D = 0 , . , , D = 0 ,

(ux )2 + 2uy vx + (vy )2 + x u + y v + l(vx + uy ) + u + = 0 .
u v .
2

(yx
) + 2(yy
)xx
+ (xy
) + x u + y v + l(xx
yy
) y + = 0 .

,
x u + y v .



xx xy
det
+

xy
yy

,
l

1
+ y = .
2
2
2

(45)

,
, .
.
50

7.6.

1
l =
6 0 , (45)
l



1
xx xy
2 det
+ + y = .

xy yy
l

0
1
= .
l
1
= , ,
l
, ug = y , vg = x .

7.7.

(45)



xx xy

+ Axx
+ 2Bxy
+ Cyy
+F = 0,
det

xy
yy
A =

l
l
1
, B = 0 , C = , F = (u ) .
2
2
2
 1 
l2 1
1
Fr 2 Fs
= + + u .
D = det 1

F
F
4
2
2
t
2 s

. , = const ,
> 0 .

51

7.8.


( ).
1. = (y) , y , (y) .
, x , (45) ,

lyy
+ ly y = yy ,

(ly )y = yy .

y (y) = u(y) =


1
y (y) y (0) ,
l(y)

y 6= 0 .

, l(0) = 0 .
2. :
u(0) =

1
,
(0) yy

(0) > 0 .


. , yy > 0 . u < 0 ,
( ).
3. , , x, y , D = 0 ( ), u, v x, y
t ( (45)
t). (45)
y = 0 ,
, u(0) = 0 , u = 0 , (0) 6= 0 . , ,
.

: ( )
.

52

7.9.


da
+ a D + det
dt

(16):
x y
u v

= 0.

, , D = 0 ,
+ dl = 0 ,
t + ux + vy +

dt
a = + l . : u = y ,
v = x , = vx uy = ,
dl
= ly v = x .
dt
()t y ()x + x ()y + x = 0 ,

= det

()x ()y
x
y

(y)x .

(46)

(45), (46) . .
1. t = t0 .
2.

, u, v
Z
= 0 + v dx u dy .

3. (45) t = 0 t = 0 , , D > D0 > 0 , D0 l.


4. (45). t0 .
5. (46) t .
(45) , .

. (45) 150200 .
x = y = 200 ,
53

t 30 . 197080
.
, D 6= 0 , ,
u = y + x , v = x + y , D = xx + yy .
, ()
x = y = 150 1970 .

1
. t 7,5 .
2

54

II

55



(. I.1). (
, ), 160170 . .
: 78 %, 21 %,
1 %, 1 % .


(I.5) . :
~

~ ~ ] 1
grad p + N
.
V~ = grad W + 2[V

(1)

, ,
( : ), , .

56


~ = ~0 V
~ = ~0 . ,
, N
~ = ~0
, . V
1
~ =
V
grad W grad p .

.
~ = rot V
~ , f F~

rot grad f = ~0 rot(f F~ ) = [grad f F~ ] + f rot F~ .



h i
~ = 1

grad grad p .
2

grad k grad p , .
(I.1) grad k grad p k grad T .

grad grad p , .
, , . ,
~ 6= ~0 .

57

1.1.
O , X ,

~ =
~ = X(u,
~
X
OX . , Z X
v, w) , u = u(t) ,
~ | dt .
v = v(t) , w = w(t) AB , s =
|X
t


2 

2

~
~
~
ds = |Xt | dt = Xt , Xt dt2 .

AB

3
X
dv
dw
2

du
~
~
~
~
+ Xv
+ Xw
, ds =
gij dui duj Xt = Xu
dt
dt
dt
i,j=1



~
~
gij = Xui , Xuj (u1 , u2 , u3) = (u, v, w) .

X
gii du2i . gii = Hi2 > 0 ,
i

~ = Hi~i ,
X
ui
Hi , ~i .

58

(2)

1.2.

z = (x, y) , x , y
, z .
2 .
2 . C 2 ,

, ; ,
;
, ;
,
, . , ,
.
4. () . .
.
1. ,
. .
.
2. .

1.3.
f = f (X) ,

X = X(u1, u2 , u3 ) . grad f X ~j :

f
f
f
grad f =
~1 +
~2 +
~3 .
x1
x2
x3
59

f
f
sj ~j ,
=
.
xj
sj
X
X
ds2 =
Hj2 du2j =
ds2j , dsj = Hj duj .
j

X df
X f
X f
grad f =
~j =
~j =
hj
~j ,
sj
Hj duj
uj
j
j
j
hj =

(3)

1
.
Hj

1.4.
, uj = uj (t)
, t .
X X
~ duj
~ =
~ = dX
V
.
dt
uj dt
j
(2)
V~ =

Hj ~j u j =

vj ~j ,

vj = Hj u j .

1.5.

X
~i
=
ijk ~k .
uj
k
ijk 3 3 3 .
Hi
Hi
hij =
= hj
.
sj
uj

60

5. ijk
1 :
112 = h12 , 113 = h13 , 122 = h21 , 133 = h31 ,
211 = h12 , 221 = h21 , 223 = h23 , 233 = h32 ,
311 = h13 , 323 = h23 , 331 = h31 , 332 = h32 ,
.

1.6.
~
dV
,
dt
!

3
3 
X
X
d
vj ~j =
v j ~j + vj ~j .
dt
j=1
j=1

~a =

~a =

3
X

aj ~j =

j=1

d
dt


3
3
3
X
d
~i duj X X
~i =
=
ijk ~k
dt
u
dt
j
j=1
j=1
k=1

u j ,

~a =

3
X

v k ~k +

3
X

vi ~i =

i=1

k=1

3
X
k=1

3
X

v k ~k +

i=1

k=1

v k ~k +

3
X

~k

3
X

3
X

hj vj ijk ~k

j=1 k=1

hj ijk vi vj

i,j=1

k=1

ak = v k +

3
3 X
3
X
X

hj ijk vi vj .

vi =

(4)

i,j=1

61

1.7.
I.2.6 ~1 , ~2 , ~3 , ~3 = ~n
.
~ ~n, l = 23 = 2|~| cos .
~ ~ ] = (lv2 22 v3 )~1 + (21 v3 lv1 )~2 + (22 v1 21 v2 )~n .
2[V
p
|v3 | v12 + v22
~ ~ ] lv2~1 lv1~2 + (22 v1 21 v2 )~n .
2[V

(3) (4) (1) ~1 ~2


v k =

3
X

1 p
hj ijk vi vj + (1)3k lv3k hk
+ Nk ,

u
k
i,j=1

62

k = 1, 2 .

(5)

2

2.1.
:

~ = ~0.
, . . V
, , ~ = V~ (z),
, . , V
z ,
V~
.
F~vis = S
z
S ,

.
"
#
~

V
F~top F~btm = S
.
z

, z ,
"
#
~

V
~ = S
(S z )N
.
z

z 0. V~ z,
63


~ =
N
z

V~

(6)

. (1)


~

1
dV
~
~.

= grad W grad p + V + + grad div V


dt
3
=

,
( ).

!
~

V
~ =
~.
N
1
+ 2 V
z
z

.

2.2. .
~
~ ] = /, [ V ] = 1/,
[z] = , [S] = 2 , [V
z
[] = /3 , [F~ ] = /2 . [] = /() [] = 2 /c.
. 1 .

, /()
0,0156
0,010
0,018
8,5
0,00018

, 2 /c
0,0012
0,0010
0,022
6,8
0,15

. 1
, [L] =
Lu
[u] = /.

Re.
64

2.3.
~ = {u, 0, 0} = 0,
V
(I.6),

du
p
= .
dt
x

(7)

= const 6= 0 u(0) = u(H) = 0 z [0, H] ( ),

p
2p
du

=
+ 2 .
(8)
dt
x
z
, , . . = const.
1
E = u2 . (7)
2
dE
du
p
= u
= u ,
dt
dt
x

E

dE
dt

t =

p
p
(ut) = x p .
x
x

, , ( ). E = 0 . (8)




du
p
2p
u
t = t u
+ u 2 t .
dt
x
z
,
H t .
1
H t

ZH

1
E dz =
H t

ZH

(p) dz +
H t

ZH
0

E = 0,
1
H

ZH

p dz =
H

ZH
0

65

2u
t dz .
z 2

2u
t dz .
z 2

,
u(0) = u(H) = 0,
1
H

ZH 
0

dz =
H

ZH 
0

u
z

2

dz .

(9)


p
u = u(z), , = grad u . (9) z
,


2
Diss =
grad u
,



2
Diss
E=
=
grad u
.

2.4.
E
. , v
t
. v , ,
[E] = (/3 )(2 /2 )(3 /)(1/) = 2 /3 .
(/) = 2 /3 , + = 2, = 3, = 3,
= 1 .
v3 1 = CE,
E =

C , .
C = c3 , (1941)
:
v = c(E)1/3 .
(10)

2.5.

Recr , . Recr = 100.


66


Lu
, Re =
, L
, u , = 0,15.
l , 0
, . l 0 . u, v , v0 . (10),
(u)3
(v0 )3
= c3 E =
,
l
0

v0 = cE1/3 0 1/3 ,
(v0 )3
u
= 1/3 0 2/3 .
0
l

v0 0
(v0 )3 0 2
u 2/3 0 2
Recr =
=
= 1/3 0
,

0
l

0 =

Recr
u

3/4

l1/4 .

, = 20
7 / 13 /, u = 6 /, l = u,
u = 10 / . 0 1 .

2.6.
. , turb = 4 12 2 /, ,
,

.
 

2
E=
grad u
,
E=

v0
0

2

 v 2

67

= turb

u
l

2

c (10)

2  2
v0

=
0
v

1/3

c0
0

!2 
2  4/3

=
.
1/3
c
0

= l
turb =

l
0

4/3

l = 200 0 = 1
turb 8 2 /.

2.7.
I.3.6 I.3.8,

u =
lv b
lw

v =

lu

b
w = g +
lu

, W = const,
1 p
+ N1
x
1 p

+ N2
y
1 p

+ N3 .
z

~g = {ug , vg , 0},
V
ug =

1 p
,
l y

vg =

1 p
.
l x

2.8.

~ 2 . : ,

:
V~ = Cz



~

~
2[
V



N . (6), ,
1000 .
68



H
j6
H
90

?
,

PP
q
P
16
PP
q
P
PP
q
P
I
@

@
@

R
@
HH
Y
 B
H
 NB
HH 
 
H

j
H
50

66

30

6
6
-

*

 BA

 BUA




NB H
j 
H
30

@
R
@
6



50 ,

. 1

2.9.

:
~ = ~0 V
~ =V
~g .
V
p p
l, ,
,
, ,
x y
u = u(z), v = v(z), w = 0 . 2 . turb = const,
, turb z .

2.10. ,

,
( . I.3).

69

2.11.
I . : l .
( l )
. 2.8 h 1
( l ,
l
). , .
h 17 , 8 . . 1
.

2.12.

(. . 1) . , l < 0.

70

3


3.1.
(. I.1.5)
: 1) (
, , ); 2) ( ); 3) ( ); 4) ( ); 5)
. : ~ = {u, v, w},
. : T , p, , V
. ,
. .

3.2.
S
, ~n . V~ , . M = M(t)
G,
ZZZ
M=
dU,
G

71

ZZZ

dM
=
dt

dU.
t

ZZ
~ , ~n) dS t,
M =
(V
S

dM
=
dt

ZZ

~ , ~n) dS.
(V

~ .
V

ZZZ
dM
~ ) dU,
=
div(V
dt
G

ZZZ 

~)
+ div(V
t

dU = 0

G .

~ ) = 0.
+ div(V
t

3.3.

~
~ ) = div V
~ + (
, div(V
grad , V
). (11)
~

~ = 0,
+ (grad , V
) + div V
t
,
d
~ = 0.
+ div V
dt
72

(11)

> 0,
d
(ln ) + div V~ = 0.
dt
, ,
~ = 0.
div V

3.4.

, , M G
V~ . , :
1) ()
;
2) () ;
3) () .

, p .

73

4.1.
1 , 2 , 3 ,
, 3 = z . (X, t) = (1 , 2 , 3, t).
p(X, t) : p0 = const
(. I.2.2) p (1 , 2 , t).
=

p
,
p0

p
.
p


p
.
. , p0 > 0, p > 0
z
f (1, 2 ; ; t), , z = Z(1, 2 ; ; t).

fk =

f
f
+
Z ,
k
z k

f =

f
Z ,
z

Z k
f

= fk f ,
k
Z
74

k = 1, 2.

(12)

4.2.

W = const 1 , 2 , z ,
1 , 2 , z .

:
1) ;
2) g = g(1, 2 ) z;
3) ds2 = H12 d12 + H22 d22 + dz 2 , Hj = Hj (1 , 2 ), j = 1, 2.

4.3.
W = const Z = 0.
Zz
=

g dz = gZ(1 , 2; ; t). .

4.4.
d
.

dt
~ = v1~1 + v2~2 + w~n (3) j = hj vj .
V
I.2.5 =

w=

dz
dZ
d1
d2
d
=
= Z 1
+ Z 2
+ Z
+ Zt .
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt

1
=
Z

w Zt

1
=

2
X

75

Z j hj vj ,

j=1

gw t g

2
X
j=1

Z j hj vj .

(13)

4.5.

3
P
f~ =
fj ~j ( ~3 = ~n) j=1

ds2 =

3
P

j=1

Hj2 dj2 . B = H1 H2 H3 , b =

hj =

1
( B

1
).
Hj
div f~ = b

3
X

(Bhj fj ).
j
j=1

(14)

4.6.

2
P
ds2 =
Hj2 dj2 + dz 2 , H3 = 1,

j=0

2
X p
p
hj
grad p =
~j + ~n.
j
z
j=1

, ~n ,
p
p
(p (1 , 2 , t))
= =
.
z
Z
Z
(I.2) ,
p
= g,
Z

76

p
.

(15)

4.7.
~ = v1~1 + v2~2 + w~n
. V
(14) Bh1 = H2 , Bh2 = H1 , Bh3 = H1 H2 ,



w
~
div V = b
(H2 v1 ) +
(H1 v2 ) + H1 H2
=
1
2
z



w
=b
(H2 v1 ) +
(H1 v2 ) +
.
1
2
z
(12),
2
X
~ = b (H2 v1 ) + (H1 v2 ) 1
div V
hj Z j (vj )
1
2
Z j=1

w
.
z

(16)


~ } = b (H2 v1 ) + (H1 v2 )
D {V
1
2
. w = 0, v1 , v2 z (
~ } = div V
~.
), D {V

4.8.
1. (15) , Z < 0.
!
d
j

Z
Zt
+
+ Z
,
j
dt
j=1
2
X

d
d
1
ln |Z | =
ln(Z ) =
dt
dt
Z

1
d
ln |Z | =
dt
Z

Zt
+

2
X

hj vj Z
+ Z
.
j

j=1

2. 4

w
w
= =
z
Z
1
=
Z

Zt

Z ()

2 
X
j=1

77

Zj hj vj

Z j hj (vj )

!


()

2
d
1 X
Zj hj (vj ) + ln |Z |.
+
Z j=1
dt

3. , (16)
~ = D { V
~ } + ()
div V
+
4. , (15)
ln = ln

p
g

d
ln |Z |.
dt

ln |Z |.

4.9.

,
d
dt

p
ln
g

(p ) X
= t+
p
j=1

g
p



p
g

hj vj .

d
~ =0
(ln ) + div V
dt

p
(p )t + p ()
+ gD { V~ } = 0.
(17)
g
, .

4.10.

=
g = const

p
, p0 = const ,
p0

+ D { V
~ } = 0.
()

, , 1 , 2 , .
78

4.11.
, z = Z (1 , 2 ) , , , = gZ . :
,
.
, = 0 ( = 1)
( = 0).

4.12. p
(17) 0 1, , p ,
(p )t

+g

Z1
0

p ~
D { V
} d + p
g

Z1

()
d = 0.

Z1
Z1
1~
~
. : g D { V } d = D {V } vj d = vj .
g
0
0

~ } = 0.
(ln p )t + h1 v1 (ln p )1 + h2 v2 (ln p )2 + D {V

(18)

4.13.
, p = RT R0
R =
,
.

~ = (1 , . . . , n ). j
j .
= (p, T, ~ ). , I.6.11,

p
Tv =
,
R(p, T, ~ )
R .
(p, T, ~) , Tv (p, T, ~ ).
79


p = RTv .

(19)

1
4.14. grad p


(12) (15)
1 p
hj
~j =
j




hj
p

pj

Z j

~j .

(15) (19) (I.11)


= RTv ,

1 p
~j = hj
hj
j

RTv (ln p )j + g

 !
1

~j .
g
j

Tv , p ,
.

4.15.
.
1. Tv = Tv (p, T, ~), T ~
1 , 2 , t, p z .




= g(1, 2 )z (1 , 2 ).
=1

(1 , 2 ; ; t) = gz

RTv
d.

2. , . Tv = T .
T z.
80

Z,


gZ + RT (Z) = 0, Z
= z.
=1

, T = T Z, z = z1 , g = const,
R
Z + (T Z) = 0
g

, p = p0 ( , = ),


1 ,
= 1 +
gT
R

1 = gz1 , =
, =
.

4.16.
dz
:
dt

 X
 
2
2
X

1
1

t RTv
+
hj vj
,
w = Zt + Z +
hj vj Zj =
g

g
j
j=1
j=1

w =

w ( , ). (17). (p )t p ()
[0, 1]
[0, ] , ,
Z1

(p )t

d =

(p )t

Z1

(p )t d = (p )t ,

p ()
d = p .

p ()
d = 0,

(17) [0, 1] [0, ]


1

Z
Z

g
p ~
p ~
= D { V
} d D { V
} d .
p
g
g
0

81

4.17.
= (p, T, 1 , . . . , n ). p, U, T (. I.6.1),
U = U(p, T ) ~ . cp = cp (p, T, 1 , . . . , n )
. dQ

. dS,
T
(. I.6.8),
S = S(p0 , T0 ) +

(p,T
Z )

(p0 ,T0 )



cp
U
dp + dT .
T
T

= 0. E
dQ
t.
= E,
dt

T =0

dS
E
= .
(20)
dt
T
S
, cp > 0,
> 0, , T
S(T ), T (S). Tv = Tv (p, S, 1 , . . . , n ).

4.18.
, , = 1
, V~ = {u, v, w}, , p, T , .
d
: (1), (11), (19), (20)
.
dt
:
1) ;
2) , ,
;
~ ,
3) E, N,
, .
82

5


5.1.



d
2 dy()
(1 )
+ n(n + 1)y() = 0
d

[3] Pn (). Pn+1 () = (2n + 1)Pn () nPn1 (), P0 () = 1,


P1 () = .

5.2.

(1 2 )y 2y + n(n + 1)y = 0.
m
(1 2 )x 2(m + 1)x + (n(n + 1) m(m + 1)) x = 0,
0 6 m 6 n x() =

dm y
.
dm
z()
m .
x() =  p
1 2
83



 

m2
d
2 dz()
(1 )
+ n(n + 1)
z() = 0.
d

1 2
y() = Pn ()


m ,
p
(m)
(m)
x() = Pn (), z() = 1 2 Pn () = Pnm () -

. , Pn0 = Pn .

5.3.

= sin ,

1 2 = cos2 .

p
1 2 = cos .

Pnm (sin ) = ( cos )m Pn(m) (sin ),

n = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,

|| 6

,
2

0 6 m 6 n.

d
1 d
=
,
d
cos d



d
dz
(cos )
(cos )
+ n(n + 1) cos2 m2 z = 0.
d
d

(21)


(1 2 )(Pnm ) =


1
m
m
(n + 1)(m + n)Pn1
+ n(n m + 1)Pn+1
. (22)
2n + 1

5.4.
: .
Pn (sin ),

Pnm (sin ) cos m,

Pnm (sin ) sin m.

Pn (sin ) n . , Pnm (sin ) cos m Pnm (sin ) sin m


(n + m) .

84

6
.

6.1.
1 = , 2 = , 3 = z = r r0 ,
3
X
2
ds2j ds1 = r cos d,
r0 . ds =
j=1

ds2 = rd, ds3 = dz, . . H1 = r cos , H2 = r, H3 = 1. ~1 , ~2 , ~3 = ~n


,

3
X
~i
=
ijk~k .
j
k=1
, i3k = 0,

d~i ~
= 0.
d3

6.2.
:
1) ;
p
2) p = p0 = const = ;
p0
~ = ~0 ;
3) N
4) (. I.1.7);
85

dz
d
=w
= ;
dt
dt
6) g = const.
3
X
~
, V =
vk ~k
5)

k=1

(v1 )t

1
+
r0

(v2 )t +

1
r0


1

v1 (v1 ) + v2 (v1 ) (tg )v1 v2 +


cos

1
2( sin )v2 = 0,
r0 cos

(23)

1
v1 (v2 ) + v2 (v2 ) + (tg )v12 +
cos

1
+ 2( sin )v1 = 0.
r0

6.3.

= (, ). (23), t , V~
. , v1 = U , v2 = 0 , , (v1 )t = 0,
(v1 ) = 0, = 0. (23)
U 2 tg + 2(r0 sin )U + = 0

(24)

U = U(, ).

6.4.

h i
,
2 2

a0
a0
f ()
+ a1 cos 2 = ( a1 ) + 2a1 cos2 .
2
2
86

: T = T0 + (T ) cos2 T = T z
( ). ,
T = T0 + (T ) cos2 (0 + () cos2 )z.
, Tv = T .
(, ):


st = 0 () + B() cos2 ,
= 1 .
=1

= 2B cos sin , (24)

U 2 tg + 2(r0 sin )U 2B cos sin = 0.


,
p

U=
(r0 )2 + 2B r0 cos = r0 ,

(r0 )2 + 2B r0
.
r0

, : .

6.5.
v1 = U + u, v2 = v = st + r0 cos . , u, v,
, (23).


ut + u 21 v sin +

= 0
(25)
vt + v + 21u sin + ( cos ) = 0,
1 = + .

87

6.6.

. 2

:
1) : T = 300 K, 17,5

(T = 200 K), 9 (T = 50 C), 0 = 4 ;


2) : , 8 60 C ;

3) , : , 40 C.

0,7
0,5
0,3

1,8
3,1
4,6

4,2
6,5

, .

. 2
. 3 , .

0,7
0,5
0,3

2,3
3,7
5,5

. 3

88

max
3
4,6
6,8

min
1,7
2,8
4,5

7


7.1. .



~ } = h1 h2 (H2 v1 ) + (H1 v2 ) =
D { V
1
2


1
(r0 (U + u)) + ((r0 cos )v) =
cos

1
=
u + (v cos ) ,
r0 cos
1
H1 = r0 cos , H2 = r0 , hj =
, j = 1, 2.
Hj
,
, ,
||
= 0
(. I.7.2) ()

. ,
~ } = 0,
D {V
=

r02

u + (v cos ) = 0.
, , ,
u d + v cos d d.
89

,
= u,

= v cos .

7.2. ,
: (25) , cos .
(2 )t + (2 ) + 21 = 0,

(26)


2 =

1
1

+
( cos ) ,
2
cos
cos

(u cos )

cos

+ ( cos ) = (cos )2 .

(25)

(t
+
) cos + 21 sin = cos .

(27)

(25) : (26)
. , .

7.3.
(, , t) = z() exp (im( t)),
= const.
= z exp (im( t)) ,

= imz exp (im( t)) ,

= m2 ,


m2
1
+
z exp (im( t)) cos =
2
cos cos


1
m2 z

= exp (im( t))


(z cos )
.
cos
cos2

2 =

90

(26)




m2 z
1

im exp(im( t)) ( + )
(z cos )
+ 21 z = 0.
cos
cos2
(28)
, < ,
21
= n(n + 1).

(28)



1
m2 z

z cos + n(n + 1)
z = 0.
cos
cos2

(21)
z = Pnm (sin ). ,
= Pnm (sin ) exp (im( n t)),

n =

2( + )
.
n(n + 1)

7.4.
,

= z() exp(im( n t)), = sin .


(27),
.

(1 2 )(Pnm ()) (im)(n + ) + 21 (im)Pnm () exp (im( n t)) =
= exp (im( n t)) z().

Hnm () = Pnm () +

1 2
(P m ()) .
n(n + 1) n

z() = 21 Hnm ,
91


= 21 Hnm (sin ) exp (im( n t)).

(Pnm ) (22), ,
Pnm 0 m > n.
,
p
1
H31 () = (452 1) 1 2 ,
8



1
45
1
2
H3 (sin ) =
sin
sin cos .
8
45

7.5.
, ,

I
mn
= Pnm (sin ) cos m( n t),
Imn = 2( + )Hnm (sin ) cos m( n t),

(29)
II
mn
= Pnm (sin ) sin m( n t),

m
II
mn = 2( + )Hn (sin ) sin m( n t),

1 = + . ,
m 6 n.
.

7.6.

, .
, . , (22)
1
H11 = P21 ,
6

H31 =

33 1 44 1
P +
P ,....
47 4 37 2
92

t = 0 = st + Hnm ,
(29) t . , = 0, 5
( , ) .

7.7.

. , = st
. ,
, .

7.8.
Hnm . , m = 5 , . m = n + 2,
m = n + 4 m > 5. m n m = n , , .
(m = n + 2, m = n + 4 m < 5)
, .

7.9.
n = 0,
=

2( + )
,
n(n + 1)

2
=
.

n(n + 1) 2

, n = 8 m = 6 ( ) 2,8 %.

. 3, , , = 0, 5.
, , . ,
93

60 ,
, .

94

8
.


(23 ) () . . , ,
. , ,
.
, .

8590 600 .
,
60 80 . ,

: OH O.
1000 .

95



1. . . . . .
2. . . .
3. . . .
4. . . . .
.
5. . .
6. . .
7. ( ). . .
8. . . .
9. . . .
10. .
.
.
11. . .
; .
96

.
12. . .
. .


1. . .
. . .
2. . .
. ; .
3. . , . . .
4. , , .
. ( ), .
5. . . .
6. .
.
7. . .
8. .
9. . w.
10. ; ( );
. .
11. , .
( ).
12. . . . .
13. . .
. .
97

14. . .
15. . .
.

98


[1] . . . .: , 1987.
[2] . . ., .:
, 1952.
[3] ., ., . (, , ). .: , 1968.

c . . , 2004

c George "epsgam" Epishin, , 20032006

99