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. .

- 2003

517 (07)
22.11
-49

:
. , - ,
- ,
. . , -

-49

. .
:
. 3 .: . 2. .: , 2003. 477 : .
ISBN 5-7325-0766-3 .
ISBN 5-7325-0768- . 2

, , , ,
, , ,
,
,
, .
517(07)
22.11

ISBN 5-7325-0766-3 .
ISBN 5-7325-0768- . 2

. . , 2003

13

13.1. . .

13.2.

8
13.3.
19
13.4.
22
13.5.
25
13.6.
29
13.7.
33
13.8. .... 36
13.9.
38
13.10.
44
13.11.
46
14
... 51
14.1. .

14.2.
14.3.
14.4. .

14.5. .

14.6.
14.7. 1- ,

54
58
63
70
74
77

14.8. ,

14.9. ,

14.10.

14.11.

14.12.
14.13. , ....
14.14.

14.15.
15

15.1.
15.2.
15.3.
15.4.
15.5.

82
85
93
97
116
118
148
166

173

2/
183
.. 189

192

196

16
,

16.1.
16.2. .

16.3.

16.4.
16.5.
16.6.
16.7.
16.8.

199

210
218
227
233
244
252
262

16.9.
.

16.10.

16.11.
16.12.

17

17.1.
17.2.
17.3.
17.4.
17.5.

280
299
305

311

.
314
. .... 320
2-
328

331

18

18.1.
18.2.
18.3.
18.4.
18.5.
18.6.
18.7.

273

19

19.1. ,

19.2.
19.3.

353

363
367
374
380
389
398

403

409

415

20


20.1.
.
20.2.

20.3.
20.4.
20.5.

20.6.

20.7. -
20.8.

423

425
429
430
456
460
466
474
477

13

13.1. . .

1.
^-, +^3 +... + +... = ^ ^ ^ ,

(1)

^2, --'^ci^, ...


. ^ .
2^.
iS^ = ^j + 2 "^ "^ ^*
, -^^ .
5'^ = 5 .
lim S^ , .
3.
lima^ =. lima^ ;^0,
.
1.1. , ,. 2-
^

1 1 1 1
: )2, / ^, ) 2."7=7=7' ^) ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ " * ' 2 ' " ^ -

13

, ) > :

,
.
) -^
lim .

= lim .

= 1,

V "
, (.
).
)

1
2'

1 1 1
5' S' '

^ 1
t r (3/1-1)2 '

lim
- = 0.
^^-^-(3^-1)

, ,
,
.

13.2.

1. . ,
f{x),
X = 1 (1), - = 2


. . (1)
,

^f{x)dx.

(2)


.

,
(2).
2. .

/1=1

^,,+6+^>+- = -

(4)

/1=1

(3)
(4), . . ^^ < ^^ { = 1,2,3,...),
(4) (3), (3)
(4).

<,(^0),

(5)

/1=0

|^| < 1 |^| > 1,


(6)

10

13

1
^

..'

ZZn
> 1 , < 1 .

(7)

3^. .
(3) (4). lim~^ = ,
.
4^. . flf,,>
lim ^^ = , (1) , 7^ < 1, , ^ > 1.
, * = 1,

.
5. .
lim " - = D,

D < 1 (1) , D > I . D = 1



. ,
,
.
6^. .
^1

lim

y^n^l

= R,
/-J

R > 1 (1) , R < 1 .


V 1
7^. , 2^ .
lim ^
,,^
+\
V

"

,^^, = , '>0(1)

, " < .

11

8. .
d^

lim In

= 5,

*+1

> 1 (1) , < \ .


9. . f(^x) = a^ lim ^'- = , < 1 (1) .v^~ / ( )
, >\ .
^
(), ([)>0.
,
, ({).
10. . (1)
- ^ iL_ = ^ + + 7, ,^1 , ^^
^.+1

^+1

^^

^"

\0\< L; , > 1,
/>1, , < 1 < 1, = 1.
1

2.1. : ) ^
=\ (3^-1)''
1
1
1
1
1
1
)
+

+
;
)
:
7
+

+
+.
1 + 1' 1 + 2' 1 + 3-^
' "' 212 31 414
, )
/(^) =

Y ^ -

dx

1,.
1
=

lim3^^~-1
(-1)-

= lim

3^-^~> 3 ) 8 - 1

1
2

6'

12

13

, ,
.
)
1
1
1
1
-+
- +
- + ... +
- + .
1 + 1' 1 + 2' 1 + 3'
1 + ^'
1
f\x) =

^ dx _
j ; J . 2 " I ^^^8 ^\

l + X'

J1+

~*

7'

, ,
.
)
1
1
212^31

I

^
1
^ \

1
414

= limlnlnx:


.
,
.
2.2. : ) 2j 1/

>

=1 /-

(2' 1 M V
) - B ) - + i
:'
5 2 v5y
v5y

...; ) Tt2n
I 1+ 5
n=l

, a)
1
1
, = -. =-

13

^ ^ - 3 < ifn,

> -7=.

/-

yjn


,
.
) .
1<, 1
1
, .
In ;7 >

,
)
2 1/oV
- + 5 2 v5y

=s12\
" [ 5

=1


, ^ = < 1.
,

, .. . ,
.
)
(\
1 1
- +- +- +.

1^4 5 6

+3

=Y-
tl'2( + 3)

'in

.
1+ - + 2 3

,
.

14

13

. ~/
vT^^^i
'
^
2( + 3) 2/1 + 5
,
, .
^
1
2.3. : ) 2^:j\
=1 (2~1)
^
1
^ 2-
,=, 2 -
t:;'A2(n + l)
, )
V 7.
lim

- = lim -

'(-1)'

,
.
)
2^7- , /1=1 2


,.

,.
\1
,
lim
= lim
= 1.
^^"" -
''->-22-1
,
,
.
)

.

(2-3)

,. ^~~

1^


, .
2.4. : ) 2^
/1=1

6)

2-1

3,2 ^^^

2 + 1^
, ) .

/1=1

,.
/2 + l Y .. ,2 + 1 .. ^ ^ ^
1 ^
bmW ~
=lim~
- = lim
L.= =:.
/woo^^2^-lj
"-^~ 2,2-1 """""- ^
< 1, .
^
)
lim1

' 3,2 Y

,.
3,2
,.
3
3
=lim
= lim
- = .
2n + l J ->-2,2 + 1 "-'2+
^
,2

1, .
2.5. : )
^ .
^1"'

tir{2n+\y

-' .
1 ^ 5
59-(4,2~3)
^ ( - 1 ) ! ' ^^ 2'^2.4.6^'""^2-4.6-8-(4-4)(4,2~2)*

, ) .
, ,2 + 1

, .1
"-^~

, 3''^'2" (2/1 + 1)
"^"2"^'(2/1 + 3)3"

3 , . 2 + 1 3
2''^~2 + 3 2

13

16

1, .
) : ^^^ =

(w-fl)!

{n^iy

limD=^
l -i m^..i-.^(^^0'z!:-.^
- ^ = lim-

(^-^^

,.
= lim-

/) < 1, ,
.
\~\

) : ^ =

--, ^^^ = . -

,. 2" (-1)! ,. 2 ^
lim
-:; = lini = ; Z)< 1 .
1-5-9--(4? + 1)

) , , ..., = 2 . 4 . 6 . . . 4 . ( 4 . + 2)*
lim-^^ = lim-7-7: = ? ^ < 1.
^ ^'-4{4 + 2)
, .
2.6.
^

{2-1)\\
1
/^ ,. ^
(2)!! 2 + 1

. . ^_^^
: ^+,

lim

{2 + \)\\
(27 + 2 ) ! ! ( 2 ^ + 3 )

\2 + 2){2 + 3)

{2 + \

;
,. ^(6/1 + 5) 3
= lim^
- = -.
" - - ( 2 ^ + 1)

i? > 1, , .

17

(2-1)! 1
2.7. 2^
t f (2 + 1)!2
. .
^ - , , V
=1

.
lim

(2-1)!(2 + 3)!(2 + 2)
- ( + 1)
(2 + 1)!2(2 + 1)!
= lim

(2+3)( + 1)
2 + 1

-( + !)

> , , .
2.8.

1 "
2^~^~

]\
/7 + 1

1 { + \)
. ^^, = ( + 1)! "^' '
.

lim In

\" ( + lf'

= lim In

-1 -1

-limine = -.

1+
5 < 1, .
1
=2 Inn In Inn

2.9. ^

18

13

. 1

. / ( ^ ) = ' ;
: In JC In X
,. xlnjclnlnxe"" ,. , ,
lim
= lim In In X = oo.
^->~ e"" In e" In In e"" ^->~
> 1, .
2.10. :
.^

(27~1)!!

) 1 + - 4 + -^+...
2 2-4
(2^2)!!

rt!y(7+l)...(y

+ -l)

, )

In
+1

2-1

{
\

1 V

In

11-2

In

, 1/2

\-1{1
_1

1/4

f - , ^ - " < ^
.
)

11
( 1 + . 1 + ^

19

' , = ,-.-L;
1+

" , + -<='

' = ! - + .''' '


1+1

^- = 1 + -^

! + '
+ -7-.

0^ - Of- jS >

--.

13.3.

1,

=1

(1) ,
,

(1)
, (3),
, .
. (2) ,
>
, . . lini ^ = 0.

20

13

(1), (2)
.
.
, R^
R^ =S-S^ =(~l)"t/^i+(-l)''"' w+2+---

|^;,|<w^j.
.
3.1. : ) 1

) 2.^'^
=\

) 1 ) 2 - ;
=1

+...
5 7

) 1(-1) .
=2

f^

, ) . ^
/1+1

: ^ _)
= i _ i _ _
"2/7-1
.
, lii^
7 ~ ^' ,
.
,
,

i:^=i,in,zl)=iiin(2.-i
,2JC-1
1

2P-^-i

2x-\

2P---

'

= -limln(2j8-l) = oo
1 2->- ^
^
li

, ,
. ,
.
) .
,. sinan ^
lim ' = , , , ..
. ,
^
^
^ Isinawl
2^ '

7_

],-, , .
,
^\
|sina| 1

- "
. ,
.
)
> (-1) 2 =
+-+
...
^,

2 4 8 16
, .
, -

I-

^^ ^
lim
;
= - , D< I.
n^-l''^' 2
, ,
) .
lim

= lim = . ,

.

,

I
2

/3

1^

dx = lim I Inx (ilnx = lim In^ jc = limfln^ -In^ 2) = oo.


2

I2

, , .
, .
3.2. 1

...
2! 4! 6! 8!

0,01.
.
-

22

13

0,01. =
<
, 6! 720 100
,
1

+ = 1 + = 0,541.
2! 4!
2 24

+
+...
J
J
6! 8! 10!
7, ~ ^^7v , 1

720

13.4.
1.
^,,:'' =^0 +ajjc^ -\-^^ -^" -.,,^

(1)

(2Q, flp ^2, 35 ,


.
- ^^

X^(^~^o)"=^o+^i(^-^^o) + ^ 2 ( ^ - ^ o ) ' + - .

(2)

.
2^. R /7^<)wjrayv/ (1),
|:| < R \\ > R.
(1)
R = \im\ .^
\

(3)

(-/?, R)
. (2)

23

|X-XQ[ < /? = ^
; |X-XQ| > i? .
3. (1), (2)
,
X =0 (1) = ^ (2),
, .

, ,
.
X,
(D = 1), ,
.
5 1
^ (n + lY "
4.1. : ) ^
2 + 1
=0
^"

^ ^ "

5
2+1

/1=1

) 1 ^

'

, ) :
{n + \fx-\
=: ^;
2 + 1

(n + lfx'"''
a^^ =
"'

2 + 3

2+2'

lim

+1

= lim', ^ ' ^-^


f=
,
,
,
,
,
.
''-^- |jc'"| {2 + 3){ + 1),
, 1; ^ < 1,
-1 < : < 1. .
|.v| > 1 . = 1 .
^>. .

X = - 1 , v^O^
> + 1) , tTo 2 + 1
, ..

13

24

lim-^^

^ = 00. = 1

, ,
-1 < : < 1.
)

_{-1"

(-1)"
+1 =

,+\

/2 + 1

"''
lim +\ =
=\\
" -^\
, || < 1; -1 < : < 1. .
rt-i
~ (-1)
X = 1 ^--,

lim = 0. = -1

, -

. ,
-1 < < 1.
)
"+1

i" . - 2

.=^=^^

+1

2/1+2

3"^'( + 2)/^2'

lim +\ = hm-^^
,
=.
.
3 ''-^~( + 2)/ + 2 3
-/ < : < /.
(-1)"
X = 7 ^

; ^ ( + 1)/'

25

= 0. , -

- ^ < < / .
)
lim

*W+1

= lim^

^ J

\-1-^{^\\

= 0<1.

,
- < < ^ .
)
+1

lim

*n+i

= lim

{-"

-31 .

( + 1)5"^'(-3)"

i-lim-

\-\

+1

|-3|
Y111 < \ -5 < - 3 < 5,
5
-2 < : < 8.
. = 8
(-1)"
1
. = -2 ,

=1

1
lim = 0. , -2 < < 8.

13.5*
1".
(1)
=1

^(), a^ix), ^{), ... ,


.

26

13


, (1) .
,
D = 1
.
2. . 5'(x) = limS ()
(1), R^ () = 5'()-5',^ ()
. (1) [, 6],
> , N, >
X
(1)
[, ],
^ ^ , |^()|<^ <<
( ).
""'
aj(x), ^(), ^{),...
(1)
, /() .
, ,
.
5.1. : ) ^ ( - 1 ) " ^ ^ '
=\

) S2''sin:^;

) lg(x-4)+lg^(x-4)+...+lg"(x-4) + ...

, ) ,
V
/1=1 '^

Z^~- > ;
~'
= In X > 1, ,
.

27

+1 1
X = , (~~0 ~
. I < < ?; < In . < 1
,
,
. 0 < : < 1 ; 1 : < 0
, .. -

^^'^'"^^

'^' , > -

, 1 < ' < ^ , < X < 1 ,


)
) = lim .+1 = lim

2"^' sin
2" sin

"-"'
X

+ 1 OAl

= 2Iim

-sin
.

n+1
X

IT s i n

D 1 ,
- < X < .

) Ig { - 4)
X - 4 > , 4 < < .
q =\g{x-4).
1^1 < 1, |lg ( - 4)| < 1 -1 < Ig ( - 4) < 1.
I g < l g ( ^ - 4 ) < l g l 0 < - 4 < 1 0 , 4,1<<14.
,
XG ]4,1;14[, ]4;[.
5.2. , (""^)"^
[, 1).
|)| < 0,1?
. ,
V .

28

D = lim

13

""''

[, 1) 1, ,
[, 1) .
^ \+\ X

( ~ j

^ > [, 1)
/2

.

, . . \)\<^^,{).

\{)\<

<

71 + 1

7^0,1;

! +1 > 10; >9 [, 1).


1

5.3. , 2^
^2""'/72
< < .
0,001 > 0.
. >

i

1 + - + + ... +
+ ...,
2 4
2"-'
,
< < . ,
, . .

ly
{^)<

1-i

1 < 0,001.

>-1

2^"^ > 1000


AI = 11.

29

5.4. ^ 7

^*

.
1
q - j- < 1.
l + x'
' = 1 +
/ () =
S^p:).

'-^'
5 =-

1 Y""^
1 + '

, 2

1 + "
R^ (^) = | / (^')~ ^;, (^)| =
X > N,
,
. , ,
\f{x)-S^ ()| > -> 0. .

13.6.

1.

^=^1+^2+^3+- + ^+--

(1)

/1=1

^^^-^ bj ; ^,^
; f- = - 1 .

30

13

,
^ ^ ]^6^,

E^=S^+^X^/7=1

/1 = 1

(2)

= \

(1) ,
,

/2=1

/J=l


, ,
,
.
.
2.

2;c-^=Co + c,z + c , z 4 c 3 z 4 . . . ,

(3)

/1=0

z^x + iy ; ^^^- ib^


.
z z - z^

2^Co(z-Zo)"=Co+c,(z-Zo) + C2(z-Zo)4...,

(4)

/1=0


. ZQ =^+1^.

,

(3) z - z^ (4).

31

R
(3), \z\ < R. (4) \z - ZQ\ < R.
; |2:| > i? |^ - ^QI ^ ^ !
. , ,
, .

n{2-\-iy

6.1. : ) 2L"
)

-i
+\ '

;2(2-/) + 1

(3~2/)-3/
, )
lim

=\

"+1

Km

( + 1)(2 + / 2

|2 + /1

'hm

/1 + 1

^|2 + /|^V4HhT_V5 ^
"" 2

"

"" 2 ^ '

1, .
) (2) X
T^^ZJ
-
^ + 1 =0^^ + !
,
, , .
)

-1

(-1)" . ..V
t ; ' A 2 l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
t! 2n
t!

. ,

(-1)"
2/7-1

= Sr., ,

13

32

n(2-i) + l
n{3-2i)-3i

= lim

1-i

(2-/)(3 + 2/)

8+/

3~2i

|(3-2/)(3 + 2/)|

13

limWcJ = limi

2 + 1-
3-(2+3)/

'l3

1, .

(z-li)"

6.2. : ) 2^ i"z"; ) 2^=0

=1

"

) |;(!-f/)z-; ) ^ ^ ^ . -

^(2-1)!
, )
lim

= lim

n+l +1
I
Z

i"z"

\z\.


\z\< 1. , . . |z| > 1, .
, .. 2^^
=0
.
)
+1

{z-2iy^n3
lim
{n + l)y^'{z-2iy

-2/1

^lim-

U-2/1

' + 1

, |z-2z|<3,
IZ - 2z I > 3 .
12-2/1=3 ,
X
)

33

lim

((n + l)!+/)z''^^
(n!+/)z'"

= z lim

n!(n + l) + /
!+/


i? = (0,0).
)
,2+2 ,

lim

(^/ + 1 ) ! ( 1 - Z ) Z ^ ^ " ^ ( 2 A Z - 1 ) !

(2/2 + l)!!(l~/)z'

( + 1)(2-1)!
"-^~(2-1)!2(2 + 1)

i? = >
.

13.
V.
]=,+2++...

(1)

/1=1

^"=+^2+*3+-

(2)

=\

()
| ; ( 6 ) = (,0 + ( , 6 , ) + (^>) + ...

(3)

=1

(1), (2) , ().


2. (1),(2)
2^=1+2++... + +.
=1

^-^,
= ^,Z?3 + ^ 2 ^ 2 "'" ^3^1 >

<: =,Z?+flfA-..
^,t/ ^ " 2 ^ +... + ;,,.

(4)

34

13

(1), (2) , (4)



(1)(2).
3. S
S^ (1) W > 5 = lim 5^.
(1) ,
^. + ^.1 + ^. +... = 5 - 5 , = /
,
^

^ 1 +

(5)

(-!)"-

7.1. > 2^-^


/

. -

. (3)
/1=1

/1=1

=\

=1



L_ < .
L

7.2. X ~" ^ S

^ -

.
. (3)
hn

tr2-l"tr42/i-l)"tfn(2n~l)'

,.

{-\)

lijYi-^^
' = .
"-^-w (2/2-1) 2
V

7.3. ^ = ^ - ^ .
?

/1=1 ^

=1 ''

35

.
2^

>

" ^ " ^ ^ 3 / 2 "^^3/2 ^'

= 1 + - + + ..

tr3"-^

(4),
1

+ - + - 3/2 +
3

+ -|3/2

-2

1 1

3 3'
1 ^

3/2 - + ^ 3 / 2
+ ...+
- +3
2

-j3/2 <^-

+ ... + -. 3 / 2 + ...

2 3
3 3

^

1 I
1
1

1 + - + - + ... + -,-1 + . + -,3/2 1+..... -2 + ... +


3
V
V
/

+- .3/2 1 + - + . . . +
3

'^-'

+ ... + .

1
.
,
' 1 1
\
\

1 + - ^ + - ^ + ... + -37 + --- .
2
3

I
,
.
7.4. ,
, 1 1

1 + - 7 + - + - + - + -

2' 3'
'
.
.
1
1
1
R =
-+-+.
{n + iy {n-^iy
{ +

36

13

,
1
1
+
-+( + 1)' (^ + 2)' - + ...>(^ + 1)(^ + 2) (^

1 ^
- + 2
, R >

+ 2)(1 + 3 )

+ ...:

+ ... =

+2

+3

+1

R <
+

" { + 1) { + 1){ + 2)
^1
1 W
1
I \
1
+
+
...

2 + 1
+ \ /2 + 2
, , ,

< ;? < _,

7.5. 2^~
^-^/

1\ , -

=1 i^^'^ + i j ^

0,001?
.
-\
(2 + 3)5"

2+

<
-+1

-<0,001.

5"^' > 500


- .

13.8.

1.
\,\ -

37

[-/?,/?], . .
|ao<i:c + a,J ^-.,\

x''Jx + ... = ^ I x'dx-2^

2.
,


.

=\

8.1. : )

V h... +
+ ...;
3 7
-\
) l - ~ 3 x 4 5 x ' - . . . + ( - i y " ' ( 2 ^ - l ) j c ' " - 4 . . .
, ) ,
\-'
, || < 1.
, ' ' ''
'-'
+1 1
+ + + ... +
+ ... = -1 1- arctgx.
3 7
4-1
4
) ,
;,_;,3^^5_^^^^^_jy-1^2.-l^^^^^.

1 + '
, || < 1.
,

-\ / ^

^\

9_7

(1 + ^)

38

13

13.9.
1.
limiS^^x),
/(), / () + /2(^) + ... + () + ... = / ( ) .
f{x) ,

/()=;()+/()+...+/()+...
f{x) fi{x).
fi{x) , ,
/ ( ) .
2.
: .
(-^^)

f(x) = f{x)+^ix-x)+J^{x-x,f

/ () ,
i?^ () -^ W > CXD. (1)

=^^^^*"'[^+(^-^)]; (<<1),

(3)

(2)

) = ^/"\).
\

(4)

39

(1)
-^, (2)
= 0.
3.
,
X

"

II. s i n X = X - ^ + ^ - . . . + ( - i y ^ l ^ + ...

(-<.<),

III.COSX = l - | ^ + ^ - . . . + ( - l ) " ^ + ...

(-<<),

/1 1 "^ (-\) ,
(-\)...(- + 1)
IV. (1 + ) =1 + + ^^
^-+...+^^
^^
^-"+...
^
^
1!
2!
\
(-1<<1),
1
V. 1
= 1 + + -+... + "+...
(-1<<1),
1-
^
''
VI. 1(1 + ) = - + - . . . + ( - 1 ' + . . . ( - 1 < < 1 ) ,
2
3

X X
/
\1 X
\. arctgx = x-^+-... + {-{)"+...(-1<<1),
3 5
^ ^ 2-1
^
^
\'
\'
(2-1)!!
'"^'
1 ' 1 3 '
(2-1)!! jc^"^'
VIII. arcsinx = x +
+
+ ... + --^
+...
2 3 24 5
{2)\\ 1 + \
(-1<<1),
IX.

Shx = X+

'
3!

'
5!

1-... + -

^"*'

~ + ...

(2 + 1)!

(-<<),

''

X. chx = l + + + ... + - - + ...


- < : < ).
2! 4!
(2)!
^
'
,
, -

40

13

, .
9.1. : ) tg ;
) ^''^''\ ) " -1^ -' ^-\ + 1.
, )

x=

/ W = tgx;

/(0) = 0,

/'W=-^;

/'()=1,

COS X

^ ^

2sinx.
COS X

^,

^ ^

cos'.-b3sin'..

COS X
rlV (

4_Q2sinXCOS^X + 3sin^X

\^)-^

rW (c^\

COS X

cos^x(2 + 3sm^x) + 5sin^ xfS-cos^x)

() = 8

^~

v^j==^'
, ,

1- (0) = 16.

COS X

(2),
^ 2^
/ ( ) = - + - +...
)
X =
/() = - ;

/ ( 0 ) = ,

/ ' ( x ) = -e^"sinx;

/ ' ( 0 ) = 0,

f"{x)

/"() = -,

= (sin' x-cosx)e^";

/ " ' ( ) = -82:(3 + 08)'=";

/'"(0) = 0,

41

/^^(jc)= 3cos2x+cosx-9cosxsin^jcsin^2jc e"'"'''; /^^(0) = 4^,


(2),

/W='

) = -1

/ ' ( ) = 5 8 ' - 2 + 1;
/"() = 2024'-2;

/"(-!) = 2.

/ ' " ( ) = 6048;

/'"(-!) = 12,

/ " ' ( ) = 120 + 48;

( - 1 ) = -72,
/ ) = 120.

() = 120;

(1),
/ ( x ) = (x + l ) 4 2 ( j c + l ) ' - 3 ( x + l ) 4 ( j c + l)'.
9.2. =
: ) "'' ; ) cos^x; ) sin^xcos^x; ) In

;) -7=
\-
/114-

) (arcsinx)^; ) arctgvx; ) ch^x.


, ) (I) - ^,
2

In

-4

1!

2!

^ ^

- + ...

) (III)
cos^ = (1 + cos 2)
cos 2 (III) 2

42

13

1
1
COS = +

2!

2V

= 1- ix'
2!

(2)! + .

4!

3 4

: - . . . + (-1)2 2-.^2 + . . .
(2)!

4!

)
sin^A:cos^x = -sin^2x = - ( l - c o s 4 x ) . cos4x 4
8
(III) ,
2
2
sin XCOS =

1 1

4^ ^

4"

2!

4!

8V

2x2 2 5
2!

{1)\- + ..
/^4w-3 ,^2

+ ...4-(-1)"

4!

(2)! -+...

) In 1 + 1(1 + :)-1(1-).
1-
(VI),
- :
2 3

(VI),
/

'

lni^ = 2 + + ... +
1-

'^-'

V
3
2~1
)
_1
(1 + ) 2. IV,

1
=

43

(,

{\+)~

(2-1)!"
^ '
2"\ +...

\ 1 3 ' 1 3 5 :'
21! 2 2 2 ! 2 2 2 3 !

\'

' \--5'
, ,(2-1)!!''
- + ...
+

+ ... + (-1) -i
'2 1! 2' 2!
2' 3!
^ '
\
)
arcsinxarcsinx (VIII)
=

1 '

1 3 '

, -.

Y
I ' 1 3 '
( arcsm X) = +
+
+ ... I +
+
+ ...
V
2 3 245
I
2 3 2 4 5
(7.2 j ,

1'
1'
( 2 - 2 ) ! 2
(arcsinx) -^V
+ ... + - ,
+ ...
^
^
3 2 353
{1-\)\\
) (VII) /,
arctgVx = '

-1

... + (-1)'

)
ch =

{ J^

^'^-^

^-.:

^ -

+3

= (ch3x + 3chx).


X,
ch =:

()'

()'

2!

4!

()'"

(2)! + ...+
V

+3 1 + + + ... + -

{2) + ...
V

,
2!

4!

44

ch^jc

13

= ! + ->.^-.^
(2^)!

4tr

13.10.



.
10.1. /,
. .
. (IV),
/125 + 5 = 5 1 +

25

^ - 5

_
1
jc = ,
25

11
111
Vl30=5 1 + - - 3 25 3 3 625
1
Vl30 = 5 - ^ .
,

, . .
0,0002.
10.2. cos 18 0,001.
?
.
(III),

-... = 1-0,0493+0,0004-.
cosl8 =cos = 1
+
10
100-2! 10000-4!

45


cos 18 =0,951, ..
0,001.
10.3. In 1,1 0,0001.
. In (1 + 0,1)
(VI), 0,1

,(,+o,i)=o,i-:i+5i551-;Ml+...
^
^
2
3
4
, ..
,
In (1+0,1) = 0,0953.
10.4. Ig 5 0,001.
.
lg =

.
In 10
1 + JC

In
(9.2,):
^ ^ '
^"
^
In
= 21-1 + + + . . . +
+ ...
1-
^^ 3
5
1-\
J
1 + '
1
1+ _
2+1 _ " + 1
=
, ";

2 + 1
^-
J
L_

2+1
, 1 1
I I
In
= 1( + 1)-1 =
2 + 1
3(2 + 1)' 5(2 + 1)'
= \, In 2
, 2 11 1 1
^
12 = - 1 + + - + . . . \.
\
3 9 59'
)
, In 2
. ,

46

13

,
(

11
11
11
1 1
1
<
=3-7-9' 1 + - + + ...
7 9^ 9 9' 119^
)
9 9'
1
1
<
12-7-9' 1000
In 2 = 0,693. = 4,
/, 1 1

11
15 = 212 + - 1 + - + - + ... = 1,609.
3 9' 5 9'
In 2 In 5,
1,609
= 0,699.
In 10 = In 2 +In 5 = 2,302. , IgS^
2,302

13.11.


,
.
s i n JC

11.1. : ) J

dx;

^ f^"^ ^
rarctgx^
, rln(l + x)
) J cix; ) J -^dx; ) J ^
-ax X
^
^
.
, ) sin ,
1

4^

= +

... + (-1) 7
+ - \dx =
^ ^ (2 + 1)!
J

+
3!

5!

3-3! 5-5!

- \

^ ^ (2 + 1)(2 + 1)! + .

+ ( - 1 ) 7

^7

47



'"^'(2/1 + 1)(2 + 1)!
lim
'(2^-)(2 + 3)!^"^^

2AZ + 1

X lim-

--(2^ + 3)'(2.2+ 2)

:0.

, - < < .
) ^' ,
\
^1 , X
'-'
- - + ... + - -+...
- + 1 + + ... +
+ .. / = 4- In 1x1 + X +2-2!
'\
)

2!
\

lim

''^''\

( + 1)( + 1)!'

= X lim- = 0.
"-^-(^ + 1)

= ,
(-^ < <
0<<).

) arctg
,
Xf

1-\

-\ X

-+... \dx-

1-\

- + ---... + (-1)
3' 5^
^ ^

lim
-1 < < 1.

+ ...
(2/2-1)'
x^^'^'iln-X)
(2/7 + 1)''^-'

- " -

.
X = 1 ^
^, = -1 ^
2
=\ (2/1-2)
tf(2/2-l)

'

48

13

. ,
(-1 < jc < 1).
) In(l-l-x)
X,
(

-\

: =

= -

X X

\-\ X

- + - - - + (-1)

lim
/I>

(-1 < < 1).

- + -

^^'

= \\ -

(+1)

. = 1
.-J,

= -1 Zw~T*

, ,
, , .
, (-1 < jc < 1).
11.2. : ) J 7=:^ dlx 0,001;
1/4

"

) J (l + ^ )^: 0,0001.

, )
,
'"2'"'
11-5!

'"
3!

2'"'
+
15-7!

'"

'"'

5!

7!

>
2"'
+., =
/

Ix'"
7-3!

2
2
+ ... = 0,621.
+7-3! 11-5! 15-7!

49


, ..

0,00002 , , 0,001.
) ,

\1(

1/4

1
'-^^
1 + 1^3 __ 2 2 ^ 6 ^ dx=x^--2-4
2!
J
V 2

1
1
= +
4 2-4-4'

2'-7-2!

- + ... = 0,2505.

2'-7-2!4'

,
0,000001, ,

.
11.3. ,
1/4

: ) 1 ""^ dx ; ) J x^arctg xdx 0

.
, ) ,

1/4

4
2

2!

dx-

3
X

5
^

1/4

52!^

1
1
1
0,24489.
-+4 3-4' 10-4'

0,0000014,
0,00001.

50

13

) ,
,
3
3 i

4^

.,6 \

\dx-

21

3-5

3-21

0,012.

0.00016,
0,001.

14

14.1.
.

1.

,
. .
. ,
,
,
,
j^^ : \'\...,^"\
. .
-
F(x,y,/,y",.../"^)

= 0,

(1)

F ;
; , .

52

14


, ,
, ,

1-

(2)
FXx,y,,y^,..,,y,^,y[,y[,.,y[)

= 0.

2.
, .
(1) - ,
/1- .
.
,
, . . ,
( ) .
3.
F ( x , j ; , y ) = 0.

(3)

y=f{x,y).

(4)

(4)
.
. y=f{x,y)
f{x,y)
- ^ ^
D ,
(XQ, ), -

53

= 9^(), : -^ = ^.
,
= ({),
(xQ^y^).
4.

= ({,),

(5)



.


, .

.
,
dy

^
(6)

;'=-.
(7)
(. 14.1).

. 14.1

54

14

5. ,
,
() .

, ;; -^
X - XQ, .
(6)
^ - 1 XQ = 2 .

(7) , 1 = ,
-1.

y = f,

(8)

^ - 2;
6. ,
. ,

, ^.
.

,
, .

14.2.

1.
P{x)dx^Q{y)dy^^,

(1)

dx ,
dy . .

55


,
\p{x)dx-\Q{y)dy^C.

(2)

2.
P{x,y)dx^Q{x,y)dy^^

(3)

,
P^^Q ,

p{x\p{y)dx^q{x\q{y)dy^^,

(4)

q {){)

^ . . . l M ^ , = 0.
^W
\)

(5)

,
,

^ W ^ ,^ \
f^W J
CPV4,

(6)
^ q{x)
^ {)
3. ,
.
y=f{ax

+ by + c),

(7)


= + + ,
.
2.1. xdx + ydy = 0.
.
, ,

56

14
2

X2

= Co x ' + / = 2 C o = C ^ = C ^

, ,


2.2. :
) i^^in^ydx + cos^X oX^dy ~0\ ) ^ = \\ )
--^.
, ) cos^ xsin^ ,
COS^X

sm"y

J nf\^

ctgy
sm

'CI

tg^x-ctgV = C
dy.
6) -^smx=^
ylny dx

dy
dx
In sin X
, , Cj =1||,

din
= 1 tg: +
\

11 = 1 tg: + I11C.

1|1;| = 1 C t g : ,
In j^ = t g ^ J^ = ^

^.

)
dy
2
dy
dx
X dx
= - ^
= .
^ -
X

57

dy
J^(y~lj

dy

dx

'^

'' J^~l

,11,1

. 1 , 1 1 ^

,=1, In

= 1|| + 1.

= .

2.3. y\gpc + j ; = , : = 1 = .
. =

In \\ = - In Isin | + In IcL
In \\ = In

dx
sinx

= -
smx

smx

. :
sin
= I. = cosec .
2
2.4. : ) / = - + 1; ) y=cos[x+y).
, ) =- + 1; ' = 1-\

1 ,
du
1- = = 1-.
dx
du

= -dx: In w - 1 = - + In
I

x = ln

; w - 1 = Ce
w-1
, "" =-.
= -~\
e =

58

14

) ^ + ^ =\ + \

/

du

-\-cosw;

= cosw +1.
dx

du
dx\ f
= ^; t g - = jc + C.
C0SW + 1

' J COS,u

tg

^2

= x+C.

14.3.

p .
P{x,y)dx^Q{x,y)dy

=Q

(1)

, 2
X , ( ).
F{x, ) ,
F{^ax,ay) = a!^Fi^x,y), q .

^^

(2)
\)
-
X - , ,
.
2. , .

by -
/ = /
(3)
^-\-^-\-^
=(

=(

59


--^^\
y-v-Vy^^ ^ -ap^Q. ^,^
+ 6v + = ,jc + b^y + , =0.
ab^-ajD = Q,
= + -\-.
3. xndx
, , dy ,

= '
(4)

. , ,

.
/

3.1. : ) cos = j;cos


;
X

) =
-; ) (x^+xy+y^)dx = x^dy; ) xdy-ydx = ^x^+y^^dx,
dy +
^
'
7 = 0 X = 1.
, )

ycos -X
1

XCOS
X

COS
X


, , .

^
,
du
, j^ = . - + .
X
dx

j ' X

60

14

du
du
1
1
X- =
dx
cos
dx
cost/
dx
cosudu=

I I

-^

sin M = - In \x\ + ,

, ,

sin + In \\ = .
) =; -- ,
dy
du -
du
-\
+ = =
,
dy +
dy + \

du

w^+1

y~r"

dy
w+1


+ 1 ,
dy
1 , / 7 \
. 1 1 ^
W
+1
,
dy
; du=-;
arctg + -ln(M +1) = -1 V +.

2
,
arctgh In
+ ln|j;| = C.
2

.'

arctg+ In iJx^+>^^ =.

) , = .
du
' = +
dx
.
.
du , 2
2
2
2 2
2^
du^
X=l+u
;
+
X ++
=
dx
dx
du
dx
I I
I I
, 1 ^ I
7 = ;
arctgw = In jc + In ; arctg = In Cx
1+ W

I I

I I

61

) dx
=
(

du
-\-dx

du

X + X ;

dx

1\ + 1?

In w + Vl + wH = ln|Cx|;

+ ]^+^ = Cx^

.
X = 1, = 0, = 1.
,

4>

+ ^^^+^ =-.
3.2. : ) {2x+3y-\)dx + [4x + 6y-5)dy = 0;
) {x-2y + 5)dx + {2x'-y + 4)dy = 0.
, )
dx,
,

2JC +

3V -1

.
4x-h6y-5

b
= '
, ,
2 6 = 3 4, = 2-\--\; -2- .
' ,
du 6
'-2

2-
dx 2w~3

jh

2-
du=dx
-6

\du = x; 2w + 91n|w-6| = jc-fC.


w-6
,
-h-

+ 2 + 31{2 + -7) = .

62

14

)
-2+5
=
2- + 4
1 2
fx-2;; + 5 = 0
^, <
2 1
[2x-j; + 4 = 0
XQ = - 1 , - 2.
= -1, y=^v-\-2, dx = du, dy- dv,
dy dv ^
= . ,
dx du
dv
u-2v
=
.
du
2u-v
dt
v-ut, v^^-t-\-u - , du
dt u-2ut
dt l-At + t^
^ + w =
=
.
du 2u-ut
du
2-t
^
2-t
, du

" ^ " ^
1 .dit^-At + l)
, ,
1 , ,
,
\-\
^ = lnwL l n U ' - 4 r + l = l n
2-* r'~4r + l
' '
2 I
I
^^ - 4r +1 = --,
/ , Q = ,
- 4 - + 1 = , V -Auv + u =.

~
, ,

{y-lf

-4{y-2){x + l) + {x + lf =

3.3. (^^ '-l)y' + 2xy^ = 0.


. , xudx
, 3,y,dy ^ = - 1 , -

63


.
^
^

,
\ du
= \ =7 +
'
X

( lU^

^^?-'

/ 2 ,\^ du

[ -11
= X dx


ludu
^
^ " +\

">

^\

X dx

\ du\
^ ^
- +
= - 2 ''
X dx J

-\

-\
,
^- -du=

uiu

dx
.
X

-)


du
dx
=
;
^
X

i l l .

1^1

ln(w" + l ) - l n W =-1 X +1 ;

~-\-\

= .

,
x V + l = Cy.

14.4
.

.
,

y+P{x)y

= Q{x),

(1)

P[x),Q{^x) .

= uv; =uv + vu
-

64

14


uv + vu + P[x)uv^Q{x)

uv + u\y'-^P{x)v\^Q{x).

v ,

D' + P(JC)U

(2)

= 0,


-\p(x)dx

v=e ^
,
U'V = Q(^X),

--

v{x)

-dx + C.

v

y = v{x)

(3)

2.
y'+P{x)y

= y"Q{x),

(4)

P[x),Q[x) , ^ ^\,
.
,
.
- uv; ' = uv + vu
.
3 , (1) Q{x)^0,
,
Q{X) = 0 .
.

= -P{x)dx;

ln\y\ = -jP{x)dx

65

+ ln\Cl

-\p{x)dx

= ^
, .
, . . ()
,
,

;^ (1),

C{x) = JQ{x)J'^^''^''dx + C.
,

>^=e-^'^'^"[|e(x)J^^^^"^4-c

(5)

.
( )
(4).
4.
,
, X .
4.1. : ) y-yctg)c=smr, ) (^+1)/+4=3,
, XI) - 0.
, ) = uv; ' = uv + uv\
UV + UV -uvctgx = ^\nx,
uv-\-u{v'-v ctg ) = sin X,
V ,

(6)

t;ctgx = 0. ,
dx

66

14

dv
= vctgxdx, v = sm . dx
(6) v,
du
.
,
^
s m x = smx du = dx: - + ,
dx
}; = ( + )sin .

3
) +^ = -^

" 1

i" 1

y = uv,
/ . /

4
3
,
( , Axv \
jc4l
1
(^
x'+lj

3
x4l

^^

dv

^ dv
4xdx
,,
/ ^ \
1
- + -^^ = 0; = J-; lnd = -21n(jc4l); v =
j.
dx ^-\
V
x^+l
' '
^
^
(x^+\)
v (7),
- ^ = 3(jc'+l);

u=3J[x^+l)dx

= x'-\-3x + C.


+
=-

(.41)'
^ = = 1, = - 4.

x43x-4
(1)
4.2. :
) ( / - 6 x ) / + 2 > ' = 0; 6) '+3 = -.

67

, ) ,
, .

dx
^
, 3

2 = - +6 X
=
.
dy

2
= uv; - uv + v'u,
,

. ,

V + VU

V+U V

2'
dv _ dy
V

3v_

3v_

;;
UV = - ,

V =

v=

'

(8)

v (8),
1 dy
1
, du=-^,
=-
=-^+.
2
2
2
,
= +
2
) .
'+ = 0. dy

,11

3dx

- ^ =

^,11

,1^1

, 1 = -31+1
X

, . .

{)
,

1 ?

(9)

_4

=-j
.
X dx
'

'""'-.'^
X dx
J

dC
dx

= \

c(x)=+q.
^ ^

'

68

14

, (9)
'
^

'

^ ''

4.3. : ) -j^ctgx = --f-;


sinx
) x V / + x / = l ; ) ( x 4 2 j ; + / ) / + 2 x = 0.
, ) .
= uv,
uv^vu-uvQX,%x--,
uv + ulv -;1) = -^^,
sin X
sin X
dv cosxdx 1 I I , I . I
=
, Inb = l n s m x , u = smx.
(10)
V
sinx
(10),
/

^"

3 - 2

sm X = W sm ,

- = sm ,

2^

= cosxH-C,,
"

=72cosx + 2Ci '

, 2Cj = ,
sinx
3^^

v2cosx + C
) ^'^
>^+->^=-^X

(11)

X j;

, .
.

/

dy

dx

/ + ^ = 0, =
X

, 1 1

I I

1^1

In V = ~ l n x + l n C L
'

'

I I

v = .
^

69

, () , . .
= -^-^.

(12)

' (11)
I ^,
^
- + = - ^ ^ .

C4C = xdx,

^ ^
_
/3 2
cW=^
3
2""^"
^^^^""'""^^' , (12), 3Cj = ,
3_
-\\^"^~
. 2 ^
) ,
.

hx =-2_y-j^ , X + = ^^.
dy
2
2
.
= uv, = uv + vu^
-

V \_

2 + 2
2uv

(13)

^^

1 I I

"2

1 J

= , In = a y , v = e^.
dy
2
' '
2 ^
(13),

du- -f 2

2 +
-

^,

2udu=-j(2y

+ y')e'dy,

'=-''.

2 ^

^^

, ^^-^^
^+'=-'.

^ ^ =\C-y^e^je

^',

70

14

14.5. .

1.
P{x,y)dx + Q{x,y)dy = Q

(1)


^ =^ ,
(2)


du (, j;) = 0.
)
X

u{x,y) = ^P{x,y)dx-\-^Q{x^,y)dy

= C,

(3)

Vo

u{x,y) = ^P{x,yQ)dx-{-^Q{x,y)dy

= C,

XQ,JVO ,

^ {x^,y^) + Q^ {x^,y^)^Q.
)
d x = Pdx, d y ^ Qdy,

,
, ,

u~\Pdx^-(p[y)\
u=\Qdy^-\if{x),
(4)
({) V^(x) .

({) , , .
2. (1)
,

71

fi^jii^x.y),
,
II i^Pdx + Qdy^
()^(^)
;;

^^
11
:
) ^^ = /X (:), (5)

_
- ~^

dx

^ ^

\dx.

(6)

) /i = jU (jv), (5)

d/J. 1
dy.
(7)
= W ^ -= -I ;; J
JF

Af

(6) j ,
(7) .
5.1, : ) [ + y)dx + (2y)dy = 0;
/

dx + e' 1 =.
) -^

J
, ) ,
. ^-\-\
Q-x-2,
(2)
^da
-^+

( + 7)

(-2^;)

,
(3), , ^ = , =0
X

u=

j{x-\-y)dx-J2ydy=+xy-y^.

72

14

--^ =^.

(2) ,
.
) = - ^ ,

Q-e^

..--,

=~-^'


(4),
,

jPdx=:\

-'

\Qdy = \e'

dx =

-ye'+(p{y),

- 1 dy = -ye^ -^ilf{x).

,
X, ,

-^ =.

5.2. : ) (^ by^dx-'xdy = 0;
) ixy^^-y^dx-xdy^^Q
j^(l) = l.
, ) ^^ +y\ Q = -. QB
(6),
da
1

2dx
X

,11
' '

^,11
' '

1
X


\dx~dy--Q,
1 +
X
J

73

(5)

1 +

JC 2

X

^liPdx = yi\ + ^]dx


\liQdy = -\-dy

= x--^ + (p{y),
= --^-^\i/{x),

^ X

,
, (j^) = , V

-.
X

) = ^ +,

Q = -. QB -

(7),
1|^|=-21|;;|,

/1 +
1
^ =

^
1^
X
-dy = 0.
+ -

,
(5)
'

JC +

,
(3), , ^=1, >' = 1, = 0.

74

JC + \dx- \r-dy =

14

iy

+-

^ + 2 = 3.

14.6.
1.
= ({/)+11/{)

(1)

:.
= VL X ,
(1)
X
dx

[(p{p)-p]-^(p\p)^W{p)

= ^.

(2)

-^ dp
/7 .
(2)
X (1),
.
/?. ,
([)- = 0, (1)

= ({)+\1/{),

(3)

2. ( (') = \ j^/^ae
= ^'+{/)
(4)
' = , , =
(4)

75

^-/{),
(5)
/?

y = px^\lf{pY

= -\1/\).

(6)

,
.
6.1. : ) = 2/ - v 1 + ^";
6)J^ = V + -7r, ) .
' = , = 2 -yj\ + ^.

dy = 2pdx + 2xdp .

dy = pdx,
pdp
dx 2
1
pdx + 2xdp = fL=
1 + ;?'
dp+jc
P = - ^X^p"
, .
: = WL); -uv-^-vu, Y]\tu,v />,

^ , 2

V+U

V
^
dv
^dp
= -2-^^;
V

du _ ^
- 7

-;

V -{- V

1
v-^vi
^
^ +1

u=\f==rdp-\-i

dp

dp ^l + p'
W1 + /
/1 + /
,

76

14

" = - ;^ Vi+7^ - - In |;>+VT+V + .



^1
"
[ = 2-

1
2

+ '
1

In

p + ^Jl + p '

+ ^.

) . ' = ,
= -.

dy = pdx + xdp
- dp.

dy = pdx,
xdp

-dp = (i dp

f
X -

= 0.

P
, dp = 0, = - . ,

dp = 0, /> = V = +
.

2
2 ^ 1 3
, : = , = -+ = -^,

2
3
= =
'
3
/?, = v2x^.
, ,
,
, . .
.

77


(^o'J^o) -^^^^^-^),
^,

XQ , ^ = /

^ =^2x1 ,
2 1 I2
^
^0
7

\^

, = , \/ Y

V -^0


(^'^) - -, . .
; .

14. 1- ,

.

/ ( , ; ; , / ) = 0,

(1)

, , ,
,
y^fxi^x.y)
/ = /2(^,7).
(2)
,

. (1)
i^(x,j;,C) = 0; F,(x,>;,C)-0.

(3)

, (1) ,
' -

78

14

f{x,y,p)

= 0; /;{,,)

= 0.

(4)


(3)
F{x,y,C)^F,{x,y,C)F,{x,y,C)

=0

(5)

F{x,y,C)

= 0; F:{x,y,C) = 0.

(6)

, (4), (6),
(1)
.
2.
= {'),

(7)

, ' = , = ((). ,
, dx = (p'(p)dp,T3,K
dy = /dx = pdx, dy = p(p\p)dp.
,
(7)
= ({); y = \p(p\p)dp'^C.

(8)

3.

(9)

= ({1

, ' = , = (().
, dy = (p\p)dp. ,
dy = pdx, pdx = (p [p)dp, dx = ^"-^.
,

- | ^ - ^ + ; = ({

(10)

79

, (8), (10)
.
4. 1-
^({,),

(11)

, = \
^({,\

(12)

(12) , /? ,
_ ( ( dp
dp dx
(12), (13)
() . (13)
/? (12), ,
(11) .
5.
= 11/{,/),

(14)

, = \

.
.
I / /dp
^^^^
dy
7.1.

:
)
7 = ^^+^;
) / ' + ( ^ + / ) / + = 0.
, ) , .

X+
dx
/ + 1

f=-^'

j>'-">=/(.+i)-"<^(.+0.

80

14

2 =2(x + i y ' 4 c 7J^ = V ^ + C.


(5)

>^ = (/ + ) .

(4),
XH-l

j^ = 0. , - Q
.
) ' = t,
+ (jc^ + j;^) ^ + xj; = t
/

J- 1 , 2

2 ,

2 ^

^2 , _ 2

_2

-l=-^LZ_.-^ "
2

^-

fJ
V

+ -
2

X,

_-
* 2 """

-
2

+\_

:=
.
= - ^X
=

^
dy
dx
-=^ =
;

In [ = - In X + In ; ^

.
X

ydy - -xdx\
2

=
h ; ^ -^ =^ .
7.2. : ) + = In \ ) j ; = ^^

, ) = 2{\ -)
' = , = 2(1/?-/7).

^^
dx 2 ^-dp

81^

1 \dp.

dy = pdx, dy = 2(1-p)dp. ,
= 2-^+,
,
= 2(\-);
= 2-^ +,
) '= . = ^^.
, = 2'^ + ^^ .
dp _

dx~e'{2^py

'^'

,
{2 + p)e4p

= dx; "" {\ +) = + .


= ^{\ + ) + ;

^^

(4) , /? =
= ^^, . . j ; = 0.
7.3. :
) = {1 + /) + ';

) = +

, ) ' = , = (1 + ) + ^.
X, pdx = {\ +p)dx + xdp + 2pdp
dx
-t-: =-2/7. , .
= uv, + {v'-^v) = -2/7.
v = e-'\
= -2';
=2('-')-\-.

82

14

, = 2 ( 1 - ) + ~^.
,

) = , = + -.

(15)
1

- + '

dp ^
}dy^ = 0

dp

dy\

= 0.
)


,
^ = 0;
/7 = 1
= + \
dy


2
=-

^-2.

, '^ = ~4.
, = + ^;
^ - - 4.

14.8. ,

1. ,

d [) = xdy + ydx;

d\

xdy - ydx

rX \

)
, , ,

ydx - xdy

= ;

= ;

^
= .

2.
P{x,y)dx + Q{x,y)dy + R{x,y){xdy-ydx)

83

= 0,

(1)

Q , SL R
/(/?^~1),
.
= zx
,
2 = 0, .
3.
/ = P{x)y'+Q{x)y

+ R{x)

(2)

.

. - ^,
= ^+ Z

.

=^+-

+ ,
X

(3)

, , ,
=, { + \) >4. X

j;J (3).
8.1. : ) cos xdx + sin xdy = cos 2xdx;
6) ydx-[x-y')dy
= 0.
, a)
u=ysmx. , du = cos xdx + sin xdy.

84

14

du -co^lxdx,

=~sin2x + C,
2

ysinx = sin2jc + C
2

J^ = C0SX + --7-

sinx
6)
ydx-xdy = -y'dy,

ydx-xdy^_
2
ydy-

d
, = w, du=-ydy.
^

-^

'

'

+ . , = -^+ + ^ ^ = .
2

2
2
8.2. :

) [x^ + 2y^)dx-xydy-{xdy-ydx)

= 0; ) / = / + - +

, ) .
= zx,
(^ + 2z^x^ Wx - zx^ [xdz + zdx) - (x^dz + zxdx - zxdxj = 0.
(l + z^]dx-(zx + l)dz = 0 x'
-x =
r-.

^
^
^
1 + z'
1 + z'
, .
1

' . ' ^^ ^
= uv, uv + u\ v 1 + z^.
l + z''
v = ^Jl + z^;
2
" = J 7 - ^ = ^ = ^ + C; x^z +
+z

'(l + z')

/1 + z'

z z = ,
X

85

) (3).
^ = . j^i
X

,
^
I
= + + ;
/

>

.'

? ^ . ^
+ 2 ^ + 1 = 0;

=-\.

, ^-.

. . . ,
z = x ( C - l n x ) . ,
1
1

1
.
X x(C-lnjc)

14.9. ,

1.
,
X, . . j ; = / (jc).
. dx
, {-\)-

^""-'^

^\f{x)dxC,=(p,{xYC,,

dx ,
( - 2) -
-
x^^n

86

14

3; = ()+,"-'+,"-...+.

( ).
y=iy^^y-=:zy^^, ,j;^"~^^ =>^"~^^ = ^.

= ^,
XG [xpX2].
.

2,....,'^
=(-1 {)+,;-' +,;-' +,., + _,;

yt'^=cp,{x,)^q
,
.
2. f(^x,y\y'')

= 0

j^. = ,

d'y_dp

dp]

~ ~ "7" j ,, = .

dx J
. ,
p = p{x,Q),
y=\p[x,C^)dx + C2.

.
2,
, {^) = 1
/{XQ) = ^. ,
, -

87

.
.
3. f{y,y\/')
=
.
= , ;;, . .
dx
d^y dp dp dy
dp
TT-~r-~,r~P~7~ ,
dx
dx dy dx
dy
f\ y^p^p-.\=o^ , p = {^)'
[
dy)
^
-^= (\
; = dx. ,
dx ^^^
'^
{^,)

y^yi^x.C^.C^).
4.
:
1. , .
. (,\'\...
,"^) = ,
()
2.
, . . {,\\.,,
," = 0,
-{),

.2.

^..V^

d'p dp
= ,
dy' [dy
dy
.

. .,

3. ^"^ = f(y
\ ^^ ^
^^^ =^7()
z?^""^^ =:/(jr7(x)).
4. {,,\\...
,>' ) = 0
,\\,,.
,"^, =ty,
t{x) ,
.

88

14

9.1. : ) j;^^^ = e^""', ) = ^ = 1,


= 0,' = \, " = 2.
, ) ,

.
1
y" = \e"'dx = -e'' + q.
2

J-X , /<^ 1 J , .
/^==||_-^+ , J x ^ -^e ^2JC
' ^ + CjX + Q ,

11

2JC

/=||-."+C,+Q
1

-\"

jc-2

' 8

' 2
,

- ' ' + , + 2 + 3

'

'
2

16
' 6 2 '
'
) ,

.
. ,

/ ' = 1 + ,

= 1 , 2 = -1+

=3.

,
1

= ~ - 1 ' - 1 + + 2 = 1, 1 = 3 + ^ ,

^^-2.

, ,

: = - | 1 ' + - ' - 2 + = 1 , 0 = | - 2 + , = ^ ;
X -

v = I n +X - 2 +.
2
2
2

89

9.2. : ) ( + 1 ) + = 0;
, ) ;^,
,
= {), '-{).

( / + 1 ) + /7 = 0 - = -\,
X

, - uv\
dv
dx
V
=uv + vu uv + u\v - = - 1 ;
1 x 1

t; = ;

= -1;

=-;

hCp

X X

.
X

= , = -+ ^ /, , dx
2
X )
, ,

, =

+ , In || +

) ,
dp _ dx
/ = , ' = - =]\ +
X

Inl /7 + ^1 + = In || + In ,;

Vl + y = , - ';

' = Cfx^ -1;

p + yjl + p^ =^;

dy --

=,
1 + ,.
4 ' 2, ' '
'
,
4

'

1 =,- +Q,
4 ' ,
'
,

1
2,

^;

90

14

^ Q , ^
1 .
,
'-
'-1, , ,
= 1
1.
2('-1)
4
' '
9.3. : ) ''-\-2[/)

/\3

=0;

)/'=^/77
, ) , //
dp _
= , =-^.
'*'

+2^-
dy

= 0.

/7 = 0 + 2j;/7 =0.
dy
: = , >^ = .

dy

+C^

= ,
dx
dy = ^ ^ ,

(y^ + C,)dy = dx,

^+,

= + ^.

,

y - x = C2-C,j; = .

91^

) x^^y,
. ,
,
. -,
' \
-^\\-^.

, =E=^dx,

= sin (jc + Cj).

arcsin/? = x + Ci

/7 = , dy=sm[x+C\)dx >'=-cos(x+Cj)+Q.
dx
9.4. : ) ^''-[' =0;
^)yy"-{yi=0)"^\)' = 2{")\
, ) ,
'-,
^' = ^.

dp dx
1 1 1
_ CjX
p^
x^'
p
X Cj '
X + Cj
,
, , . .
//

L^iX

=
x + Cj
= Q ( - , In | + Q |) + ;
;^ = - ^ ' - , ' ( + ,)1| + ,| + ,' + 2 + ;

Q'^Q+C';

;; = -^^-,^( + ,)1| + ,| + 2 + .
) , /
*", -ty, "" = t'y + t^y.
^
t'y + t^y = ^ ; t' = 0; t-C{,
= ^;

dx
^ = qdx; In __ C^x. y = C2eQx

92

) ' = {)\

14


/? = 1.
dx

"--^^

pdp = dx, ^ = + Q , =yfbc+Q. y'=yj2x+Q.


,
,
y=j{2x

+ C,)2dx + C,=-{2x
1

+ C,)2+C^;

= {2 + ,+^ + ^.
) .

=.

dp

<//

\dy

^dpy

= 2

/=0,

/ = 0,

= /7

d/ [dy

= 0.


dp
d^p
dt
dt
2 .
, -^ = t, j- = t, pt
1 = , dy
dy
dp
dp

^
^
^
dt
i^ dt dp
/ = 0, - f = 0, p = C y^C.x + C^^ p-t = Q, = -^,
dy
dp
t
p
ln|f| = ln|C,>|, t = C'p.

93


^ = 1,
dy

^ = Cldy, \\\ = 1-\;,

^',''^\

dx

'

'^>'

^^^'

^''^=/ + '
, :

=, =,+,, -^-^'^+;+;=.
14*10*


1.
/ ^ + ^ / " ' ^ + +/^-,/+^3^ = 0,

(1)


, /^,/^,...,/^
.
-

= ,,+^^+. + ^^,
(2)
,2^'->
.
= ^,
:" -^:""^ +... + P_iA: + P =0. -

94

14


.

:
1. ^,^,...,^
,
= /^"" + Qe'^' +... + ,/""";

(3)

2. /cj
(A:j = :2 =... = :^),

3.
- /:, 2 = j8/,

e"^"" (, cos + ^ sin /);
4. - k^^=aPi
,

2.

' - + qy = 0 -
,
= "" (, cos j8x + Q sin px).

(4)

.
Cj = ^sin^, ^ =Acos(p, (
. 2 ,

7 = ^e""sin(jSx + (p).

95

(5)

/? = ,
''-\- = 0
.
^ = yjqr^ ^ = -^qi,
7 = v4sinf^^x + ^ j .
10.1. : ) ' -5 -6 - 0;
) / ' - 6 / 4 - 9 ; ; = 0; ) / / + 13;; = 0; ) / 1 6 = 0, >^(0) = 1,

/ ( 0 ) = 2.
, )
yt^ -5:-6 = 0 . ^ =6,
:2 = - 1 . ,

)

:^ -6: + 9 = ^^^^.
,
= ^'{,+2).
)

:^+6/: + 13 = 0 ATJ 2 = - 3 2/.


- : = - 3 , j8=2.

= '^"" (Cj cos 2 + ^ sin 2)
, (5)
= Ae'^"" sm{2x + (p),
) /:^+16 = 0
^2 ^ -4^-
= , j3 = 4.

96

14

j^ = CiCos4jc + C2sin4x y = A^\n{Ax-V(p).


.
1 = Q -f Q , ^ = 1.
= "4Cj sin 4 -f 42 cos 4.
2 = -4, +42, ^2=.
,
= cos 4 +sin 4.
10.2. : ) ''' - 6'' +1 = 0;
d'y

) -ji-y = ^'^ ) / 4 4 / ^ 4 - 4 / ^ = 0; ) / - / = 0, ;;(0) = 0,


/(0) = 1, / ( 0 ) = 0, /0) = 1, / 0 ) - 2 .
, )
^ - 6^ +13/: = ^ - , ^^ = 3 2/.
, -
,
^^ +^'' [^ cos 2 + 3 sin 2).
) /:^-1 = 0
(k^-l)(k^ + 1^ = 0, ^^ = - 1 ' ^,4 = ^-
, ,
,
= ^"" + """ + cos X + 4 sin .
)
^ -{-4'^ +4^ =
^ [' + 4^ + 4) = 0. :
^=2=0
/:,4 ~ ^^2, ^^ = -iy/l.
, , 2,4,
>^ = , + 2 + ( + Qjc) cos /2 + ( + Qjc) sin V2JC.

97

) ^ --^

^ =0, ^^^ =1, ^^ =i.



= ^- ^' + ^'"" + ^ cos + ^ sin .

' = ^"" - ^'"" - Q sin + 5 cos JC,
' = ^"" + ^'"" - Q cos -^ sin ,
= 2'' - ^'"" + 4 sin - 5 cos ,
>^^^' = -^" + ^""" + Q cos X + 5 sin .
,
[0 = ,+2 + 3 + 4,
1= Q-C3+Q,
-2 + 3-4,

1 = -

, : , = -2, 2 =1, = , ^ =1, Q = 0.


, >> = "" + cos - 2.

14.11


q
.

98

14


- j^j
, (
^ = 0), . . =.-\-^.
1. q{x)
^
. q{x)
^,
. :
1) q[x) = e"^P{x), {) . ,
= , ^() = (), {)
( ), q{x)
"^.
2) q{x) = e'^{^^-^),
3) ^(x) = P(x)cosZ)x+/(x)sinZ?x; P{x)\ij{x) .
4) q{x) .
j;j , q{x), . .
q{x) .
( ) (
)
( ),
^ q{x) '.
q{x) ^
,
[,{ . . ^,[,[\...
.
,
,
.
2^. q{x)
j^j ,

99

,2,..., .
, ,
, ^e'^''\e^''-'^^''\q{x)e-'^4xdx,

(3)

,
, = e'^''je^''--''^''\e^''-''^''\g{x)e-''''dxdxdx,

(4)




'" = cos + i sin \

"'" = cos - / sin

(5)

sina = (^"--').

(6)

cos = 1('+^-'");

3. .

y"^Py+P,y = q{x).

(7)



^..+^^,
(8)
^ ^ .
Cj 2 .

\{[^^-{

(9)

[ ^ Cj' = (p, (),


2=(2{^)-

100

14

Cj C^ (8),
.
-
->2^"-^
,
(1)
{) = ,{),-^,{),-^^{)^,

(10)

, (),2(),..., ()

- ' ,("-2),

'("-21

-\+,/->+...+
/

[-\)

, ^t

(-1)

- ' ,(-2)

, -,/

\-\\

,
/

11,1. : ) "-2 = ^ \;
) / ' - 2 / = 2-5:'; ) / ' + 6 / + 5;; = 8'^ ) "-(,'^^
= ^'\
) / ' - 3 / + 2:>; = (:)^ ) "+ '-^-%\
(0) = 0,

/(o)=-f
, )
"-1 --^.
:^~2:-3 = 0 ^-,
/^2 = - 1 . - ^ "" + ^'"".

, >^j

^ = ^^ -hBjc + C, , ,
. , ^'^ -

101

, ->\->\ ,

2-4-2-^
-- = 3^ -I.


^
3 = -,
X
0 = -4-,
^
-\ = 2-2-.
4

= -\,

-,
3

11

. ,
3

'
3 9

'
3 9
)
- 2 = 0.
^ -2 = 0 ^ =0, 2= 2.
w = Q + 2^\
j^j.
=
, '
, . .
^ =(^^ + + ).
[ = ^ + 2 + , ''= 6 + 2
\^\^\
6 + 2-6^-4-2
= 2-5\

^
X
^

-6 = -5,
6-4 = 0,
2 5 - 2 = 2.

102

14

5
5
, ^ = , ^-~7^
1 _
5 , 5
1 ^
= . , ^= ^ + + 4


= ,-^ ^'' +

5 ,

3
2
2
)
'-^/--.

:^ + 6: + 5 = :, = - 1 , ^=5.
= ^'"" + ^'^''.

,
^= Ae"",
{ = ^'', {'=9^'' 1,{,{'
^"" +18^4^^'' -{-5^'' =8^^"", =,
, . =^''.
4

'
' 4
)
'' - 6' + 9j; = 0.
jj;2 _ 5^1; + 9 = ^2 " ^'
, w = (Q + 2) "".
m = 3
,
^ -^'''. [ = Aylx + 'ix^je"',
['=^ A\2-\-\lx-\-9x^je''' .
lAe"" = 4^'',
= 2.

103

)
:^-3/ + 2 = 0.
^-\
:2 = 2.
1



m = 1
, ^ - " + ^ - Cxje''.
[ ^'
,
[ + 2 + ^ + 2-[- + ^ + 2 + + ^ +^ +)' -[9^ +6 + + ' +^ + )' +[2' + 2^ + 2)'' =
= (^^+)\

,
, , , = ,
3
3
= , = - 3 . ,
^^ 3
,^
+-+3
3 2
J


7, =,"+2'^

^'
. 3

3
2

,
\ .

)
''+4'-'5 = 0
^ +4-5 = 0. ^ =1, 2=5.

104

14

-5
= ^"" + ^

m = 1
,

, %
^^ + - \
[ ^
,


, ,
= --

25

,
4 .
+ -

=~


-5JC

^^^'^^'''

3 j

+ -

4 .

\
5/ 3

.
3

= Ci^'' -SCje ~5

4 ,

' = ,
25
3
1

5'

105

Ci = - , Q = .
' 2
' 50
,

= - +
2
50

+ .
51^ 5 j 3

11.2. :
) / ' - 2 y - f l 0 j ^ = 2sin3x + 5cosx; ) '- = ^2\
) y + J ^ ^ c o s x ; ) / ' - j ; = sinx-e~''; ) y - 7 y + 6 > ^ = e''sinx;
) y ^ - 2 y = xcosx.
, )
~ ly' +1 Oj^ = 0.
/:^-2/: + 10 = 0 k^j-\Zi.

= 1, j8 = 3,
I/ = "" (Cj cos + 2 sin ).


,

^ =^cos3x + 5sin3x + CcosxH-Dsinx.

j^i'=-3^ sin + 35 cos - sin X + Z) cos X,
['= -9 cos - 9 sin - cos - Z) sin .
]^\:>\


- 9 cos - 9 sin - cos x-Dsmx-\-6A sin - 6 5 cos + 2 sin X ~ 2D cos +10^4 cos +105 sin +
+1 cos X +10D sin X = 2 sin + 5 cos ;

106

14

cos3x

0 = -9-

+ \0,

sin3x

2 = - 9 5 + 6.4 +,

cosx

5 = - C - 2 Z ) + 10C,

sinx

0 = -) + 2C + 10).

12
2
9
= , = , = ,
37
37
17
2
D. ;
2
1
y^e"" (, cos + ^ sin ) +(6 cos + sin ) + (9 cos - 2 sin ).
)
'- = 0. /:^ - 3 = ^ :| 2 = /3. = ^ ^"^ + ^' ^"^.
,
,

^= cos 2- sin 2.

[ = -1 sin 2 + 2 cos 2,

['= - cos 2 - 4 5 sin 2.

^ \' ,
- cos 2 - sin 2 - cos 2 - sin 2 = sin 2.


cos2x
-4- = 0,
sin2x
- 4 5 - 3 5 = 1.
4 = 0, 5 =

= ,^^ + Q^-^^ - - s i n 2 .

107

)
'- = 0.
:^ +1 = :, 2 = /, . . = ,
j8 = 1.
W = Cj cosjcH-C2sinjc.


= , 6 = 1
,
,
, , . .
^ = ^- .

{=^ 2 sin - cos + 2 cos - sin .

^,
['

2 sin + 2 cos - cos


, ,
^ = , -,

= ^ cosx + C2sinx +xsinx.
) ''- = 0
^ -\ = 0.
:, 2 = 1.


,
m = -1
,
^ =Acosx + Bsmx + Cxe~''.

108

14

' ,

-^cosjc-5sinx-Cfe"'' -'"' +~'' -Acosx-Bsmx-Cxe'''

=sinx~e~''.


,
, = 0,

=,

= . ,

7i =[~'' - s i n x j .
,
y = Qe'' + ^'"" + (^'"" - sin ).
)
'-1 -^ /:^-7: + 6 = 0.
^ =1, :2 = 6.
= ^"" + Cje^"".

3^1 ='' (^Acosx + Bsinx).
[, ' ,
e''(^cosx + 5sinx) + ^''(-^sinx + 5cosx) + e''(-^sinx + jBcosx) +
-^ (-4 COS JC -

sin ) - "" ( V4 COS + 5 sin -

4 sin + 5

cos ) +

-"" (^ cos X + 5 sin ) = ^ sin .


""
, ^ , = 1 .
, =
26
26

^ =^''(Scosx-sinx).
26
,

109

1
26^
^
)
' -2 = ^ -2 = 0.
^=0, 2=2.
w = Cj + 2^\

,
7i ={Ax-{-B)cosx + (Cx-hD)sinx.
{, '
,
- sin : - 4 sin - (>4 + 5 ) cos + cos -\- cos jc - ( + /))sin jc -2 (4 COS X - (yix + 5) sin X + sin + ( + D) cos x) = x cos x.

sinx
- - ^ - ^ - i ) + 2 5 - 2 C = 0,
cosx
- 5 + C + C - 2 ^ ~ 2 D = 0,
xsinx
- C + 2^ = 0,
xcosx
-A-2C-\.
, - ,
2
2

= - , /) =.

5
25
,

14 ^
1
-sin X.
+ COSX
5
V
/

=

,+,''-

14^

2
COSX

|sm X.

11.3. : ) ^^ + 5 ^ + 4 j = 3sinx;

Q)y"-v2y"+y' = 2e-'\ {0) = 2, / ( 0 ) = 1, / ' ( 0 ) = 1.

--

25

110

14

, )
^^ ^-5' + = 0
:^ 4- 5^ +4 = 0. :,^ = /, ^,^ = 2/.
,
W = Cj cos X + 2 sin X + 3 cos 2x + C^ sin 2x.
abi
^^,
j j = ^ c o s x + jBxsinx. [^, '
, 4^sinx + ^ x c o s x - cos X + 5 sin X + 5 ( - 2 ^ sin X - ^ cos + 2 5 cos - 5 sin ) +
+ 4(y4xcosx + jBxsinx) = 3sinx.

, , = ,

5 = 0. ,

^ = x c o s x .
,

= ^ cos X + 2 sin X + 3 cos 2 + ^ sin 2 cos .
)
+ 2 + = 0
^ + 2^ + : = 0. ^=0, = - 1
:2,
w = Q + (2 + )^""".
^= . 1,\-,1
,
- 8 ^ ^ - ' " +8^^"'" -2-^' = 2-^\
= -1
^ = -'^"".

111

,

;; = C,+(Q+C3Jc)e-"-e-'\

.
/ = ,-' - ( Q + )-' + 2^"'",
, ' /' = ,

' , + 2 = 3,
- + = - 1 ,

, Q =6, 2 = - 3 , ^ - -4.
,

>^ = 6 - ( 3 + 4jc)e-"-e-'\
11.4. :
) '-2 -\- = '''cosx\

=\
;
I "" +1 I
) '' + 4'+4 = ^"" In\ ) >^'''+4j;' = sin^ jccosx.
, a)
.
^^ = - 1 ,
=

) ''-3'+2

{,-^^)\


(3) -~''\\\~''

zo^xe'dx\dx-e~''\\\xz^

= e'"" \ (jc sin X + cos x)dx^ e'"" (2 sin x - jc cos x).

112

14

, = {^ +xC2 +
2smx~xcosx)e'''.
) ,
, :, = 2, ^2 = ^
= ,^* + Cje'.
(3)
= ^" \-'
J

\\ -^
^+1
N .^
-I. 1
dx

7+

- = -"" \dx =

= " + '

J ^' 4- 1

dx

dt
t{t--X)

, = ,^" + Qe" + ^" ( - In (^ +1)).


) ,
, ^2~ ~2.
w = (Cj -^xCj )^~ ""
(3)
= -^'"'^ Inxe^4xdx = "'^ j\Inxdx = "'^ j{x\nx-x)dx
:e-'^\^lnx'

3x 2

-2
, = ++Injc
^
' 2
4
) ,
, ^ =0, 2= 2/, ^ = -2i.

u = Q+C2 82+ sin2x


(4)

113

(6)

8

-k\'-\'

,-4ir

~5i

lix

- \ \ '
f

5
^3:

3/

^-ix

: =
-5

\dx =

V 15/ + 15/ ^ ~bi


(5), .
1 . ,
1 .
, = sm +sm .
' 60
12
,
1
y = Q +2082 + 82 + sin3x + sinx.
60
12
11.5.
1
: ) '' -2/ - =
) / > ; = COS^ X
'+1
^) "^ =secjd:gx.
, )
'-2^-
:^ - 2: +1 = , /:, 2 = 1
w = (Q + ^^"".
,
-^ {^)^^ + Q {^"", Q (),
^ {) (9). ^ =''
2 =^,

114

14

C,V + C'(l + x ) e ^ = ^ ^ .

C : = > - - ^ ,

C--i^.

,
Ci = l n ( x ^ + l ) + C,;

C2=arctgx + C2.

,
= Cj +2 1(^ +l) + xarctgx .
)
'-^ = :^ +1 =
= i.

W = , cos X + 2 sin X.
,
= ^ (x)cosx + C2 (x)sinx.
^ = cos ; 2 = sin , (9)
Cj'cosxH-C2sinx = 0,
1
- Cj'sin X + 2 cos X = 3 '
cos X
{ =

;
cos X

C[

5. cos X

V - + C . ; C2=tgx + C2.
, , = -
2 cos X
., Q ,

= {^ -l)cosjc + C2sinx

2cosx

115

+
cosx

^^ cos X + 2 sin X +

2cosjc

)
+ = ^ + = 0
^ =0, ^^ =i.

W = , +208 + 8.
,
~^ (jc) + C2 (x)cosx + C3(x)sinx.
^ =1; ^ =cosx; ^ =sinx, (10)

[ + [ cos X + 3 sin jc = ,
-[ sin X + 3 cos jc = ,
sinx
-C2 cos X - C3 sin X =
cos X
8 X

C[ = sin X

r, C[ = -tgx, C' = -tg^x.


cos X
,
, =

+ ,; 2 =ln|cosx| + C2; 3 =-~^^ + .


cos X
Cj, 2 3 ,
=

hCj +cosxIn|cosx| + C2 cosx + (x-tgx)sinx + C3 sinx

cosx

1
y = C^ +C2COsx + C3sinx +
+ cosxln|cosx| + (x-tgx)sinx.
cosx

116

14

14.12.
1.

( + )"") + ,( + 6 ) " - ' / ' - . . . + _,( + 6)/+>; = / ( ) , (1)


,,^,.,.,^^_^,^ ,
.
+ >0 + = ^
t, '^=~^';
3^x.=^^ {yu-yth
^^
(;^,,-;,,+2;;^...

.
2.
""^+,"-"''^+... + _,/+>; = / ( ) ,

(2)

(1).
(2)
y'Zc =^~^' {''~^'^^') . . (2)
. < ,
= -^'.
3^.
j c V " ^ + f l , x " V ^ + . . . + -iV + ^.y = 0

(3)

X > = ', .
,\,..,^''^ (3)
.

/,

3^1 = ^ ' '

72 =^'1^^^' ,=''{\)\...,

y,=x'{\nxf~\

17

= aPi ,

x'^cos(j31njc), jc"lnxcos(j31nx), ... , x"(lnx)

cos(j8lnx),

x"sin(j3lnx), x"lnxsin(j81nx), ... , x"(lnx)

sin(j3lnx).

12.1. : a) x^y'+xy-\-y=0; 6)

j^y^'+xy-y^O,

) / + >^ = - ; ) ( + 1 ) ' / ' - 3 ( + 1 ) / + 4; = ( + 1)'.


X

, ) , = \
= '^~* = (-1)'^~^. ,\''
,
r ( r - l ) + r + l = 0 ^+1 = 0. rj2=/.
, = ^ cos In + 2 sin In .
) = '',
r ( r - l ) ( r - 2 ) + r - l = 0 (-1) =0.
= 3. ,
y^xfCj+21 + In^xj.
) = \ ^'^'{''-') + 3~'' + = '^-\-1\-=^~\ . .
.


y^-At^e'^
1 = A\2te~^-t^e'^j,
1'= (2~^ -4te~^ ^t^e'^y yi,y{,/i'
,
[2-' - Ate-' + t^e'' + Ate-' - It^e-' + t^e'') = e'S
4 = . , j ; = (Ci+/2)"'+/^"^

118

14

,
/

1
1
1
+. 1 + In X
.
2
) + \ = \

/,i-/,-3/^-\-4y

= e'' /'-4+4

= ''.

,
, ^2 - 2 .
, w = (Cj + /2) ^^.

,=^', 9^' -^' +4^' =^\ = 1.

,
y = {q+C^\n{x

+ \)){x + \f +{ + \)\

14.13. !


.
1.

,
.
, \
= f{x,y).
2. .
(, jv, ) = .

119

= .

f{x,y,y)
= 0,


/

( ).

,,;

=0 .


(,,) = ,
f{p,p\(p) = 0 2

' -
/ , - - ^ , ^ = .
V

)
3. = f[x) ,

,

dy
.
- = , = .

/: > ,
X . ,
, ,
. .
/: < , .
, ,
,
.
4.
,

120

14

d^x
'-,
m-
= X,

dr

d'^y
m^=Y,

7-=^5

dv

d'x dy

d^z
^;
mY
= Z,

dr

(1)

d'z

m ; j - , r^? "TY
dt
dt
dt
; X,Y,Z .

, .

, .
,
,
.
,
, ,
d^x
^ dx
/3 ;
.
(2)

. (^) = 0,
,
, .
5. .

( ) , {) EI

1
^{)
pix)"
EI '
(3)
(3)
, dx

1 ^



1^

= ().

(4)

6. ,

.
.
. f/ L,
R

=-lu,dt,

dt
R
/ ; t ; L, , R
, , .
. 1.
.
2.
( ) ,
. ,
,
.
13.1. , ,
, ,
, .
. (. 14.2). y = f{x)
, (, jv) . MN
. MP
. MNP

122

14

MP
X%a=-:;-;^. MP-, a NP=, t g a = .
' NP'
= tg ; f-b=

. 14.2

dy _ Idx ^
~
5 1|;| = 21|| + 1||, = ^, .
13.2. , (1,3)
, ,
, .
. (. 14.3 ).
'
N
/
/
'

1
1
1

. 14.3
y-f{x)
, [^,)
. ON,

1[23

, - , . . .
OBN ,

= tg tg =
.

^.,

tg =

= -.

X -

= -;
-

. +

' =

; '

= 1. , X

dx

, I

y = xt\

y=t + xt\ dt = ; ^ = ln +.

j^ = x(ln|x| + C).
(1, 3).
, 3 = 1 + ; -2.
, j^ = (in || + 2).
13.3. ,

. \ \- ,
J^vl +
y^L
.
,
tg = \

yyjl + /^ -{-/^

2fccy/ = A : V - / .

. = xz,
dz
y' = z + xz\ 2kxz = ^ -z^ -'2kz' ,
dx
zdz
dx
, z
=
.
/ : ' - z ' ( l + 2A:) 2kx
, x'yt'~(l'+ 2 ^ ) / ={,

''

^ = ^ +-

1 + 2

124

14

13.4. : )
{-) -[-) =R^; )
= '^.
, )
2[-)-\-2[-)/
= 0 -+{-)
=0,

, - = 1-'0)
=
.

ln|>'-fe| = ln|x--a| + ln|C|, y-b = C{x-a), . .


.
)
' = ^. ,

'^

= . ^-, -^-~

' = -. = ~ ln|p| = -(jp + lnC, = ~'^.


13.5. h
= 0.
,
.
. :
-pv^.
(, ,
),
= P-pv ,
dt
^
^
dv dvdy
dv

dv
^
2
=
= V = ,
v = P-pv
dt dy dt dy
g
S dy
V=:g{\-kv^\^ k = .
dy
^
^
P

12^

- = gdy^
l-kv

-ln|l-A:t;'| = gv + C.
2^ I
I ^
VQ=0, y = 0.
, , = 0. ,
V
\n\l--kv'\ = -2kgy v =

J-{l-e-''^),

13.6.
.
200 ,
= 300 ,
NQ=S . .
.
N ,
dN _
^^
- - , , N = .
at
= 0, ^ = 8. 8 = ' ' = 8 7V = 8e''.
t = , 1
-'^ -~= '\
, . . 4 = ^"^,
=

, 200 7V = 8e ^ = 4 ^ .
13.7. , 100,
^ = 20 25, 60
10 .?
. = (-^),
dt

126

14

dT

kdt; In - 2 0 = ^ + lnC.
-20
= , = 100, In 80 = InC; = 80.
; = 10 . = 60, ,
In 40 = 10^: + In 80; ; = !-ln 2. , - 20 = 80*'
10
/ 1 \7
- 2 0 + 80 > - 2 0 + 80 1 \
I . ,
V-/

nv (\^

25 : 25 = 20 + 80
V^
/ = 40, . . 40 .

.4

13.8.
2 .
h
t, s ^.
.
. ,
V ,

v = (j.j2gh,
g = 9,81 /^ ; (
, (
-0,6).
, s di
, vdt, . .
dV = svdt = sCyJlghdt,
, ,
htg , dt
dv--nh^tg^aK[h-\dh\)

tg^a-Ktg^ah^\dh\,

, dh < 0.
,
-ntgahdh

= s(jJ2ghdt

dt =
iKtg^OC

, t = C

j==-dn.
sa^lg
-

j= h ^.
5s(J^2g

t = 0, h = H; =

-^^~\

,

t=

^.
2 Kig^a

5 SGyllgl

H^-h^
)

,
= , . .
^ ^ 2 Ktg^a ^\
. ,

.
13.9. ,
,

h^ , /^2
{h^>h^.
5 5*2, s.
. , ,
, ,
. . - 5j Jzj = 5'2<iz2, rfzj, dz^

128

14

dt. dt
asJ2g(^z^-z^)dt,

, -S^dz^ =(js^2g(^z^ ""^2)^^


dz,
(ysJ^g ,
= J = = -^^^dt,
yjz,-z^
S,

s -^ s
z^-Z2= u, dz^ -dz^ =du = -dz^
,
S.du
_
^
Sjdu
(ysJlg ,
dz, =
. ,
^
=r = ^^^dt.
,

r = 0 u = h^-h^,

^-^^
S,-hS,
w = 0,
=

C =

{S,+S,)(Js4g

13.10.
z,
( z = 0) ^.
. ,
PQ .



R , .
,
= -I1Z, II .

129

,
, ,

dP
dP
Pg
r^-gP

dz =
R{TQ-/lzy
dz
,
dP

gdz
R{T,-^lz)

, ,
I I Rii

1-^1 + lnC.

z = , = PQ, = ^.
,
=

^z

\^

13.11.
X , ,
, .
.
,
.


dx
= k{P-x),
dt
.
,
dx
= kdt;
-

= +-''.

130

14

^ = , . . = 0.
= - ,

13.12. ,
.
. ,
, .
= f{x)
(. 14.4).

. 14,4

. : NM ,
,
{,).
,
ZNMT == Z.KMO, ZMKO = ZNMT,
, ZKMO = ZMKO. ,
|0| = | 0 | ,
OM=yJx^+y^.

, = - ^ - , tg = \

-^-x = J x 4 /

131

(-^1^+=.
^

'


. x = zy, ' = z + yz',
X , ' ,

zy + ^ / z V + / =y{z + yz'); yfu7

= yz'.


dy _

dz
/l + z'

ln|j| = lnz + Vl + z^| + lnC; y = c{z + ^\ + zA\


= c(x + yfx^+y^


/=2

+ JC

. . ,
.
13.13. /,
R, L,
() = ^ sincot.
/Q = 0.
. ( ,
,
, , ):
di
Ui^+Uj^= , U^=L dt
L, Uj^ = Ri di
R, L h 7?/ = ^^ sin cot
dt
.

132

di

14

i=uv,

= uv + vu,
dt
Luv+u[Lv+Rv) = EQsm(ot. (*)
dv
R
dv
R ,
"7' T-r
=
V, =
dt, v = e ^ . pedt
L
V
L
(*),
~i du Er. .
Er. jt .
.
e ^ = ^smo)t u=^\e^ smcotdt.
dt
L
L^
,

-^
=-^-(Rsincot-Leo COS cot) ^ +C.

i = -^-(Rsmcot-Lcocoscot)

--^
+ Ce ^ ,

: /^ = t = , EQLCO

= ^ ^

LW+R'

^. -

,=---_

^ \\

coscot-e ^
V
J
V
13.14. m
R sin cot-LQ)

L'(o'+R'

v^ = 0. ,

.
.
= mg, ,
F = -kv^, ,
,
.

133

mw = P-kv

mx = mg-kx

= mg-kv ,
dt
dx
d^x dv
= v , j- = , a x
dt
dt
dt
.

dv
^ _ ^ 2

,
= mat

dv
2

a -V

= Ldt

(a^=^


a-\-v = ^ + C.
m
2a a-v
VQ=0 t = , ,
2
a-\-v
, = 0.
=
a-v

i-m

-I

v = a- 2
=
-- t
/
"^ +1
"" -

h. ,

^
dx
dx
. jkg
, = athj-^-t.
dt
dt
\
x = a\thj-^tdt

athMt.

= al1,-^/
+ =lnchJ-^t + C,,
\i 1
/
^
1
W
^

^ = , X = , ^^ = 0. ,

I

x = lnchj-^t.

134

14

13.15. 18 /. 5
6 /.
, 15 ^

.
. , s ,
.

d^s
, ds
dv J
m-z- = -k m- = -kv,
dt^
dt
dt
.
,
dv
^ ,11

^
=
dt\ In =
/ + ,.
V

t = 0,v =18 / = 300 /, Q = In 300.

t = 5, V = 6 / =^ 100 At4/w, 1100 = -5+1;


= -1.
5
,
t
, 1|| =1 + 1; = 3 0 0 - 3 ^
v = ,
dt
= 300-3"^ s = 300\3"4t =
-^^3''+C..
dt
J
1
^ = t = , ,
1500 ^
ISOO''
'"^
=
. , 5 =
1-3 5
1
1
, = 15 ,

1500
l-lUl310^..
1

135

13.16.
UQ .
, , .
. ,
. 14.5.

. 14.5
= mg,
: ^ = 0; = -mg; ^ = 0.
(1)
,
d'x
= 0;
dt'
, ,
d^x
dt

dv.
dt

f4

dfd^y
dt^

-g;

dv^
dt^

d'z
=0
dt'
d'z _ dv^
~di^ dt

dv,.
dv
- = 0.
^=-g;
dt
dt
dt
,
= 0:

f.=C,;

-gt + C,;

v^=C,.

: / =
v^ = VQ COS ;

v^ = v^ sin a;

v,= 0.

136

14

,
Q = VQ COS ; 2 = VQ sin a; C3 = 0.
dx dy dz
v^, v .^, , > >

dx
dy
.
dz ^
dt
'
dt
^
'
dt
,
x = VQtcosa + C^; y = -^+VQtsma + C^; z = C^
: XQ= ^= ZQ=0 t = ,
, ^=^=^= 0.

x = VQtcosa; y = + VQtsma; z = 0.
2
,

y = xtga--

^^ ^ .
2 VQ COS

,
. , . .
= 0,
Un sin 2
=^
.
g
(
)
dy ^
g^
dx

VQ COS

137

vl sin 2
=

2g
,

2g
,
.

, ,
2v^

sma.
g
13.17.
. ,
5 = 0,5 .
.
(. 14.6).

8, . . = 6,
.

138

14

= mg
{-8) (
-5).

j- = -c(jc + 5) + mg-.
dt
, = 5, ,
d^x

' ^
(\
;- =
X + = 0.
dt


(2)

f \

= J.
V
. ,
t = , XQ = - 0,5,
v^ = 0.
- 0,5 = 4 sin ^ . (*)
= cos (^ + )
= cos . , ,
coscp = , = . = (*),
= - 0,5.
^

X = -0,5 sin Q)t + ~ \=-0,5coscot.


2
13.18. = 8,4 /,
= 49 . ,
F (/) = 2sin 13^

139

.
, (2)
+jc = F ( / ) .

^
eg 8,4981 ^^^
= -^- =
= 169,
m
49
Jc + 169jc = 2sinl3/.

/:, 2 =13/,
w = CiSinl3/ + C2COsl3/
^ ^{\(-\-().
= , -\
,
, . .
X, =y4^sinl3/H-5/cosl3/.

jCj =ylsinl3/ + 13.4^cosl3/ + 5cosl3/-13J?rsinl3r;
i* = 26.4 cos 13/-169^4/sin 13/-265 sin 13/-1695/cos 13/.
Xj, i j , Xj

, : A-Q,B


= sinl3/ + C cosl3/
cosl3/.
'
'
13
.
5.

,

140

14

8 =

49
=

= - 5 , 8 , . . = XQ =
8,4

= - 5,8 JCQ = 0. : - 5,8 = 2,


= 13Ci

.
1 . .. . . ^ ^
=
sinl3r- 5,8 + - |cosl3^
13
169

= ^ cos(^\ 5,8 + = ^4^ sin(^, 169


13

jc = 4jSin(l3^-(Po),

(Po=arctg(l3(75,4 + ^)).
/ ^
. ,
,
.
13.19. = 49 , ,
.
R - Pv.
, = 5 /;
j8 = 0,8 / t = 0
1 , ;
VQ =4 /.
. .
(.
14.7). : ,
; F = - (5^^ +) ,
; R = -fix
, v^x.

/////,///

141

z'

R^

/^

^ ^

\
. 14.7
(2)

mx = P-c(S^^+x)-px
(*)
= 5^^, (*)

+ [5 + = 0 +- = 0.

:^ + : + = 0,
,

. =,
^12=~^>
2
2

g
^,,=-8/4-100=~86/.

= ~^^ sm[6t-\-(p) = "^'(, sin6/ + C2COs6/).
,
lim^e"^'sin(6r + ^ ) = 0.
,
, . . ~^^. = 6.

142

14

,
: = , XQ == , io = 4 /.

x = -8^e"^'sin(6/ + ^ ) + 6^^"^'cos(6^ + ^ ) .
,

1 = 4 sin (\
4 = - 8 sin (- cos <,

ctg = 2, ( = arcctg 2, ^ = -;
= /^ + ^^8V = >/5
sm^
, ,

X = /"^' sin (6^ + ).
13.20. /, ,
.
.
.
. , (. 14.8).

. 14.8

X {) = -P^l-x).

(4)
/ / = ~p(/-.jc).

143

1/ = - 1-

~2

+ Ci,

EIy = -P

Ix"

J \

+ C1X+C2.

Cj 2
: = = 0 = 0 = 0.
dx
, ,
^=2 0.
,
dx

2EI

h)

Plx^
3-/
6EI


1^

1'

2EI' ' "


3EI
,
, ^
, .
13.21.

Os=-

ld_

qr
dr ) 2D^
dr dr
D , q
. , q

.
.
,
. , , . . ^
const. ,
.

14

144

1 d ( dw\ qr^ ^
rdr\
dr } AD
'
, .
,
dw

qr*

C^r

dr

-+
16D + - 2

dw

qr^

CiK

+-1^ + ^
dr 16Z) 2
r
,

^ = 64D
.^!L.+^+CAn\r\
4
2

(1)

+Q

(2)

1 1 3

,
dw ^
=
dr
= = . (1)
16D

' , , ^ Q
16D

= 0;
'=0

= 0.

Cj = 0. Cj , , =--.
'
SD
= , w = 0.
(2)
4

qa
qa
^
^
^
qa
64>
32Z)
'
'
^
^ -+=0
= (2),

.-

145

v-ri

64D
13.22.
,

+2 + w =
dx^
dx^
D
pr

Eh

Im=^;- n^
n =
=.-^; p ;
2Z)'
r^D
h ; E^ji ; D
.
. ,

T- + 2m"^^ w = 0,
dx
dx'
.

'-\-2^+"=0,

k = yj-myjni^-r^
= /-(A2-m);

p = J-{n-\-m);

=a + ip,
^>^.


WQ = CjCh cos + C2sh cos +
+ sin + C4sh sin .

146

14

1-^

W^


W = WQ + W^

= C^chax cos j8x + C2shax cos JSJC +

+ C^chax sin px + C4shajc sin px + ^ i-^


Dn
13.23. ,
L
R (. 14.9).
1

CZDR

.
. 14.9
di UQ
' / , = 0; /Q = 0; = '-.
.
L+Ri-\idt
dt
CJ
t,

= 0.

^ d'i di i L+/?+ = 0.
dt^
dt

Lk'+Rk + = (i

: ^^-

IR^
\/

147

,
i?, L, .
1.
>0.
< ,
41' CL
V4L' CL 1L
. D

D2

= ;

= ^, t=-a+ : ^=--


, , Cj = - ^,
dt

L-,-

;f-.


/,
2j8Z.V
/v

-^

2.
= 0,
:, -^ = -

148

14

3.

<0,

^^ =-occoi, ^ = /

^-


/ = ""' (, cos + 2 sin cot)

~^^ ; ;
.
.
0 = sincp. ^, sin = 0. = 0,
= --~^^ sinQ)t + 0)Ae~"^ cos cot dt
^ = >, =,
L
Leo
,
i^^e'^^'sincot.
Leo
lim^
= 0,
'-^-^ Lcoe"'
^ Lcoe""'
.

14.14.

1.
.

149

.

= ^^{^-^^

j; = Xa,x",

(1)

^
, , \\...


[X-XQ)
.
2. , . .
= /(^,jv)
{^)-,
>^ = ^ ^ ( ^ - ^ )

y = J,^^^\

(2)

^={), (:) = / ( X Q , j^o),


' (XQ ), (^0)'
XQ.

. ,

.
3.
-.

y = Ya^i(Pl^^\

(3)

1=1

. - ,
, ) - , ,
.

150

14

, (3)
, ,

,
() (/ = 1,2,..., ri)

JX(x,>^)(p.(x)dx = 0,

(4)

(,>^)- .
.
(4).
14.1. ' + 2 = .
.
= ^ + ^-^2^ -{-... +^" -...
' = ^+22-\-,.. + ^"~^ +... j^ /
,
^1 +22-\-... + ^'^~^ +... + 2faQ -^-^-^^ +...+ ^" +...W jc.

X
"
'

, + 2 = 0,
2^2 + 2a^ = 1,

'

+ 22 = 0,
4, + 2,=0,

'


1 ^
2
, =-2ao,a2=-+2flo' 3= + 2^0 , . =
2
" ' 2 3
,
UQ

,'-'}-

^ 0 0

43

1 51

543

\ 2 1 2 3 122 4 1 2 2 2 5
+

X +

23

234

X +...=

2345

|..,(2)-^|.(2

^
. , ,
.
14.2. -^^ =2cosx,
, - 1 = 0.
.
;(0) = 1 , (0) = 2.

/ ' = - 2 s i n x - / - 2 x > y ' , '' =
-2cosx-2yy'-2['-[^-^'')),
^'^=2,-^('^'2('-2{2'-^^^
= j^ () = 1, () = 2,
( 0 ) = - 1 , ( 0 ) = -10, (0) = -18.

(2),
v = l + 2x

X X +...
2 3
4
14.3. '-
= 0, / = X = 0.

+ = ,

. (2) = V

^^".

() = , () = ,
' = -'-,
'\0) = 0.

152

14

,
/''_1 I ^ / '
(6)

(4)

// ,

(4) ,

///

(5)

(5)

(7)

''' .

(5) ,

(4)

(6)

= , >^ (0) = , () = , \^)

= ,

/ ' ( 0 ) = 1, / ^ ( 0 ) = 0, / 0 ) = 2, / 0 ) = 0' / 0 ) = 2-4,...



Ijc'

1-2JC'

+
3!
1

1-2-4-6'

5!

7!

2-15

4-2 7

= JC +

3!

1-2-4:'

X +

5!

+ ...=
9!
8-1-2-3 9

X +

7!

+...=

9!

ti' (2 + 1)!
// ' 1
14.4.
?
, = I, ' = 0 = 1.
. - 2^

; ^'^

, ^^^(l) = - 1 .
,
///

// -1

=
(4)
///
^>=
(5)

-2 /2 ,

-
-1

'^ -2 / , '- -3 /3 '^


-
+2 -2

(4) -1

/// -2 / , / ^

/ ^ = / > -
+

-2

+ ,

-3 /2

-3

-> " - 2 \

+[2 -

' ,

) +

{2-'"-3/'-')"+6-'.

: = 1

/'(1)=, /2, /40=1 ,

153

2!
4!^
^
5!
14.5.

^ dr^'

+ = sin'^o:
da J
= -^,

v^ , v^ ,

, -
( ), (. 14.10).

. 14.10
,
.
.
. {)

'
= {,)+^^{-,)+-^{-,)

'"(),

+...

, (), '{),
"(), "'{^) . . {^) = 0.

154

14

, , 1/ -{-^ =
sin^
^ =-7-^. sin ^
.
' ,
/ ,
-\~

cosa.
sin

^ = /^ = - , -

2
^=

^^^ ^'

COS = - 2 r o C t g -

sm
^'
/ /,2

/ / / / , / /\2 ,

//

0/2 5ctg^a4-l

( ) - 4-() -\- =2 ^

^ ^

^^

sinX

,

,
. , ^{) =

1 /

sin^ ^


vjv^,
14.6.
('-2')>; = 0

(1)

jc = 0.
. -

1_55

: = ,

^""^^'^' {%

(2)

:=0

(2) (1),
( + ^)( + ^^-1),'"( + ^ ) , ' ^ ^ ' '

|(^-^) =0; ^-^=0; ,=;


{{X +

2=-,

lf-n')a,=0,
(3)

'
, = . =
(3)
(( + 1)^-^), =0; (2 + 1),=0; ,=0, .. /j>0,
(4)

,
'

(n + kf-n'

{2 +

156

14

^ = , j^+i - .

2^ ^ (/ = 1, 2,...)

2^1-( + 1)'
2
=

'

2'-2-( + 2)
^

2'-3-( + 3)

2t = ( - ! ) *

2''-1-2( + 1)( + 2 ) '


2*-3!( + 1)( + 2)( + 3)'

(5)

2'*:!-( + 1)( + 2)...( + :)

(5) (2),
2*

^'"^ h,

^ 2^'^!( + l)(n + 2)...( + yt)"

(^)

, ,
(6) , ,
^ .
1

() = J '' ^ ""dx (< > 0) -,

{-\) = [),
(7) (6),

157

\+2;

(8)

:!(2 + : + 1 ) \ ^ 2

ljj[n) - .
,
^ = . (4)
({-n + \f-n^y,=0;

(-2^ + 1)^1-0,

. .
^,

2 + 1

^ (5)
2-2
2^{- + )

^2it=^2;

CQ

=
"

'
2-"(- + 1)'

, (1)

/

2=1--)-1{-1
S

\-+2
X \

\{- + + 1)\


= Cjl () + C2l_ () ( ).

-
Y+2A:

(-')'(
(") = t o1 k\{n + k)\

v^V

k+n
+

V^

158

14

^{--\)\{
=0

^!

( = 0,5772157... ),

= CjF^ () + 27 () ( ).
, Yj[x)
X = 0 .
14.7.
jc^y + jcy + fx^ - ; ; = 0

[1,2] j^(l) = 1, J^(2) = 2.


.
= z +
z(l) = z(2) = 0.
L(^f[x,zyj = xz'' + z' +

z + jc^ =0.

, ,

z,=C,(p,=C,(x-l)(2-x).
-
2/

jz(/(jc,z)) = j
1

{x--l){2-x)C,+

-2QJC + ( 3 - 2 J C ) C , + ^

{x-l){2-x)dx

2 _1

x2

= 0.


, ^ = 0,811.

Zi=0,811(jc-l)(2-jc) ;;j=0,811(jc-l)(2-jc) + jc.

159

,

j;-3,6072/j(jc) +0,75195 Y,{x)
, . .
.
14.8.
d^u

\ du

_ ^ ^ ^

= {^) = ^ i/ = i/2(^)
= 2, - ,
fj ^ .
. ,
. .

d
dr^

I du
dr

^ _ 1 ^ du
^ 1

^^
(1)

,
,
UQ

=/ + 2/

. -

.

(1),

(*)

. ,
.

160

14

d}u \ du ,. .
T+--r:--T-M^
dr
dr
/() =

(2)

1 "

,(1 + ,) + %(2,-) + 4

2


= ^ + Jr.
(3)

(2),
^ ^ .

;+;/=,
;-:/^=/().

(4)

(4) ,
=1,(1 + , ) 1 - ^ ( 2 , - , ) - : ^ +

(5)

Q = | c , ( l +C,)r-^(2C,-C,)lnr + ^ + C ,
(5) (3),
(2).
Q, 2
.
. .
, ,
.
14.9. ^^ + =
^'^0
= I; " = '' = : = 0.
.

1 ^

-,

JF^ , , Cj / = 1
0,0324.
>;, = 0 , 0 3 2 4 ( X - 1 ) ' ( X 4 2 J C + 3).

,
,
^ = ^(^+,(^ = C,^i ^ Q {x-lf

(^ 4-4/jc + 3/^).

Cj Cj
1{2+2-^)(,(

= 0;

|(>'+3^2-)(2^ = 0,


j(24(C,+5C,(9x-/)) + Ci(jc-/)'(x'+2/jc + 3/') +

+C^{x-lf

{^ +4lx + 3l^)-3x){x-lf

[^ +2lx + 3l^)dx = 0;

j(24(C,+5Q(9x-/)) + C,(x-/)'(x'+2/jc + 3/') +

+2(-/)'(4/ + 3 / ' ) - ) ( - / ) ' ( 4 / + 3/')^: = 0.


/ = 1,

162

14

r26,07Ci-33,36C2=0,72;
|1,05,-25,742=1,
Cj = 0,0407; q = 0,0102.

; ; 2 = 0 , 0 4 0 7 ( - 1 ) ' ( 2 + 3) + 0,0102(-1)'(4 + 3).
14.10.
- ,

Dw -Tw =/?.
Eh'
,
,.
-12(l-v')
, V , h
,
, , =
, ,
.
: ) -
w = \v' = 0 z = z = /; ) -
w=\v=0 z = z = /.
, )
(. 14. ).
D =

I I
W


77777.

. 14.11

-.

^Qsin

W-

163

.
,

i=i

C s i n - = 0.

/
\'7

L sin

-
. kizz . rniz ,
J sin
sin
dz-\)
J sm

dz =

k = n.

nnz ,
:
L sm
i
I
f

CJ

^ ^

+T

y~ J

J sin

dz =

r .

-p\ sm

nTTZ

az = 0.

(.2 = 1,3,5,...)

(^ = 2,4,6,...),

TO

Q=-7

4/7

-if-

^'^'

, -.
-

164

4/7 sin
/:=1,3,5,.

14

knz

' ^^'+T

yl

6) ,
,
^

- ^ ^'
w=X

IkKz ^

1-C0S

w ,
(

(1^
I

+ (2\

2\

cos

I )

L 1-cos

22

dz = 0;
^

\dz = 0. ,

22 2nKz ,
J c o s cosdz =
I
0
^
2rmz .
;>J[i-cos\dz =

pi.

+T

2nn^

n = k,TO

= 0.

- \\ l~cos
V
^

J cos

Iknz

2\

C-pl = 0.

{)

{ = ),

165

Q=

KT^I-

\2*

, -

/
1-C0S

2k7cz

w=22-

d 2\

JlkK^2'

/
V ^
14.11.
-,
R

D d'^w

d^w

-+

:- + =

h dy'
dy' R h
h -; p
q, .
. - ,
w = w', -
-^^\-,

W, ,
W = / sin

J 7 s i n ^ ^ ; = 0,

d'w \_
Y = D- + hp
d/
dy^ ^ R

\--

166

14

w ,

Df^-phf^-^p--q

=0
ph

q/

4b'

, w

,D-ph
ph
~R

3 /

D^^-pH ^

Ab'

14*15*

1. .

dx^

It
dt
(1)
dx^
dt
XpX2,...,x , t
.
(1)
- -

1 ^

.

.
. . ,
, ,
2-

{- \)
. =.(^,,,2,...,)
.
(1) (
) Xi(/o) = ap
Cj, 2,..., ^^
1 = 1^
.
2. .
,
.
,
,
.

JjCj _ dx^ _

^.

_ dx^

dt

'

dt

dt

168

14

,
,
jc^, Xj, , w - 1
/(., .) = .
15.1. :
dx ^
^

dt
^ = , X = 1, -\.
. t
d^x

dx dy
+ 3 + - ^ = 0.
dt
dt dt


dt
,
d^x , dx
. + 4 + 4 = 0.
dt^
dt
,
.
^ 2 ~ ~ 2.
, = (Q + 4)^"^' -
X ,
y = -(C,+{t + \)C,)e-".

. / = , = 1 Cj = 1.
/ = , > = 1 1 = -(1 + ), = - 2 . ,

\x = {\'-2t)e-^\
\y = {\^2t)e-'^.

169

15.2. :
dx

It

dx
7
dy
= X' +Xy,
r
= z.
'x-^x + Ax-y = 0,
6) dt
) dt
dz
= ^ + 2. ^ \y + 4y + 4y-25x = l6e'.
= x;
dt
dt

, a) no /
d^x dy
d^x
'^~- , -7- = z.
dr
dt
dt^
d^x _ dz
t: -^ = . dt^ dt
d'x
, :
- = 0.
dt'
,
.

x = Qe^ -\-

4^ ^ . S

cos - s i n /
'
2
'
2


/

/ . / ^ 7

= ^^ + - s i n ^ + c o s t
2
'2
2 /
V '2
/
^ . /
cos1 + s i n /
2
2

,'+ 2

i ( C 3 V 3 - C ) c o s ^ / ~ i ( c V 3 + C3)sin^^

170

14

Z = ' +6

i(Q^/3-C)sin^/-i(CV + Q)cos^?

) .

^-^ = '+2- -'^
= { + ) .
dt dt
dt
d{x + y) ^
1

-J- = at,
= / + Cj.
(x + j )
x^y

dx___ { + )
dy {^)

dx _
dy

;;, ,

1
^ = "77;;7'

=
'(,+1)(/ + 0'
(Q+l)(/4-C0) , ;; = - 4 + 4.
: j ; = - 4 + 4 = ^^^^ - 4 + 4.
, ,
d'^x ^d^x
,
--~8i--9x = 16e ,
dt'
dt^
. .
.
, :,2=3,
/:,4 =^.
= C^i' + ^'^' + cos t + ^ sin t.

1^1

^
Xj ~ ^ ,
^ = ~ 1 . ,
X = - ' + ^" + ^'^' + cos t + ^ sin t.
, i ,

>^ = ~e4Cje^425C2e"^4C3(3cos/ + 4sin^) + C4(3sin/-4cos/).
15.3. :
dx

_ dy _ dz

a ) ..3 . ^^.,2

X -

o3
2y

dx _ dy _ dz

9.,2,'
2y
z

6)

^ z y

x-z

y x

dy _ dz

^y _ ^^

, a) ^~T ~ ^ 2

y = C^z.

= ^ X +3
1
dx _\ ^
~" ~" ^ " "^ ~^
. , .
= ty, ^, = / + yt^, dt I ^ 3
2dt
dy
t + y=:t+t,
dy 2
2 ' ^(/42) ~
lnt'-^]n(t'^l)

= ]n\C,yl

';f^ +1

= C,y.

= ,,

X +

dx _ dy _ dz _dx-\-dy + dz
z-y
x-z
y x
0

172

14

, dx + dy + dz = d[x + y + z) = 0.
, + >' + z =
,
, , 2, 1, Iz
.
Ixdx
2x{z-y)

^ydy
2y{x-z)

2zdz
2z{y-x)

_2xdx + 2ydy + 2zdz


0

rfjc^+^?y+Jz^ = j ( x ^ + y + z ^ ) = 0.
, ^ + ^ + z^ = 2.
,
, .

15

15*1 * 2;
1. - -
/(:)
[7;:]
. "
f{x) = -^-\-^{a^coskx
+ bi^s\nkx),
(1)
2

,=,

^=\ \ f{x)co%kxdx,

, 1 f // ^ ^ . ^
bj^= \ J (xjsmfccax,

(: = 0,1,2,...),

(2)

.
. /(.)
- 2 -,
^

SM = \{f{x,-0)+f{x,+0)).

(3)

174

15


f{x).
/ () 2 -,
^ :
) , f{-^) = f{^)^
S(K) = f[n);
) , 2-
/ {- - 0) = / ( - 0), / {- + 0) = / (: + 0),
3{) = ^(/{-

+ 0) + /{-0)).

(4)

2. /()

f{x) = -^+Y,a,coskx,

(5)

2"
ai^=\f(x)coskxdx,

(: = 0,1,2,...).

(6)

/(:)
f{x) = ^bi,s\nkx,

(7)

2"
. = \ f {x)^\nkxdx,

{ = 1,2,...).

(8)

3.

f{x)=Y,c,e'",

(9)

c,=^]f{x)e-'''dx,
2

(9)

( = 0,1,2,...).

(10)

175

ci,-ib,

a.+ib.

^=. q=-^Y^, .,=-^-^,

(12)


Jkx

-ikx

ikx

-ikx

1 e +e
. ,
e -e
^^^_
cos Ax =
, sinfcc =
(13)
2
2/
^ ^
(1).
4. (1) ,
/(). , /(.:) .
,
,
/ () = + ^j cos + 6, sin X + 2 cos 2 + Z?^ sin 2 +... (14)

y = Asin(cox-\-(p),
(15)
, (
[0,2:], ( .
(15)
=.
(16)

= cos cox + b sin ,


(17)
a = Asm(p; b = cos .
, (17),

176

15

(18)

1.1. 2;r- / ( x ) = x + |x|


(-:,:]. .
.
-: < X < ,
0<<:
(. 15.1 ).

. J 5.1

. , .. [-~',0], [0,7]
.
/ (-/ + 0) = ,
/ ' ( - + 0 ) = 0, / ( - 0 ) = 0, / ' ( - 0 ) = 0, / ( + 0 ) = 0, / ' ( + 0 ) = 2,
/ ( : - 0 ) = 2:, / ' ( : - 0 ) = 2, .
S(x)
, . = 7
(4) S (71) = :,
*S(x) 2-, 3{[2-\):^ = (: = 1,2,...).

(2),
[-,0], [, :]

177

^ - f{x)dx-\

I f{x)dx^-

1 1-

CLf,-\ f{x)co^kxdx = \xco^kxdx = ~


7

\f{x)dx

\- \2xdx = =

2 COS/DC

71 t

71 i

71 /
4^+1
1
.
j;r
(-1)
+r-SinfccI

-1

dx

{(-1/-1], (^ = 1,2,...);

bj^= \ f(x)smkxdx = \xs\nkxdx =

k^ ^

sin

sin

'

71

xcosfcc

cos kxdx
lO

---

(^, a^, Z?^ (1),

1.2. 2:-
f{x)-x^,
(-:,:], , V 1
, l^Ti'
. ,

(. 15.2).

. 15.2

178

15

f{x) = x^ , (6)
22
Q =

92 ,,

7 J

JC =

2^

2 f 2

F 2 f

. = X cosfccJx = X sinfcc
xsin/:xt/x
ni
\
lo : J
_4_

1 ^

"0

=A(_i)\

I cosfcc6/x

(^ = 1,2,...).

]L J

no (5)
00

rr^

x^ = + 4 ^ ( ~ 1 ) cosAx.
3
k=\
= , :^ = + 4 ^ - ( - 1 ) ^ cosA:^, k=x

-I

_. 2

X ~ ~
1.3. 2:-
/ ( ) = ||, (-:,:], , , {2-\)^'
. - 2^, ,
. . 15.3.

. 15.3

179

,
/().
, (6)
= \xdx = 7t;
'*'

2
2 sinfcc
^ = cos kxdx
71 i

\s\nkxdx

(5)
I , 2^(-1)*-1
,
= > -^^-cosb:.

-2,
4< cos(2A:-l)jc

'""'"i ^tr" {ik-\y

x = , 0 =
/ ^ ,

1 .. 1_

4 x^

>

2 ;rtr(2^-l)

8*
1.4. 2:-
[-1
^

-: < X < ,

[ 1

0<<;

, ,

(-1J-\
=\

2-1

180

15

.
(. 15.4 ).

71.

. 15.4
,
(7) (8)
cosfcci

= .[(-,).-,], (, = ,,2,...).

^
9 _. 1

/ ( ) = - l ~ ( - l ) 4 s i n b c .

4^sin(2/:-l)x
, 1 = >
^^
^.
7L j^-\

:-1

JC = 2^--
1.5. 2:-
f[x) = e'', [-71,].
.
, [-7,]
^, =
5{) =

-[-''+'').

(9),
(10)

181

-iter

7t

(\-ik\x

(l-/^)jC
^

2: (1-/:)

2:
^ ' ^ '

2n{\-ik)

2{\-1)

"'^"" = 8/:: /sin :: = (~1) ,


, =

'

2 {\-ik)

2: t t l 1-/:

* -/fa

Jkx

-ikx

^ +_1^ =

i-iye'- ^(-1

\-ik

\ + ik

ikx
--ikx
--"
^., {\ + ik)e""+{l-ik)e-"^
^
iK ^ '
l + A:'
e e / ,4it cosfcc + /:sin/:x /, , ^
(-1)
T-Tl
; (/: = 1,2,...).

/: = 0 , c^ =

e e

iK

e"^

2 t r i + A:^^
^

1.6. 2:-

/W-

0 - < X <

0<jc<2

<;<:
2

182

15

.
.
(2).
/{),

,
1 = -x\l
1 I- =-;
1
a^=-\dx
, = \coskxdx = sin/:jc|J = s i n ^ , ( = 1,2,...)
' nl

^'
2 ^
^

1 (
1 , ,
J
, = \sinkxdx =
coskxU = cosk
::^

^^

1 , (/: = 1,2,...).

a^ubj^B
, /()

/ (jc) = + (cos : + sin X + sin 2 c o s +
1 . ^
1
^
1 . ^
+sin3x + cos 5 + sin 5+ ...).
3
5
5
(18)
.
:

=.

lY

fit

^/2

71 I

\ 1

^
4

1,
. , /2 .

, (cosx + s i n x j sm +
4
:
2 = ; (2=0, sin2 .

183

=.

1 Y V2
'

v3^y
1

'^ " ' = - '

"'="4

sin -

V
".
:

=-

cos3xH

/ 2 Y ( \ '^
v5^y

v^^y

sin3jc =

V2 ^
.
:
^""5 tg ^5 =1; (^=, ,
5
4

1
. _+sin
, ! . , V2 sin
. { -
cos
5:
5:

5
5

1 V2 .
/ ( ) = +sin JC + +sin2x +
^ ^ 4 :
4

+ s i n
sin 5 +
+ ...

4 J

15.2. 21
1. - 2/-
/()
/ ( ^ ) = Y + UitC0S^:yX + 6,sin/:yX 1

(i)

a^=-[f{xYo%kxdx\
1\ \

(^ = 0,1,2,...),
(2)

^ = - 1 /(jc)sinA::;

(: = 0,1,2,...).

184

15

(1)
. , / () = \\
. [- /, /],
(. 15.5 ),
. ,
/(.) [-/,/] , ,
.

. 15.5
2. /() ,
(3)
=\

,^ =\f(x)cosk'-xdx;

[ = 0,1,2,...).

(4)

/() ,
(5)
:=1

'

2 f

bj^ =\ f(x)smkxdx;

(^ = 1,2,...).

3.

(6)

185

(7)

-ikx

(8)

, = J / ( x ) e ' dx.
11
-/
2.1.
|0

/w=- X

-3<<0,
0<x<3,

, V -

. -
2/-,
(1), (2). / = 3
,
/

1 (ix + J xdx

V-3

(^

^ =-

3^
3 2

J 0 COS xdx + J X cos xdx


0

. , %
sin;
3
\ kn
3

zrCOSkX

k^n^

[sin/: xJx =

=i4^[(-')'-a

/0

J O s i n / : X(ix +J xsin/:xJx =
-3

_1_

-xcosA:X + \coskxdx
3 0 0
7

-l^-^r:

186

15

(-1)'-!
, (-1)'*' . ,
-
cosA:: + -^^-sinA:

3
2
2-\
i-lf
. ,71
:rCos
+ -smkx
n{2k-lf
3

^<''=rfl
4 nh

X = 0 =
,
^,
4

1
^-
,,
;'(2:-1)

2.2. 21 -
/ () = |jc|, - 1 < : < 1.
. ,
(3), (4). / = 1,
QQ

ai^=2\x cos knxdx = 2

2
2^2

'
,

cosknx

1 2f,(-l)-l
2 n^ti

= 2\ xdx = \,

\ sin knxdx

-5/::

^^0

=^[)'-'].
,

1
2

4 ^cos(2A:-l);rx
7 ' ^ {2-\
=\
2.3. f(x\z=z^
3 < < 3.
. ,
(5), (6). / = 3,
,
2 } X . , : , 2
,
+ \coskxdx
COSA:JC
. = \ sinkxdx =
17 J
"^

3
{
3
9

^ ^

187

,
X 2 ^ ( - 1 ) \^\ . ,;
= ,--smkx.
3 nf^i

3
2.4. / ( ) = 1 0 -
5<<15.
. (2),
5 15. = 0,1= 5

1 *^
1
[= 0:
=|(10-): =
Qj^ =j(lO-Jc)cosA: t/x =

(10-jc)sin/rX

-\

sin A: ax

- . cos/: X = 0;
k^K^
5
1

bk=\ (10~x)sinA:X(ix =
(10-x)cosA:X

^
25

^kn

^; ^ 2 5

cos3A:7r + 08::
/::
/

/:;r
25

. , ,

15

-sinA^ x|

5

12_ ( - 1 /
/::

, (5)
10- = ^-sinkx.
fi
5
2.5. f{x) = "",
2 < < 2.

188

15

.
(7), (8). / = 2,

1

-^^

4_V '

J'-f>

{^~\

4.V

2{2-1)
1-2

^(2-i^)_^-(24k.)

(_1)*^2_^-2

2{2-ikn)

2{2-ikn)
ikK

e'-e-^ ^x ^(-1)/
e" =^
2

;t=-oo

-^^

2 ikn

^2

-1

^ =

. / = ,

/ - /
,
ikn
ikn

ikn

-2

^
2-ikK

-^

k{2 + ikK)e^

= (e=-e-=)(-l)*

2 +ikn
X

+{2-ik7t)e

, ;.2_2

\ 4

-^

ikn

ikn

,(-1

""

2 cos k x-kTtsinkx
2
2
2_2
4+:':


e^ =

2e'

i-i
(-"*
2
'4+::

2_2

2cosA:XA:;rsinA:X
2
2

1^

15.3.

1. /() [, ],
- ,

f{x)^^^-Y,a,zo^hc,

(1)

a^^\f{x)zo^bidx,

(^ = 0,1,2,...).

(2)

f {^^)^^^,

(3)

2"
fe^t =j/(x)sinfo:Jx, (/: = 1,2,...).
(4)
^
2. [, /]
/ ( x ) = -^ + |;a,coSityx,

(5)

=\

^. = y } / W c o s A : y x J x ,

(/: = 0,1,2,...).

(6)

(^ = 1,2,...).

(8)

K=-^\f{x)%v!^k^xdx,

190

15

3.1. : ) ;
)
X

0<<,

/w=

71

~<<.

, ) /: = (2)

\xdx-^\{K-x^dx

7 '

.2 \

2 \

( ^1

--

8*

~1

I COSfccc/x+ 1 (: - X) COS/Jx
/

sin be

I sinAxrfx +
10

hi 0
^

sin Ax + [sin/ixd/x
Ir

bi

: 1
:s i n / : +

^ cos A:
2 k" V
2A
2

__2
1 ^

COS -COS

smk
2
, 2k

2 cos /:
2

cos -

/ - 1,3,5,... ^^ = 0; /: = 4, 8, 12, ...


Uj^ = 0; / = 2, 6, 10,... ^ = - 4 , . .
/:, ,
^ 4^0, 2{2 - 1).

191

, (1)
. ._
2 ^ ~ 4 8 2 ( 2 ^ ~ 1 ) _ : 2 ^ ^^^2(2^-1)
^^""^i"^;^^
2^(2^-1)'
""i'^tr
{1-\)^
) (3),
(4)
2.

h=

J X sin kxdx + J ( - )sin kxdx


V

/
2

lo

cosfcc + Xzo^kxdx

V
21

n\

ki

cos be

[cosfcc^fx

V kl

,
\ . ,

,
1.,:
cosA: + -T-sinA: +cosA: + ^sinA:
2k
2 k^ 4 . 2^ 2k
2 k^
2
-sin A:,
Tik^

, bj^ = 0. , bj^ 4 (-1)'-'


,
*-1

/ W = -l7!A;rsin(2)t-l)x.
7tt:l{2k-\)
3.2. : ) ; )
/() = < < /.
, ) (8)
2J- . ,; , 2 '
bj^ =\ xsmkxax =
^

, :
/
cos/:[
/

1
V
21_
21
.
2 / . ^..:+1
cosA:: = ( - 1 )

f
\cosk xdx
I
^1

15

192

(7)
2/ )

4^+1

. ,7

X - > - ^ - s m :X.

^
I
) [, J\
(6), (5). : = ,
^0 =\xdx = l;
2
^ / . , : f
^=\ XCOSX = \ sin/:
Ii
I
l\ V
I
2 /
,^ ,
=
r-vcos/:X
/ ^"I

I \ ,7Z
sin/: xdx
{
I

=^()*->)-

= - + -^y.^-^.cosk-x
2 ' k=\

r->.

=-

2 ;r^tr

-T

{2k-\y

15.4.
1.
, [a,a + 27c] [, 2;],
+2

.. 2:- J (p{x)dx=

\(p{x)dx.

/() [, 2\
-,
/ ( x ) = -^- + ^ ( a ^ cos/cc + Z>^ sin ),
2

:=1

(1)

193

^ = [ /(jc)cosfcc(ix;
^
1 ^^
^- I/(x)sin/DCfifcc;

{ = 0,1,2,...),
(: = 1,2,...).

(2)

7 '

2. /() [0,2/]

/w=f+i:

=1

'

'

(3)

* = T J / ( ^ ) C O S A : f / x ;

(: = 0,1,2,...),

(4)

4.1.
/(:)
= < < 27.
h=\\f{xYv!^k^dx;
(^ = 1,2,...).
.
(2). : =
1 ^^
(2 = I xdx^lK,
:
1
. = I X cosfccJjc= ,
I f .
,
if -xcosfcc
b^ = X sm xax =

2:

. 2

+ I cosfoc^ic = - -

(1)
x=

n-2^smkx.

4.2. /, ,
,
) (. 15.6).

194

15
/

2
U - J

. 15.6

: ) 2-
; ) - .
, )
\

/(0=- [

(0<^<),
{<1<2).

2:-,
(2) [, 2[, ,
[, 2{
1 .
a^=^\Hdt =
1}

=
ti cos
COS ktdt
ktdt =- s m kt
T^Q
1 ^

b =\Hsmktdt =

H . .
kn

= 8:;

TJ

(A: = 1,2,...),

TT

( l - c o s k r ) ; (A: = 1,2,...).
JrTT
JrTT
kn


.
{
/(0= 1 -+- sin cos ^ + (1 - cosT)sin + sin 2 cos It +
1
+ (l-cos2T)sin2/ + ... =
7

(COSA:T-1) =

H^fl
^ (sin/:TcosA:^4-(l-cosA:T)sinA:r)
2

195

^ ^1
. =/sin

'

7.

/:T + (1-COSA:T)


2 .
=v2-2cosA:T =
sm.

sinA:T
^
( , ^
tg?>,= = c t g / : - = tg - ~ i t 1 - cos
2
\^ 2
2^

(pt=-k-.


2
1 .
.
. . ( ^ +smTsm
2t + +
+
sinsm
/
+

2
,4
2
1^ 2 2 ,
1 . .

2

+sinsin Zt + /
h
sin
COS

2 2

4
2
/
1 .

1
+ sinTcos(2r-T)+sincos -

/{&

^ ' ^ 3 2

2^\

> sin

COS

kt

2
2
tlk
2
) = 2/
(4)
2
.,^-JHdt = 2H-;
2 ,
2:: ^ . 2::
^ =|cos
tdt = -Sin;;;-;

.=7i^

sin

(^ = 1,2,...),

2 ^ /
2 \
tdt = 1-C0S
1; (^ = 1,2,...),
J
\

,
2 .

.=
sm
; ,

' 2
2
= ,

196

15

2 .

f{t) = H hsin :cos


:

- +

/
1 .
+.
sin2;rcos 2-2

^ 11 . ,
,f
2
= + > :COSA:

't.k

: ^
.

15*5*
1. f{x)
(-5,<), -
(-~,),

f[x) = \da \
f{x)

f{t)Qosa{t-x)dt.

/(jc) =j

jf{t)cosatdt \cos axda.

f{x)

(2)

^ /

f{x) =

(1)

-UJf{t)smatdt Isin axda.

(3)

V'


da.

(4)

2. (4)
F{cc) = -^]nt)e-'dt

(5)

197

/2: i

F () (5)
f{x), f{x) (6)
F[a
(2) -

Fc{a)
=
J-]f(t)cosatdt,
()=||/"
^

(7)

f {) = J\ F^ {a)cosaxda.

(3) -

Fs(a)
J^\f(t)smatdt,
() == |j/(')s
f{x) = Jl'{Fs{a)smaxda.

^ ^

(5), (7), (8)


t .
5.1. :

a)/W =

sinjc \x\<7t;

\\>7

. ^_J^'" ^^ >0;
["" jc<0, >0.

, ) sin : ,
(3)

"

f(x) = \ sinaxdai sint sinatdt =


^ 0

= \smaxda\[^cos{l-a)t-cos{l-\-a)t^dt
^

198

= -

sin(l-a)/

sin(lH-a)^

\-a

\-\-a

7 J

15

sin axda =

2 7 sin sin ax
11 7f sinaz
sin : sina^
+
Isin axda - I
da,
1 \-a
1+a ]
ni
1-a
6) / ( x ) ,
(2)
/ () = I cos axda I e'""^ cos atdt.
''^ 0



\ ""^ cos atdt

'+'


2 7acosax
^. Z
racosax ,
5.2.

/w=

COS-

pw

||<7,

||>:.

. ,
(7)
V)^
t
F(. () =./J coscosa/fif^
2 1"

V ^71 9J
2'

cos a b + cos +a p Jr =

. f
\
2
.
sin +
sin -+
l-2a
2
l+2a
1-4'

- cos .

16
,

16*1.
1.

f{x, )
(5)

\\f{x,y)dxdy = Jm^^Y;if[^^^yj)^M-

(1)

^^. = (^/+1 --/)(>^+1 "])


, S,

:
,
,
.
2.

200

2()

\dx J

16

^ib)

\dy J

f{x,y)dy

(2)

f{x,y)dx.

(3)

,
X , ,
.

, ,
.

,
, .
(2) (. 16.1 )
<<, ^{)<<2{) , ,
, .
d<y<c,
^{)<<2 ()
(. 16.2 ) (3),
, ,
.

, 16,1

201

^)

\
\

Xziy)

J
X

, 16.2
3.
(. 16.3),
jc = S^ 52 S

jjf{x,y)dxdy
{S)

= jjf{x,y)dxdy+jjf{x,y)dxdy
)

= \dx J f{x,y)dy+\dx

V|(x)

\ f{x,y)dy.
2()

. 16.3

^ ^

202

16


(. 16.4),
S S^ S^,

\\ f {x,y)dxdy = ^^ f {x,y)dxdy + ^^ f {x,y)dxdy ^
[S)

(5.)
b

(S,)

x(y)

= \dy J f{x,y)dx-\-^dy

x{y)

f{x,y)dx.

(5)

b
d

. 16A
S
.

dxdy

1 \^^)

b)\dx\{x'-ly^\)dy1 0

2 cos 9

)\\^^1 1 ^

) ]d<p \ p'dp.
_^

, )
,
.

\dx\

203

dy

{^)

^ ,

|2

\dx.
^ + >^|,

oU +2

+1


x+1
= lnIn= ln.
I
m: = ln|x + l|-In|x + 2| = ln
3
2
3
xH-2
J^x + l x-b2j
I I I I
6)
X, ,

|((^^""+>'))^ = J(^^~^^+^)^-^
aee

,4-3^2^

35
12

)
, ,
,

\\dxdy = \dy\dx = Jj; In dy =


1

1
2

= ^y\nydy=^\ny\

1 ^

2 , 1

^-jydy=^-.

r)

16

204
25
lco&<p

]d9\

d(p = 4\ cos^(pd(p = \{l-\-cos2cpfd(p=^

P'dp^-'

/3
1

\(
1
'\
-<p+sin2^+-sin4()
= J l+2cos2<p+"-(l+cos4<p) l/:
8
V^
2

1.2. :
) ^\xcos{x-\-y)dxdy,

D = \o<x<K,

) Jj(x + >^)^rfv,

1> = {;; = 0,

j ; = x',

x = 2};

D = {j; = -jc,

j^=:x\

y = \}\

) \\xydxdy,

Q<y< \\

r)

\\xdxdy,

Z) Ox

x = a ( ^ - s i n / ) , >; = a(l-cos^).
, )
^
^

: =

JJ jccos(x + >')(ijc^'= jx^fjcj cos(jc + ; ^ ) = j ^ ^ ^ ^


D

= j jc sin + JC -sinjc m: = Jx(cosA:--sinx)t/x =


0 V V^
J
J
0

= J jccos jcJx-J xsinxflfx = xsinX~ J sin jciijc + xcosx~ J COSjc^


0

= (jcsinx + cosjcH-jccosjc-sinjc)| =-1-7~1 = - ( 2 + ) .


6) 16.5.

"-

\\{x-\-y)dxdy--\dx\{x^y)dy--\
D

22 /

=1

fifcc =

--

3
^
JC + -

205

. 16 36
= 4 + = .

\dx =
^ 4 "''lO

0\

x=2
. 16.5

) (. 16.6).
{-1.1)

{1,1)

. 16.6
--
^^
(-1, 1), (, 0).
^ (1,1).

206

16

^^xydxdy = ^ydy I xdx = -\^\

dy = - | ( j ' -' )dy =

0
/ 3

-.4

V 3

z_

2 3

24

r) t
2, : 27.
=f{x), ,

I = JI x^xtiy = J xdx J dy.
D

dx = a(l-cos t)dt, dy = a sin tdt


/,
2-

a(l-cos/)

/ = \ a{t-'Smt)a{l-cost)dt

dy =

a^\{t-smt){l'-'COStfdt=^

2K

= ^ J (r-2rcos/ + /cos^/-sin^ + sin2r-sin^cos^^jJ^ =

/
1 ^ 1
2/sin/~2cos/ +
t^cos 2^
^
+
-sm2^
2
2
2 iK
1

1
3
+ cosrcos2r+COS t
= '\
2
3

1.3. 2

+2

: ) \dx\
-1
1

2x

B) \dx\f{x,y)dy\

f{x,y)dy;

) J ^ ' J

.'

-*
\

f{x,y)dx;

^-1
4

T) \dy^f{x,y)dx
0

^-.

1-y

^dy^f{x,y)dx

207

, )
: j^ = x + 2, -^,
= 2, = - 1 (. 16.7).
j ; = x + 2, -!',
>4 (-1,1), (2,4).

-/

Pwc. 76.7
Z) = j^ - 2
X = -^^, = ^/,
,
, D
2

+2

jdx j f{x,y)dy
-1

x^

^ ^^

-1

= jdy j f{x,y)dx-bjdy^
0

-7^

f{x,y)dx,
v-2

6) D
2

x = 2->;,

x = -1,

y = 2, >^ = - 6 (. 16.8).

. 16.8

208

16

=2-

1, 4
(0,2)
5 (8, - 6). D : = 2vjcTl
- 1 < < 0 j ; = 2 - x < < 8 ,
J = -2vjc + l. ,

2

2-

2/1+

2-JC

-2>/I+T

-2N/X+T

B)
= , = 2, = 1, = 2 (. 16.9 ).
,
^ ( 1 , 1 ) ; 5 ( 2 , 2); (2, 4) / ) (1,2).

/{2,4)
D(1.2)

^(2,2)
{1,1)

'.

. 16.9
, ,
: = 1 = --, = 2, = .

S 5^^^ 5^^^.
2

2JC

\dx\f{x,y)dy

\dy\f{x,y)dx'\'\dy\f{x,y)dx.

209

)
jc=0, x = j , ^^=0, J ; = 1 H
(. 16.10 ).
= 0, jc = 2->;, - \
-^
.
1

'

2
<

. 16,10
j = 2 - ,
^ < X < 1,

\

\dy\f{x,y)dx
0

2-

2-

+ \dy j f{x,y)dx = \dx j f{x,y)dy.


1

1.4. \\f{x,y)dxdy
/

(^)

,
S (, 0); (2, 0);
5 ( 1 , 1 ) ; (0,1).
. .
16.11. .
,
=
, -2- X,
,
;;

210

\\f{^.y)dxdy
(s)

= ^dx^f{x,y)dy
0

2-jc

+ ^dx^

16

f{x,y)dy.

C(OJ)

B(IJ)

0(0,0)

A (2,0)

. 16.11


1

\\f{^.y)dxdy
(s)

2->-

= ^dy j

f{x,y)dx.

16.2.
.

1.


: = cos (, = sin (, dS = dxdy
pdpdcp
\\ f {,y)dxdy = f

(coscp,sincp)pdpdcp.

,
5,
.

7_

S (-
=)8(<^3) = Pi (), = 2 () (. 16.12),
, () 2(<)
(pG [, j8] Pi () < 2 (),

llF{p,(p)pdpd(p = jd(p j F{p,(p)pdp,


5

F{p,(p) =

(1)

p,(<p)

f(pcos(p,ps'm(p).

. 16.12
,
, ,
(. ,
, , .

,
.
, ; ,
,
.
2. \\f{x,y)dxdy

, , v,

212

x = x{u,v);

y = y{u,v).

16

(2)

(2)
G
O^uv S .

/ =

\ ^ 0
\ ^
\ Bv\

G /(jc, )
S,
II f {x,y)dxdy = jj f {x{u,v),y{u,v))\l\dudv.
S

.^.

(2)
, G
(3) 5.
2.1. ,

) jdx J .jx'+y'dy; ) ]dy j

^ ^ ^
'

, )
.
JC = cos , =^ sin <,
4
[dx J >/^ + y^dy = {d(pUp^cos^(p + p^sin^(ppdp =
0
2 ^3

-fP

1^

;ra'

213

)
: ^-^-=^^^
;^+/=;;.(. 16.13)

. 16.13

,
= sin (,
/

yjo -

1?

= - i | r f J {a--p')-^d{a'-p'-)

^ J

-l{a'-p')

asin^

d(p =
lasin^

= a\ COS(pd(p = asin(p\2

=a.

1.1. : a)
5 ^ +^ =9
=25;)
^ +
^
Z J , ^

jjXyjx^ + y^dxdy, S

(jc^ + j;^J =^^(^-y^j

(>0);

.) "^^, = , = 2,
7/^'+/

= X, ^ -^ ^ = \

214

16

, )

^j = 3 ^- 5.

2

) ,
^ = ^ (cos^ ( - sin^ (\ p=a^Jcos2(p.
X > , . .
4
,
.
tyJcos2(p
ayJcos2<p

1 \
Ux^x''^ ^y^dxdy^ \ d(p J cos^pVp = J cos^p

d(p =

= j cos(pcos^2^J(p= J cos(p(l-2sin^(p) d(p

,4

= j (cos(p~4cos(psin^<p + 4cos^sin'^^)rf(p:

. sin^ (p . sin^ (p ^
2/2 4
a ^ .
-a .
sin<p-4
+4
.
15
T ^
4
3
5
B) (. 16.14)
.

215

. 16.14
,
. 1 = 2.
4

pcos(p = 2 = COS(p .
1
1^

.1777

2
2

cos^

dxdy

COSfl)

\d(p j pdp=jd(p J dp=jp


0

=1

cos^

2 CCOS
fZ
O S (pd(p

,
COS^

^?> = J - ^1-sin'
:
J

= ln

-(p

d(p =

l + sin^
l-sin()?

1 SI

= ln

^/2^-l
/2-l

2.3. \\f(x,y)dxdy,

:
4'
5

^ = aj;, x^=by, ^ = , y^=qx {0<a<b,

0<p<q),

216

16

U.VVL
.
. : ^ =,
^ = VX, x = u^v^,
2 ~- - = - ^v\
3

y=^u^v^.

1
-==-u^v
av 3

dv


2 - 1 5 1 u^v
' ^'

^v^

I{u,v) = 3
3
-.

_2 2

--

9~3'

-
^
3 ^v^ u^v
3
: -, = , v =, v = 9 S G
Cfuv (3)
llf{x,y)dxdy
-, b

= -jjf(x{u,v),y{u,v))dudv

2.4. : ) [ |./1 - ^^xdy^


7 V
b
2

S + ^ = 1;

b
) J J xydxdy, S = ^,
S

= ^, ^ = , ^= (0<<,
0<<),
, )
X = cos(jO, y = bpsm(p.

217

|aCOS(2)

-<2psin(2)|

/(,( =

.
^ ^
^ =ai'p.
psincp bpcoscp I
: 0<(<2, 0 < < 1 .
,

2

'

jUl-^-^dxdy
^

S ^

= ab] d(p]p^^dp =

"/-"')

= .
3

) = ^, ^ - , 2

x = w ^t;^

y-u^v^.

/(,) =

4I

2 -- 5

1
5

^ 6 3
W ^V^

_i _2 =
^V ^

6-14

1 -? -?

25 ^i; ^ +
25W ^ ^ = 5^^;

5
5
:
=, =, v = , v = q.
S
G (Xuv. (3)
\\xydxdy = J^wjw ^^^w ^ ^v = \ d u \ u ^ =
5
1 b

_n

/"

6 8

8
8
q^ p^ |M

( --

48 r
V

'

_6 Y

-^

-a ^ \q^ -p^

16

218

16.3.

1.
, Z),
S = \\dxdy.

(1)

D
({)<<\1/{),
b

v(^)

S = ^dxjdy.

<<,

(2)

(()

2.

S = jj\l\dudv,

(3)


\
/ =
^ G.
, G
<(< , /(()<<1/((),

S=\\pd(pdp=\d(p
G

1 pdp,

(4)

f{<p)

3.
z = z(^x,y),

^=,

dxdy.

(5)

..

219

D .
,
= : (, z),

(6)

D Oyz\
= {, z),

'-

dxdz.

(7)

D Oxz,
3.1. ,
: ) = Vjc, >? = 4vx = 1;) = 1, - = \, : =
= -2.
, ) (. 16.15.).

. 16.15
(2)
1

4>/1

S = \dx \ dy = 3\yjxdx = 2x = 2.
VI

) , (. 16.16.).

16

220

. 16.16
,
,
= - I.

*"

S = ldyl
-1

-1

\+

*'

dx'hjdy\dx

= j{e'-{l

-1

+ y))dy + le'dy =
-2

-1

+ '

1
2

1-1

3.2. , :
) p = a{l-cos(p),
= ;
) ( / ) ' = / ; ) / = 4 , = / ( > 0 , J ; > 0 ) B
; ) "^ = ^ (^ - ^).
, ) . 16.17.
=(/-5)

. 1617

221


.
(4)

fl(l--COS^)

S-\d(p

It

p(ip = j f a ^ ( l - c o s ^ ) ^ - a M J ^ =

a^ | ( - 2 c o s 9 + cos^^)^^ = -2sin^|^ +f(l+cos2^)<i^

+ sm2^

7V

a
=

1
S =
2
) ,
.
x = pcos<p,
y = psin(p: ^ =p^(cos'*^ + sin'*9) ^ =cos^ (p-^sin"^ (.
(4)
2

(cosV+sinV)-

S=jd(p
0

j
0

Pdp=-j(clcos'^<p + sin'*(p
^ 0

2K

= - J ((1 + COS 2(pf 4- (1 - COS 2(pf )d(p = -j{l

+ cos^ 2(p)d(p =

l(
1 ^^
^ If
1
= 2;r + J(l + cos4^)J9 = 2 +2
4
V

)
\
) ,
, . 16.18.
:
^ + ^ =4,

= /

;,2=/, ,,=1

jc'+^=4

=>

=^ .4(1, /),

X^-4JC'+3 = 0
(1).

=>

222

16

. 168

A^^B,^^ tg j8 = =
1

1
71

tg = = , .
/
6
3
jcy = v3 ,
/

. . pcos(ppsin<p = v3 =

2.

Sin COS

(4)
|2

1^-

s = ]d(p \
\-

^
>
sin<pcos^ I

If

pdp = -:-]p'^

d(p
7

sin<jocos^

: / f
d(p
_ / t/ tg _
3 2 J sin (jO cos <)!> 3 2 i tg(p

sin COS (

=f-^J"M n_
6

: >/
3

/,
= ^^^1.
3 2

)
^ = ^ [^ -^ j , ^ > ^.
^ cos^ > ^ sin^ <

\%(<-. tg<p<
3
3

223

: <<<
^ ^ (. 16.19).
6

/6
-\

. 16.19



71

0<(<.
6
flf^(cos^(jf>-3sin^(jo)
=
. ,
cos
a(cos^ (p-3sm^ <

S = 4Jd(p

9 f cos^(p-3sin"(Z) ,

pdp = 2a^j
J

T^d(p =

;J cos <p cos (p

= 2a'|(l-3tgV)^tg(p = 2a'(tg<p-tgV)

-^a'

3.3. , :
2

)^+^=^\

) = \

= ^, = ,

= ,

>0,

>0, >, > .


, ) ,
,
= cos^ , y = psm^(pu

224

16

I cos^ (p - cos^ 9 sin ^ I


|sin^<p 3psin^^cos(p
= 3p (cos"^ (p sin^ (p + cos^ (p sin"^ 9>) = 3p sin^ <p cos^ (p.
, ,
(3)
1

^ 2

- 5 ' = 3 | J(jo[psin^^cos^(p(ip=

\s\n^2(pd(p =

2 1 2

1
J(l-cos4(p)J<p = ^ a ' ^
8 2
8
3

5" = - .
8
) , v = ^,
i
_i
X = . x = uv^, y = uv ^,
V^

UV

/ =

--

UV ^ +UV

V ^

' ) = -UV
i

UV ^

: <<
<v<a. (3)

S = jdujuv-4v

= In

2^

'

3.4. : ) ^ =^ +z^,
^+^=^; )
^ +^ + z^ = 2^, ^ =^ -i-z^;

) ^ -^ -2^ ^^^
(x4/f=a^(x^-/).
, )

-I X
1+

9z

7^^^7'

= .1+

225

V ? ^ '

x'-''^''

4ix

- / ^/?^

, ,
,
^ +^ =^ , .
D.
,

S

= 8N/2 JJ

xdxdy

^14^^'

: = pcos^, j^ = psin^,

2sin^(p = ^^

= 0,

^ = 0|

dt

= 4a'\
4sm(pcos(pd(p = 2tdt, Jc =, t = l
i^i
4
= 4^ arcsinnlo =2a^7i,

6) ,
= V 2^ -^ -z^

226

16

(7), D Oxz.
,
Oxz -z -.

= ,

X
^

, , = /

Z
,

z"

S = 2f[Jl+

= 1\

-^
.

, ^,

^"^^

D 12

^dxdz =

X z

,
S = 2a.f2j]-fpl^

= -2aj2.2n-]{2a'-p')~^d{2a'-p')

-
1
) z = 'sja^ -^

dz
X
dz

^'-'-''

-^

^'-'-''

,


dxdy
Aa\\-^=^=
^'-'--'
^
,
^ =^ cos 2(,

5 = 4ffjl+ , \
J^JV '-'-/

,^

, \
'-'-'

dxdy =
"

227

\ayJcos2(p

d(p =

= 8'(V2cos(p + (p)h = 8 ' | I - V 2 + - 1

16.4.
,
z = f(x,y),
Z =
,
S (. 16.20),
V=

jjf{x,y)dxdy.

(1)

z=f(x .)

X/

<:"

. 16.20


() .

228

16

4.1. , :
) z^ = , X = , = , -,
= 0\
) y = ^fx, ; = 2/; x + z = 3, z = 0;
B ) X ^ + J ^ ^ = 2 X , z = ax, z = bx
[a>b);
r) x^ + j ; ^ + z^ = i^ x^+y^ =Rx ( ).
, a) , ,
z = ^, = ,
= . . 16.21.

. 16.21
,
(1)
4
= \yjxy dx =

V = lU^fxydxdy = 2\yfxdx\yjydy

=^ \yjxdx = a^x^
3 J
9

'.
9

) = ^/
= 2/, + z = 3, z =
(. 16. 22). ,
(1)

2v&

J/= ( 3 - )cicflTy = J(3 - jc)fltc Jflfv= J


D

229
3\

54
/o

18
5

12/
5

. 16.22
) z =
Z = .
(. 16.23.).

. 16.23

230

16

.
(1),
,
Z = , z-ax\iz = bx,
. ,
V = V^-V2 = Uaxdxdy- Ubxdxdy = [a-b)\\xdxdy.
s
s
s
S ,

= cos , = sin (.
= 28.
2cosflJ

2 28

V = 2{-')\

\ ^^ cos(pdcpdp

=2{a-b)\cos(p\

d(p =

16
^

2
= ( - b ) \cos"^(pdcp = (-b) \(\ + 2cos2(p + cos^2(p)d(p
^

2
1^4
f 1
+sm2(p + U\ + cos4(p)d(p
= -{a-b)
2
V
= (-).
) ,
^ +^ =Rx ^ +y^+z^ =R^ (. 16.24).

-(-)

. 16.24

231

1 = jj7i?'-x'-/d!xJ;;.
S ,
. (
= i?cos^.
Rcos<p

/?cos^

d(p =
)3 I

][\-sm'(p)d(p = +\{\-cos^

(p)d cos({>

R'

n__l_
2 3

4,2. , :

z^-=a^

)z^-x'=fl^
^ '

>^'

^'

2 = /2;


) z -^ ^ = 1, ^ = 2, J^^JC, 7 = 2:, z = 0 (jc>0, >^>0).
, )
.
(. 16.25).

= %\[R^ -x^)dx = %{R^x--xA


0

=R\
Jo

"^

232

16

. 16.25
)
z = av2 (. 16. 26).
.
Oyz,
>/2

V = 4Jdz

yjz'-a'

J ylz^-a^dy = 4 J {z^-a^)dz
= 4-

/2

ayfl
^

=4
v3

az
.

= V(2_V2).

. 16.26
) .
. -

233

, x = a p c o s ^ , >' = fepsin^,
/ = .
I

2~

= 8 c J l - ^ - ^ r f x r f y = %\\^\-^^^( - p^sin^cppdpdcp =

= 86J/<[(l-^)2 / = -abc\d(p = .
0

-^

-^

) , = , = v,
X = I, = \luv.
1 1
/ =

2 yjiw

2\u

2v'

__L IZ 1 IZ
2viv

2\v


, 2 2

dudv =

4-'

1
.
2 ^/ = - ( 2 / 2 - 1 ) - 2 2 +2v^

v^(2>/2-l).

16*5*

1. , 5
,

m=\\5{x,y)dxdy,

(1)

234

16

5{^^
2.

m^=^^8{x,y)ydxdy,
S

^ =

\\5i^x,y)xdxdy.

(2)


^=-^'

^^

(3)

.
3.

S

(4)

Io=lAK=\\5{^,y)[^"+/)dxdy.
s

/Q ,
,
.
,
5 (,>^) = 1.
4. ,
Oz, z = z(x,;;),
5,

235

^. =-jjz^dxdy,
^^ =jjyzdxdy,
m^ =jjxzdxdy.
^ s
s
s

w

= \\zdxdy

^
^
^ =

(5)

(6)

=-

5.

^xz = \\y^zdxdy,
ly^ = j^x^zdxdy.
s
s
Oz

(7)

(8)
5.1. ,
= = 6,

.
. ,

X

^ + =
= \ 1"
1-= 1
y^tfl
b
[
^
(1), ,
(. 16.27)
= 11 bcJxdJy = ^ I xdx \ dy = \\
= kb

^'

dx =

236

16

5.2. ,
: ) -^,
= 2, = 0\ 6) ^ = ^ - "^
( > 0 ) ; ) = (1 + 8().
, ) .
16.28. , ,
(1)
2

m=\dx\dy=\x^dx

= .

. 16.28
(2)

1 2

^ ^^xdxdy

.4

\ xdx ^ \{ y^dy = ,
>/v

^\dy

237

(3)
_^ _ 6
'"

~~ ^ *

2'
5
) X > ,
(. 16.29).
^ = 0.

. 16.29

1

/^

m = 2Jdx j dy = -j{l-x^yd{l-x^)
0

=-

JCN/?

^= \\xdxdy = 2\xdx
0

x = sinr,

= 0, ^ = 0

dx = costdt,

x=L

t=\

\ dy = 2\x^yl\'-x^dx

-Jsin^2rc/^ = -j(l-cos4/)6f^ = ,

238

16


_
^ =

16
)
(. 16.30), ^ = 0.

. 16.30


m = J J dxdy; m^ = J J xdxdy.
s
s

x = pcos(p;

y = psm(p,

a(l+cos<p)

= \\ pdpdcp = 2\d(p

=a

\
U

jc

pdp = a^Ul + coscpf d(p =


1 - 2

= na.

l + 2sin(jO + (p-^-sm (p
,0

a(l+cos^)

my = \\ pcos(ppdpd(p = 2\cos(pd(p

p^dp^

- a^ J (cos (- cos^ ^ + 3 cos^ (p + cos"^ (p)d(p =

la'
3

239

1 . ,
sin<pH- < + sin2(p + 3 sin(psin^ip +
1/

1 .

+ - ( + sin 2 + < + sin 4^

= ;.
4

, 5
m 6
5.3.
^(0, Id), {, 0) {, ).
. . 16.31.

(,)

, 16.31
V4JB: + = 1 7 = 2 ( - ) ;
2
-
-
_
:
=
= 2-.
-

(4)
2-
Iy = \\x^dxdy=\x^dx
\ dy=\x^dx =
S

2(-)

4
5.4. /^, / , /Q
, = 0, = , = 0 = ,

.

240

16

. ,
5{^,)-^ -^, (4)

2
b
X
+-

= ^

9 1,
-

^ \dx = a^b
+3
5 9

/ = jj(^' +;^')' dxdy = JrfxJ(x' + 2 ' / + /)dy =

J \

= ]\% + -''--

dx = ab
,5

5.5. ,
: ^--^
-0\ ) ^ = cos2(.
, ) . 16.32.

-2

'

. 16.32
(4)

-"-

-2

4-^

=^](4x'-x'+-(4-x'f\lx
416

+3-4

-2

=
64

4'
3
64

+
3

241

'
5

1^
3

dx =

316 3
3

4-4+--1=47,54.
5

3^

) (. 16.33)

'^

. 16.33
(4)
,
4

a^<Ms2<f>

/^ = \\{^ + y^)dxdy = jjp^dpd(p = 4Jd(p j p^dp =

= a"^ J cos^ 2(pd(p = (p +sm4(p

5.6.
, : ^ + j ^ = ^^ z = ,
z = 0.
. . 16.34.
(5)

242

16

. 16.34
/7^

1
^ S

^ -

^ 0 0

m^, = \d(p\p^ sin^ <prf^ = a n

4 -

w^._ = \d(p\p^ sm(pcos(pdp =|sin^Jsin(p


0

=0

3 :

/>

m = Uzdxdy = \d(p\ p^ sin (pdp = J sin (pd(p = a^


, (6)
^
=0,

'

, z=

'

16

'

.
32

5.7.
2

2
^

1^ - + 2 "'" ~ ~ ^
.

243

. , 2

z=cJl-

X^

2 '

:
I 2

X = , = , = \1 -X

(5) -

b
yja

-X

=vj<b J

, _ : _ > ' ^ dy =
' ' J

be
\](a'-x'jdx
'

16

^abc\

rii"
-/ -X
a

m.

:jdx J

^
I

i-i ' y''


b'
a

cb 2

,_l_z!'^
a

dy^

{"
dx

cb^
j{a^^x^ydx=~ab^c.
3a'
, m,^ =a^bc.
'" 16
6=1,
71

(4.2.) V = .
6
, (6)

^=1,

y^=h,

z^=lc.


(7)

/^ (8)

244

16

P
I^=jl/zdxdy = -]y'dy
S

-x^dx =

2\
^

dy = nab^c.
15

I^^ = iix^zdxdy =Tta^bc.


s
^^
,

16*6.1^
1.

f(x,y,z)

V
j\jf{x,y,z)dxdydz
)

= Jirn^^ X S X /(^.'>''^*)^.(1)
-^0

max Az^ -^0

Ax.Ay^.Az^ =(x-^i-x.)(>^^.^i->;^.)(z^^i-zj
,
F.
F /(x,jv,z)
(1)
Ax-Ay^Az^^,,
,
/ (, j^, z),
.

245


.
2.

\\\f{x,y,z)dxdydz^^dx

\ dy ^ f{x,y,z)dz.

^2)

^)

z,
(, )
.
, ,
(, ). ,
,
,
.
3. ,
, Z , v ,w,
x = x{u,v,w),

y = y{u,v,w),

z = z{u,v,w).

(3)

(3) -
G
OuvwH2i Oxyz.

/ =

dz

dv

dv
dz
dv

dw

^0
dw
dz
dw

G /[x^y^z)
,

246

\\\f{x,y,z)dxdydz

16

=jjJ/(x(w,y,w),j^(M,t;,w),z(w,u,w))|/|Ji/Jt;fi?w.

(4)

(3)
, G (4)
V.

x,y,z
p,(p,z (. 16.35),

x = p c o s ^ , j ; = psin(p, z = z
(0<<+, 0<(<2,
-oo<z<-l-oo),

|cos9 - p s i n ^
/ = sin^

pcoscp

0|
=,

l|


\ljf

{x,y,z)dxdydz

= jjjf

{pcoscp,psincp^z)pdpdcpdz.

(,,2)

. 16.35

(5)

247

, , z
,(, (. 16.36), x,y,z
= psin0cos(p, j ; = psin0sin(p, z = pcos0
(0<p<-l-oo^ 0 < < 2 , 0<<),


|sin0cos^
/ = sin0 sin ^
I COS0

-psinSsin^
p sin 0 cos (p
0

pcos0cos^|
p cos0 sin (p\ = p^ sin^,
-psin^ I


j\\f{x,y,z)dxdydz
=
V

= J j j / ( p s i n 0 c o s ^ , psin0sin(p, 8)^ sinOdpdcpde. (6)


(,,0)

. 16.36
1

6.1. : )
2

ylYx

j
0

dy^z^x^+y^dz;
0

Vl-x^

^/i-7-7

) jJjc j ^ j
0

\dx\dy\xyzdz;
0

) jdx

yjx^+y^+z^dz.

, a)
.
, z,

248

^ \

^ 1

16

JC

^ 0 0

, .

^ 11

1^
4

i- 11

/ = | dx = '-\x^dx = .
2J 4 I
Si
48
6)
. ,
z,

^2-^

2 1^

2 2

yllx-x^

I = jdx J /?+/ dy =jdx J


0

^10

yp+^dy,


. 16.37. =^ pcoscp,
j ; = sin (jf),
22 22

2cos^
^cos^

/ = {d(p { p^dp^

^ 22 2

\cos^(pd(p^a^\i^-sm^(p)ds\n(p

a siiKpsm <p

= a.
9

249

) . 16.38.
,
. ,

/^++ z^ = ^ ( p s i n 0 c o s ^ ) V ( p s i n 0 s i n ^ ) ^ + ( p c o s 0 ) ^ =
, (6)
,
2

/ = JJJp. 2 sinddlpdcpde = Jsin0J0J JtpjpVp =


1 2

= -jsinedejdq)

= ^jsinede

= -,

. 16.38
6.2. : a) jj j -

dxdydz

-,

Fo6-

V (JC + J^ + Z + I)

,
X + j ; + Z = 1; ) VJJJ dxdydz, V , . ^2
X + .2 +Z
= 2Rz, -hy =z

250

(, , 7?); ) JJJ zdxdydz,

16

V ,

^ +^ = z^ Z = .
, ) .
16.39.

. 16.39

1

dxdydz

>-\\\-

(x + j + z + 1)

\-

\-x-y

\dx\dy ]
0

dz

0 {x + y + z + \)

xviy ,
z
\-x-y

1 ' , '7

\-

-kl^\

{+ + \)

2J^4^

^ 2

dy =
1

+
[^4 x+y + \j

=41
+\)

21

\-

dx =

251

) jc^ + +(z-7?) =/?^,


, z i?.
,
, (. 16.40).

/ = jj^dxdydz = jjj ^ sin edpdOdcp,

. 16.40
,
=2R cos 0. ,

IRcosd

1= jdcpjsinede

J p^dp=

jd(pjcos'esmede

/.

cos 0
3-4

SR3

jd(p=7tR^
0

) ^ + ^ = h^
(. 16.41).
,

252

16

,
^ 2

'

h'n

. 16.41

16*

1. , V,

V = ^\\dxdydz

(1)

, F,

= JJJ 5(jc,>',z)d[x^'(iz,

(2)

5(jc,>',z) (x,>^,z).
2.

253

m^y^^^^b{x,y,z)zdxdydz\
V

,, = JjJ 5 (,;;, Z ) >' dxdydz\


(3)
V


^c

>

^c ~

'

(4)

m
m
m
m - .
3^.
I, = \\\S{x,y,z){y^

-^z^)dxdydz;

I = \\\S[x,y,z)(x^

-{- z^jdxdydz;

l,=j\\S{x,y,z){x^+y')dxdydz.

(5)

4^.

I^,=lS{x,y,z)z'dV;
I,,=\S{x,y,z)y'dV;
V

I,,=jd{x,y,z)x'dV,

(6)

dV = dxdydz.

h-I^+L+Iy.=\5{x,y,z){x'+/-^z')dV.

(7)

5. V
(x,y,z)

254

16

< 5 ( M ) = 5 ( X , 3 ; , Z ) ,


F A(^x^,y^,z^), , ,
,
,

F,=l^5dV;
V

F^=jyZl^5dV;

= yj[x-x^f

+{y-ycf

F,=j^8dV,

'

(8)

'

MA.

+{z-^cf

6. .
V 5

W=^\^.
V

(9)
'

,
5(x,>',z) = l.
7.1. , :
a ) z = jc^+j;^,

2-=^-2^,

= ,

-2,

= 1;

) ^ + j^^ = z^, ^ -^ -z^ =^, ;


B ) ( x 4 / + z ' =^; ) + f 7 + = -fr^
^

, )

V = \\^dxdydz.
V


Z = X + 2>^ Z = ^ + j;^.
. 16.42. ,

,
1

Jc^+2/

V = jdxjdy

255

j dz = jdxjy^dy = -jlx'dx =
/

12

. 16.42
) . 16.43. ,
,
,
7

V = 2JJjp^ sinedpdedcp = 2Jd(pjsmede^p^dp


2

= ^ j c o s 0 d(p =

'(

. 16.43

4i^

256

16

) ^ -^^ -z^,

x = psin0cos^,

j ; = psin0sin(p,

z = pcos0.


= a^indcoscp.
yuz ,
Oxz
. , > , . .
,
.
0<<
2'

0<(<. (1)
2
I = ^sin(p,

V = 4Jdejd(p
0

2a' b ,

a^sme_CQS<p

p^sm9dp=

.^4 , .

j{l-cos2e)de

"-^

^ ?

j sin^ Odd j cos (pd(p =


0

'

3 0

r)
2
X

2
Z

+ -Y +


= sin0 cos^, y = bp sin0 sin 9, z = cp cosO,
/ = abcp^ sin .

. 2 ^

/.

= -71~sii^ cos sin ( cos (.


,

V = SJd(pjde

. 2

7"Sn 0 COS sin ) COS
h^

257

abcp^ sin edp =

4 -

8(abc)
{abc)'
^ - |sin^(pcosV(i(pfsin^0cos^0rf0 =
7.2. : a) ,
x + y + z = a, = 0, = 0, z = 0,
z ; )
^ -^ ^-z^ =R^
^ + j ; ^ + z^ = 4/?^,
.
, ) . 16.44.
5 i^x,y,z) = z, ,
(2),
-

a-x-v

= \\\ zdxdydz = I dx \ dy zdz =ldx \ (--)


V
f

"-0
^

= 21 ( - ^ ) V - ( a - > ' ) / + Y

. 16.44

dy =

0
1 '^

dx = -\{a-x)'dx

=^.

258

16

)
yjx^ + ^ -{-z^,
S[x,y,z)=

===. (2) -

,
2

2R

= ^sinOcipdedcp = JdcphinOde J pdp =


G P

In

\n

dip =
0

6KR'

lo

7.3. ,
: x + j + z = l , = 0, >^ = 0, z = 0.
. (2)
1-JC

\-x-y

m=\dx\dy
0

\-

\ dz =\dx \ {l-'X-y)dy

=Ul-'x)
^ 0

dx =.
"

(3)
1

1-JC

1-JC-;'

m^ = jdxjdy j zdz = -jdxj{\-x-yfdy


0

1-JC

^
\-x-y

^z'=\dx\ydy
0
1

. 1

= --j{\-xfdx = ;

^0

\-

-j

^^
1

-J

j 6/z = jt/x j > ; ( l - x - : ^ ) t / v = - j ( l - x ) ^ ^ x = ;

1-JC

I-J:-;'

^ 0

1-JC

^ 1

^ ^
^

m^,^= J :(ixJ fify J c/z = jx(ix j (l-x-j^)(iy = j x ( l - x ) tic = .


0

^ Q

24

, (4)

1. ^ + +z^ =2az,
-

259

.
. Oz
. , , ^ ^
0.
5 -

dxdydz

V 7^4/HV


F,
2-

2acos0

= \dcplsinOde
0

In

[ pdp = 2a^ {d(p]sinecos^OdO =


(3)
- "'

zdxdydz

V \jX +J^ +Z

2acos0

-COS Ud cose=
J

15

, z^ =.
7.5. Oz ,
z^ = 2, z = , ^ + j ; ^ = .
. Oz

I^=jjj[x^+y^)dxdydz

260

16

(. 16.45)
,
acos^

I^=2\d(p
0

lax

acosip

\ pdp

{ (^x^ -\-y^)dz = 2\d(p

2^/2^-2a^}
-\cos^(pcos^(pd(p=
9

\ p^ yjlap cos (pd p =


0

^1(^1-sin (pjdsm(p = -

135

. 16.45
7.6. : a)
R , ; )
; )
.
, ) ,
. 16.46.

. 16.46

261


^ ^ = ^ ~ ^
=^>
- yjx^ + j ; ^ + z^.
F^ F
. Oz
(8), , 5 = 1
2

zdxdydz

^==1
'' ( x 4 / + z')2
2;r

"(x^Z+z^)

= -\d<p\

/?7/+?

zdz

\d(p\pdp\
R

Pdp =

pdp = J c/<pj
P

= 27t(p-^lp^+h^\

=2{ R +

yjp'+h' ^

h-^JR'+hA.

6)
(9)
W = ]dz\[

dxdy
2 , ,.2 , 2

_ f ^^ ^,^ f
= jdzldcpj-

yjx + +Z

'J

pdp

__

1 , Jl

0 VP

+^

= 2njUR^ +z^ -z\dz = 7chUR^ +h^ -h]+7cR^ In

h + ylR^+h'
R

)
, (6),

2

I^=\\\z4V^\d(p\pdp\z4z

'3

D2

h^ 2;

h'R' 7 ,
7th'R^
d(p =
.

-\d<p\pdp

262

16

6.8.
. .
/(, ) L.

/ /2,..., /^,

. S^

^^^1{^^^^^

max /^ ->
,
L, . td.,

f{M) = f{x,y) L
\f{x,y)dl=

\\

/{,,
1=\

dl .
L

{f{x,y,z)dl=

lim

5^/(x,,>^.,z.)A/..
'=1

2. .
L = ( {),
L
\f{x,y)dl

= ]f(x,(p{x))^\

+ {(p'{x)fdx,



x = x{t),

y-^y{t)

{a<t<p),

\f{x,y)\dl\.

263

\f{x,y)dl^\f{x{t\y{t))4^^dt.
L

,
dl = /^ -f ^ \dt\.

/ (jc, , z)
. L
= (), y = y{t),

z = z{t)

(a</</3),

jf{x,y,z)dl

jf{x{t),y{t),z{t)yx^+y^+z^dL

3. .
1.

\f{x,y)dl=\f{x,y)dl.

2.
^Cf{x,y)dl = C^f{x,y)dl, const.
L

3.

\{f,{x,y)f,{x,y))dl
L

\f,{x,y)dl\f,{x,y)dL
L

4. L Lj
L^,

\f{x,y)dl =
L

L,

\f{x,y)dU\f{x,y)dl
L,

4. .
{, ) Q{x, )
L. -

264

16

/. (/ = !,...,)
{, ) Q{x, )

5 = ( ^ ( ^ " - > ' / ) ^ / + (^/'->'')>^/)' ^^^ ^/./ /^ .


max . > max Aj^^ >
,
L, .
/., P[x,y)dx + Q[x,y)dy

lP{x,y)dx-^Q{x,y)dy

Jm^^J^{P{x^^^^^



a = P{x,y,z)l-^Q{x,y,z)j

+ R{x,y,z)k

L
^(adl)^^Pdx^Qdy^Rdz,
L

(// J dl ,
L
, ,
j[adJ) = jP{x,y)dx
I

+ Q{x,y)dy.

5. .
L = ([),

b

jP{x,y)dx-\-Q{x,y)dy

= j[p{x,(p{x))

(p\x)Q{x,(p{x)))dx,

265

L
x = x{t),

y:=y{t)^

a<t<,

jP{x,y)dx-\-Q{x,y)dy

x=x(/), y=y{t),

z=z[t),

a<t < ,
jP{x,y,z)dx

+ Q{x,y,z)dy

+ R{x,y,z)dz

+R(x{t),y{t),z{t))z{t))dL
.
6. .
1.

j Pdx + Qdy = -jPdx-\-Qdy.

2.

J Pdx + Qdy = j Pdx-\- J Qdy,


AB

AB

AB


.
8.1. :
) Ux + y)dl,
^

) \xydl,
1

L ^ (1, 0) 5 (, 1);
2

L - + ^ = 1,
'

266

16

) | x^J/, L -

^ +^ =^: ) |
:;-, L
{x^+y^+z^
x = acost, y = asmt, z-bt\ ) Hx-\-y)dl,
L

L ^ -^-^ -\-z^ =R^ ^ = ^-,


; ) \{- 2y)dl,

L: ^ + '^ =4,

, )
. .
,
-0
-1
=
; ^- + ,
: = - 1 , dl = J\ + {y'fdx = ^dx, :
1-0
0-
j{x + y)dl = j{x-x

+ \)yf2dx = yl2x\ =/2.

) :
x = acost, y = bsint, x' = -asinty y' = bcost,
dl = '^xf-^yfdt = yja^sin^t + b^cos^tdt.

2

\xydl = J afesintcostala^ sin^ t + b^ cos^ t dt =


L

0
2

= ab\smtJa^ ^m^t + b^ (l -sin^ t^dsmt =


ab

j^(a'-6')sin'/ + fe't/sin'/ =

2o

267

\[(' -b^)sm' t + b'J d[[a' -b')sm' t + b') =

2(a^-6^)i
ab
[{a'-b')s\n4
[^-^)
ab

/ -L , i \

3(a'-b'y i-'-f'h

+ b')'

ab a^-hab-hb^
a+b

B) : = p c o s ^ ,
3; = sin (.
= , dl = ^^ + p'^dq) = yla^ + Od(p = ad(p.

\x^dl =\^ cos^ (padcp = ^ \--{\ + cos2(p)d(p =
(

1 . ^

(p +sm2(p
) ,

dl = ^jx^^-y'^-^z^dt = yja^ sin^ + ^ cos^ t + b^dt = yja^+b^dt.

dl
x+3;+z

7
yla'^b'dt
^(3 cos t-^a sin t + b t

^'
dt
2^2
0 ^ "^b't
iK

= -^Ja^+b^

^^

, =-

arctg

ab

- arctg-

) :
x = pcos^sin0,

j ; = psin^sin0,

z = pcos0.

268

16

-^

V~~7 :

jc = p c o s 0 ,

;; =

pcosO,

z = psm0.

, ,
= R .
,
dl = J-R^sm^e + -R^sm^e +
V2
2
,

Rcose

R^cos^ede=Rde.

+RcosO Rde = y/2R^ j cos de =


2

= V2/?'sineh
io

=^R\

e) : x = pcoscp,
y = p sin (p. (. 16.47) :
p^=4psin<p,

p=4sin<p,

p ' = 4cos^.

. 16.47

dl = yjp^ +(')^ ^> = v^^sin^ + 16cos^ (pd(p = 4d(p.

269


J(x + ly^dl = 4 j ( p cos <p + 2p sin (p)d(p =
0

= 4 j 4 sin (p cos (pd(p + 8 j 4 sin^ (jorfcp =


'rl-cos2(p
32 J
?( =

= -16 cos (p

= -8(1-1) + 16: = 16:.


8.2.
/ = \ydx-^x{y

x^dy

: ) J = ; ) j ^ = 9; (9(0, 0), 1(1, 3).


, )
.
dy = 3dx ,
/ = J3xdx + x{3x-x)3dx

= 3J[x + 2x^)dx = \-x^+2x^

/I

) = ,

dx-ydy

'1 ,
^3

/
4

/ ^
9-5

73
20'

8.3. I ^Slx-y^^dx

+L

, = 0, = 0, = 2,=\.

270

16

. ,
(. 16.48).

2

/=:j + j + j + J = j j c r f x + j ( 2 ~ / ) 0 + J ( x - l ) d ^ + j ( 0 - / ) 0 =

( J^

^1-1^1^1,

/2

Fuc. 16.48
8.4. / = J ydx + zdy + xdz : a)
; ) ABC, 0(0,0,0), ^(,0,0), (,,0),
{,,).
, )
. ,
1 ^ -^ ,


^2

-^1

^-^1

^2-^1

, = ^ = . (2

1^

/
: x-at, y-at, Z- at. : dx
= adt,dy = dt, dz = dt,
t,

l^^(a^t^-a^t-Va^t)dt

271

3
Za^^tdt^-a^.2

) ABC
^ ^ J + 1 + J

,
,
: = at, = 0, z = ,
:y = at, = , z = 0,
:z = at, = , = .
: dx - dt, dy = dt, dz = dt
t,
1

I = J0'adt'hJ0adt'hja^dt
0

= a\

cx^dy-y^dx
8.5. / = J
^ ^ ^ ^+^
X = 8cos^ t; = 8sin^ t .4(8,0) JB(0,8).
.
dx = -24 cos^ t sin tdt, dy = 24 sin^ t cos tdt
/
^ 8^ 3cos^^sin^^cos/ + 8^-Ssin^^cos^^sin^ , ._ . 2
2 i.
/=
^
7
dt =48 sln^^cos^^f
{
2^cos7 + 2^sin^^
{
t

",

2. 1

2. 1

/ = 48J-sin'2/J^ = 1 2 J - ( l - c o s 4 / ) J / = 6 tsin 4/
4
4
i2

272

8.6. / = \ ydx-xdy,
2

16

+L

.
: = acost; = bsint.
dx = - sin tdt; dy = b cos tdt
t
I = \-bsintasint

acostbcostdt =

-ab\dt.
+L

+L


,
2, . .
2:

/ = ^ \ dt = -2.

8.7. / = {yzdx + zxdy + xydz, L


= cost, y = asint,
.
dx = -asintdt,

dy = acostdt,

z = bt.

dz = bdt

/,
2

I = \(-asmtbtasint

+ btacostacost

+ acostasmtb)dt

= ^[ tcos2t +sin2t \dt =


2

= a'b t'sinlt
2
V

10

^ 2

If
1
sin2/J/cos 2/
A
29 J
^ 0

2;r

= 0.

273

xy(ydx-xdy)
8.8. / = ^
^-, L
X +
^ = ^ cos^ (.
. : = cos ;
y = psm(p, : dx=-p sin (pdcp; dy = p cos (pdcp,

- p^sin(pcos(p(-p^sin^(jr)-p^cos^(j9)

I= I

-'^^'

cos'^cp + p Sin

,
2

I=^ \cos^ cpdcoscp=cos^^

=0.

16.9.
.

1.
J Pdx + Qdy ,

, Pdx + Qdy
.
D ,
, , .
D

{, ),

274

16

j Pdx+Qdy = U{B)-U{A),

(2)

. . U (, )
, D.
,
, /), .
2.
J Pdx + Qdy-\- Rdz ,

,
Pdx + Qdy + Rdz
.
__ _
^__

dz
dz
, ,
J Pdx + Qdy + Rdz = {)-(),

(3)

(4)

. . U (, , z)
5 4 .
.
(, ) dU = Pdx + Qdy, (1)
, U (, )
ANB (.
16.49) , .
AM - y^VL ( = , AN = XQ,
dx = Q.

21

N(x,^y)

(,)

,)

(,)

. 16.49
AM ,
U{x,y) = \p{x,y,)dx+\Q{x,y)dy

+ C,

(5)

+ C.

(6)

ANB,

U{x,y)=\Q{x^,y)dy

+ \p{x,y)dx

dU =

dx +

dy,

dx = Pdx,

dy = Qdy,

, ,
,
U = lPdx + C{y),

U = lQdy + q{x),

(), Cj(x) .

,
(, ). .
U{x, , z) ,
,

276

{x,y,z)=

^P{x,yQ,z^)dx-\-

^ Q{x,y,ZQ)dy+

16

^R{x,y,z)dz,(J)

()

9.1. / = I [xdy + ydx) : ) ;


(0,0)

) - \ ) '^-.
.
.
.
dQ ^
, ., = , Q = -- = - = 1,
,
,
. :
) = dy = dx,
1

/ = \xdx + xdx = ^

1.

) = ^, dy = Ixdx
/ = J xlxdx + x^dx = x~ = 1.
) y^ = x, 2ydy = dx
1

/ = ly^dy + ylydy = y"


9.2. , :
) dU = 3(^^ -y^dx + 3(^y^ -x^dy; ) dU = sin2xdx-sin2ydy;
B) dU = (/e--3)dx

+ e-{l + xy)dy; r) ^ = ^dx + ydy + zdz


yjx^+y^+z^
, a) ,
: = - 3 , = - 3 . (1)

277

, ,
U.
(5), ^, ^

4-C=Jc47 - + .
) (1): = - ^ =
(6), ^,^
= - sin 2ydy + J sin 2xdx + = (cos 2y - cos 2x) + C.
0

) ,
:
= 2'^+^'^;
^ = ""'(l-hxy) + e'^y = 2ye'^+^'\

(1) , ,
U.
Pdx Qdy.
, ,
,

U = j{y^e'^-3)dx + C{y) = y^-e'^-3x

+ C{y) = ye'^-3x-hC{y),

U = je''\l + xy)dy + q{x) = ^e''4xjye''4y

+ q{x) =

ye''4q{x).

)
, ,

C/ = j ; e ^ - 3 x + C.

() , -

278

16

. ,
.
) ,
. :

417/7?'

4777'

'+y'+z'

(3):
_dQ _

dQ_dR_

dR _ _

-yz

-XZ

/ 2 2 2\|
[jr+y^+z^y
(3) ,
U.
, (7) :^, ^, z^

-^-]{')'~('+')+('+^^
^0

:X + {x'+y'f + (x4/+z^)

+ C = (jc4/+z')2+C.

9.3. (2,1)

(1,2,3)

: ) J 3x^ydx + x^dy; ) J yzdx + xzdy + xydz.


(0,0)

(0,1,2)

, ) ,
. -

279

(1): = 3^, = 3^.

,
.
,
5. 2 > = ,
2

</ = 0, J 3 x ^ 0 ^ + jc^0 = 0. j^ 1 = 2,
fifx =
|1

J3-4>;-0 + 8J;; = 8y = 8.

1
.
U
B^^A\io (2)

|(^'^)

[/ = JjcV;; = jcV

=8-1 = 8.
1(0,0)

) ,
. (3):
_ _

'dQ

_ _

" - """ - ^5 ":7~ ~ ":~ - ^9 -- - -IT- - '



dz
dz
(3) ,

.
(7) U Z

U = Ixydz = xyz. (4) 0

U
U = xyz\
^

1(0,1,2)

= 1 - 2 - 3 - 0 1 - 2 = 6.

280

16

16*10*


1.

L=\dl,

(1)

dl .
2. ,
,
5 = xdy - ydx.

(2)

^ +

3. J f(x,y)dl,

(i/-

\dl\,

z~f{x, ).
, J Py^.yjdx,

^ ,
xOz
,
z-P{x,y),
4.

m=j p{M)dh

.3)

() .
5.
^=^-.

=.

(4)

^ ^

'^^ = J p{M)xdl,

^jc= \ p{M)ydl

281^

.

^-

^^

^=~^^

^^,

^-^^

^=^

^ = j xp{M)dl,

^ = j yp[M)dl,

(5)

rn^ = \ zp[M)dl


.
-const,
.
6.
, , Oz

L

I,=\p{M)(x'+y')dl,

I,=lp{M)(x'+y'+z')dL

(6)

7. , F[P,Q,R)
,

= jPdx-hQdy + Rdz,

(7)

, Q, R F .
, . .
U (, , z) ,

= , ^

= 2, ^

OZ

= ,

(8)

282

16

= j Pdx + Qdy + Rdz = jdU = U{B)-U{A),

(9)


A{x^,y^,z^ 5 (^2, j^2'^2) .
8. ^ ^
,

()
= ,]^-^

,
dl,

p(M)sin0 ,
Y = km,]^-^
dl,

(10)

7 ^, ,
, .
9. -, , /
,

;=, mlsina
F=\-^dl,

()

'^

dl ,
,
, ,
.
, ,
,
.
10.1. : )
X = ' cos t, = ' sin /, 2 = ' (0,0,0)
^
'
(,0,); ) = , z = = 0 = 3.
2
6
, ) (1),

L= jdl = j ^x^+y^+z^dt.

/,

283


, t: 0 = ^ cost,
0 = ae^smt, = ', t = -oo; l = e'cos^, 0 = e^sint, l = e\
t = 0.
I = j y ^ V ' (cos/-sin/)^ +fl[V' (sinr + cos/)^ -{-a^e^'dt =

= aV3 I e4t = / lim e^ = /.


P

6) x /, : x = t,
t'
t'
y = y ^ "^ T no (1) :
2
6

I = j yjx^+y^+Z^t = j Jl + / J/ =
AB

0 ^

= lj(2 + /^)j/ = if2/ + -

"*

= 7,5.

10.2. , :
) - '^ = '^\ ) = cos^t,
= sin^t; ) ^ + ^ = .
, ) ,
(0,0) (1,1) (. 16.50).

()

284

16

(2),
S^\xdy
2 '

ydx^ \ xdy ydx =


2

"^

^ 1
= -\ dx
vVy = - - + 3
2J
2J
2^3 3
) (2).
dx = - cos^ t sin tdt, dy = sin^ t cos tdt.
t 2.
, 2-

5 = - f {^sin^tcos'^t + ^sin^/cos^t^dt =
^
^

2:

2:

= - ^ f sin^^cos^^^r=~fl[^ fsin^2^(i^ =
2 '
8 J
^

2:

'^

3 ,
= - .
16 J/
^ 16 1^ 4
J. 8
)
,
, = tx.

, 3at
3at^
=
-, =
-.
1+
1+
/ = ^ = tg0 = a^ f (l-cos40^^ =a^\

tsin4/

"

(. 16.51) 0

, t . dx = 3a

1-2/^

(l + / ' )
(2),

j- dt,

dy = 3a

It-t"^
(l + / ' )

^ dt

1? ^

285

9'"

rV^
3 2,1
-1
= 2 /J^-l
lim + r
"(l + ^'j

++=0

. 16.5 J
10.3. ,
:
.) = \2,

z = y,

x = aco^t,

-;

y = asmt,

(z>0); r ) j c 4 / = 7 t c ,

) z = bt;

jc'+/+z'=^'

~ + 7~^'

^"^-^

(z>0).

, a) 3
S= \zdl,
L JH = V2X.
dl = J\-b(y')

dx = J\ + dx.

z = = /2,

286

1 9

16

9_98

~8
)
dl = -^jx^ + y^+z^dt = yja^+b^dt.

2

2 2:

9
2"

= 27t^byja^+b\

)
x = acost, y = bsint.
dl = yfa^ sin^ t + b^ cos^ tdt.
2 > 0
S = \ cos / V ^ sin^ / + b^ cos^ /t// =

= 2akjcostJb^+[a^

-Z>^)sin^ tdt =

sm t = u,

=
lakNb^+c^u^du.
c'=a'-b'
no ,
f

|1

S = ak
^

= -In

V '
"
) x = p c o s ^ ,
j^ = sin (,
= /? cos^. Z >

287

= jyJR^ -R^ cos^ (p^R^ c o s > + i?' sin^ (pdcp = 2R^jsin cpdcp = 2R\
0

10.4. : a) y = \nx
^ = ^2 = 2,
; )
= cos/, y = asmt, z = bt,
-
= , ; )
= (1 + cos), = 4.
, ) (3), , =^,
1
= J[x^dl dl = X-yJl + x^dx,

(^r-

^
1
m = j(l + x^yxdx = -[l + x^y

=^75.
24

) t
27. :
= = k^x^+y^-^z^

= kJ^~+bY

dl = ^Jx^+y^+z^ =yla^+b^dt.
(3)
2-

m = j kyja''b4a'+bh4t

= 4^^

^yJ^Vb^'dt.

288

XP""

2 \

/|

^kyja'+b^

16

/10

:^Ja^^47V

+In
2b

iKb + yfa^+ATtV W
a

) (3).
dl = ^+ {p'f d(p = ^la\\ + cos (^ + a\m^(pd(p = ayJlyj\-\'ZOS(pdq>.
(
27.
2

= j kyja{\ + cos(p)a-j2yJl + cos (pd(p =


0

2:

= kayjla J (l + cos ) ^ = IkKayJla.


0

10.5. : )
x = (2(^-sin^), >' = a(l-cos^) (0<t<K); )
= cos , j ; = sin ^, z = bt,
; ) r = a(l + cos^),
= 1.
, )
(4),
.
m=\p^Jx^+y^dt

= apU{l'-costf

+sin^tdt =

= 2 | sinJ/ = - 4 a p c o s - =4ap.

289

= | ^ ( ^ - s i n / ) ^(1-COS/) +sin^/<i/
^( . t
. .
t\
= 2'\ ?sin sin/sin \dt =
2
2
V
t_

2a p -2/cos+4sin+sin

'i

la'p

(4)-l-

m^ = jpa^ (l~cos/)^(l~cos/)^+sin^/t// =
0

= 2aVj sin
2

cos/sin \dt =
2
M

3/

cos = 2V 2-i.l = f V.
2 3
2
2
w^ 8
m^ 4
x ^ = - - - = - a , ;;, = - ^ = - a .
m
m
6)
(5).
, (5)
. ,
, , ,
,

= 2aV -2/coshcos

^ = \xyjx^ +^ -z'^dt = !^ +b^ \costdt = ayja^ +b^ sin/ = 0.


0

i^= \y^Jx^+y^+z^dt

= 1^ +b^ jsintdt = -^ +b^ cost

-=2ayla^+b\

290

16

= -'+\
2

^ = - ^ = , ^=-^ = , z^=-^ = ,

m l
)
, , . . (^ = 0.
-\
= 2\dl = lUr^- + (/f d(p = 2a\ yjl -2 cos (p +cos^ (p-\-sin^ (pd(p

4aJ cosd(p = Sa sin ~

Sa.

,

2

2:

- \ydl =1 rsin(pyjr^+(/fd(p
L

= 2^ I (I+ cos(p)sin(pcosd(p =

= 2a^ f sincos~ +sin2(2)cos \d(p =

=a

2 2

2j ^

2 f f . 3(p . (p \ . Sep 1 . 3<j?'j.


sin-^+sin +sm^+sin-^ \ =
^1^2
2 2
2 2
2 j ^
^

( ^
\
5(0
= a c o s - ^ + 2 cos+cos ^^ 2
2 5
2

32

A; = - = a.
m
5
10.6. : a)
x = t cos t, j ; = / sin /, z = /
,
p = kz^\ )

291


- cos ^ j ; = sin ^ z = .
, )
, 4,
^ = \ p[M)zdL

,
. = {t^yj{cost'-tsintf

+{smt + tcostf

+ \dt = k\ t^yjt^ +2dt

t^ + 2 = u^, tdt = udu, t^ =u^ - 2,


\-j2yl2x^+\

/2/271

m. ,=k

J (u^-2)u^du=k

/2

15

8^V2
15

(2'+1)2(:'-1)+1

6)
(6). [) = 1,
/

= Ja^+b^\

= ('+-'7' | ^ / ^ ^

- / s i n 2 / + '-

3 ,
J

/ , = j ( a ' c o s ' + bh^)sja4b'dt

2ff

^'^

^ ;

292

16

L= j(a^cos^ t + a^ sin^ t)yja^-i-b^dt =


2:

lQ=\[a^cos^t + a^sin^t + bY)yJa4b^dt

L
27

yja'+b' j [a" +bY )dt =

In^a^b

^ ^ 2 f 2

10.7. F[P,Q}, P = x-y, Q = x,



= , = .
. (.
16.52)
. = -.
(7),

^^ = ^ Pdx^Qdy = ^{-)=

^{^a^dx^la^.

. 16.52
:

. (7)

^ ~ J ^^ = ci\dy = 2^

293

CD: = . CD

-a

DA\ --a.

DA

,
= Sa^.
10.8. - + ^ = 1


^ , /
.
F ,
.
.
, ,
,
, F - -xi - yj^
/
- cos t, = b sin t, ,

.
F (7)
/,

= [Pdx-^Qdy = -\xdx-^ydy
L

= Ua^ cos/sin/-6^ sin/cos/)rf/ =


0

7C

= (a^-6^)Jsin/Jsin/ =

294

16

10.9. F = 21 + y^J - ^

^ -v^ -Iz^ = 2^ j^ = {, , 0)
iB 1/2,]2,].
.
, ^ -z^ =^.
(7) F
= X ^ = + z ,
ayjl

E = J2xydx + y^dy-x^dz=
a^l2

aS

ayfl

J 2x^dx+ J y^dy-j{a^
(

.
2

Z+

+ z^)dz =

^a'\242~

10.10. F{P,g,/?}
, : ) = , ~ ?
if = - mg ( rri)
(xp>^p Zj) {^^^^ z^); ) = j ^

r
Q-,^

P = ^^ , : const, r = Jx^+y^+z^

)
( j^p Zj) .
, ) U F
(8) U = -\mgdz = -mgz.
(9)

E = \dU = U{B)-U{A)=^-mg{z,-z,)
= mg{z,-z,),

. . ,
) /, (8),

= -\

xdx

( x 4 / + z^)5

:-.J

295

=-*j'

zdz

ydy

{x'+y'+z'Y
k_
r

[x'^y'^z'f

(9)

E = jdU = U{ooyU{A)

I 2 , 2~ 2 *
V^l +3^1 "^^1

10.11. , ^,
, : )
^ - ^ = R^ (. 16.53); )
ABC (, 0), (, ) (-, 0); )
, ,

.

, ) 1
= 0. =
R. - : 0.
, dl = RdO, Y (10)
'^J ^

R 1

COS0

2^
R

296

16

) . 16.54
, ,
,

.

(-,0)

'

(,0) ^

. 16.54
-^ = ,
^-\-^=^,

= sin0, = -,

(10),
J.. =-. 2sf2pj
/^^
Y = 2yl2pj-^dy

= 2^pj

dl = yl2dy,

"^
=2V2pJ-

lyfl

ydy

'>(a^-2ay + 2y^y

ydy

2^2 "l

-ay^-

^-2

= /;

y = t + >^ = 0; ^ = - - - = ; t = ,
Z

-^

dy = dt;

297

+-

Y = p]

-J^
^

^2 \
^

+
4 = Fj + Y^.

\
+
2

^'-^\

= 0;

=-

\^^
//

^==fl

- ^ 2
2

^
+ -

2 \

(2
Jz
/ = tg z, dt =
2
2 cos z
a

/ = ; z = / = ; z =
.
^
2

^
2
4 '
dz
^
= ^ [ cos zdz =

cos^z

(ilCOS Z

2p
sinz

2p
a

+
2

2>^

P-

298

16

) ,
,
, . . X-Y, ,
, X (10).

^
^
, X = ^\
. 1 ^
. ,
= COS0 (. 16.54) = acos^ t, = asin^ t,

X =^ cos^ t^9a^ cos"* / sin^ ^ + 9a^ sm' t cos^ tdt =

= ^^ J sin /cos^ tdt = ^^.


0

10.12. /,
,
W, h .
.
,
. ,
,
I

dl = dx, r = yjh^+x^,
(11)

F = mlj

hdx

(h'+x'f

sina = --,

- nigt,
-,

F = ml \
2

h^dt

299

^
cos t
ml}
=

COS^ t

^ 2ml
costdt =
.
2

16.11.
1. .
- 5
/ ( M ) = / ( X , > ^ , Z ) . S
, AS^, 52,..., AS^,

M.(x.,y-,z-)
/ (.) = / (^/, >^/ 5 Z.), AS-.

1=1

1=1


AS. ,
S
, .,

/ ( M ) = / ( X , J ; , Z ) S

/=1


. S
, Oz
, z = (p(x,y).

300

16

S Z),
dD = dS cos 7,
S Oz

=J1+
cos 7

, (1)
S

= JJ/(jf,J,<P(^,3^))Jl +

^^^ I

(2)

S
Oxz Oyz. (2)
5, .
S
, . . , Oz,
,
S ,
.
2. .
S AS.,
>^, , AD^

/ ( M . ) = /(xpj;^,zJ
.^ AS-.
(3)
AD.

301

J'2'^S/(M)AD,=||/(..y,z)rfrdv =
.=1

(S)

= \\f[x,y,<p{x,y))dxdy,

(4)

S,

5,
. ,
Oz, ,
Oz
.
S
Oxz Oyz,

\\f{x,y,z)dxdz

jjf{x,y,z)dydz,
S


,
,
. , ,
.
,

l^P{M)dxdy-^Q{M)dxdz

+ R{M)dydz,

P[M),Q(M),R[M)
[x,y,z),
S,

,
.

302

16

11.1. : ) J J ^J^^ dS^ S


s
x-by + z = \, ;
) J 1 x^y^dS, S z = ^ja^ -^

-'^,

, )
.
1
dz
dz
ax
ay
S Oxy
, + j = 1
. , (2)
j I xyzdS = I j {\--

y)^

+ {''\f +{-\f

dxdy =

1-

= ^l3\xdx \ y(l x-'y)dy=^jx(l~x)


0

"

dx =

6)
dz
x d z

^a'-x'-y''

.
^^^

By

^a'-x'-y'


dS = Jl + -T^,

-:-/

+-^

'-'-/

T^dy=^

""^"^

' V^^^T^-^


= ^.
: ^ +^^

D ]

-X

In

1-\

sin^ cos^

^5 1

(pd(p\-^=S=

303

pdp=-tdt

'
^
Sa'
= ~~J(l-cos'2(p)rf(pJ(a'-r') dt^
4 15

1'
15

11.2. :
) / = Uxzdxdy + xydydz + yzdxdz, 5 S

, x + y-hz = l, = 0,
;; = , Z = 0; ) / = JJ -yjx^ + y^dxdy, 5
^ + j^^ < i?^; ) / = \\zdxdy, S
2
X

2 * ^
,

2
V

-'^^+ = 1.
.,,2

(2

L.2

^2

, )
.
ABC, , ,
,
, .

ABC.
,
/, = J1 xzdxdy + xydydz + yzdxdz =
ABC

= \\ xzdxdy + xydydz + \\ yzdxdz =


ABC

1-

ABC

= Jxflbc J (l-x-y)dy+\ydy
0

^0

^0

ABC

1-v

1-

J (l-y-z)dz-{-\zdz

J (l-x--z)flbc =

304

16


/^ = J J xzdxdy + xydydz + \\ yzdxdz =0,

z =
Oyz Oxz.
^
/ = \\ xzdxdy + xydydz + J J yzdxdz = ,
AGO

AGO

AGO

A CO Oyz
7 = 0.

/ = J J xzdxdy + J J xydydz + J J yzdxdz = 0,
OiBC

OJ?C

05C

0 5 C Oxz
= 0.
.
, / = .
8
) ,
, , Oz,

I = -jjy]x^+y^dxdy.
S

S
^ +^ <R^. ,

I = -jd(plppdp = -R\
0

-^

)
,

1^ = \\zdxdy,

305

I^=-\\zdxdy.
1

z = ~ c j l - ^ -
, ,

Oz, /j = /2
2

I = 2jjzdxdy = 2c jj
^

'

,.2

h-^-^dxdy


= cos (, = cos ( ,
/Q = abp^

/ = 2abc j d(p\ -^

pdp = -

Tiabc,

16.12.

1. S

m = JJ5(M)J5,

(1)

5 ()
M{x^y^z) S,
D 5,
Z = / ( , 7 ) , , (1)

306

m=

\\b{x,yj{x,y))\\

/9zV
\^^)

/:^,V

dxdy.

16

(2)

S
.
2.

^^

m m ^^

z, = '^ = -\\z6{M)dS,
(3)

^1
^,, ^,, ^ S
.
3^.

s

I,=jjS{M)(x'+/)dS.

(4)

s
4.

I^.=Jl5{M)z'dS, 4=Jj5(M)/r5, I^_=Jl5{M)x'dS.(5)


s
s
s
5. ,
. 5
(, y,z)
5(x,j;,z),
, A[x^,y^,z^)
5,
,

307

r = ^(x-jc^)^+(j-y^)^H-(z-zJ^ M.
6. ,
S, 5 ( ) ,
^(^''^) ,
W = \\b{M).
S

(7)
^

12.1. : )
2 = ^+;
(0<z<l);
) ^ -^ -^-z^ =R^ z > ,

, .
, ) (2)

m=

jj^Hz:f+(z;fdxdy
S

z'^ z^,,
^i+(z:)4(z;/=^i+4(x4/).
^ +^ =1.
,
2

jr

308

16

^-^ 0. z^
(3)
z^

-'-b'^^'-w *y')fHKfH^d^dy.
m7

m^

,
1, 2
2

11

1 + 4^ = /^, pdp =tdt 4


. = 0, ^ = 1;
= 1, = v5.
z^=-

''-'>

. 3
15 , 2(575-1)"
m 8 {
m8
6) ,
Z .
x = Rsmecos(p, y^^RsinOsmq),
z = /?cos0, /?
.

5() = ^^ +^^ =Rsine,

dS = R^sined(pde,
(1)

m = ^\8{M)dS

'^
'K'R'
= R' \ dcp^^in" Ode =

^=^= 0. z^ z^ =

309

''^ ^
= R'j dcp jsinGcosede

^^ = jJ5{M)zdS

InR'
=

^
^
4/?
z = .

12.2.
Z = +
(0<z<h) : ) Oz;
) .
, )
Oz (4).

I

dS = Jl+

,+

^dxdy = yl2dxdy.

I,=j2\j{x'+y^)dxdy.
s

,
D
^ -\-^ =h^,
2

I^=yf2Jd(pjp'dp = nh\
2

"^

)
(5). , dS = yfldxdy,

/ ^ = 72 j j z'Jxtfy = /2 j j (jc'+ / ) JxJv = : ',


D

lit

I^^=yf2Jjy^dxdy =

p^

^l2\sm^(pd(p\p'dp=nh\

310

16
2

1^ = 4l\\x^dxdy

= /2 j cos^ (pd(p^p^dp =
0

nh\
"^

12.3. p = 1
^ +^ =^ ,
, ,
.
.
jc^ = jH^ = z^ = 0.
= 1^ + z^.

= cos(, y = asm(p, z- z,
dS - adcpdz.

F^ F
. Oz,
(6),
F^=JJ

zdS
^^-^ ^=ld(p\(a'+z'pzdz

(l
= 27ca
V

1
t

yJa^+H^


(7)

s 1 -\-z

0 yja +z

"

17

17.1. .

. z = f(^x,y) (, j )
z,
Z. z = f(x,y)
f{x,y) = C ,
.
f{x,y) = . (/ = 1,2,...), .- , z
{, )
. (
, . .).
2. u = F(x,y,z) [x,y,z)
.
u==F(^x,y,z)
F[x,y,z) = C,
.
F[x,y,z) = C. (/ = 1,2,...)
.

312

17


t/(M) = t/(xpX2,...,x) = t/(r), -
(xj,2,..., ^),
w (,...,^) = ..
1.1. ( z = , 1,2):
) z = ^ + / - l ;

) Z-

--\

, ) z = , 1,2,
:
2

+ = 2,
4
1
4 1
4
1

(. 17.1),
.

. 17.1
) z = , 1,2, :
^ =, j ; ^ = - 1 , ^ =-2.
,
, : = , = 1, = 2,
(. 17.2).

. 17.2

313

1.2. :
a ) w = x ^ + y ~ z ; ) i/=x + 3; + z; )
-\^-\-\-\^'\.
, ) 0,1,2,...,
:
Oxyz
(. 17.3),
Oz, z = , z = 1,...

. 17.3
) w = 0,1,2,...,
: x + > ' + z = , x-\-y + z = l, x-\-y + z = 2,

, (.
17.4) ,
: = y = z = 0, x = y = z = l, = y = z = 2,...

. 17.4

314

17

) = . {i = 0,1,2,...)
jcf + jC2 + +1= ., 4-
4- .

17.2. .

. = F{x,y,z) ,
J
du dF
dF
} ^F
_-^ -
.^^
= -cosa + -COSP + -cos7 = iV/o,
(1)
dl ox
oy
oz
cos a, cos j8, cos 7 J;
/Q{cosa,cosj8,cos7} / ;
-\dF dF dF]
N< -z-^^-^r-,rr> .
[ ay oz J
(:, j;,z)
x = XQ+/cosa, >^ = >^o+/cosj8, z = Zo + /cos7
= 1, u=F(x,y,z)

du du
t; = = .
dt dl
^ .
z = f[x,y)

= ^ c o s a + ~^sina,
(2)
dl ox
oy
a J .
,
,
.

315

2. = F(x,>^,z)
^

-,


dz

^^

(3)

V = -{
] + ().

dz

.
, . . gradw(M,)

W ( M ) My
grad
() .
J

= ^ gradw,
du

= gradi/ = J -

(4)

2.1. z = ln\3x^ +2y^j = + 7 gradz (-1,2)


.
. , dz
dz
6

= .,

3 x 4 2 /

6

^+23 '

17

316

dz
12
6

' 1 9 '

graaz =
1 +/ = ( +
- 27).
19
19
19^


3
cosa = 7=

77

3
^ 1
==, cosp =

Vio'

"

(1)
dz
dn /

6 3
19/0

12 1
19 Vio

19/10'

2.2. w = ^ + >'^ + z^
(1,1) r|cos60,cos60%cos45j
grad .
. w

[{) = 2, < ( ) = 2, < ( ) = 2.
I
{) = 2 cos 60 + 2 cos 60 + 2 cos 45 = 2 + v 2.
grad w = 2/ + 2j + 2^,
(4)
|grad \ = V4 + 4 + 4 = 2/.
2.3. z^ =
(4,2).
.
z
,
. F{x,y,z) = z^ -,

317

dF_

<(^)-#

2z

4 '

dz

^'

aF

Yz M

dz

, . . V2 - /2 grad z ( M ) =
/+
j , a

2.4. u=xy+yz+xz

, (1,2,3) ,
, (5,5,15).
.
M.Mj =(5-1) + ( 5 - 2 ) 7 + ( 1 5 - 3 ) ^ = 4 + 37 + 12^
4
4
_ 3
12
cosa: = 7
= = , c o s p = , cosy = .
/ 4 ? 13
"^ 13
13

^^ = /

= y + z,

= x + z, = -\-

dz

:(,) = 5, ;(,) = 4, [{,) = .


,
du ^ 4 , 3 ^12 ^ 3
=5+4+3=5.
dl
13
13
13
13

318

17

2.5.
W = In ^ -^ +z^j (,y,z)
MQ (1,1,1)?
.
^
^
.
^
_
2
^ - + z ^ '

2
x^-/+z^'

_
2z
dz x ^ - ^ + z ^ '

:{,) = 2, < ( ) = - 2 , :{,) = 2;


grad [MQ ) = 2/ - 2j + 2k.

^ (4)
|grad ( )| = V4 + 4 + 4 = 2/.
2.6. z = x^ + ^.
.
. ,

.

^ = 3'-3 = 0, ^ = 3'-3 = 0.


: (0,0) (1,1).
2.7. : ) grad(uv) = u gradv + vgradw;
,(u\
6) grad - =
yv J

vgmdu-ugradv
^
V

319

, )

grad(i/y) ={uv)i +{uv)j -^{uv)k =

dz
dv-r
dur
dv -: -: dv r
du r
= u I +v I +uJ +y J -\-u-v =

dz
dz
(dv^
dv -: dv -^ ( du r du -z du -\
I + j + + I + 7+
dx
dy
dz
dx
dy
dz
= grad v + v grad u.
6)
grad

^-^

d(u\
dxyv

v^y
du
dv
V-

dfuV.

I +

dy

du
V-

dv

d^-^

y + dz

\k =

v^y
dv
du

V-

( du ^ du -z du -\ (dv-T dv -. dv -\
i +-:r-J^-:r-k \-u z +^j+-k
ax
ay
dz
dx
dy
dz
ugradw-wgradt;
2.8. :
u=x^+y^-z^
v = xz + yz.
.
,

grad = 2x1 + 2yj - 2 z k ,

grad v = zi +zj + ( +y)k.

320

17

(grad w, grad ) = 2xz + lyz - 2z(x + j^) = 0


.
2.9. grad w, w = , = ^^ + j ; ^ + z^

.
xi
yj
zk
gradw=
r- + '
-

(x4/+z^)2

x/ -^ yj -\-zk
3

(x4/+z^)^

(x4/+z

|2

r
^3-

(x4/+z^)
17.3. .

. (
),
= {) = {),
, = + yj -\-zk
.
a=aj^aj
+ aj<:, a^=a^{x,y,z),
ay=^a^{x,y,z),
^ =a^[x,y,z) .
,
^^^.^, . .
.
( , )
,
.

dx _dy _dz
^v

/.

321

, ,
^ ,
2. a(^M) = aJ -a^j -aJi

,.

(2

_^

(2)

diva=^ + ^ + '- = Va,

dz


,. _ - -
(3)
aiYa = i
+7
+
.


dz


, div (^)
. div () > , ^
, . .
MQ . div (MQ ) < ,
MQ , . . ^
.
div = ,
,
.
3. ( )
( ) = J + ayj + a^k
(^
TOta =

5^v

dz

\ =

A A A

(^ ^

dz

ci^ ,,

= .

(4)

322

17



rota =

\- ]
/ ,-

Nasi

/,
L + [ ^\ + L,
2]

(5)

, rot = ,
().
U = f(f) ,
dU = a^dx + a^,dy + a^dz, grad U = d,

, div(grad /) = 0
. U -

' ' ' ^


" + "" "^ "^ ^ ^^^ AU = 0

dz

. ,

'^dz'

3.1. :
\ ^ -*' ^\ - i j k
) a = xi -yj; ) a = -~ +.
X z
, ) , ,

dx dy
dx
dy
= =
, ^
X

, lnjc = - l n j ; + lnC; = , =

.
)
dx
dy
dz
xdx = ydy^ xdx = zdz.
\lx
My
\lz
, : x^-y'^ = C^, X - z = C .
,

323

.
3.2. :
) a^x^yl^-xy^]-^yz4

(1, 2, 1);

) =
yz(4xi-yj-zkY
, ) :
^ = ^, ^, = ^, ^ = yz^. (2)
div = 2 + 2 + 2yz.
div () = - 4 - 4 + 4 = -4, . . .
)
d i v r = - ^ + - ^ + - ^ = 4j;z-2;;z-2;;z = 0,
3z
. . , .
.
3.3. div
a = xi -yj - zk, b = yi +zj + xk.
.

[:

^ J
,
Z

\
z\ =

[yx-z^)i'h(^yz-x^)j+[xz-y^)k.

(2) div 5,6 = j ; + z + .


3.4. , : ) div(Ja) = fdiwa + a-grad/;
) div d,b \ =

bvotd-arotb.

, a) , , /
,

div(^)=i(M,!(|!^,^=/3

'

dz

/ .. _ .
dz

^ ,

^.

dz

324

17

) (3),
\
\\

\ 1

' J +7-

= 1

+-

+
OZ \


_
^_
_ 6
= -
. .,

div [a,b]^b
-

;.

-. "

+
+

-:


az

(5)
div a,b =6-1--1^,
.
3.5. ) = yzi + xzj + ;
) = x^yzi + xy^zj + xyz^k.
, ) ^ = yz, ^ = xz, ^ = .
(4)
1 = / (-) + j(-)-(z-z)
) ^ =x^yz,

^ =xy^z,

= 0.

^ =xyz^. (4)

rot = / (xz^ - ^^ + j (^^ - yz^^-kk (^^ Z - ^ z^ =


= x(z'-/)i+y(x'-z')]

z(/-x')k.

325

3.6. : ) rot ia b\a^ - xi -^ yj + zk,


b=T + j + ; ) TOtlrEja,

r=xi+yj'\-zk,

b=I + ]-hk,

a =4 + j -k.
, a)
ab^x + y-Vz,
(ab\a

= x{x + y-\-z^i +y[^x +

y'\-z^j-\-z[x-\-y-\-z^k.

(4)
rotf5-6 j5 = (z-->')/ +{x-z)j

^-{^-^.

) - = x + y-\-z.
( 'b]d = -[x-^y-\-z)i

+[x + y + z)j-[x-\-y

+ z)k.

,
rot(r-fe)5 = ( - l - l ) r + (-l + l)7 + (+l + l ) ^ = ~2r + 2^.
3.7.
= ^^ + ajy^ + a^z'^ + 2^2 + la^^xz + 2^23^^^
?
. U ,
AU = 0. -- = 2,, - = 2^2, -- = 2^,

OZ
Af/ = 2(a,+(22+).
, ^-^-^^^ 0.
3.8. ,
xi + / + zk
=

J .
. ,
div 5 = 0 -

326

17

rot 5 = 0.
diva =-5^

'^^
{x'+y'+z')

(' +/ +z'f -/ {' +/


"^

'+

+z'f

(x4/+z^)'
{x'+/

+ z'j+3z'{x'+/

+ z'j

(+-)'

' + 3>;' + 3z' - 3(' +y^ + z^)

= 0.

( x 4 / + z^)^

rot a = i

+k

3>;z(jc4/+z')2

3yz(x4/+z')2

(x4/+z^)

( x 4 / + z^)

3 x z ( x ' + / + z')2

3 x z ( x 4 / + z')

(x4/+z^)

(x4/+z^)

3>'x(x4/+z')2

3>'x(x'+/+z')

(x4/+z^)

(x'+y' + z')

= 0.

3.9. , : a) rot () = [grad/, a ] + / rot a;


6) rot a,b =adiv6-6diva + - ^
.
^ L J
db da
, a) (5)

rot(ya) =

327

7 ^ifa)

i,\ a^^ + f
y,
^ :
: J J ^_

dy

d{Ja)
dz
dz

dy

/r

>^

dz

+/

'

n
:

dz
5

= [grad/,5] + / r o t 5 .
6) , . .

[5,6~] =

1 7 ^,
.

I.

L \

^^V

^('"-<')-^(''-<')=*,;7+'''-^-'''1^ay

dz

dz

dz

' dz

Ox

(db^ db^ />


^ dx dy dz

da^ da da^ , - da^ , da


- + ^ + dy
dz
6,
db^
6,
db^
db^ ^ da^,
da^
dz
dx
dy
dz
dy
dz
dy
, da^ , da^ , da^
dh
db^
dz
^ dy
dy
^ dz

328

17

, .
, Oz,
.

17.4.
2-
4.1. V,
2- :
) grad div 5 = V(V,),
) divgradC/ = (V,V)t/ = V'[/ = AC/,
) divrot5 = (V,[V,5]) = 0,
) rotgradt/ = [V,V]t/ = 0,
)0101=[,[,]],
e)div (Aa) = A(div5).
, ) V = /

hj

\-k^r-
dz

grad/ = V/,
grad

dz

= grad(V,5) = V(V,5).

) , (V,V) = V^=A,
divgradi7 = div

'

-+

dz

'

- +
dz'
'

) div = (V,r ) rot = [V,5],

div rot = (V,rot ) = (V, [V,]) =


^

^,
dz I ydz

(^_^
J dz\

= 0.

329

,
,
)
rot (grad f/) = rot

= rot(VC/) = [V,V]C/ =

dz

^2

dydz dzdy

I +

(:^'>-

bzbx bxbz

-/ +

k = 0.

,
.
) rot = [V,a],
rotrota=[V,[V,5]].
)
div(Aa) = ^ ( ^ . ^ ( ^ . ^ ( ^ .
^ ^

dz
,

div(A5) =

^ (
'

^ ^
dz

(^

^ ^
dz

(^ ^ ,
-+^-h=Adiv5.
dz' : dz
.3,2,

4.2. : ) div grad /, U = z\6) grad div 5,


= x^^i + y^^j + z'^k; ) rot rot 5, a = x'yi + y'zj + z'xk.
, a) U = x^y'z
grad = 3x'y'zi + Ix^yzj + x^y'k.
div grad U = 6xy'z + 2x^z = 2xz {by' -{-x'y
6)

330

17

div = 4 J c ^ + 4 / + 4 z ^

graddiv5 = 12x^r + 1 2 / 7 + 12z^^ = 12(x^r + / 7 + ^^^)) ^ - ^,

^ = y^z,

^ = z^x,

rot = -y^i - z^j - x^k.


rot rot 5 = 0, . . rot
.
4.3. : ) divgrad(wy); ) rot rot (cw),
.
, )

^;
grad(w;) = (^u + v]i +

f dv
^
j + u-'{-v
)
az
az

v_ d^v
^

dudv

^ dv
d^v
- + -

+Vdy
u

dz

dv

- + V'
dz dz
dz

r^2
(dudv
dudv
^^\;^>'1
+2
x'"^/'^z
;; dy
V

+v

dy dy

dv

^
^

(d'u
I

-^

d'u
^'

d^v
^

dv

dv du
dz dz

dudv^
dz dz

d'u^
= w div grad t; + 2 (grad w, grad t;) + div grad w.
dz j

6) rot (), ,
=c{i + j-^kj

rot(cw) =

331

dz

\ci -

dz

/* +

:^2

rotrot(cw) =
( '
dydz
('

(^

'

^ '
dz
^
'

'
^

2.. \
'
('
\cj +
dxdz

' ]
dxdz
J

2..

' ' ^
\ci +
dz^ + dxdz

(d^u
d'u
+ dy
dxdy
d'u

+I dz" dxdz dydz \ dx'

d'u
dy'

'
^

'
^

2..
'
\ =
dydz

2
d'u
cj-^
dydz

d'u\
\(ci +cj-bckj =
dz'

( d
d
dYdu^
du-:
du= \ c + c- + c I I +j+ -Auc
I
dy
dz II dx
dy
dz
= (c, V) grad - Auc,

17.5.

1. . {)
S 2- ,

1-
Q = jj{a,n)dS=\{
a^dS = [J a^dydz + a^dxdz + a^dxdy =
s
s
s
= \Ua^ cosa + a^ cos p + a^ cosy)dS,
(1)
s
n {cos a, cos j8, cos 7}
S.

332

17

(1)

5,

'^jja,{x,y{x,z),z)dxdz

+ jja^[x,y,z{x,y))dxdy,

(2)

5p 5*2,5*3 S Oyz, Oxz,


; x = x(y,z),
y = y(x,z),
z = z(x,y)

S,
.

,
,
S .
S
, , .
z = f{x,y)

dS = ^l + {z[f+{z;fdxdy,

(3)



cosa = .

""

, cosp=

^i+(z:)4(z;f'

~^i+(z:)4(z;)^'

cos7 =
(1) (3), (4),

333

Q=\\\_<^A<Y<'y[<Y<^^dxdy.

(5)

,
Oz, , cos > (4)
+. cos < (4) -.
2. -. V
,
5, P{x,y,z),
Q(x,y,z),
R{x,y,z)

F, 5,
-
jjPdydz + Qdzdx + Rdxdy = jj^

dQ
dxdydz.
dz

(6)


, (2)
^j{Pcosa + Qcos + Rcosy)dS = ^

dQ

dR
\dxdydz. (7)
dz

,, S
.
-

(, /?) ^5 = j j j div dxdydz,
S

(8)

d = aj +a^,j+a^k a = P[x,y,z)i -\-Q(x,y,z)j + R[x,y,z)k.


(8)
S .
3. . L
5 {,) Q{x,y) dQ

, -

334

17

5, L.

(^Pdx + Qdy = ^^

\dxdy,

(9)

,
, S,
. L ,
S , . . .
4. . L
S P[x,y,z),
Q{x,y,z)H
R[x,y,z)

5, L,

jPdx + Qdy + Rdz
f
\
/

\dxdz, (10)
\dxdy + \
\dydz-h\
dz J
7 J
V dz J
V
,
,
. S
, z = , (10)
.

,

dQ

jPdx + Qdy + Rdz =

^
(
cosa +

dz

COSp+

ydz

COS/

, (11)

335

8 = 8(), cosjS =8(;|, cos7 = cos(zj


S.
5. . .
L
Ua,dr)=

la^dx + aydy + a^dz,

(12)

L , (12)
L,

C = j){a,dr)
L

L.
L 5,
,

C = ^ ( a , J r ) = JJ(rot5,H)t/5

(13)

,
L rot 5,
L.
6. . U
, grad [/ = 5.
.

rot 5 = 0.

^ ^ ^ ^ ^

- -^- + dz = ^ + dy + a^dz,
ox
ay
oz
TO U

= j{a,dr)= ja^dx-ha^,dy + a^dz = jdU = U{B)-U{A),


(14)

336

17



.
,
, .
5. = - y^j i- z^k
^ -f j ; ^ + z^ = i ? \

jc > , y>0,

z > 0,

.
. (1),
J [ (, )^^ = Ux^dydz - y^dxdz + z^dxdy,
s
s
,
.
(2),
jj{a,n)dS
1J

= \^x^dydz--j^y^dxdz+jjz^dxdy
ijj

02

= jj{R^ -' -z^)dydz'-\j(R^

"^

--^ -z^)dxdz +

ll{a,n)dS = ]d(pl{R'-p')pdp-]d(p\{R'-p')pdp +
S

"'- '-

nR'

+]d<p\{R^-p^)pdp =
0

"

5.2. = 1 -\-zj '\- 2^


4^ +^ = 4 - z ,
: > , j^ > , Z > , ,
Oz,

337

.
(1). z


S (3), (4).
S (. 17.5).

, 17.5

D.
Oz, , cos 7 > (4)
(+). (5).
^=, ^ = z = 4 - 4x - _ ,
^ =2'^,

D
1

2>1-;^

= 8jrfx J j ; ^ ^ = 4 j /

\-'

rfjc

= 16J(l-x')d^ =

32

-. 1 - 2 -*
5.3. = z/ +/+jA:
x + 2y-^3z = \, >,

338

17

y>Q, z > , ,
Oz.
. (5).
: a^=z =
1
2
V = 7"^' ^z-';:y
6
9
^

{\-x-2y),

, 1 , 2
z= , z^ = :
3
3

rrO/i

. 1

\dxdy.


5*^^, = 0,>^ = x + 2j; = l (.
17.6).
,1

{\-)

'-5"-"'

^-^\'" \ *=^ dx =
.2 \

\(\-x)dx =
18
18

~36'

Pwc. 17.6
5.4. = + ^] + z^k

j < ^,
R

0<z<H.

339

. -
(8),

\IR--X-

= 3\dx J
-R

(x4/)z + ^

dy =
H

-.JR^I

-R -v^w"L

n2

+3

,
2

l\{a,n)dS = 3ld(pl U - - P
= 67 (R^_H_R^

1
R' ^

^^^IMl.^^

pdp =
/J

-R'+H'
HR\
4
R5^3
2
3R'5
2
5.5. -

\ \ ^dydz+ ^dxdz+ z^dxdy,


, jc4-j; + z = a, = 0,
= 0^ Z = 0.

.
(6), , = ^, Q = y^:> R = z^.

^ 2 ^ 2 ^ 2
= 3\
-^^ - , = 3z .

dz
(6)

--

340

17
i

= ?>\dx J ^ {-)-^
V

+ ^ {-) };^ -

= I ^ ( - ) + - ( - )

{--)
W

: = 0,2\

5.6. [[(xcosa + j;cosj8 + zcos7)^5'


S

, + >^ + z = 1,
.
. - (7),
-,
Q = y, R = z,
3z 1, , ,
j j (xcosa + j;cos j8 + zcos7)(i5 = Jjj

\axayaz =
V dz
1

1-JC

1--

= 3 j j j (ix(iyJz = 3J(ix j (iy J dz = .


V

5.7.
/ = JJ x^cos(w,/) + y^ COS (, 7 ) + z^ cos[nJyidS
no x^ -\-y^ - 2az = a^, z = 0,
.
. (7) -^, Q^y^ >
R = z . = 2, - ^ = 2,

^^
-
I = 2\{\{x + y + z)dxdydz = 2{{dxdy

= 2z.
z

{x + y + z)dz =
\dxdy.

341

1= j{coscp-{ sin(p)d(p^(^^ -^)p^d

+ 5-jJ<pJ(a^-^) dp =
'

\6'

"48"

5.8. -
= (^ + z)/ + ^] + ^
,
{>0, ^, z > 0)
S\ x + 2y-{-2z = 2.
.
: = 0, =0, Z = OH x-\-2y + 2z = 2 (. 17.7).

. 17.7
(8).

S
, , -^ 2 = 2.

^
1
2

1--2

Q = \\\6ydxdydz = 6\dx \ dy I ydz = 6\dx j yz

dy =

342

17

6\dx\

- . - ! > - /

^-1'-ff-f

dx =

1-^
2

V 2J
5.9.
'

I, ABC ^ (1),

JB(2,1),

(2,2); ) J(j9; + x+>^)tic + (xy + jc--;;)(i;;,

^ +^ =.
, ) (,) = , 0{:>) =

1
= - ,

dx

dy

1
/
-^^ = -. ,
X
1
1
\dxdy.
+
X

. 17.8
: = , X = 2, = 1.

[-

2 + 2 \dxdy- \dx\\ ^ + - Wv= I : +1

"I \w /J


. \ j = 1,
dy = 0; : = 2, dx = 0; : = ,
dy = dx.

343

dx

dy

dy

cf dx

'hhl-h-n-l
AB

CA

dx\
2'

. 17.8
) = -\- + , Q = xy + x-y.
= +1, -^ = ; +1.

\(xy + x + y)dx +

[xy-{-x-y)dy=\Uy-x)dxdy.

. 17.9.
, S
sin^

\Uy-x)dxdy=

J (cos(p-sin(p)(i^ j p^dp =

= J (sin^^cos^--sin'*^W(p = J sin"^ (pd(p =

. 17.9

344

17

.
1

- = = cos/,
2
>^ = sin t.
X

VYl/
. 1
1 1 . 1 .

I (cos/sin^ + sm^) +COS/ + + sin/ s m ^ r +


In

1
1 1 . V
+ ffl/
(cos/sm/ + s m n +cos/H
sm/ --cos/a/ =
\\A^
^2
2 2
J2
=
- s i n ^ / - c o s ^ / \dt^
.
5.10. ,
\ yzdx -xzdy -xydz
L

.
(), v4 (1,1,0) 5(1,1,1).
. (10) =
yz, Q-XZ, R = .

__ _ _ __ _

dz
'
' dz
'
'
,
\yzdx + xzdy + xydz =
L

= \\{z-z)dxdy+{Ux-x)dydz+\Uy-y)dxdz
= 0.
s
s
s
. 17.10.
. : = , z = 0; :
= I, = 1; : - - z.

345

j + J - f J = j ( x 0 ^ : + x0d[r + xV0) + J(zJ0 + zJ0 +flfz)+

+ {x^dx-^y^dy + z^dz = 1-1 = 0.

B{1JJ)

. 17.10
5.11. ,
I =\xdx + {x'\-y)dy-\-{x + y + z)dz^
L

L ^+^=^^ z = x-\-y
.
. (10) = ,
Q- + , i? = x + >^H-z.
^ = 0 , ^ = 0 , ?=1, ^ = 0 .

dz

dz
(10)

^=1,

^=1.

{xdx + (x'{-y)dy + {x-h + z)dz = {{dxdy + {{dydz- \{dxdz,


L


. ^'{'^ =^ z = x+y
, .

346

17

In

Vidxdy^
S

\d(p{pdp=Ka^.
0


Oyz Oxz, ,
. ,
. , I = ^.

, L
x = acost,

y = asint,

z = a(cos/ + sin/),

(0<^<2:).


In

I = -a^\costsmtdt+

J a^(cos^ + sin/)cos^flfr +

2;r

+2^ \ (cost-\-sint)(cost'--smt)dt

= ^ \ cos^tdt = ^.

5.12. = 1 + yzj + xzk


, :
x + z = l, j ; = 0; y + z = l, = 0
^ +^ =\, z = (. 17.11)
.

. 17.11

. (12). ,
^ = , Uy = yz, ^ = xz,
,

347

|(,?)= J xzdz+ j yzdy+ \ xydx =


L

AB

CA

5.13.

:
a) a = (x^-y)i+(y^+x)j
R
; )
jc = cos/, y = asmt, z = bt
(0<t<27r).
, a) ,

j>{a.dr) = ll

5^v

, ^=^ - ,
,

\
dxdy.

^ = ^ + ,

27

j){a,dr) = 2Jd(pjpdp = 27iR\


L

) (12). , ^ =,
=, ^ = Z,
,
2

Ud,dr)=

\ cos t {- sin tdt)-i- {asmtacostdt+

[btbdt^ln^b^,
0

5.14.
= yzJ + 4x^j + ^
S: 4^ +^ =(z-2) ,
. , ,
.
.
(. 17.12).

348

17

= (5,^)= \^-\-^\

= (^yzdx-\-Ax^dy-\-y^dz,

^ -\-^ =4, z = 0,dz = 0


2

16

= 2-z,

= , dx = 0
|2

hc=l/dz

= \{z-2fdz

{z-iy

8
3'

2 + z = 2, = 0, dy = 0
-0.
1=0
, = 1^ + /^ = 8.

. 17.12
5.15.
= ^ + 27 + z^k ^ + >^^ + z^ = R^
2 = 0.
. L
^ '\-^ =R^, ^ = ^^, ci^-1,
a^-z^,
(13)
(5,flfr) =

-3\\x^y^dxdy,

349


R. ,
InR

(, J r ) = - 3 j j ^ cos^ (^ sin^ (ppdp =


3 ^ 6 J 2. f

6 4

Jll--(l-cos4(p)

5.16.
d = zi + 2yzj + ^ ABC
^ + 9^ = 9 - z,
: > , j^ > , z > 0.
.
i
rot 5 =

(dlyz

A A A

lyz

dz
y^

dy^
dy

dz
dlyz
\i +
dz

dy 2

1/ +

dz\

^ + 9^ = 9 - z
. 17.13.

. 17.13

350

17


= JJ(rot a,n)dS = j j cos pdS,
s
s
cos j8 > cos pdS = dxdz.
3

9-x'

9-x^

C=^^dxdz = ^dx J dz = ^z\


0

^xz

.3 \

^ = j(9-x^)^jc = 9x0

lo

= 18.

\^

15.17. :
a) d^{6xy-xy^\i
-\-\^ -x^y\j\
6) a=yzi-^-xzj-\-xyk.
, a) . ,

_^.

- = 6 2, - = 6 2, . . rot = 0.
:

, (0,0),
(,0), {,).

= j {a,dr) + C = j{a,dr) + j{a,dr) + C,

(,(ir ) = (6xj^-xj^^ j(ix + f3x^ -x^yjdy.


OA = , dy = ,

j(5,rfr) = 0.
dx = 0
2,.2

J(5,rfr) = J ( 3 x ' - x V ) ^ 7 = 3 x V - ^ ^ ^ + C.

) , , .
. r o t a = 0 .
,
, ,
^
^" ^OZ
" ' ' ' "OZ
^ "
^"^'
" ^ "
^"^

ABC,
(0,0,0), (,0,0), 5 (,;;,0), (x,j;,z).

351

{d,dr) = yzdx + xzdy + xydz.


y-Q,
dz = ,

Jy = 0, z = 0,

\{a,dr) = Q.
dx = 0, z = , cfe = , ,
X)

rfx = , (iy =

|(5,(ir ) = Ixydz = xyz + .


5

, U = xyz + .
5.18. ,
= [^ -z^)J + 2]-{2xz + 1)
) ; ) .
, .
, )

J
rota =

a(-2jcz-l)

ly^-z^

d{y'-z')
dz

dz

dixy
dz

dy

-(2JCZ + 1)|

a(-2xz-l)^
dx

= {-2z + 2z)j + {2y-2y)k

d2xy

7 + :
=0

2\

^(/-z')

A: =

I +

352

17

, ,
)
. _ ^ ^ciy
= 2-2 = 0.
div5 = ^
dz
, .
,
(14),
, ,
(. 17.14).
\

. 17.14
U{x,y,z)=

j [^ -'z'^)dx + 2xydy-{2xz + \)dz= j + J + j

: = 0, z = , dy = 0, dz = 0,
X

45: = const,

z = 0, t/x = 0, <iz = 0,

5: = const,

^ const,

dx = 0, dy = 0

^ = - J (2xz + l)(iz = - x z ^ z^-C.


0

, f/ (x, , z) = xy^ -xz^ -z + C.

18

18.1.
1. + /,
X, , / ,
: /^ = - 1 , f =-/, f = 1, " =i . .

z = {x,y) , : - Rez,
y-Imz,
Z = X + / {,)
X . ,
, .
,
.
-
, .
x-iy z-x-^iy

z". , F = z.
2.

/

354

18

) jc + Oz = jc, ^-yi-yi^
^^ -yi^x^-^y^i^ x = Xj ^^
) (x4->^z)4-(xj+7j/) = (x + Xi) + (j4-yi)/,
)
{-yi){x,^ry,i)--{xx^-yy,Y{xy,^rx,y)i,
3. .
Z = X + />
{, ) - =
= ^^ +3;^
|z|, < ,
,
.
Z 2 (: = 0,1,2,...)
Arg z. Argz
0<Argz<2^,
arg z. = cos (, ^ sin (,
z = x + j^/ = r(cos^ + /sin(p).

:
) (cos + / sin ( ) , (cos >^ + z sin <,) =
= rr, (cos ( 4- ,) + /sin ( + ,)).
r(cOS(p + ZSin<p)

. . /

)
-^T = -(cos(<p~(p,) + zsin((p-(p,)).
8(,+/sin^,) , ^
) (r(cos9>H-/sin^)) =r''(cosn<p + /sinA2(p).
) ^r(cos(p-^ism(p)

( + 2
. (-\-2
=\ir cos+zsin^^

: = 0,1,2,...,-1.
) ) .
4. .
'^ =cos(p + /sin^, -

355

z = (cos^ + /sin^)

z^re'^.

% (,
-71 <(pQ< . : =
, \nr-\-i%,
5. .
a^z" + a^.,z"-' +... + a,z + ^0 = 0. ^. ^ 0.
^^ (
), .
ZQ ,
.
. ,
, .
z^,z^,...,z^
{in<n) ATJ , :2,..., :^ ( ^2 ? - ^ ) ' ,
a^{^z-z^)' (^""^2)' (^~^m)" -^
,
ZQ = XQ + /
7=;~/, ,
ZQ ZQ .
6.
ZpZ2,...,z,...,
>
^, \z^ - | < n>N,B lim z = .

> ^, > N
U\> /,

356

18


lim z^ = .
><

1.1. : ) (3 + 2/)(2-3/); ) (1-/) ;


, 2/
1+/
, )
, (3 + 2/)(2 - 3/) = 6 - 9/ + 4/ - 6 / ^ = 1 2 - 5/.
) , /
( l - z ) ' = l - 3 / + 3 z ' - / ' = - 2 ~ 2 z = - 2 ( l + f).
)
1 + Z (1 + /)(1-)
2
1.2.
: ) z = -2z; ) z = - l + /v3.
.
, )
. = , --2, = yjx^ + ^ =2,

: - 2 = 2 sin , ( =
. :
^

z = 2 COS

. . ^
ZSin

z = 2e

V 2
2,
,
Re Z = 0. Im z = -2
(. 18.1).
) :

jc = - l , y = S,

r = ^/lT=2, tg(p = ^ = -^j3, 9 = ^ .


X

: z = 2 cos + / s i n , z = 2e ^ . Ha

3 J

(. 18.2).

357

'

1^
1
1

(=

1
-

-2 -

. 18.1

. 18.2

1.3.
: ) z

; ) z = -

2(^/ + 2^^)'
,

'

40

2+/

/3+/
. _
.. ,
2(/3-2
,
Z =

(/+/)(/3+ 2/) _ 9 + 6// + 7 / - 2 _ 7(l + ^/3/)^ j ^ ^ ;.


2 2 '
2(/3-2/)(/ + 2/)
2(3 + 4)
2-7

>

, Rez = , Imz = .
2
2
8-19/ 1-1
40
2+/
,

) z =

_8-19/
^ ~ 40
_8-19/
~ 40

( 1 - 0 ( 2 - / ) 8-19/
(2 + / ) ( 2 - / ) ~ 40

2-/-2/-1^
4+1

1-3/_8-19/-8 + 24/_5/ _1 .
5 ~
40
~40~8'"

358

18

, Rez = 0,

Imz = - .
8
^
1.4. : ) (-1 + /) ;

. . ^

) 1 + C0S+zsin
3
3
V
, )
:

-^

. .
cos + zsin
4
4


(-l-f/)^=2^

= 4/2

15 . . 15:
cos
+ zsin
4
4

l=4V^f c o s

7:

. . 7:

hISin-

= 4(1-/).

^2

. ,
l + cos^+sin
3
3

./

+ Z

--^
64'

2
V


:
jc = v 3 ,

= \,

-^

= 2,

=,

' ^

. . ^

1 + C0SH-zsin

/ + / = 2 cos + /sin

1^

= 27(cos^:+/sin7r) = - 2 7 .

3/

1.5. : ) V ^ ;

) ^ - 2 + 2/.

, )
:
= -1,

j = 0,

= 1, = :,

- l = l(cos^-f/:).

359


4 4/
-1 . . -1\
v ~ l = v l cos
+ /sin

J 1 5
; / = 0,1,2,3;

2 ^
^
6)

= -2,

= 2,

r = 2v2,

( = ,

- 2 + 2/ = 2/2 cos + z s i n .
4
4 )
^

V^=2T27 = V

71

3- + 2
-^2
4
. 4
cos-^^
+ zsin-^^

, :
2
(

\
\ (
. 5 .
5
cos
+ 1 sin
= v2 - s i n - ^ + i c o s 12
12
12
12
V
(
19 . . 19
. 7 1 .
71
sin
/ COS
cos- + j s i n 12
12 ^
^
12
12
V

u^

1.6. : a) x^ + 8 = 0; 6) z^ + 4z^ + 3 = 0.
, a) ,
:
jc = V ^ = V8 cos
k = 0,
= \,

+ 2

. 71 + 2

+zsin

..._j
1..V3

x^=2 -+l
2

= 1 + //3;

^2 = 2 ( - 1 + /0) = ~2;

I, : = 0,1,2.

360

: = 2, = 2

, 2

./
2

18

= 1-//3.

) z^ =w, w^+4w4-3 = 0,
vVj = - 1 , ^2 = - 3
(z^ + l)(z^ + ) = 0. z^ 2 = i\ ^,4 = ^*>/.
1.7.
J

(2 + / ) z i + ( 2 - / ) z 2 = 6 ,

j(3 + 2z)zi+(3~2z)z2=8.
. , z^ z^
,
(2 + /)(xi+zyi) + (2-/)(x2+/y2) = 6,
|(3 + 2/)(x,+o;J + (3-2/)(x2+z>2) = 8

2xj -\- 2zy, - /Xj - j^i + 2^2 + 2/2 " + >^2 ~ 6?


, + 3/| + 2/Xj - 2j;j + 2 + 3/^2 ~" 2ix2 "*" ^ ^ ^


,
2, - jVi + 2X2 - 2=6,
X, + 2^ - 2 + 2^^2 = ,
3xi - 2jVi + 2 + 2;2 = 8,
2xi + 3;;^ - 2X2 4- 2 = 0.


.
2 -1 2
1 2 -1
=
3 -2 3
2 3 -2

1
2
2
3

0-5
4 - 3
1 2 - 1 2
=2
0-8
6-^
0 - 1 0 - 1

4 -3
3 - 2 = 4.
-1

361

X =

1
6 -1 2 1
1
2
_ 1 0 2 - 1 2
= 2 -1
~4 8 -2 3 2

3 -2
0 3 -2 3
2
., _ 1 1
~4 3
2

"'=
AJC-,

6 2
0 -1
8 3
0 -2

2 -1
1 1 2
~ 4 3 -2
2 3

-]

2 = 2;
3

1|
2
= 1;
2

6 1|
0 2
8 2 = 2;
0 |

|2 -1
1 1 2

2 i
-1 ()

4 3 -2
2 3

3
-2

i{

= -!

()

, Zj = 2 + /, Z2 = 2 - /.
1.8.
sin(p + sin2<p4-... + sin9, (^2,
keZ.
. '^ =cos(p-^isin(p, sin^ = Ime'''^,
sin 2( = Im '^^,... ,

= '^, S = ^^
1-

-,

362

18
.n

.n

i<p+in

2"'(l-e""')
S = Im= Im-

Ha
,
sin

1
\ 1> ^ ^
S=
=^-Ime
(
sin

.
sin

.
.9 sin

\ t> ^
Ime

sin
2

s1
in

1 ,

fl).

sin

1.9. : a) lim

1-'

-; 6) lim
V

) l i m Y ; r) z =l + z + ... + z",

In

z<l.

, a)
, ^
1
lim
= lim ^
1 + /1) 1I

= = -1.
J

) " =1, lim


I

= lim

= 1.

)
,
=-
,. ^ /*
1
1
5(5 + /)
5 .^ .,
hm> - =
=
= 7 W
= ( 5 + 0-1^5* l-q
1_1 ( 5 - / ) ( 5 + /) 26^
^
5

363

) \z\ < 1,
.
-^^ , S = z

? z -

1-Z

18.2.
1. z = x + iy,
D,

w = u + iv, w z
D w = f(z).
z
X , di w
t;, v
X , .. u=ii[x,y),
v = v[x,y).
D,
L, (. 18.3). ,
(.
18.4), . .

. 18.3

. 18.4

w = / ( z )
z-^ ZQ, > 5 > ,

364

18

Z 7t ZQ, | Z - Z Q | < 5,
| / ( z ) ~ ^ | < .
I i m / ( z ) = A
jR > 5 > ,
1^2^^ | z - Z o | < 5 ,
| / ( z ) | > i ? , l i m / ( z ) = oo.
W f{2) , ZQ,
l i m / ( z ) = /(zQ). Z),
.
2.
2
^

3
2

=1 + + + + ...,
1! 2! 3!
Z'

sinz =

Z'

+
2

cosz = l

...,

+ ...,
2! 4! 6!
,

^' =cosz + /sinz,
(2)
,

-\-

cosz =

, sin =
2

.
li

(3)
^^

(2),
^^ = ^'^ = "" (cos >^ - / sin >;).

U
'-""
,
'+"'
.
shz
.
chz ,^.
shz =
, chz =
, thz =
, cthz =
P)
2
2
chz
shz

(4)

365


sh Z = -~/ sin /z, ch z = cos /z, th z = -i tg /z, cth z = i ctg /z. (6)

z",

z'', e", sinz,

cosz, tgz

Inz, arcsinz, arccosz, arctgz,

, .

Lnz = ln|z| + /(argz + 2/:7r), (: = 0,1,2,...),

(7)

In |z| + / arg z = In z
,
Ln z = \nz + 2knL
(8)
2.1. : a)vi; = z ^ - z z = l + z;
) w = e z = i.
.
.\3
) w = (l + /) - ( 1 + /) = 1 + 3 / - 3 - / - - 1 - / = - 3 + /.
) (2) w = e^ =cos + zsin = /.
2.2. / ( z ) = x^->^/, z=^x + yi. :

)/(1-0; )/(, ) : = 1, j ' = - 1 . ,


/ ( l ~ z ) = l + /.
) jc = , >^ = 1 / (/) = ~/.
2.3. ) z = 2 cos t + i sin t;
6) z = t + -.
t
, a) z = JC + >'/, jc = 2 cos /, y = sin /.
/, = cos^ t, y^ = sin t,
x'
^
+ j;^ =1, T. e. .
4

366

18

....
1
1
) x^t ---, - t
X
.
2.4. w = z^.
. z^^z^^ zf -z\.
^^'"^ = ^^'"^^.
^1=^2? ^
2(^ =2(2+27 (: = 0,1,...). z, ^Z2, (^ ^^+,
. . .
, .
2.5. : ) cos/; ) sin(2-/); ) ch(l + 3/).
, ) (3),
.

"+-"

cos I =

-'+
=

^,
= 1.

2
2
) (3) (4),

21+1

-2i-l

^2/

-I

-2i

. /^ .4
-
2i
2/
sin(2-zj = e(cos2 + /sin2)-e~^ (cos2-/sin2)
~
2i
cos2(e-e~^W/sin2(e + e"^)
-I

= sin2

e-\- e

zcos2/cos 2

2/
e^e

= sin2chl-/cos2shl.

2
)
^ 1 + 3 / _ ^ ^-(1+3/)

ch(l + 3/) =
= cos3

=f^(cos3 + /sin3) + ^ ^ (cos3-/sin3)j =


e-\- e~

+ /sin3

e~~ e~

= cos3chl + /sin3shl.

367

2.6.: ) L n ( l - / ) 1(1~/); )/^^'; ) 3'.


, ) l - / = z
r = |z| = vl^+l^ = v 2 ,
(7)

< = arg z = arctg =


1 4

(/: = 0,1,2,...).
, argz =

, (8) 1

71

In (1 - /) = Ln Z - 2 ^:/ = In 2 + / arg z = In 2 - / ^ .
^
^
2
^
2
4
) ,

)
3'- =^' ^^/(13.2 ^^/1^-2. ^ ^ - 2 . . ( c O S l n 3 + / s i n l n 3 ) ,

(: = 0,1,2,...).

18.3.

1.
w = / ( z ) Z
Aw
Az = + /Aj; Az

368

18

f (z)= lim
^ ^

= lim^

Az-^O 2

^-^.

Az-^0

/n

V^/

w = / ( z ) ,
z D, .
f{z)

Z>,
() D. f{z)
ZQE D
.
w=^f(z) = u(x,y) + iv(x,y)

Z> ze D
dv dv
,-,,,


_dv
'

dv
'

- .
-
w = f[z)
ZG D.
-
{,() ^ 1

dv{r,(p) _^ 1 {,()

('


w = / ( z )
w, v ,
^,/4 .dv dv .dv . dv
f (z) = -i = 4-z =
/ =
dx
dx dy
dx dx
dy dy

.du
/-,
dy

(4)
^^

369

(
.dv\
z l

\(dv
(

(5)

( J

2. ,

.
f{z) g{z) Z),

(f{z)giz))'=r{z)g'{zy,
{f{z)g{z)^=r{z)giz)

+ f(z)g'{z);

J'iz)giz)fiz)giz)^

r(z)



1
(arcsinz)

Vb^

(arccosz) = Inz) = - ,

(arctgz) =

VT":

1
2 '

1+z

(sinz) =cosz,

(shz) =chz,

(cosz) = - s i n z ,

(chz) =shz.

y.
D f(z) = u + iv,
- ,
.
(
)

370

18

. , (, )
D ,

{^.) D.
v{x,y) ,
"(^'>^)= J -Kdy^^'ydx.

(7)

3.1. , :
) f{z) = e^"\ 6)w = zRez; ) / ( z ) = z^; ) w = Lnz; ) w = z.
.
, )

[,) = ^"" cos , (jc, JH) = ^"" sin , - = ^"" cos ,

= - sm , - = sin , = cos ,

(2) ,
. (4)
f(z)=: + i = 3e'''cos3y + i3e'''sm3y =

= '' (cos + / sin ) = '^'^''^ = '=.
:
/ ' ( z ) = (e^^)%3e^\

371^

)
w = u-\-iv-[x-\-iy)x

= x^-\- ixy.

2
^
^ dv
dv
= , v = xy, z = 2x, ^- = 0, ^- = , z = x.

(2)
: = , -, ,
2 = 0.
) z = '"^,
f(^z) = z^= ^'^"^ = ^ cos 5( + ir^ sin 5(,

w = r^cos5(jo, u = r^sin5(p, = 5Hcos5^,

5 '

^^

^^

= -5 sin5(p, = 5 sm5(p, = 5 cos5(p.


^

(
(3) ,
. (5)
/ ' ( z ) = (z^) = - ( 5 / c o s 5 ^ + / 5 / s i n 5 ^ ) =
=

(cos 5( + / sin 5^) =


z

= Sz"^.
z

r) Lnz = lnr + /((p + 2/:;r),


1
u = \nr,

^/
du \
du ^
v = (p-h2kn, -= - , T= 0,
dr r
dip
(3) ,
^ 1 = .
1
W/ = (/L n z jV =
Z

dv ^ dv .
= 0, - = 1.
dr
d(p
(5) -

372

18

) w = u-\-iv = x-iy,

^ ^ dv ^ dv
= 1, rr- = 0, = 0, = - 1 .
ox
ay
dx
ay
(2) ,
.
3.2. : ) / ( z ) = z ~^; ) / ( z ) = ctg z.
, ) / ( z )
,
2.
=,

v = -y,

f {z) = 2ze-'+z^ {--') = ze"

{2-z).

6) / ( z )
, Z,
2 / 7 z ) =

.
sin Z

3.3. v(x,y) = e'' siny


/ ( z ) . .
dv

J, .

dv

. - = ^ sinj^, --^

J,

cosy,

JC
- = cosy,
ox

^ .
-z = -e sin .
ay

.^.
(8)

,
W = J "" cosydx = "" cos-\'((j),
({) .
({) w ^^ (8)
= - smy + (p [) = -
(\) = 0 (() = ,

smy.

373

, u^e""^ + , ,

/ (z) = W + = "" cos + -\- ie"" sin =
= e''{cosy + is'my)+C = e' +.
3.4.
(,) = ^ -^ +.

.
. ^
^ ^ ^ ^
. , -+- = 2 - 2 =

. , [,) .
(6)
v{x,y)=

j -{-2y + x)dx + {2x-hy)dy =


{^)

^0

>'0

+^-2>;-4
2
^ " 2 = -^(^^-/)
2^
' + 2;;-2-4-4
"^"2
2 =
= - - ( ' - / ) + 2 + .

f{z) = x^-y^+xy

+ --{^-^)

= ^ + 2xyi - ^

x^i + +y^i + Ci =

= ( + /)^

+ 2 +

i{x^ + 2xyi- y^) + Ci = z^

I =

z^i + Ci.

374

18

18.4.

1. L -
D. ZQ
z. L
z^, z,, Z2,..., z_i, z
5 , = / ( z o ) A z o + / ( z , ) A z , + . . . + /(z_jAz_,,
Az^=z^^i-z^

(: = 0,1,...,-1).

, ,
> ,
f{z) L

\f{z)dz=\\mj^f{z,)^z,.

(1)



:
1)

\{f,{z)f,{z))d2

2) \af{z)dz
L

\f,{z)dz\f,{2)dz,
L

a\f{z)dz,
L

a ,
3) L L,
, \ f (^z)dz = -\f
I

(^z)dz,

4) L ^^.^^.^^,

\f{z)dz = \f{z)dz^\f{z)dz

+ ,^-\f{z)dz.

375

/ ( z ) = w(x,j^) + /;(x,j;),
2-

\fi^z)dz-\u{x,y)(h-v{^x,y)dy
L

+ i\v{^^

(2)

L x = x{t), = {^),
z(^) = x(r) + /y(/),

\f{z)dz = ]f[z{t)y{t)dt.
t,

2^. . / ( z )
D,
/
^ / ( z ) J z = 0.

(4)

/ ( z )
D, L .
//,...,/^, L
, .

<^f{z)dz = <^f{z)dz+<^f{z)dz+.,.
L

+ <^f{z)dz,

.^.

In

3. L - ,
D z^ z, ZQ 2

. 0 ( z ) = J / ( g ) J^
-

z D,
0'(z) = / ( z ) .

376

18

, {2)-^
,
/ ( ^ ) .
F{z) f{z),
-

]f{g)dg = F{z}-F{z,).

(6)


.
4. . / ( ^ )
D. ZQE D
/ D,

fiz,) = ^jli^dz.

(7)

5^.
/ ( 2 ) D


.
4.1. J Im z^fz, L ,
L

1 + /.
. ,
1 + /, = /, y = t,
/ 1.
z = {l + i)t.
Imz = , dz = {\ + i)dt. (3)

Jlmzfife= [/(1 + /) =

'
2

1+/

377

4.2. ||<^^5 L
|z| = 1 .
. z^x-^-iy,
\\z\dz = Ux^+y^dx
L

+ iUx^

+y^dy.

L = cos t,
j ; = sin^, Q<t<K, , dx = -s\ntdt, dy = costdt
|z| = ^^ + = 1 ,

J |z| dz = - j sin tdt + / j cos tdt = cos i + /sin^ = -2.

4.3. jf{z)dz,

/ ( z ) = (j^^+x) + x^", L

, z ^ = 2 - z
z^ =3 + 2/.
. w = j / ^ + , t; = ^,
(2)
{f {z)dz = \(^^ + x)dxL

\x^dy + i{x^dx + [y^ + x)dy,


L

,
.
:
^ = ^^^-^^ 7 = 3~7, = -{ + 1).
2 + 1 3-2
'
3^^ ^
dy = , dx^-dy
i

-1

J / ( z ) J z = ~ j / + - ( j | ; + 7 ) U ; - 3 J x ' ^ + zjx't3bc +

378

+/

18

dy = -

/^\{^^)

+ /-

= ^11 ^
" 2

3 ''

1-1

4.4. J z^dz.
. z^
, (6)
2+i

]z^dz = \zf=\[{^^^^^
dz

4.5.
, L x = 2cos/, = sm^.
Jz + 3
. f{z) =

, ,
(4)
= 0.
lz + 3
4.6.

i t ^+'
. , |^| = 2,
, ..
Z = -Z . f{z) = sin z . (7),

,7,
z+i
=2

, z+i

|2

^ ^
=

= -27ii sin / = -2Ki


2i

379

4.7. I
"' ^ ^ ,
l ( z + l)
z = - 1 .
. (8), / () = ^

f e^dz
iKi d^e^
./ ^x
Ki
J(z + l /
2! Jz^
^ ^-^
e
4.8.

2
? L U^-i)(^+i)
, z = 1.
. / ( g ) =

^, (8)
(z+l)

-cfe

' ( z - 1 ) '
4.9. f

~ 3!

Jz'

"

16

dz, L

|z|=2.
. / ( z )
z = 1 z = - / ,
.
(. 18.5),
| z - l | < |z + z| < ,
,
.
, (5)

lf{z)dz = \f{z)dz + lf{z)dz.

380

18

. 18.5


2Z+/-1
zl+z+i
1
1
( z - l ) ( z + /) ( z - l ) ( z + /) z + i + - z-V
TO
+ z/ -- li
f 2zzz +

, T dz
az dz
az r dz
az dz
az
\-dz=
+
+
+
.
J ( z - l ) ( z + /)
J z + / J z - 1 {z + i J z - 1
(4) ,
..
. (7) 2ni.
,
2Z + / - 1 = 4:/.

18.5.
1. f{z)
, .
f{z)

f{z) = f{a)+^^{z-a)^^{z-a)\...,

(1)

381^

/ > ) ^ ^ r / t e ) 4 . ( = 0,1.2....).

(2)

= , (1)
/

/'(0)

/"(0)

/'"(0) 3

/(^) = /(0) + ^ ^ + ^ ^ ^ + ^ ^ ' + -

(3)

/ ( ^ ) .
2. f{z)
< |z - | < /? C^.C^vi
Z = . / ( z )

f {z) = c^-^c^{z-a) + c^{z-af

+.,.-\-c{z-ay -{-...-\-

+ - ' ' ^ + - ^ : ^ + ...+ ""- +...,


(4)
z-a)
(^-)
^? .

1 f{z)dz

.
(4)
/(z)=y;(z)+/,(z),

(6)

fA-) = tc{z-a)\

(7)

=0

382

18

=i

\z,-a)

(7) ,
(8) .
(7) |z - | < i?, (8)
|z - | > .
/ (z)
Z =

/(=2;-^-'

(9)

r < | z - a | < o o ^
^c^(z-a)" , 2^^^
=
=o(z)
.
= , (9)
f{z)=Y,Cz\

(r<|z|<oo),

(10)

/1=

^c^z"

'^

, 2^"" .

/1=0

-\



^, sinz, COSZ, In(l + z), . .
3. ,

/ ( z ) 0<|z-a|<jR.

, . . ^^+
=^-+... +
= ^ ^ , -

z-a

(z-a)

i^-^y

- / ( ^ ) ,
_, ^/ / ( z )
. = 1, .

383

/(2:)
: ,
l i m / ( z ) = a, , l i m / f z )
.

/1=0

> |z - fl| <


/ ( ^ ) > (2
f{z).
5.1. z + i

f{z) = z\
. f{z) = z :

f{z) = 6z'; r{z)=30z\


/'\z)=360z\

r{z) = mz';

/ ^ ' ( z ) = 720z; / ^ ' ( z ) = 720; /'\z)

= 0;..

= -i:
/ ( / ) = -!;

f'{i) = -6i;

/ " ( 0 = 30; / ' " ( 0 = 120/;

/ ' ) ( 0 = -360; / ' ) ( / ) = -720/; / ' ) ( / ) = 720.


(1),
/ ( z ) = - l - 6 / ( z + 0 + 15(z + / ) 4 2 0 / ( z + / ) ' -15(z + / ) ' ' - 6 ( z + /)^+(z + /)*.
5.2.

/ (z) = In (l + , .
. :
1+^
^(4)( . _ {---){1

{\ + ')
+

^)-4={'--)

(1 + -)

384

18

z = :

/(0) = 12,

/'(0) = ^, /"(0) = 7 ' '(0) = 0, /^0) = -^2

(2),
1(1 + = 12 + -Z + Z^2 'i
2 8 192
1

5.3. : ) .. + -

2'(z + l)
1

+ -

2^(z + l ) '

Z + 1 (z + 1)'

(z + 1)'

2(z + l)

(4-3/

(4-3/)'

4-3/

Z-

+ 1 + + . .\2 +
+ ..
5/ (5/)'
{Si)
, )

)...+

2-

-+

1
1
+
2(z + l) 2^( + 1)'
,

1
2^(z + l)- -+...

(11)

(z + 1)'
3'

(12)

Z + 1 (z + 1)'
3
3'

(11) z +1 = ,
---1-...

2 2' 2'
.
>+1

R = lim
, \\ < 2

1
Z+1

= lim

= 2. ,

/1+1

<2. , (11)

|z +1| > , . . =
jit

z = ~ l .

JL

385

(12):
_1_
><

1
5+1

, (12)
|z + l| < 3. , ,
< |z +1| < 3.
)

Z^

1 + +

'

5- +

....

^ + ...

(14)

(13), (14)
4-3/
Z ^

. Z

5/

, .

.<1
Z

< 1, .
I

I I

4 - 3 / = / 1 6 + 9 =5,

5 / = 5 , --<1 ^ < 1
|z|
5
|z| > 5 |z| < 5. ,

.
5.4. z z^
: ) / ( z ) = - ^ ^
B)/(z) = e^,

Zo=:oo;

Zo=0; ) / ( z ) = s i n ^ ,
)

/(z) = z V ,

Zo=0.

Zo=2;

386

18

, )

*^^^^"(z--l)(z-2)

z-l'^z~2'

^ ( z - 2 ) + 5 ( z - l ) = l.
, - 1 = \,
,

/(-) =

1 _

Z-2

Z-1

j _ ^ j_l

2
z

Z = 1 Z = 2,
1 < Iz| < 2.
f{z) Z

, 2
Z

^ V /

Z
I JLmJ <>

=1 2

V^ 1
Zmd

=1 Z ^

= g
Z--2

^3

2+1

1! 3! 5!
^ ^ (2w + l)!
,
1

f{->Y.^-^)'
t^
(2n + l ) ! ( z - 2 )

2-1

'

. . .
< |z--2| < ^.

387

) z = , f\ hie''

/ = ((),

<)=-

-'^^; "{) =

1
-+

0+^/ (1+^

(1+^

= , ^ ( 0 ) = , ('{0) = -,

({)=<

1!

("{0) = 3,...

2!

^+1 ^ J

i-i+

Uz 2!z'-+...


Z = - 1 , .
1
i
= g ^
Z

1! 2!
\
,

/ ( z ) = z V =z^+ + + ... +

7 + ---

*^ ^ ^
1! 2!
!z"-'
,
.

Z = ,
0<|z|<oo.

388

18
5.5. :

i
. ) ^ \
z(z-l)(z + 2 / '
(z4/)
, 1-C0SZ
,
)
5; ) gz^

) ctg^z;

) cos

^
^-2

, ) ,
. z = z = 1
, z = - 2 .
) z +/ = 0,
z^ = -/.

: ^ ,
71
^Ink
+ 2nk
2

= cos
f-1 sm 2
^i=.
+ zsin
cos

"2j

(A: = 0,1). ,
Vi

. ,

{}^i)

V2

72

.
cos Z
) ctg^z =
.
sin Z
sin^ Z = 0. z^ = . : = , 1,...
.
)
1
- .1 - ^ -1 - > - > ^ (/ - .
1)\. J 1 ....+.
cos-

z-2i

2\{z-2i)

{2n)\{z-2i)

z = 2 /
. lim cos
2^2/

2 - 2i

, z = 2/ .

389

) ,
z =
.
1

,. l - c o s z ,.
lim
= lim

2sin

9 1
^ = ,

T. e. , z = .
) z = 0.
= ,
1! 2!

z'l!

z'2!

(z'^j^z!

. . _1_

z = 0. lime^' ,
2-^0

Z = .

18.6.

1. f{z) D
z^a,
. ,

/ ( ^ ) ,
f\z)

\f(z)dz


res[/(z),a] = ^ j / ( z ) J z .

(1)

390

18

/(z) __^

(z-fl) .
/ (z),

res[/(z),a] = lim(z-a)/(z).

(2)

- ,

resr/(z),a1 = - i - l i m

L^

^J__}_!\

/ ( ^ ) z = ,
re^[/(z),oo] = -c_^.

(4)

/ ( ^ )
^(^) ^ ' / (z) /2 (z)
, f\a)^^,
f^{a)^^,
/2 {)^,

.[/(^).a] = Afel.

(5)

2^. . f{z)
D
^,2,...,,^, ,
\f(z)dz

/ ( ^ )

21, . .
J/(z)c/z = 2 7 r / X r e s [ / ( z ) , ^ , ] .
=\

(6)

391[

3. f{z)
,^ (: = 1,2,...)

z ^ | / ( z ) | < M , > 0
.

] f{x)dx

= 2niY,res[f{z),a,'],

-.

(7)

=\

. . 2 / ( ^ )
^^,
.
4. . / ( ^ )

, / ( z ) = e""^F(z), >0
F (z) -> , z-^oo , Im z > ,

] f{x)dx

= 2Ki^rts[f{z),a,'].

(8)
Z

6.1. : ) f(z) = '


(z + l ) ( z - 2 ) '

, / W = ^

; e) .) =

, a) z = - 1 ,

z = 2 -

-. , (2)
(z + l ) ( z - 2 )

392

r e s [ / ( z ) , - l l = lim (z + 1)

(z + l ) ( z - 2 )

r e s [ / ( z ) , 2 ] = lim (--2)(z + l ) ( z - 2 )
6) / ( z )

18

lim
= .
^-^-'z-2
3'
4

""

(z-3/)(z + 3/)

3/ -3/.
r e s [ / ( z ) , 3 / ] = lim ( z - 3 / )

1
1
= lim( z - 3 / ) ( z + 3/)

1
r e s r / ( z ) , - 3 / 1 = lim (z + 30
( z - 3 i ) ( z + 3i)

6i~ 6'

) /,
r e s [ / ( z ) , / ] = Hm

z + i'

(z-ty z - i

= lim(z + /) = 2/.

) -
z = l3i .
1
.
f{z) =
(z + l - 3 / ) ( z + l + 3z)
res [ / ( z ) - 1 + 3/]= lim (z+1-3/)z^-l+3/
(z + l-3/)(z + l + 3/)
r e s r / ( z ) , - l - 3 / ] = lim

-=
L-^v /
J z-^-i-3,(z + l - 3 / ) ( z + l + 3/)

6/

J_-_i
6i~

6'

= -.
6

) z = /
, (3)

393

(z-,f ^
res [f{-)A

{2-l)\-

(z4l)'

lim-

dz

d (z-0 \2
(z-O (z + 0
= limrfz
= lim

= lim-

dz

z z+/- z
+ (z + )^ J
.\2

(z + i)

res[/(z),-/]:

l i m !-

ildl-,:.
'-^^ = lim

(z4,y

dz

(2-1)!^'

= lim ^^

2z z / z
Z-/

'A

i{z-ir

e) z = - 2 .
(3)

res[/(z),-2] = - -
(3-1) I z-^-2

(z + 2)

-^Z
(z + 2y

dz'

^^

=
lim rfz'^ ^ = 3z-^-2
lim z = - 6 .
2---^-2
6.2. : a) / ( z ) = ctgz
z = 0;

) / ( ^ ) = sin a = 0;
z
) / ( z ) = zCOS a = oo,
z

394

18

, ) a = Q. / (^) =
(5)

COSZ

sinz

, -

= ^ = l.
res [/(z),0]
"-" cosO
1
) = Z

2+1

sin^ = - ^ + ^ - . . . + (-l)"
+
1!
3!
'

^1 5!
-!
^
' (2 + 1)!

...

,
. 1 1
sin =
Z z\\

1
?7-- +
z'V. z'5!

2+1

(2 + 1) + ...

_|
/ ( z ) 1.
) (4).
,

/
In
/ ( z ) = zcos - = - 1 + C0S
Z 2\

4:'

1 + 1I+ . _
Z
z'2!
V
resr/(z),ooJ = -c_p ^,

z^dz

6.3. : ) "; w
7' ^^^ ^ (^ + 4 ) ( z - l )
.
e'dz
II
Z ^ ^' ) J 1 / 1IT' ^^ ^ | = 1.
(z49)'
, )
/(z) =
-. 2/, ~2/, 1
(z-2zj(z + 2 / ) ( z - l )

395

|z| = 3.
.
resr/(z),2z1=:lim ./ \

\-

t.

^-

-=

(z + 2z)z^

res / ( z ) , - 2 z = lim
V: r^ r =
?
L^ V 7' J z^-2/(^-2/)(z + 2 / ) ( z - l ) 2-i

L*^^ ^' J 2-l


^-(z44)(z-l) 5
(6)

:z^dz

= lKi

J(z44)(z-1)

1
1 1
+
2+1 2-i +5

1
+ - = 27ti.
5
5
6) f(z)=
= 2ni

2-i+2+i

,

zMz + 9 )
a" ax 3/. =
= ,
e'dz
= 2^/res[/(z),0].
Jz^(z49)

z^e^

/
1
resr/(z),Ol = ! l ilim
m
L-/ V / ' J (2-1)!--^0

z4z'+9)
^^
^- = lim
^^0
Jz


eVz
_2ni
(z'+9)~ 9

^ "*"^ - fife

396

18

6.4. : ) J
cos X dx
fcosxajc
{ ^ +9

dx

(.41)'

dx
ax
^ J fl + cosx

f xsmx
,
i x ' ~ 2 x + 10

, a)

f{z)'-

ii.tl


/. z^f{z^ |z|>
: 0.

, lim

(z4l)'
.\3

(z-O
res[/(z),/] =
(3-1)

(z~/) (z + z)
dz'

1
2 -^'-

dz^

=lim-

12

2^-'(z + 0'

_3_
16/

no (7)
dx

1( x 4 l ) '

'l6/

6)

'+9
/ ( ^ ) = ze'- .

z49

, , F ( z ) =

z^H-9
Z > DO , . . limF(z) =
3/ ,

397

(z-3i)e'"

^ = 2:8 / ( z ) , 3 i =2:^^--

= 2ni =
' 6/ '
r cosxrfx X3 f ^
J ^
~ ^ ^ J ~1

,
:
" ^ ~ '

cosjc
^cosjcJx
;r
^
J^
= j.
B)

,
X - 2 + 10
f{z\.
^ ^ z ' - 2 z + 10
/ ( ^ ) , . .
'7

lim F{Z)- lim ^


= ,
= 1 + 3/ ,
Jme

,^tf ^

J.

\J

' - 2 + 10

VJ \ )^

./
-I .
(z-l-3i)ze''
r e s r / ( z ) , l + 3/1= lim ^
^

(1 + ) , ' - 3
- = -^^
^

{-^

^ = - ( l + 3 0 e ' - ' = - e - 4 l + 30(cosH-/sinl) =

= "^ (cos 1 - 3 sin 1) +"^ (3 cos 1 + sin 1) /.


398

-7

, 7 ^cosjc
= ~i

, .7 jcsinx
-

18

,
7

jcsinjc

_7/^

. ,

-
-
(3cosl4-sml).
i x ' - 2 j c + 10
3
^
^
, ,

7

XCOSX

-/

Z
= ( 3 c o s l - s m l ) .
ix^-2x
+ \0
3
^
^
)
If z^+1
Z = ", dz = ie'^dx == /zd^, cos x =e"+e" = - z + 2
z
2z
/
, 2 z
,
1

i&

az

,.

f-^-=f-^^-r-=-f z

i a + cosjc

dz
+2az + \

i a + z +1 / i
Iz
> \
-a + ^Ja^ - 1 .
,
^! dx
.2

1
= 2m'-res\
,-a-\-\Ja-"
-1
I + cos :
/
iz H-2az + l
= 4K

z + a-yja^ -\
lim
:
^-^-^^^^'-Mz + a - V a ^ - l j f z + tz + V a ^ - l J
= 4n

27

2/'-1

V'-l

399

18.
1. w = / ( z )
ZQ /'(zo)?tO. z = jc + /y
w = u + iv, . . {,)

{u,v) Owi;. , L

L' Ouv . L',
w = / ( z ) , : '
L Ouv.
Z), w = / ( z ) ,
, / ( ^ )
/), / ' ( z )
D.
D
.
ZQ
w = / ( z ) A: = [/'(ZQ)|, ,
>\ , <\ .
( = arg/'(zQ)
,
L ZQ ,
^^/^^) L\ , > ,
, < .
, {^->)
, w = f{z)
, {.^^)
.
2. , Zj,Z2,Z3 z
, , w^.w^.w^ \v,
-

400

18

w-w, W3-W, ^z-z,

z,-z^

w-W2 W2 -Wj z z^z^z^


- Zj, Z2, z^ w,, ^2, W3
, , ,
(1) .
7.1. <
ZQ = 1 + / w = 2z^ - z.
. ZQ

A: = | / ( z o ) | = |3 + 4/| = >/9Tl6=5,

(p = a r g / ( z j = arctg|.

7.2. , z
, ,
: ) w = e^"^; ) w = ln(z + l).
, ) vJ '~^; = |^'~' | >1 Rez > 1, Rez > 1
. Rez < 1 <\, , Rez < 1
.
6) w' =

I 1 I

, =
Iz + ll
z+1
: > 1 |^ +1| < h |z +1| < 1
. , |z + l|>l <\
|z +1| > 1 .
7.3. , /, 0,1-z
2,! + / , - / .
.
(1)
W-2 - z - ( l + / ) _ _ z - / l - /
w - ( l + z) (l + z)-2
z -z

401^


z(2z + 3)-2z
w = ^^
.
2(z + z - 2 )
7.4. w-z^
(1,1), (3,0), (0,2).
. (1, 1) z
z = l + /. w-{\-\-i) = l + 3 z - 3 - / = - 2 + 2/.
W (-2, 2).
(3, 0) z z = 3,
w = 3"^ =27, . . w (27, 0).
(, -2) z z 2i.
w = (-2/) =8z, . . (0,8).
7.5. = ^ w
w = z'.
. z = jc + /y,
w = (x + /y) =^-\-2xyi-y^

=^-^+2xyi.

W = ^ ->'^, = 2,
j = ^
X , Ouv
2

=^'*,

v = 2x^,
v2y

7.6. w =
Z

W , z: )
/ = 1 ; ) =1.
, ) = -yi w = u + iv,
1
x + yi

x-yi
{x + y){x'-'yi)

X
^-\-^

^+

402

18

=
1-, v = ,
,.
^ +^ =1
, =,

v = -,

^ +v^ = 1, . .

W .
X

) =
1

2 '

^ +

=-1 + /

i+/
/

w^-w + u^ =0,

iY

'2j

+ y'=l.

v = -j c 4 /
2

19

19.1. !


1. - / ( / )
t, [,). / < 0
/ ( / ) = 0. t ( t > 0) f{t)
| / ( ^ ) p ^ ^ ^ ^
W S . s
. , f{t)
Fi^p)

F{p) = ]e-'"f{t)dt,

(1)

. p = a + ib
. , = >s,
(1)
/?, RQp> s.
F[p) ,
f {t) .

404

19

f{t) Fi^p)
f{t)-^F[p)
F(/7) = l [ / ( ^ ) ] .
, ^ = /^

/ (^) = ~ ( / (^"" 0)+ / (^ + 0)).
2. :
1. / ( / ) > C F ( / ? ) , .

3. : ^ . / . ()>^C^/^(/7), Q
/=1

1=1

.
^\ ( > 0).
4. : f{at)-^F\1 J

)
5. : f(t-T)^e~^F(p),

> 0.
6. : e'^f(t)->F(p-a)
RQ[p-a)>s.
7. : f\t)-^
pF{p)-f(0).
/ () = ,
. f[t) f (t),

f"\t)^p"F{p)-p'-^f{0)-p"-'r{0)-...-/"-'\0).
t

FI D\

8. : \f{t)dt'-^

^^-.

9. :
ff{t)^{-\)''F^"\p),
= 1,2,...
10. : - / ( r ) = \F{^p)dp.
11. f{t)
F{t) =

^f{t-T)'g{T)dT,

g{t)

405

]f{t-T)g{x)dT^F{p)G{p),

m^F{p)-^f{t),

G{p)^g{t).

. Fi^p) f{t),
,
:

1
2
3

fit)
1

1
p-a

e'^'

1
p-a)
sin pt

cos Pt

t sin pt

t cos pt

e"^ sin pt

10

P
1

t"

^{P)
1

e"'cos pt

11 cosa(/-/)

/(

12
13

/7 Ot

ch at

P
;7^-a^

r( + i)

14

p"-

15

le

(P + ) '
16

-^
p' + P'

17

2pP

,g

e-'-e"'

l-cosat

19

ip-af

sh at

^
- + -

p~ -P^

cosPt
!
1
n\

{P' + PT

pt

P'--a-

^^^
21 4 s i n ^ s h '
(p-af + p'
a ' /2 x/2
- ^ ^ 22

{P'+PT
Im{(p + Pir')
1
1

p{p'+a')
cosat-cos

+ p'

Re((p + ^,-r')

cos-^ch-^^

{p'+a){p'

+ p'-)
P
/ + a^
- / ^

406

19

1.1. : ) f{t) = t\
) / ( / ) = sin2/; B ) / ( ^ ) = COS2/.
, )

F(/7) = \te~^^dt. ,

loo

F(p) = --e-''\
+-]e-'"dt

lo Pi

-\e-''
P

6) (1): F (^p) =\ sin lie'""dt. no


sin 2t = u; e~'"dt = dv,
F(p) =

27
27
+ cos2te''"dt = cos 2te "'dt.

--sm2te-'"
P

Pi = dv,
Pi
cos 2t = u; e ""dt
HP)=-

cos2te~'"

fsin2fe"'"^
Pi

F{p)
P

F(p)-

/+4
) F [p) = j cos2re '"J/, 2
2' ' 1 2
F(p) = [
D

1.2. :

2'^

+^}

) / () = 2 + ';

) / ( - s^^^ ^' ) sh at cos bt.


, a) f[t) = 2-\-3e^ ''^
(1), (2) (3), 2
3
F ( ) =+
-\

407

)
sin^ /

3(^'-^-)


2/

._^ -3/V

3 .
4

1 . ,
4

2/
2/
J
V
(3) (5)

3

)- 4 / + 1

3
49

6
(;,4l)(/+9)*

)
sha^ =

f(t) = -e'''co^bt ""' cosbt.


' ^^ 2
2
(10),
1

2{-+'

1
-
2( + +'

{'-'-')
({p-af+b')({p

+ af + b')'

1.3. : ) f {t) = t^ sin at\


6 ) / ( 0 = sin^/; ) f{t) = \cosZtdt;

) f{t) =

^-^.

, a) (5),

(9)

,
/

^^sina/->(-l)^

yp'W)

''-a'
t^ sin at > 2
(p^^a^r

408

19

^2

P{p)=la-^f-'

{'.-)'

) ,

nuteMf'{t)^pF{p)-f{0).
/ ( 0 ) = 0,

y;'(r) = 2sin^cos^ = s i n 2 ^ - ^ - ^

V +4

2
pF[p)

F[p) = -

(6),

cos 3^ -^ ~-. (8) +9


,
'

\cos3tdt-^

^=.

, . . F(p) = z-.

) (5) sin t -^ z

. -

(10) ,
sin/

7 dp

= -arctgp, . e.F(/7) = -arctgp.

1.4. : ) | ^^ch

5?;

) / ( / ) = 6''sin4/cos2/; ) ^'('~^^cos2(/-l).
'
, ) ~^^

.
ch 3t -^^- (6),
-25

ch5r^

(;? + 3) - 2 5
(8)

409

^+-\

)
sin At cos 2f =(sin 6? + sin 2f),
no
1/ ^
if
6
2
- ( s i n 6 ^ + s m 2 n ^ - :;
+^1
2^
^ '+
'+4)
,

6
2
^' (sin 6/ + sin 20 ->
{p-2f+36
{p-2f+4
2^
^ 2
1
-4/7 + 40 -4/7 + 8
)

-+-

cos2/->^.
/7^+4


^' cos 2t -^

/7-3

/7-3

(/7-3)+4

'-6

+ \3

,
e3('-1
^'-''cos2(f-l)^

( / 7 - 3 ) . .-/'

/7^-6/7 + 13

19*2*

1.
. -

410

19

/(/) = J e'"F{p)dp,

(1)

Re/7 = CJ,
.
(1), ,
.
,
.
2. . F[p)


1

/^

, . . F() = ^^,

/(0 = 2 ^ ' ^^0 (/(0 = 0 "^ t<0).

(2)

3. . F(p)
flp(22,...,a
,
f{t) = vcs[e'"F{p);a,].

3)

^(/?)
\ - \ , P(/?),|2(/?)
Q\P)i

m 1, ( < j , ^^^^.,^
Q{^p) r^,r^,,..,r^ (,+2+... + =),

41J^

^^^.^^.^^ Q{p)

, -
/7, ,
.
Q{p)

Q{p) = {p-ci,f

{p-a^f

,,.{-,

(,+2+... + , = ) ,

Fi^p)

1=1

Am- 1

=\\^-.)
^-\

^[(p-.,rF(p)]

,7)

(-1)!^/

4". ,
/ ( ? ) ,

^ ,

F(0)

F'(0)

F("-')(0)

2.1. : a) F ( p ) = -

n-A

/7'-4/7 + 5

6)

)-,

) F{p) =

.4? ) F{p)=

,J

J.

P "-^

412

19

, ) F{^p) ,
.

-

/7-4

/7-2

/^'-4/7 + 5 ""(/,-2)(/7-2)(/7-2)
10 9 :
/?-2

1,

(j.-2)4l

> cos/, 2

(p-2f+l

-^2e^'sin/.

^^
> ^' {cost-lsmt).
-+5
)

1
{ + 1)('+4)

+
+1
'+4'


1=: {^^ +4j + [Bp + C){p + l).
,
+ = 0, + = 0, 4 + = 1,

c=i
5

_]__[
1 -\
1
1
1
{ + 1)(^+45
+1
5'+4~5 + \

' + 2'

1
2/+2'

3, 6 5 ,

/()4

' -C0S2/ +sin2r


2
) ^ = ,
2 = - 1 , ^3=2, 4 = - 3 , (5):

413

' ( ) = 4 ^ - 1 0 - 6 .

ZM=_i Z b i = l Z M = 1 ^(^4), 1
'(,)

6'

'(2)

2'

'()

6'

'(4)

3'

(5)
^

6/ :

'^ ^' 6 / 2

31

) F{jp) (6) ?( \

F(p)
=

1,1
^-4,1

1,2
^-^1,2

^2,1
^^2,1

^2,2
^^2,2

,3
^^2,3

(/7 + 1)^ /^ + 1 (;.-2)^ (;,-2)^


(7)
1
, = lim iP + ^f

,^- lim
'

1!P^-I

= lim

A22 = l i m
l!/'-*2

= lim
p^2

"(;?-2)'

27'

dp (P + ^f(;, + l)^(p-2/J
1

3p

ip-2f'{p-2r
(/'-/

AI =lim

{p-,lf{p-2f\

= lim

-2

= 0,

= Iim

(/^+1)^(^-2/]

dp

(/^-2)^
(/^ + l)^(/'-2)^

2p_

{p-^lf

{p + lf

'27'

"-^'{p + lf

9'

414

, =lim
V

dp'

(-2/

{^\)\-1)'
6

= lim

{p+if

19

{p^iy

= 0.

^^

1
1
2 + 1

1
9(-2

1
2
21{-1)

4 ,
f(t) = te-^ +--"
^ ' 21
9 2

-te"
27

=-L(e-'+Zte"
27 ^

-'').
'

2.2. : ) F(p) = e~'''


6)Fip)

=.

^-;
-+4

(/+4)(j.4l)-

, ) ,

'+4

-> cos 2t.

^'' ,
^-2

-^cos2(^-2).
^+4
)

(4)(;,1)

+ Cp + D
4 -^/ + 1 ,

= ^ + -\-'^ - + ^ -^Dp^ +ACp-\-AD.



,
0 = + , 0 = 5 +

1 = ^ + 4, 0 = 5 + 4

= ,

415

= , D = B = 0. ,
1

(/+4)(/74l)

1/

f
>-(cos
-cos 2/).
3 / + 4+ 3/7'+1
3

2.3. F (/7) =cos,


/?

1
1 1
1 - 1
1
cos = 1
7+

"- 4 ! / 6 ! /
1 1
2\'- +4\'
6\'
1

(2),
U.2

f(t) = X^ + l
^ ^ ''

7171 4141

.6

/In

f_4.... = y(-l)"^
filfil

^/
=0

'

((20!))

19.3*



1.
-
(") + ,(''-... + = / ( 0 ,
(1)
^2,... 5 ^ .
,

(0) = , '(0) = ;,..., ("-'^(0) = 4"-').


(2)

416

19

(1)
, (
)
[p"+a,p"-'+...

+ a)x{p) + Q{p) = F{p),

{^) ; Q{p)
, (2); F{^p)
f{t). ,

{)^

F{p)-Q{p)
"+,"-'+... +

, [), x[t).
2.



.
, , , ,
.
3.1. :
2i) x'-5x-^6x

= 2te'; jc(0) = 0,

6) y'-2/-\'2y

= 2e'cost;

)-'

/(0)-0;

j^(0) = 0, / ( 0 ) = 0;

= ^; y{0) = \, /{0) = y\0)

r ) / ) - > ^ = sh/; y{0) = /{0) = /\0)

= 0;

= 0, y'\0)

=L

, a)
{'{)-{0)-'{0))-5{{)-{0))+6{)
^ -5 + )() =

Y'

=- ^
(-1)

{)=.

417

{-1){-){-\)'


2
{p-2){p-Z){p-\f

A
-2

B
-

C
-\

D
[-)'-


2 = {-){-1)'

+ B{p-l){p-\f

+C{p-l){p-3){p-3)+D{p-3){p-2).
= I, 2 = 2D, .. D = 1; = 3,
2 = 4,

-; = 2, = -2. 2
^, 0 = + + , = .
./
, 1) =

1 1

3 1
1
1
+
-.
-2
2 - 2 -1
{-\)
,
-\

= -2" +-" +-' +te' =( t + 2


2
[ 2

-2"+-1 - 3 ,
2

)
(p^-2p + 2)Y{p) = 2 - ^ ^ ,
(-1) +1
I

Y{p) = 2

5-.

((/,-1)41)
(7) (6), ;; = te^ sin .
)
(p'Yip)-p'y{0)-py{0)-y'{0))-(p'Y{p)-py{0)-y'{0))

= -^^,

418

19

-^

'{-1)


I
A B C
D
= + +
+p'{p-iy
' -1
{p-iy

\=

A{p-lf+Bp{p-\f+Cp^{p-l)+Dp\

= 0, ' = 1. = I, ,
Z) = 1. ^ vi ^,
0 = + , 0 = -2- + , = 2, = -2. / 1 3
2
1

, /(/?) =
h
Y- :
-^ (-^)
^+-1^ + ^ =+ + {-2)\
)
{'{)-'{^)-'{^)-"{^)-"-{)=

^
-

"
{>

/

('-1)(/-1)

-\

{-1)'

- +

/^+1 {p-^lf

Ep + F

^+-

'+1


-^{-\){

+ C{p +
+{Ep + F){p-lf{p

\)\'^\)^{^\'+\)+

\){p-\f{p''^-\)+D{p-\)\p'+\)^
+ l)\

419

=\, =. = 1 ,
1
^
D = . p=i
^
1
, = 0, F = .
4
^ ,
0 = + + , 0=^-A + C + B + D + F,
= = 0.
^ . . 1 1
Y(p)

1 1
-+

8(^,-1)'

1 1
-

8 (/? + !)

4/.1

,
y = -(te' +te~')sin?

= -(/ch/-sin/).

3.2.
: ) :'--4;; = 0, '-4+3 = 0; :(0) = 1, >'(0) = 1;
) " - / = 0, : ' - / ' = 28^; (0) = / ( 0 ) = 0, {0) = {0) = 2;
) x-y-z=0,
y-z-x=0,
z-x-y^O;
(0)=-1, j/(0)=l, z(0)=O,
) x"+/=2sinr, /'+z'=2cos/, z"-x=0; x(0) = z(0) = / ( 0 ) = 0,
x'(0) = ;;(0) = - l , / ( 0 ) = l.
, a) ,

\pX{p)-x(0)-3X(p)-4Y{p)
\pY{p)-y(0)-4X{p)+3Y(p)

{p-3)X{p)-4Y{p) = \,
-4X{p)+{p + 3)Y{p) = l.

= 0,
=0

420

19

(/7),()
6 1
1 11
^. . . . . 33 11 22 1
()=
. - ^,
^ ' 5-5
5+5
^ ' 5-5
5+5
,
6

1 -5/

v = -e^'+-e^'.
= ,
5
5
5
5
) ,
\p'X{p)-px{0)-x'{0)-pY{p)+y{Q)

= Q,
__2_
pX{p)-x{Qi)-p'Y{p)+py{Q)+y'{0)
=
/+1

Xi^p) Y{p),

X[p) = 2:f^^-}-^4-^
^^^ / - 1

'--!

^+\

Y{p) = ^

^"^^

/-1

=^ - , - ^ .
'~1

,
JC = sh ^ + sin ^, y = cht + cos t,
) ,
\pX{p)-x{0)-Y{p)-Z{p)
\pY{p)-y{0)-Z{p)-X{p)
[pZ{p)-2{0)-X{p)-Y{p)

= 0,
= 0,
= 0.

,
pX{p)-Y{p)-Z{p)
-X{p)+pY{p)-Z{p)
-X{p)-Y{p)+pZ{p)

= -l,
= l,
= 0.

'+1

421

^(z), ^{)
Z{p).
-1 -1
= -1 -1 =
-1 -1

'--2.

-1 -1 -1
() = .
1 -1
-I

;, -1 -1
_'--2^
)=- -1 1 -1 ^--2
-10

Zip) = \

1
+\'

-1 -1
-1 1 = = 0 .
-1 -1

) ,

'{)-{)-'{)+{)-{)=
'+1
p^p)-py{0)-y'{0)

+ pZ{p)-z{0)

p'Z{p)-pz{0)-z'{0)-X{p)

= - ^ ,
+1
= 0.

422

19

,
+1
{)-2{) = ' +

-X{p) + p'Z{p) = l.
X[p),Y(p),Z[p),

^(rf=-7TT- ''('')=W '^"^'Th-v


,
jc = ~sin/, >^ = -cos^ 2 = sin

20


20.1*
.

1.
,
,
.
z

^

dz dz d'z d'z

d'z

dx dy dx^ dy^

= 0,

(1)

F .

, .
,
.

424

20

,
.
2.

X^X{x,y,z),
Y{x,y,z),
Z{x,y,z),
^ dx dy dz
^
.
^ ^

^ ^
= = ( (, j,z)=Cp / {x,y,z)=C2.
.

ZJ


(< (x,j;,z), V^ (x,;;,z)) = , {(/)
(/.

, ,
.
d'z
1.1. : ) ~ ^^' ^

d'z
z=z(x,y);6) -j = 0.
, ) :
,
dz
= 3^+({)^
z=x4x(p(y)+\l/(yl
( (), () .
d^z
) , -- = /\() + fiiy)

az

= xf^{y) + f,{y) + (p,{x)^

hiy)^\fAy)dy,

Aiy) = lf2(y)dy;

y/.iy) = \f2{y)dy,

y/^iy) = lMy)dy

425

4- , ,
(, (), (2 (^). i ( Wi iy)
1.2. : )

= 0;)

zy-zx=.

^
^ dx
dy
dz
, ) = = ,
;;
X

dx
dy ^
= ^ , d2 = .

^
, jc^+j;^=Cj, z^C^-
{^+^, z)=0 z=i//'(x^+j^^), ^f -
^-^'^.
^ ^
^ dx
dy
dz
7
) = -^^ = , yz
xz

-y^=a,y^-z^=c.

{'-^, ^-^^) - z^=y^-^ ( {^-^), ( - .

20.2.


1.
j ;

,,,-,

'

(1)

426

20

,, \ .

D :
-^ <Q ;
-^ >0 ;
-^ =0 .

Ady^ - IBdxdy + Cdx"- =

(2)

(1)

(p{x,y)^Q,
\1/(,) = ^,
(3)
.


.
2.

.

(3).
^ =({, ), 7] = (, ), (1)

' + (f.

^
= 0.
^ 1



(p(x,y)iii/{x,y)

= C,^,

((,) \1/{,) .

^ = ( (, ),

427

] = I/A(JC, ), (1)

+ ^,',,

= 0.


, . .
((,) = . ^ -({,),
r\=\if{x,y),
/[,) , ([,),

|^ ^
\
] drjl

^0,

'

+ ^,',,

= 0.

(1)
,
.
2.1.
2 ^ ^
^ ^ 2 ^
= 0.
-"
2

. ^ = j ; ^ , = -, = ^,
- = X - () = ,
.

y^dy^+2xydxdy

+ x^dx^-

(ydy+ xdx)^ =0, -

428

20

ydy+xdx = , ^ +^ = .
^=^ +^, ] =
? ^

=
-+
-=
2-+,
]

}
]

(^

^
'

=2

=2

<^ '

' ^

' \

' ^

'

^77 I

(^7 :

_ ^

+ -

^2
'

' \

, '
+
^'^'^^,/'' 2-^^'^'^]^'

^ ^ + _ ^ ^ l v + 2= 4 v 4 2
^ ;; d^dridyf
^ ^ ^
<^'
^(' ^
[^

(^1

' = 2 \ -+ '
^'
^]
^]
' ]

'-

'
'
'
^:;-^, ^ ^ , ::^ '' ^'' '

'
''4^^+2'

2L L
2 ^

'

^ , '
2 ^"
+ 2
+
^7
^
^

|7]

^
..2^'^^2'

= 0.

^^

^
2 " - -, 2 " -
^
2rf
.
" " Z X
VJ j r i j i j n
^ ,
;^^:^-
+
2

=
0

--^+

..
.
^
=
0
.
'
|
77' ^-7'^
|

429

20*3*

<"

8?=" ?'

u(x,t) , ,
t.
^ - ~ , , .

-> < X < ^ . .
.

.

w(x,0) = (p(x), -^1

= W{xl

(2)

r=o

({), \if{x) .

( ),
^=x + at, rj^x-at. (1)

'

^
= ,

(^,1) = ^(^) + 2{]),


.
xj
, = u(xj)
(2),
(1)

430

20

-*^"*

t/(x,/) = [(:-(3/)-^( + )] + J

\l/{z)dz

(3)

3.1. - - ot

(~^ < < ^ > 0) :

1/(,0) = "" ;

= sin 2.

/=

. , ,
= 1
^2/ ,

^^

u(x,)='^e^-'Ue-<"'fy{\

-2xt

sin2z
tg(A: + 0

2l,2tgz

tg(^:-0

204.
,
( ),
,
.
4.1.
^

2 ^^"

-\

2 '

(1)


(0,^) = 0, u{l,t) = 0

(2)


u{x,0) = f{x),

u,{x,0) = F{x),

(3)

431^

f{x) F{x) [,/], / ( 0 ) = F{1) = .


.
/, : =
X = /.
X t:u = {xj).
^ = , ,
.
(xj) , ^=,
, L ,
.
(xj) , . '^ =-,
V

V
,
.

,

.
.

. .

u=X(x)T(t),

(4)

:, j^ (
).
u:^0,
():^0 T(t)z^Q, (4) (1),

X(x)T'(t)^a^X''(x)T(t)

432

20

it) ^ ')
a^T{t) {)
^^^
, /,
(5) ,
,
-

r\t) ^ \) ^ ^
a^T(t) {)
,
''+ = 0

(6)

^ ' = 0.
(7)

(6) ,
,
(2).

(), -
,
. (
-),
.
1. < 0. ^+ ^ =0
^ 2 = /-
X = Qe"^"" + ^'^""
(2),
= Q+C2,

433

Cj= Cj- .
2. = 0. (6) "= ,
Z = q j c + C 2 .
(2),
= Cj0+C2; = CjZ+q. ^^ ^^ () =0.
3. > 0.

12=//

JSr = Ci cos / + sin /. (2)


0 = q , 0 = C2sin^//.
, 2^ ,
sin // = 0.
,=()^

(:=1,2,....)

(8)


,=,^,

(:=1,2,....).

(9)
flic

^ (7), / = (

_,

Tj^ =v4^cos

_ .
/ + 5^sm

)^7^ = 0 .

^
1 = 0,

..^.
(10)

Aj^,Bf^ .
(9),(10) (4),
. ,

u{x,t) = {af^ cos

, . . .
t + bj^sm
/)smx,

aj^=Aj^C^, ^^=^^^ .

434

20

. ^ ,

, . . .
{, 0 = 2L ^^ ^^^
^ "^ *^ ^^^
^^ ^^^^'
^t=i

(11)

II

(3)
^, 6^.
a,sin0 =/W.

(12)

(11) ^
^ ,
.
,
= 2^-{-a,sm-t
+
dt

jTi

^ .
b,cos--t)sm-x.
I

(3),
.
b,smx
/

1^

-_,. .
= F(x).

(13)

(12), (13)
/fxj F(x) [,/].
^, ^
(3^ = - - j / ( x ) s i n x d x

, (11),
flf^, 6^, ,
(2) (3)
.
4.2.

2^^w

(,0) = / ( )

435

(0<</)

(2)


w(jc,0) = 0, u{l,t) = 0 {0<t<oo),

(3)

. (1)
u(x,t)
/;
t ; .

u = X(x)T(tl
(4)
=() jc, = T(t)
/, ^ 0.
(4) (1), () T(t) =^''() T(t)

(0 _')
a^T(t) "" () '
/,
X, ,
. -

( ^')^
a^T(t)
()
,
'\)-\-() = 0,

(5)

r(t) + a^XT{t) = 0,

(6)

, (5)
= - \ (.(8) 4.1.)
(9) . .
(6)
' + (

= 0. ^ = ^

'

'

436

20

Aj^ . ,
(4) (1)
(,0 = ,

'

sinX,

(/:=!,2, ....),

bj^-Cj^j^ .
,
u(x,t) = 2,^,6

'

sinX,

=\

(7)

(1),
(3).
bj, ,
(7) (2).
(7) (2),

(8) /^:J
.

bk = - J / W s i n x r f x
*

(9)

, (7), bj^
(9),
(1).

/w=

;<,
2
I

l-jc;x>,

437

(9)
2'
.
b^ =~J jcsinxax + \{l'-x)smxax
/ Q

2, xl
^ I }
^ . ^
= (
c o s x 2 + cosjcax + z s i n x d x l
I ^"^ {
I
\
I
2, xl
xi 1I 'rr
,
4/ .
^ sin
(
c o s - cosxax =
'
2
I
I 2 ]
I
{)
(7)
,

Al^

. -<^ft

.
I

4.3.
= 0
(1)
, :
)
|<p,(x) =--.
= {(() 7 = - - ;
jc=0, =;

(2)

=^,

=<^{) =0,
{)

=;

(2-)

438

20

)
,()

= <)^{)

j; = | ;
;^ = - - :

^/((jc)

= 0;

y/jCJc)

x = a;

(2")

, ) -- + 7 = 0

.
2),
L,
D, ,
. .

u^Xix)Y(y),
(3)
(1)
(2).
(3) (1), ~--.
" + ' = 0, 7"-' = 0.

(4)

()
(0)=()=0.
(5)
(4)
() = C^cos +C^sin ^.
(6)
(6) (5), Cj=0, CjCos a+C2sin =0.
, , 2^0,

8=0, X^^Tik (/:=!,2,3, ....). = .


.
, =

X(x) = Csm

(^=1,2,3,....).

-^ =
7"-

439

....

(4), I

"^'

= 0.
(7)
J

, (7)
7 = Q^^ -^^ "^ = C i C h y + Q s h ^

2 .
, (3)
^
^ . . .
= {\\y^-Bsh>^)sm
^

, .

^/ J
^ . . ,
= > ( c h + ^ s h ; ; ) s i n .
1,^1

(8)


(2). v4^ ^ ,
(2)
"(^.)=(+5^^sh)sin = (,().
2 jt=i
2
2

1/(,-~) = 2 , ( ~
j5,sh-)sm^{).
2 jTi
2
2

(^() (2()
(, ),

440

20

, . ^

<)^,W = 2 . ^ ^ s i ^ '

, ^ ^,

<P2W = 2L^*sin,

(10)

2 , , . , , 2 , , .
jt = ~ ] (^) sii^ -:; 6^^ = (^) ^in -dx.
I

(9) (10),
, , ^ ,
A c h - + 5 , s h - =
2
2

.
^^sh
= 6..
2
2
Aj^,Bj^ (8),

2
:
(^{) = (2{)=^( (), ^ =6^^ =U> Wsin

e/jc

(11)

2
) /
b ,

, =>' +, =,
(2') (2)
, (11) ^ (^
yAj 1/^2. j ,

=\ 2ch
^^ ^^^
lb

441

b ^

>
V - ~ ) .
^k-b,7-^sh '-^^^^{))sin
^^^(

2b

2sh

(12)

\ kn.

2 f

b.j

*^ = T J V^2 (y) sin -^(y + -z)dy,


b\
b
2
2

B) ,
(2"), (11) (12).
4.4.
= 0

(1)

,
- = 0

<PJ(X)

=0, = ;

= -;

(2)

(^{)

= --b

. ,

, .

u = X(x)Y(y),
(3)

442

20

Y^'

=
X

= -^,
Y

"+ ' =0,


' - ' 7=0.
(4)
(3)
(2),
'{0)='()=0,
(5)
(4)
Z(^x^ = C^cos^^C'2sin^ (5) ,
X'(x)=-XC^sinXx+
=

X 205^ =0 2=0, smXa=0

(/:=0,1,2,....). ,

() =Ccos X,
(4)(. 4.1, ),

" =2.(Ach^+5,sh^)cos^\^^

(6)

^Q, B^ ,
:=0.
(2)

^,

,=^

kTi a

^kn

du
^y

, , ^ . .

, .

= 2,Ksh-+5,ch-)cosx+4)=9iW'

2a

2a

^ , ,

T^j a

2a

. knb.
2a

, . (7)

(p^{x) (p^ix) c o s

(, )

<Pi (^) = Z ^^ ^^^


=\

' ^2 (^) = Z ^^ ^^^


=\

'

(8)

443

2Z f ,, ^^
,
2 , , . ^

:: ,
,,

^ - ~" ^1-^) ^^s


"^' ^/t = "" -^) ^^s
.
{

(7) (8)
, , ,

2
2

. ^ ^ ^^^^
I. (^=1,2, ....).
(9)
-^ sh
+5^ h
= bj^
2
2

-0 (9) ^=-^,
^= .
, ^=^.
Aj^,Bj^u3 (9) (6),

M=-^v + 5 . + > (-^-1-ch^+-^r-^sh^)cos
.
2
r f 2/:: , A:;rZ?
^
2:: , /^:6

sh^^^
U ^::::ich
2

2
4.5. ,

2 ^^
'
^ T T + '-T^ + ^TTTT^O,

(1)

Q
(,+2)
=(,) : )
{,,) = (,{\

(,,) = (,(1

(2)

. . - < 0 < , R^KKKR^;


)
{,) = 9(0), 0 < r < i ? , ~ < 0 < ; )
(,)

= ({\

R<r<oo,

-<0<.

, ) .
= R(r)T(Q) (1)
()

rR"{r) + rR'ir)
R(r)

,,

= -\

(3)

444

20

(3) T'(Q)-^^-
()= cos + sin ,
(4)

, /: = 0,1,2,....
(3)
r^R ''() +rR '(rj-k'R () =0.
(5)
: = (5)
R(r)=A^nr+B^.
(6)
k>Q,TO R () = f", ^ ( ~1)^^^-^/" = ^{?-^ = 0,. . = .
,
R(r)=Ar^+Br-^.
(7)
(4),(6) (7),
{) = ({.' + ^-") cos + ( + D.r-')sin 0)+4, In +^
(8)

(^() (2{)

] () = -^ + X ^^ COS -^-^ sin ),

*"
(p^{e) = ^ + ^{c,coske'bd,smke).
2

(9)

=]

(2)
(8)
(9),

cX^D,R;'=d,, ,+5=^, 4,in/?2+^o=Y -^^^^

445


(8),
2(lni?2-lni?i)
+-

2(ln7?2-lni?,)

(.^r'-c.r')r'-(aX-c.<)r-'

{b,R;' -d,R;')r'

+-^^-^^-^

-{bX-d,R^)r-'

^ V ,-4

. ,^,

'^-^sinA:0).

) (6),(7) A^- 5 = , ..
= . ,
d

(10), 5^ = - ^ 5^ = , . .
^ = CQ,
(8)
u(r,e) = ^ + J^(A,coske
2

+ C,smke)r'.

k=i

Aj^ ^
. ({)
[0,2],

jt=i

^0 = [ ({)1, 4 = j ^('^) ^^^ ^^^^^ ^ = j ^('^) ^^^ *^^^7t Q

/? Q

,
t

w(r,0) = ^ + f ( l + 25^()'(cosA:TcosA:0 + sin^Tsm^t0)<p(T)JT.


2

2 ^

;t=l

) (11) i?j=i? R^-^oo,

446

20

u(r,e) = ^+Yf^^coske

+ ^^^smke)

=+Y i-f (a, cos k9 + b, sin ).


^ fi r
4.6.
Au=f(x,y),
(1)

= 0 = 0, = 0, = , =,
(2)
.
w = Aw,
(2). = {) Y(y),
"+7"=7.
+ = .
X
Y
,
X''
7"
-7 ~ ' ~v "^ ' /7 .
(0) = {) = ,
(0) = Y{b) = , (.4.1),
.
.
^ m v-^J = si^
5 ^ ) = sm

1 1

1 1

^ = ~ ( , = 1,2,3,....).

, . ,^
. .
", =-^^ = sm
sin,

(3)


. (3)
(
1
2
(1)
AXY=-^7i
XY.
(4)

447

^^ ^
/fx,j;J,
fi^.y)

= 2^1,^, sin
m=l /1=1

sin,
^

(5)

a b

tz,,, = I l/(a,/3)sin

sm^dadp.

(4) (5), (3),


w(x,j;) = - 2 . Z .

^,

^^^

T-sin

sin

^^

^^
,
. . .
4sin
sinab

4.7.

= 0

w = (p(x,>^); -^^\^{^)
/
5
W = 0.
. 0<x<a, 0<j'<6.
w^W(x.y)T(t),

(2)

(3)
(4)

W(x,y) j , (^J
, (1)

448

20

WT,

.
(5), (3),

AW + XW = 0, Wl=-0.

(6)

W(x,y) = () Y(y), ()
X, Y{y) , (6)

''
= + A = v =const.

Wj^ =0,

Y
X''+vX = 0, = 0 = 0, = ,
/ | = 0, = 0 = 0, = ,

(7)
(8)

VHV-f)U = A .
(7)
(8), ,
2 .
X=J-sinX,
\

,.
fl .
"
b ^

(\

/2 = 1,2,...

\
( ^^
^"^ J

m = l,2,..

449

,
- (6)
I .. .
I

=:^

2 .

^ ^

(5), "^ +c^KJnm = .



Lm = An, COS c ^ t + sin Cy/X^t,

(10)

^ ^ .
(9) (10) (4), (1)

w{x,y,t) = J^j;^W{x,y)[Acosc^t

Bsinc^t).(n)

^ ^^
(2).
({,) /^.)

/
\
2 ^-1 -
. .
2 Y^ ^
va6 n m

. .
ci
b

a b

ylabii

r .

v . . mny J J

(2), =
(11),
^ =^nm-

450

20

(11) /, (2) / = ^^
=

^ ^^ (11),

^

.\

2 \-.v^
Voftrt^

,,

^ .
,

,, . .
J

4.8.

^

1 dw

1 ^ ^_

7^"^7"^"^"" '

w = (p{p,e),

-^ = \1/{,)
ot

t=0

(2)


= 0 Azpi/ = 1.
(3)
. ,

w = W{p,e)T{t),

(4)

$, .
(4) (1),
d^W 1 dW
1 d^W
T^+-^^T+^^T-WT"=0.
' p
p ' 0'

"

,
AW
W
.

" = -,

(5)

451

(5) (3)
-

^W + XW = 0,

^ U , =0-

(6)

(6)
W = R{p){),

(7)

R , Q,
(7) (6),

^ /?,

^ R

^^

, (0) 2 ,
(8)
"+=0,

(2:)=(0).

(9)

(9)
v=/t
(AZ = 0,1,2,...)
0) = cosn0+^ sinn0,
^ ^ .
(8)
' / ? " + / ? ('-Az')7? = ,

(10)

. . .
(3), R{p)
= 1 =
1=1

1=0

'

452

20

(10)
^ (^). ,
- (10), (),
,

/1">
1^^ = -\

/ () = 0.


(6)
Kn=[t^t^)\

^{){0), Kn{p)^:{e),

(12)

(9).
(5),
^ '' + =0. tnn

run

rnn


T^{t) = cosnih, r,=l, 7 1 = 0 t = 0,
T:n{t) = -\;^smni:h,

T:=0,

7;;=1

t = 0. (13)

((,) i//(p,0)
(12),

<?>(p.e) = II(a.O(0)+a>:(0)K(p),
=0 =\

{p,) = ttKn{e)+l:{))RM'
=0 =\

, 6, * &* .

(14)

453

, (2) (13), (14)


, (4), (7), (1)

^(,,=1()+;:)7;+
=0 =1

+(*. (e)+6>L ( ))/?. () (/)).


4.9.

; = 0,
. .

^
== ,
^^-^ = 0
W

(2)

= - + 2
+ --; qlx,y) [i

''
, ; D
; w{^x,y) .
.
.
4- , (1)
(2)
.4/4

w^ = 24D
(3)
-, WQ
b
g/D.

454

20

, w-w^-w^,

^i(^9^)
bJSMy =
= 0,

= 0

= 0, = ,

qb' ('
24D '

, ,

J
=
0

=
-. (4)
' b
V

2

. w^=X[x)Y[y),


^1

= -

X'''Y + 2X'y''+XY^''=0,
(5)

X, Y
r = s i
n ^ , { = 1,2,...).
(6)
b
, Y
(4).
, (5)
,
, , . .
.
(6) (5),
' -^2

' ^

' \

= 0,


^
, , ,
,
, ,
=
+6
sh
+csn
+d
ch
.
" "
b
"" b
b
"
b
"" b
b
,

W,

455

= I^sin

(7)

=1

(4)
, , ^
d^ . ^,^
(4)

'
'

.3^

24D *

'

b ^

^i

, sin , ( = 1,2,...). (8)


^
b

(4),(8)
Aqb^
n'Dn'

, , ,
:|-shlb
" lb
lb

n^K^ , , n^K^ ^^ . nna nna , nna \


a;ch
+o- 2ch-+-sh =-0,
lb
lb
lb
lb
V
a, 6 , . . = 1,3,....
, 6
(7),
4^6" V- 1

^ , . , ,
2+-sh
ch
26
26
26
1
1+ch

, , ^
sh
ch
26

456

20

20.5*


V. .
5.1.

'^

b*w

b^w

_{,)

'^ ^^'~

D '

^^^


: = , : = , = ,
^/ = 0, = &, = 0,

^^^

W z, ; q{x,y)
, ; D
.
. (1)

. (2) ,
.
,

v-iv-"
^ ^bZi^mn

. .
Sin
S^^"'

(3)

'^

^ ,
.
q{x,y)
.
-'-'
. .
^ ( ^ ' ^ ) = 2.2.^mnSin
sin^,

(3), (4) (1),

*^

(4)

457

' ^

. .
sin
sm
J J

b
, .
sin
sin
*^

IS

=
^ ^
D
V J

=ss-

(\

I^J

^ ^

sm-

sin

V '^


q{x,y)

4 .

?=Jj9(^,^)sin

. , ,

^m^dxdy.

2.
.
5.2. (1),

: = 0, = ,

=0

(5)

b
i/ = .
.
. 20.1.

458

20

b
2
X

b
2

~
'
. 20.1

, (5),

^ = X/m(^)sm(6)

fm{y) . (6)
(1),
' ^

.
1 .
^^^
sin
= q{x,y).{l)

' ^

- 2V

^
q(x,y)

v^

/ \ triKX

(8)

2f

q{y) = -\q{x,y)sm

dx.

(8) (7),
'
f:b)+
tM=
!:{)-

(9)

,
.
^ {) =^^.

459
\4

^-2^ + ^ ^ 1 = 0 .

,
V ^
\ -

,
-

^, ^, ^, d^
= .
,
(9)
.
,
,
,
,
,
^ / \
= .ch
y + b^ych
y-^c^sh
y + d^ysh
y + F^{y),
a
a
a
a
F^ (^y) (9).
, q = const
2

jfiK JC

9m(7) = - k s i n
<2^

4^

dx = -^,
a

(m = 1,3,5,...).

()

(11) (9),

,
, (10)
^=^= 0.
Uy)

= a.cb!!^y^d.ysi.!!Ey^-^,

( = U,5,...). (12)

460

20

(13)

(*!)= 4*!)-"

(12) (13),

^ =-z
2
w.sh ^
^ = -F 1 + ^ +sh2w chw.

^ +sh2w
2

^

(m = l,3,5,...).

4
D{mn)

sm

X,

20.6.



.
-

461[

, ,

.

F{p,q) = \\e-'^-'^f{x,y)dxdy,
(1)

= ( + 1, ^ = + iV .


{,)
^pu{p,q)-u{0,q).

{,)
_
_
^
* " {,)- (,),

(2)

"(,^) (,0) {,)


= 0, >' = 0, .. (0,>')->(0,^),
{,0)-^{,0).

-^

^^^{^)-{^,)

\(,)
'

^^,

(3)

_,
. _. . _. _ /
.
^ pqu {p,g)-qu {0,q)-pu {0,q) + u (0,0),

(0,^) (,0)

, ^-^

{,) = 0, = 0.



u{0,y) = a{y)-^u{0,q),
{,0) = {)-^{,0),

462

20

/=0
1_

(\

^, . {,0)
=()^^^
-.

/v=o

, () = b ().
,
0<<^ 0<j;<oo.


+1 T+/ft>2

(iKiY

'.

'.

- --

(4)


.

.

"(;>) = - ^ + - V + - + ^ + ' ^ ( ; ^ ) .

(5)

, (/?) < ^ , ^ ,

.


.
6.1.

"

w (, /) = cos t,
w(x,0) = cosx,

. .
\^ ^-^ Jx=0

= 0.

V ^^ >=

= 0 -

463

.
(3)

-^p^u{p,q)-pu{0,q),

'
'

-^^{,)-{,0).


,
(0,t) = cost > {0,q) =

^41

u[x,0) = cosx^u

(,0) = ^.

_ ^ 2 - / ^
r-^ =
P^u{p,q)- 2
'+\
^ ' q'+\

.-/-^ ^
q^u{p,q)

u{p,q) =

v^' + i ' + 1

(,1)(+.)'


(4)
w(x,/) = cosxcos^
6.2.

2 ^^w
= a^-:^Y^ 0<<,

(
""

_^

0<^<,
W ( 0 , / ) = WQ,

[,0) = 0,

"" ^^' UQ -

V ^^ Jx=Q

, > .

464

20

. (2),(3)

^ u[p,q)-pu{0,q)

-^-^{,{,0),

^dXj

<=0

,
f _
^
{,) = -

p\{p,q)-p-^

2..

{,) = ^2 2

"

-q

. - "

2q
' ^ - ^

-+p-J^

/?,
Wn

" + ""

, . .
(:,/) : -> >, ,
, .
{,) =

'^'-~^\
2

465

,
/
.(.,^) =

^ 1-

2a4t ))

[)^'-7=\ ""^dx.
6.3.

1^ _

dv __

{0,) = 0, (,0) = 0, v{0,y) = 0,


v{x,0) = 0.
.

-^^{,)-{0,),

-^{,)-{,0),

-^-^pv{p,q)-v{0,g),

j--^gv{p,g)-v{p,0).

{0,)^{0,)

= 0, {,0)^{,0)

= 0, v{0,y)-^v{0,g)

= 0,

(jc, 0) ^ {, 0) = ,

gu{p,g)-pv{p,g)

= 0,

pu{p,g)-qv{p,g)

= .

{,) =

^+^

__

^+^

V =

,
,

20

466

[x,q) = -j^mqx,
v = sin/.


(5) , ,
,
{x,q) = a

1, v{p,y) = a

,
t / ( x , > ' ) = <2

'/
3!

^'
'/
, v{x,y) = a
+
.
5!
3!

/'
5!

20. -

,
, , . -
.
,

.

.
7.1.

(1)
D
, . .
W =

X = ,

W =

= .

467

.
- .
,
(2),

w= 7 COScos^,
(3)
la
lb
/ ( ).
, W
(1), ,
(3),

Xcoscosdxdy^Q,
lb
la

(4)

X = /SAw-

D
w X, a X (4)
S
42Y

\ \
--

ylaj

'lb

2 TTJc

iTiy

dxdy = 0,
cos cos
-^^coscos
lb D
la
lb
la

/
q
\6qab
/ =

K^D

2\

'lb

,
\6qab
w=n^D

COS

la]

yib

COS

2a

2b

20

468

7.2.

8 ( + ^(:,;;)) = 1(),

(1)

= --+- ; ^()

2 \

1{)=

+ {,) + 4

(2)

{,), (,) ,
.
[,)
,
, (1)

- ,
. - .

(3)
1=1

. ,
, (pi {,)
,

.
, ,
, , {^^)-

-

469

(Pi{x,y)
D.
(:,>^)
(1), ,
(3),

(^ {,) (/ = 1,2,3,...).

J J [ s i n p ( A O + ^(x,>^))-L(0)](p.(x,j;)d!xdfy =

Y^c,(p,{x,y)

smp

-{,)

i=\

(4)

(p,{x,y)dxdy,

-L
/=1

/J


..
(4) .
(/ = 1,2,...), . .
, , (3),
.
(1)
D (. 20.2), = 0 {,)=0,

^{^) = [,) = , .
,
, = 1

(5)

(5) (4) D

470

20

l \ [^
Jo Jo

4 s i n p ( c , ( 6 x C 0 S - J C ^ ( V C O S ) + JC)'^^ '^
n
n
n

- ((Ci (6x COS ^^^+x^ {f COS ^^^) + xyf


(2

2 . 7;2

+ 4 ( q 3 x ' - s i n - ^ r ) ' y c o s - ^ t / j c J ; ; = 0,
a

7(1-sin )
^1=-

6(1 - sin ) + (1 + sin ) ( ) '


28

. 20.2.
,
,
.
, (1)
7(l-sinp)jc^cos

=
6(1 - sin ) + (1 + sin p){f
28

7.3.

471

(1)

D

w = 0, = 0

=0,

=.

(2)

. = ^-
, , (2),
,
w ^ / s i n ^ + / 2 sin
^ -^
-sin

TjxQf^, /2
-
foh

(3)

2:\
^(1 - cos
OS ^^^^dxdy = ,

sin^ (1 - cos 27^


^^^^^dxdy = ,
b

^ = 3-T + 2 j ^ ^ + 3 - ^ - f - = 4 y ; + / 2 S i n ' - r ) 8 ( - r c o s
+
dx
djc dy
oy
D
b
a
a
_.
/-0/^42/^42
2:_ - /^4
- InybLsm
2 ^ ^ ,
9
+/2
8() () cos 2: cos
8() sin
a b
a
b
b
a D
/ /2:

_4_
ID'

I
2 ^

'' 1 ^ \

ID'

472

20

^ U ^

\2


, /2 = . ^ = - ^

yJtj

U^

KX

w=sin
4D v ^ /

a
T. e (2)
.
7.4. -

J(

; = (/zL (,)-^)

(1)

= '1(,(),

(2)

cbW^^^^^^
^ ^

^1( ^ _
^ ^

L(w,w) =

' ^
'

^W^

' '

W , ,
= X = , = , ,
, h .
. ,

= /08

COS-^,

2
/ .

26

(4)

473

(4) (3).
(2),
= ^
sm s m -^^-cos c o s
21.2

\6'

lb

la

KX
COS

1'^ i^

la

lb

KU
H-COS-^


:
=

Ef ^

1'

a'^cos4-6'^cos +(x^^-i5i/^),

(5)

._ ^

fi , \ , ^

'

1 V
-+
'' b'

V .
(1) -
J j X c o s c o s d x d ,
la
lb
X = ^w

(6)

(<7+/1(,)).

(4) (5) (6)


D,

II / 1 , 1 ] , f/V^
II 16 ('"^6'J "^ 128(1-v'

20

474

2 71

2^ i J

cos C O S -^axau+^

2a

2b

Ef'^n'^h'r^rf

2_

cos-^^+-- c o s cos 2a

128 {{[a''

b'

cos^ dxdy - J J ^/ coscosdxdy = 0


2b
2a
2b
00

4v
Ehf
1 1
+(3-v^) 4 + ^ , 4
256(l-v') a 0
a

\^H 1'
H

J 'H

1
b'

\6q
'

= 0.

,
/ .

208.


-
{ + (,)) = 1{),

(1)

; {)
( :^2
V
^
- -
+ (,) + 4
' '

/:^2

) =

\2\

(2)

(, ), (, ) ,
.
. (1)
.


,+(,/) = 0,

(3)

475


,=0,(()1/{1

(4)

<(), y/iy) ,

.

,
(4) .
,
,
,

(4) (3) = 0, = h

'

(\0)-^)1\0

(/1,0), cp{h\ \if{Q) {,\ ({\ /()


; h
.
, ,

8(2+(,/)) = 1(^),

(5)


,=0,(()/(),

(6)

(6) (4) ,
(5), x = h, = 0

j^

1
-1(/1,0))-(/,0)
smp_
(p'\h)y/(0) + (p{h)y/'XO)

476

20

(1)

(p'\h)y/(0)+(p(h)iif"(0)

( = 1,2,3, ...)

,
- .

.


1. . , . .
. . . . ., , 1985.
448 .
2. . , . . :
. ., , 1982. 253 .
3. , , . .
: . ., , 2000. 399 .
4. . ., . ., . ,
. .
. ., , 1981. 303 .
5. . . . .
. ., , 1981, . 1, 1993. 464 ; . 2, 1994.
367 .
6. . ., . .
. ., , 1999. 335 .
7. . ., . .
. ., , 1993. 791 .

ISBN 5-7325-0768-





2
. .
. .
. .
. .
. . ,
. . , . .
010292 18.08.98
22.05.03. 13.08.03.
60x90 7,^. . . Times New Roman.
. . . 30,0. .-. . 29,1. 3000 . . 2849. .
"".
191023, -, ., 6.

. . . .
185005, . , . , 4.